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Sample records for alfalfa hay corn

  1. Wet corn gluten feed and alfalfa hay combinations in steam-flaked corn finishing cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Sindt, J J; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Montgomery, S P; Coetzer, C M; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Higgins, J J; Ethington, R T

    2003-12-01

    One finishing trial and one digestibility trial were used to evaluate wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and alfalfa hay (AH) combinations in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets. In Exp. 1, 631 crossbred heifers (initial BW = 284 +/- 7.9 kg) were fed SFC-based diets containing combinations of WCGF (25, 35, or 45% of diet DM) and AH (2 or 6% of dietary DM) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. No interactions existed between WCGF and AH for heifer performance. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly decreased gain efficiency (P < 0.01), dietary NEg concentration (P < 0.05), and 12th-rib fat thickness (P = 0.10). Cattle fed 35% WCGF had the lowest occurrence of abscessed livers, resulting in a quadratic response (P < 0.05) as dietary WCGF increased. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers (585 kg) were fed SFC-based diets containing combinations of WCGF (25 or 45% of diet DM) and AH (0, 2, or 6% of diet DM) in an incomplete Latin square design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Starch intake was lower (P < 0.05), but NDF intake was greater (P < 0.05) as AH and WCGF increased in the diet. Ruminal pH was increased by AH (linear, P < 0.05) and tended (P < 0.07) to increase with WCGF. Feeding 2% AH led to the greatest ruminal NH3 but the lowest total VFA and propionate (quadratic, P < 0.05). Addition of AH to diets containing 25% WCGF increased acetate to a greater extent than addition to diets containing 45% WCGF (AH x WCGF interaction, P < 0.05). Feeding 45% WCGF tended to increase passage rate (P = 0.17) and decrease (P < 0.05) total tract OM digestibility but increase (P < 0.05) in situ degradation of DM from AH and WCGF. Interactions between AH and WCGF existed (P < 0.05) for ruminal fluid volume (quadratic effect of AH x WCGF level), in situ SFC degradation (linear effect of AH x WCGF level), and in situ rate of WCGF DM disappearance (quadratic effect of AH x WCGF level). We conclude that AH levels may be decreased when WCGF is added to SFC

  2. Effects of forage particle size and long hay for cows fed total mixed rations based on alfalfa and corn.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J M; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Campbell, C; Grieve, D G; Allen, O B

    1994-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, in which particle length of alfalfa silage in the TMR and supplementary long alfalfa-grass hay were the factors, was used to determine whether hay benefits lactating cows and whether its effects depend on fibrosity of the main forage source. Without supplementary hay, TMR contained 45% forage, including corn silage, and 26 to 27.5% NDF. When hay was fed, the amount of alfalfa silage in the corresponding TMR was reduced. In the production trial, 40 cows (20 multiparous) were fed the diets for 8 wk in early lactation. No interactions of silage length and hay occurred on any production variables except lactose concentration in the milk of multiparous cows. Addition of hay to the diet enhanced DMI, without effect on production, so efficiency of milk production was reduced. Shorter alfalfa silage enhanced DMI by multiparous cows, reduced SCM and FCM in primiparous cows, and depressed fat test in both groups. Milk composition and component production generally were unaffected. Five rumen-fistulated cows in early to midlactation each were given the four treatments during four 3-wk periods. Hay enhanced rumination when short alfalfa silage was fed but tended to reduce it on long alfalfa silage. Hay also depressed rumen pH and enhanced VFA concentrations. Alfalfa silage length had minimal effects on rumination and no effect on fermentation, and neither hay nor silage length affected digestion of silage DM or NDF in the rumen. Addition of hay to the diet may not be beneficial for cows fed TMR, but longer term feeding studies are needed.

  3. Effects of level of alfalfa hay in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 25% sorghum wet distiller's grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two hundred forty crossbred yearling steers (379 +/-19 kg) were blocked by weight and used in a completely randomized design study to determine effects of 25% wet distiller's grains (WDG) derived from sorghum in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets, and to determine effects of level of alfalfa hay (7...

  4. Effects of alfalfa hay inclusion rate on productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed wet corn gluten feed-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying the alfalfa inclusion rate in diets containing 31% (dry matter basis) wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.). Eighty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows averaging 178 +/- 90 d in milk (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 7, 14, or 21% alfalfa on a dry matter basis, with corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varying across diets to maintain uniform nutrient densities. Diets were formulated for similar crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing the alfalfa inclusion rate were assessed using mixed model analysis. As the alfalfa inclusion rate increased, dry matter intake tended to increase linearly (26.7, 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5 kg/d for 0, 7, 14, and 21% alfalfa, respectively), and solids-corrected milk (29.9, 30.2, 30.8, and 30.5 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk production (32.9, 33.3, 33.8, and 33.6 kg/d) tended to increase linearly. Body weight gain decreased linearly (22.9, 18.0, 11.2, and 9.5 kg/28 d) with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate. Although increasing the inclusion rate of alfalfa increased the proportion of large particles in the diets, treatments had no effect on milk fat yield or concentration. Feeding more alfalfa (up to 21% of dry matter) tended to increase milk yield while decreasing body weight gain, suggesting that metabolizable energy utilization shifted from body weight gain to milk production in these treatments. However, adding alfalfa to the diet had only minor effects on productivity.

  5. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  6. Corn silage versus corn silage:alfalfa hay mixtures for dairy cows: effects of dietary potassium, calcium, and cation-anion difference.

    PubMed

    Erdman, R A; Piperova, L S; Kohn, R A

    2011-10-01

    Corn silage (CS) has replaced alfalfa hay (AH) and haylage as the major forage fed to lactating dairy cows, yet many dairy producers believe that inclusion of small amounts of alfalfa hay or haylage improves feed intake and milk production. Alfalfa contains greater concentrations of K and Ca than corn silage and has an inherently higher dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). Supplemental dietary buffers such as NaHCO(3) and K(2)CO(3) increase DCAD and summaries of studies with these buffers showed improved performance in CS-based diets but not in AH-based diets. We speculated that improvements in performance with AH addition to CS-based diets could be due to differences in mineral and DCAD concentrations between the 2 forages. The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of forage (CS vs. AH) and mineral supplementation on production responses using 45 lactating Holstein cows during the first 20 wk postpartum. Dietary treatments included (1) 50:50 mixture of AH and CS as the forage (AHCS); (2) CS as the sole forage; and (3) CS fortified with mineral supplements (CaCO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) to match the Ca and K content of the AHCS diet (CS-DCAD). Feed intake and milk production were equivalent or greater for cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with those fed the AHCS diet. Fat percentage was greater in cows fed the CS compared with the AHCS diet. Fat-corrected milk (FCM; 3.5%) tended to be greater in cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with the AHCS diet. Feed efficiencies measured as FCM/dry matter intake were 1.76, 1.80, and 1.94 for the AHCS, CS, and CS-DCAD diets, respectively. The combined effects of reduced feed intake and increased FCM contributed to increased feed efficiency with the CS-DCAD diet, which contained 1.41% K compared with 1.18% K in the CS diet, and we speculate that this might be the result of added dietary K and DCAD effects on digestive efficiency. These results indicate no advantage to including AH in CS-based diets

  7. Combinations of alfalfa hay and wet corn gluten feed in limit-fed growing diets for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S P; Drouillard, J S; Sindt, J J; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Trater, A M; Coetzer, C M; LaBrune, H J; Hunter, R D; Stocks, R A

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of alfalfa hay (AH) and wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) combinations on ADG and gain efficiency of cattle limit-fed growing diets. In Exp. 1, crossbred beef steers (n = 220; initial BW = 262 kg) were limit-fed diets consisting of steam-flaked corn and 40% WCGF (DM basis) with 0, 10, or 20% ground AH (0AH, 10AH, and 20AH, respectively). A fourth diet containing 20% ground AH and steam-flaked corn served as a control. All diets were fed once daily at 1.8% of BW (DM basis). Growing period ADG, gain efficiency, and dietary NE calculated from performance data decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with addition of AH to diets containing WCGF. Rate of DMI increased linearly (P < 0.05) with AH addition to diets containing WCGF. Following the growing period, steers were finished on a common diet offered ad libitum. Gain efficiencies during the finishing period were higher (P < 0.05) for steers fed the 20AH diet than for steers fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, crossbred beef heifers (n = 339; initial BW = 277 kg) were limit-fed diets containing steam-flaked corn with 10, 20, or 30% ground AH and 0, 40, or 68% WCGF in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, fed once daily at 1.6% of BW (DM basis). An AH x WCGF interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for growing period ADG and gain efficiency. Increasing AH or WCGF decreased cattle ADG, gain efficiency, and dietary NE with the exception of heifers fed 30AH/40WCGF, which had ADG that did not differ (P > 0.10) from that of heifers fed 20AH/0WCGF or 30AH/0WCGF, and which had greater gain efficiencies (P < 0.05) than heifers fed 30AH/0WCGF. Rate of DMI increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing AH and decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WCGF. Heifers were finished on diets containing 33% WCGF with 0 or 0.5% added urea (DM basis) offered ad libitum. Increasing WCGF in growing diets tended (linear, P < 0.10) to increase finishing ADG and gain efficiency, whereas increasing AH decreased (linear

  8. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  9. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization.

  10. Replacing alfalfa hay with dry corn gluten feed and Chinese wild rye grass: Effects on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hao, X Y; Gao, H; Wang, X Y; Zhang, G N; Zhang, Y G

    2017-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance when a portion of alfalfa was replaced with combinations of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) and Chinese wild rye grass in the diet of lactating cows. Six multiparous and 3 primiparous Chinese Holsteins were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment for 21-d periods. The animals were fed 1 of 3 treatment diets during each period: (1) 0% DCGF (0DCGF); (2) 6.5% DCGF (7DCGF); and (3) 11% DCGF (11DCGF). Diets were isonitrogenous, and a portion of alfalfa hay was replaced with DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass, with similar concentrate mixtures and corn silage contents. The dry matter intake was greater for 11DCGF (21.9 kg/d) than for 0DCGF (20.7 kg/d) or 7DCGF (21.2 kg/d). The treatment diets did not result in difference in milk production, fat and lactose concentration, or yield. Compared with 0DCGF, the ration containing 11% DCGF improved the milk protein concentration. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater for 7DCGF (62.7% and 45.6%) and 11DCGF (63.1% and 47.2%) than for 0DCGF (59.4% and 42.3%), and the nitrogen digestibility was similar for the 3 treatments. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in cows fed the 11DCGF diet than in those fed the 0DCGF diet, with no difference between the 7DCGF and 11DCGF diets. The estimated microbial crude protein yield was greater for the 11DCGF diet (1985.1 g/d) than for the 0DCGF diet (1745.0 g/d), with no difference between the 0DCGF and 7DCGF diets. Thus, it appears that feeding DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass in combination can effectively replace a portion of alfalfa hay in the rations of lactating dairy cows.

  11. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  12. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  13. Effects of altering alfalfa hay quality when feeding steam-flaked versus high-moisture corn grain on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Kelley, A W; Neal, K; Young, A J; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was performed to test a hypothesis that nutritive benefits of feeding high-moisture corn (HMC) would be different when fed with different qualities of alfalfa hay (AH) due to associative effects on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization efficiency. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used; 4 were surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Days in milk averaged 184 ± 10.7 at the start of the experiment. The experiment was performed in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; fair-quality AH [FAH; 39.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 17.9% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH; 33.6% NDF and 21.9% CP) was combined with steam-flaked corn (SFC) or HMC to form 4 treatments: FAH with SFC, FAH with HMC, HAH with SFC, and HAH with HMC. The AH was fed at 32% dry matter (DM) content, whereas SFC or HMC was included at 17% DM content. Quality of AH did not affect DM intake, whereas feeding HMC decreased DM intake, regardless of quality of AH. Digestibility of DM was greater for cows fed HAH compared with those fed FAH (70.1 vs. 67.6%). Digestibility of NDF increased by feeding HMC (67.6 vs. 58.4%), but not by quality of AH. Under FAH, starch digestibility decreased by feeding HMC compared with SFC (85.7 vs. 95.0%), but it was similar under HAH, resulting in an interaction between quality of AH and type of corn grain (CG). Feeding different qualities of AH did not affect milk yield; however, feeding HMC decreased milk yield in FAH diet, causing an AH × CG interaction. Efficiency of milk yield/DM intake was improved due to feeding HMC, regardless of the quality of the AH. In addition, dietary N utilization for milk N tended to increase by feeding HMC, but it was not influenced by quality of AH. Yield of microbial

  14. Voluntary intake and digestibility by mature beef cattle and Holstein steer calves consuming alfalfa or orchardgrass hay supplemented with soybean oil and(or) corn.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, B; Goetsch, A L; Patil, A R; Galloway, D L; Johnson, Z B; Park, K K

    1994-01-01

    Effects and interactions of corn and soybean oil supplementation and forage source on feed intake and digestibility by mature and growing cattle were determined. Eight mature beef cattle (571 +/- 17 kg initial body weight) were used in two simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares. Cattle in each square consumed long-stemmed alfalfa (AL; 16% crude protein, 54% neutral detergent fibre and 6.1% acid detergent lignin) or orchardgrass (OR; 11% crude protein, 71% neutral detergent fibre and 9.4% acid detergent lignin) hay ad libitum for 15 d followed by 6 d of restricted consumption (85% of ad libitum). Supplement treatments were Control, ground corn (C; 0.5% body weight), soybean oil (O; 0.125% body weight), or C + O. Total ad libitum dry matter (DM) intake was greater for AL than for OR (P < 0.05) and with than without C (P < 0.05), and a corn x soybean oil interaction occurred (P = 0.07; 11.8, 14.0, 13.6, 14.2, 8.4, 10.7, 9.3 and 10.3 kg/d); total tract neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility was 66.0, 67.7, 65.8, 68.8, 52.5, 50.6, 55.1 and 59.4% for AL, AL - C, AL - O, AL - C + O, OR, OR - C, OR - O, and OR - C + O, respectively (SE 2.46). Eight Holstein steer calves (83 +/- 5 and 131 +/- 11 kg initial and final body weight, respectively) were subjected to the same dietary treatments, except for higher levels of C (1.0% body weight) and O (0.25% body weight) and periods with 21 d of ad libitum forage intake. Total DM intake was greater (P = 0.06) for AL than for OR, increased (P < 0.05) by C, and decreased (P < 0.05) by O (3.92, 4.17, 3.51, 4.00, 2.53, 2.90, 2.09 and 2.51 kg/d), and total tract NDF digestibility was affected by forage source (P < 0.05) and a corn x soybean oil interaction (P = 0.08; 58.8, 56.9, 60.1, 56.0, 41.9, 44.5, 45.8 and 40.1% for AL, AL - C, AL - O, AL - C + O, OR, OR - C, OR - O and OR - C + O, respectively). In conclusion, effects of supplementation with corn and (or) soybean oil on feed intake and digestibility were similar for AL and OR, which

  15. Does Alfalfa-Hay NDFD Matter in a Dairy TMR?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three feeding trials were conducted to study the effect of alfalfa-hay in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, 48-hour laboratory incubation in rumen fluid) on Holstein dairy cow performance. Treatments (Lh, Ll, Hh, and Hl) included four alfalfa hays selected for relatively low-(L) o...

  16. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  17. Effects of feeding brown midrib corn silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay on lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows for the first 180 days of lactation.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more

  18. Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K

    1994-01-15

    Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States.

  19. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Early-vegetative tall fescue hay vs alfalfa hay as a supplement for cattle consuming low-quality roughages.

    PubMed

    Horney, M R; DelCurto, T; Stamm, M M; Bailey, R K; Brandyberry, S D

    1996-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate high-quality tall fescue hay as a supplement to beef cattle fed low-quality roughages. In Exp. 1, 15 ruminally cannulated Hereford x Angus steers (average weight 390 kg) were blocked by weight and assigned randomly to one of three treatments: 1) tall fescue straw, no supplement; 2) tall fescue straw plus tall fescue hay supplement; 3) tall fescue straw plus alfalfa hay supplement. The 28-d digestion study consisted of 14 d of adaption, 6 d of intake data, and 6 d of collection of feces, respectively, with a 1-d ruminal sampling (d 27) and ruminal evacuations (d 28). In Exp. 2, 90 gestating Hereford x Angus cows were stratified by age and body condition and, within stratum, assigned randomly to three replications of the same treatments as described for Exp. 1. In both studies, a basal diet of tall fescue straw was fed with ad libitum access, alfalfa hay was fed at .4% BW, and tall fescue hay was fed at a level isonitrogenous with the alfalfa hay (.61% BW). In Exp. 1, DMI was at least 13% greater (P < .01) for supplemented steers than for nonsupplemented steers and was 12% greater (P < .10) for steers receiving supplemental tall fescue hay than for alfalfa hay-supplemented steers. Digestibility of DM was greater for supplemented steers than for nonsupplemented steers (P < .05) and, between supplement treatments, greater for tall fescue hay-supplemented steers than for alfalfa hay-supplemented steers (P < .10). Ruminal ammonia values peaked at 3 h after feeding and were higher for steers fed supplement treatments than for those fed the control treatment from just before feeding through 6 h after feeding (P < .10). In Exp. 2, supplemented cows gained more BW than nonsupplemented cows (P < .01), and the tall fescue hay-supplemented cows gained more BW (P < .10) than cows supplemented with alfalfa hay. Likewise, supplemented cows lost less condition (P < .01) than their nonsupplemented counterparts during the 84-d supplementation

  1. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  2. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  3. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  4. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  5. Prohexadione-calcium responsive alfalfa varieties ensure success of corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent USDA-NASS data indicate alfalfa and corn were planted on about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively, in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Upper Midwest, and Northern Mountain regions the USA. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn plantin...

  6. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  7. Interaction of bale size and preservative rate for large-round bales of alfalfa hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, two studies conducted at the US Dairy Forage Research Center have reported inconsistent storage responses following the application of propionic-acid-based preservatives to alfalfa or alfalfa-orchardgrass hays. One of these studies utilized 5-foot-diameter round bales, and produced disappo...

  8. Inclusion of Morning and Evening-Harvested Alfalfa Hays in Diets Fed to Newly-Received Sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When given a choice, ruminants preferred evening (PM-alfalfa) over morning- (AM-alfalfa) harvested alfalfa hay. Therefore, could strategic use of PM-alfalfa fed as a pellet or included as a component of receiving diets stimulate naive sheep to increase DMI early in the receiving period? Experiments ...

  9. Soil N to corn after alfalfa through tillage and regrowth management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting corn after alfalfa can eliminate or greatly reduce the nitrogen (N) fertilizer requirement for first-year corn while increasing corn yield potential due to the rotation effect. Current University of Minnesota guidelines regarding alfalfa N credits to corn are based on alfalfa stand density ...

  10. Rumen development and growth of Balouchi lambs offered alfalfa hay pre- and post-weaning.

    PubMed

    Norouzian, Mohammad Ali; Valizadeh, Reza; Vahmani, Payam

    2011-08-01

    The consumption of solid feed is essential for successful transition from a pre-ruminant to a functional digestive tract. Lambs fed starter rations containing highly fermentable carbohydrates often experience dramatic changes in concentrations of rumen and blood metabolites. The optimal amount of roughage required in the diet of pre-ruminant animals is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay on performance and rumen development in young Balouchi lambs. In a completely randomized design, 30 lambs were fed one of three experimental diets consisting of a control, without alfalfa hay (C), a diet containing 7.5% alfalfa hay (A1), and a diet containing 15% alfalfa hay (A2). Lambs fed A1 and A2 diets had lower dry matter intake during the pre-weaning period (P < 0.01) and overall (P = 0.02), but feed conversion ratio and average daily gain were not affected by feeding alfalfa hay. Concentration of beta-hydroxybutyric acid was higher in C compared with the A1 and A2 groups (P < 0.01). Concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids did not differ among the groups of animals. Feeding alfalfa hay reduced thickness of the rumen epithelial keratinized layer (P = 0.04) and increased thickness of muscular layer (P = 0.05). We concluded that including 15% alfalfa hay in the starter diet could reduce thickness of the keratinization layer and increase muscularity of rumen wall without adverse effects on growth and performance of newborn lambs.

  11. Effect of quantity, quality, and length of alfalfa hay on selective consumption by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Armentano, L E

    2003-02-01

    Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 6 or 7 d. Cows were housed in tie-stalls, and diets were fed ad libitum twice daily at 1100 and 1600 h. Diets contained 60% concentrate and either 40% alfalfa hay or 20% alfalfa hay and 20% alfalfa silage (dry matter basis). The effect of quantity, quality, and length of hay on sorting behavior was determined. Treatments consisted of 20% lower or higher quality long alfalfa hay, 20% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay, and 40% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay. Variation of sorting among cows was also determined. Particle size distribution of samples of as-fed total mixed rations and orts were determined using the Wisconsin particle size separator. Screens have square holes with diagonals of 26.9, 18, 8.98, 5.61, and 1.65 mm (screens Y1 to Y5, respectively). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percentage ofthe predicted intake. Increasing the proportion of dry hay increased sorting. Quality of alfalfa hays that were offered did not affect sorting activity. Feeding long alfalfa hay increased selective consumption of fine particles. However, feeding long alfalfa hay also increased intake of longer particles because a higher percentage of long particles was offered. Across treatments, animals consistently sorted against longer particles in favor of finer particles. In particular, intake of Y1 as a percentage of the predicted intake was the most variable. Average Y1 intake, across the six treatments for each cow, was between 60 and 70% of predicted intake for four cows, 71 to 80% for 11 cows, 81 to 90% for five cows, 91 to 100% for two cows, and 101 to 110% for two cows. On one diet a cow failed to consume any of the Y1 portion of the total mixed ration. This variation among animals in sorting of very long feed particles may have practical significance.

  12. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p < 0.05) for pH between forages and sub-tract site. Volatile fatty acids concentrations were different (p < 0.05) for forage and site, and total VFA was higher for AH than GH (110.6 and 79.1 mm) and C1 than caecum (40.7 and 27.6 mm). Proportion of VFA was significant (p < 0.05) for forage and site, C1 acetate highest for GH (84.8 vs. 74.0 mm) and caecum acetate 83.7 and 76.2 mm for GH and AH respectively. These data demonstrate the level of VFA produced in C1 and the caecum of alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species.

  13. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  14. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  15. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  16. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  17. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression.

  18. Epiphytic microflora on alfalfa and whole-plant corn.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Bolsen, K K; Brent, B E; Hart, R A; Dickerson, J T; Feyerherm, A M; Aimutis, W R

    1992-09-01

    Epiphytic microflora were identified and counted on four cuttings of alfalfa, each harvested at three stages of maturity, and on three whole-plant corn hybrids. Enterobacteriaceae were predominant on both crops. Yeasts and molds also were major epiphytic microorganisms on whole-plant corn. The group--including lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs, which are genera that produce lactic acid and thus are instrumental in silage preservation--constituted only a small proportion of the total population (less than .5%) on both crops. Lactate-fermenting clostridial spores were not detected on standing alfalfa, and occurrences of these spores on standing corn plants were due to soil contamination from rainfall prior to harvest. The numbers of epiphytic microorganisms, except for the lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs group, were higher on standing corn than on alfalfa. The epiphytic microflora on alfalfa increased with increasing temperature during the growing season. However, neither cutting number nor maturity affected the epiphytic microflora on standing alfalfa, and wilting following mowing had little effect on most populations. Higher temperatures during wilting increased yeast and mold counts but had no effect on other microbial counts. The chopping process tended to increase the epiphytic microflora populations compared with those on the standing crops, and the group containing lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs was most enhanced. Only yeast and mold counts on the chopped alfalfa increased with greater DM content and buffering capacity.

  19. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  20. Storage characteristics of large round alfalfa bales: dry hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Losses of forage dry matter (DM) and quality in large round bales of alfalfa stored outdoors can be substantial. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of wrap type and storage method on the preservation of dry alfalfa bales stored outdoors. Several methods to wrap large round ...

  1. Nitrogen fertilizer applications to corn after alfalfa?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is a deep-rooted plant that fixes nitrogen (N) and takes N from deep in the soil profile and brings it close to the soil surface. Alfalfa helps build soil health by giving N-rich leaves, stems, roots and root exudates to the soil. Through the action of soil microbes, the N in this organic ...

  2. Growth, Intake, Diet Digestibility, and Nitrogen Use in Three Hair Sheep Breeds Fed Alfalfa Hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...

  3. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  4. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  5. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  6. Effects of phytase supplementation in mature horses fed alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lavin, T E; Nielsen, B D; Zingsheim, J N; O'Connor-Robison, C I; Link, J E; Hill, G M; Shelton, J

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study P digestibility in mature horses because of the growing environmental concerns regarding P runoff and previous equine research focused mostly on young and growing animals or used ponies as a model. Phytase supplementation of swine and poultry diets can result in greater phytate-P digestibility, leading to a decreased need for inorganic P supplementation and a decrease in P excreted to the environment; this, however, has not been demonstrated in the horse. Six mature Arabian geldings were fed 6 diets consisting of pelleted concentrate and alfalfa hay. The concentrates consisted mainly of soybean hulls, ground corn, wheat midds, broken rice, and beet pulp, and phytase was added to the concentrates accordingly before pelleting. There were 3 diet types: control (concentrate and hay), high P (greater P concentrate and hay), and forage only, and each diet type included 1 phytase-supplemented diet and 1 non-phytase-supplemented diet, resulting in 6 total diets. Phytase supplementation for the forage only diet was accomplished by feeding a nominal amount of concentrate formulated solely as a vehicle for the phytase. Horses had unrestricted access to water throughout the experiment. Using a Latin square design, all horses received all diets over a period of 12 wk. In each week, the new diet was fed for 11 d of diet acclimation, which was followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine for each horse. There was no effect (P < 0.05) of phytase supplementation on P output in the urine or feces, resulting in no differences in P apparent digestibility. Analysis of the feed and feces for phytate revealed a 93% average disappearance rate of phytate, indicating that horses are highly capable of degrading phytate and that phytase supplementation was not beneficial. Thus, the results indicate that mature horses are able to maintain a near 0 P balance, with adequate P provided in the diet even as phytate, and increased P intakes above

  7. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  8. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  9. Effect of Feeding Selenium-Fertilized Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Weaned Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Bobe, Gerd; Hunter, Janice K.; Vorachek, William R.; Stewart, Whitney C.; Vanegas, Jorge A.; Estill, Charles T.; Mosher, Wayne D.; Pirelli, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (PLinear<0.001) and body weights (PLinear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations. PMID:23536788

  10. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  11. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  12. Comparison of soybean meal/sorghum grain, alfalfa hay and dehydrated alfalfa pellets as supplemental protein sources for beef cattle consuming dormant tallgrass-prairie forage.

    PubMed

    DelCurto, T; Cochran, R C; Nagaraja, T G; Corah, L R; Beharka, A A; Vanzant, E S

    1990-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare soybean meal/sorghum grain (SBM/SG), alfalfa hay or dehydrated alfalfa pellets (DEHY) as supplemental protein sources for beef cattle grazing dormant range forage. In Exp. 1 (35-d digestion study), 16 ruminally cannulated steers were stratified by weight (average BW 259 kg) and assigned randomly within stratification to: 1) control, no supplement; 2) SBM/SG (25% CP) fed at .48% BW; 3) alfalfa hay (17% CP) fed at .70% BW; or 4) DEHY (17.4% CP) fed at .67% BW. Steers receiving protein supplements displayed at least a twofold increase in forage intake (P less than .10). In addition, steers supplemented with DEHY consumed approximately 15% more forage (P less than .10) than SBM/SG- or alfalfa hay-supplemented steers. Digestible DM intake (kg/d), however, was similar between alfalfa hay- and DEHY-supplemented steers and 20% greater (P less than .10) than for SBM/SG-supplemented steers. In Exp. 2, 82 mature, nonlactating Hereford x Angus cows (average BW 489 kg) were assigned randomly to SBM/SG, alfalfa hay or DEHY supplement treatments, which were replicated in three pastures. Cows supplemented with DEHY gained more weight (P less than .05) during the first 84 d of supplementation and displayed the least amount of weight loss at calving (d 127; P less than .05) and just prior to breeding (P less than .10). In contrast, calving interval (361 d) and pregnancy rate (94%) were unaffected (P greater than .10) by dam's previous supplemental treatment. In Exp. 3, one block (pasture) of cows from Exp. 2 was selected at random and grazing behavior was monitored during week-long periods in January and February. A treatment X time interaction (P less than .05) occurred for total time spent grazing; treatments did not differ in January, but cows supplemented with alfalfa hay spent less time grazing in the February grazing period. In conclusion, DEHY and alfalfa hay appear to be at least as effective as SBM/SG as a supplemental protein

  13. Effect of fungal biomass in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion in growing beef calves.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, C V; Wittenberg, K M; Crow, G H

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of fungal biomass (FB), as determined by glucosamine analysis, in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion when fed to growing beef calves. Mycotoxins were not detected in hays used for these experiments. A feedlot trial using 40 weaned Angus calves (270.2 +/- 9.7 kg) showed that DM intake was not affected (P > .05) by FB content of the hay diets. No adaptation response was observed when animals with no previous exposure to molded feed were introduced to hay containing various levels of FB. Hematocrit and plasma cortisol levels were not affected (P > .05) by the presence of FB in the hay. Eight steers were used, in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, for intake and total tract digestibility determinations of two alfalfa hays having similar nutrient profiles but differ in FB concentrations. Hays were fed in long or chopped form. Level of FB did not affect (P > .05) DM intake or total tract DM digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber and ADF digestibilities were 5.4 and 3.7 percentage units higher (P < .05), respectively, for hay with a high vs low FB concentration. Forage chopping reduced (P < .05) DM, NDF, ADF, and CP digestibilities; the effect being similar for the two hay types tested. Results suggest that FB concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 5.5 mg/g of DM do not affect DM intake, however, nutrient digestion can be influenced by molding during field wilting or storage.

  14. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprised of high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because non-protein N (NPN) formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, conde...

  15. Characterization and comparison of the temporal dynamics of ruminal bacterial microbiota colonizing rice straw and alfalfa hay within ruminants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junhua; Zhang, Mengling; Xue, Chunxu; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-12-01

    Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to characterize the dynamics of bacterial colonization of rice straw and alfalfa hay and to assess the differences in the composition and inferred gene function of the colonized microbiota between these 2 forages. Nonincubated (0h) rice straw and alfalfa hay samples and residues in nylon bags incubated for 0.5, 2, 6, 16, and 48h were analyzed for dry matter and were used for DNA extraction and MiSeq (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial communities that colonized the air-dried and nonincubated (0h) rice straw and alfalfa hay were both dominated by members of the Proteobacteria (contributing toward 70.47% of the 16S RNA reads generated). In situ incubation of the 2 forages revealed major shifts in the community composition: Proteobacteria were replaced within 30min by members belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, contributing toward 51.9 and 36.6% of the 16S rRNA reads generated, respectively. A second significant shift was observed after 6h of rumen incubation, when members of the Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteria phyla became abundant in the forage-adherent community. During the first 30min of rumen incubation, ~20.7 and 36.1% of the rice straw and alfalfa hay, respectively, were degraded, whereas little biomass degradation occurred between 30min and 2h after the rice straw or alfalfa hay was placed in the rumen. Significant differences were noted in attached bacterial community structure between the 2 forage groups, and the abundances of dominant genera Anaeroplasma, Butyrivibrio, Fibrobacter, and Prevotella were affected by the forage types. Real-time PCR results showed that the 16S rRNA copies of total bacteria attached to these 2 forages were affected by the forage types and incubation time, and higher numbers of attached bacterial 16S rRNA were observed in the alfalfa hay samples than in the rice straw from 0.5 to 16h of incubation. The metagenomes predicted by

  16. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Nabipour, A; van den Borne, J J G C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors supplementation level (low, 8%; or high, 16% on DM basis) and PS (medium, 2.92 mm; or long, 5.04 mm as geometrical means) of alfalfa hay. In addition, a control group without alfalfa hay was used. Hence, treatments were: control (C); low level with medium PS (LM); low level with long PS (LL); high level with medium PS (HM) or high level with long PS (HL). Growth performance of alfalfa-fed calves did not differ from control calves, but alfalfa supplementation decreased corneum thickness of the rumen wall. In alfalfa-fed calves, post-weaning starter intake was greater for LL calves than for LM calves. During the entire rearing period, starter intake was 26-32% higher for LL and HM calves than for LM calves. Pre-weaning average daily gain was higher for LL and HM calves than for HL calves, but this effect was not persistent over the entire rearing period. Final body weight decreased from 86 to 79 kg when the level of long PS alfalfa hay increased from 8 to 16%, but increased from 78 to 87 kg when the level of medium PS alfalfa increased from 8 to 16%. Regardless of PS and level, morphometric characteristics of rumen wall were generally similar among alfalfa feeding groups, but corneum thickness decreased from 8.7 to 6.1 μm with greater PS at the low level. These results indicate that adequate, but not excessive, physical stimulation is required for appropriate rumen development and growth performance of dairy calves.

  17. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  18. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Isaiah, Anitha; Estill, Charles T; Pirelli, Gene J; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral important for immune function and overall health of cattle. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle plays an important role in overall respiratory health, especially when stresses associated with weaning, transport, and adaptation to a feedlot affect the normal respiratory defenses. Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding weaned beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay for 9 weeks in a preconditioning program prior to entering the feedlot alters nasal microbiota. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 45) were blocked by sex and body weight, randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 3 pens of 5 calves per treatment group, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 9 weeks. Alfalfa hay was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at a rate of 0, 45.0 or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected biweekly and analyzed for whole-blood Se concentrations. Nasal swabs were collected during week 9 from one or two calves from each pen (total n = 16). Calculated Se intake from dietary sources was 3.0, 15.6, and 32.2 mg Se/head/day for calves consuming alfalfa hay with Se concentrations of 0.34 to 2.42 and 5.17 mg Se/kg dry matter, respectively. Whole-blood Se concentrations after 8 weeks of feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay were dependent upon Se-application rates (0, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha) and were 155, 345, and 504 ng/mL (PLinear < 0.0001). Microbial DNA was extracted from nasal swabs and amplified and sequenced. Alpha rarefaction curves comparing the species richness (observed OTUs) and overall diversity (Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon index) between calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay compared with control calves showed that Se-supplementation tended to be associated with an enriched nasal microbiota. ANOSIM of unweighted UniFrac distances showed

  19. Effect of fungal biomass in moldy alfalfa hay on preference by dairy calves with no previous exposure to moldy feeds.

    PubMed

    Undi, M; Wittenberg, K M

    1996-07-01

    A study of 141-kg dairy calves evaluated their preference for alfalfa hay that contained different amounts of fungal biomass, which was estimated by the glucosamine assay. Alfalfa that was harvested at different maturities and stored at varying DM contents was chopped and blended to produce four forage treatments. The four forage treatments included hay that had 1) low NDF content and a low amount of fungal biomass, 2) high NDF and low fungal biomass, 3) high NDF and moderate fungal biomass, and 4) high NDF and high fungal biomass. Forage treatments were offered in pair combinations with two feeders per calf; treatments were switched from one feeder to the other on alternate days. The four forage treatments were offered in such a way that all six pair combinations were tested in each period. Each of the two trials was designed as a 6 x 6 Latin square. Preference data were collected for the 6-d periods and were analyzed as a split plot. Difference in intake of paired forage treatments was the response variable. Hay preference declined as either fiber content of hay or amount of fungal biomass in hay increased. Forage intake of each treatment relative to mean intake was 3.3, 0.8, -0.5 and -3.7 kg/6 d for forage treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Low preference for molded hay would probably result in greater feed sorting and lower intakes when calves have a choice of feedstuffs.

  20. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  1. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  2. Digestibility by lambs offered alfalfa hay treated with a propionic acid hay preservative and baled at different concentrations of moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eighteen crossbred wether lambs (76.1 ± 8.18 lb initial BW) were used for a 2 period digestion study to evaluate the effect of hay preservative concentration (0, 0.56, or 0.98% buffered propionic acid) and hay moisture concentration at baling (19.6, 23.8, or 27.4% moisture) on digestibility of alfal...

  3. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  4. Evaluation of hay-type and grazing-tolerant alfalfa cultivars in season-long or complementary rotational stocking systems for beef cows.

    PubMed

    Hermann, M L; Russell, J R; Barnhart, S K

    2002-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and forage and cow-calf production were evaluated on pastures containing smooth bromegrass with or without grazing-tolerant or hay-type alfalfa cultivars rotationally stocked in either a season-long or complementary system. In 1997, six 2.02-ha pastures were seeded with smooth bromegrass, a mixture of a grazing-tolerant alfalfa (Amerigraze variety) and smooth brome-grass, or a mixture of a hay-type alfalfa (Affinity variety) and smooth bromegrass to be used in season-long stocking systems. Four 2.02-ha pastures were seeded with smooth bromegrass on 1.21 ha of each pasture, and mixtures of either the grazing-tolerant or hay-type alfalfa cultivars and smooth bromegrass on the 0.81 ha of each pasture to be used in complementary stocking systems. All 10 pastures were divided into 10 paddocks and rotationally strip-stocked at 1.98 cow-calf units/ha with crossbred cows and calves for 120 and 141 d starting May 18, 1998 (yr 1), and May 6, 1999 (yr 2), respectively. Each year, first harvest forage was harvested as hay from 40% of all 10 pastures, this being the portions of the pasture seeded with the alfalfa-smooth brome-grass mixtures for pastures with the complementary stocking systems. In yr 1 and 2, the remaining 60% of each pasture was grazed for the first 44 and 54 d, and 100% of each pasture was grazed on d 45 to 120 and d 55 to 141, respectively. Proportions of alfalfa in the live dry matter of pastures seeded with the grazing-tolerant and hay-type alfalfa cultivars decreased by 70 and 55% in paddocks stocked season-long and by 60 and 42% in paddocks used for complementary stocking (alfalfa cultivar, P < 0.05; stocking system, P < 0.05) in yr 1, but decreased by 72% across cultivars and stocking systems in yr 2. Total (P < 0.08) forage masses in September of yr 1 and in August of yr 2 were greater in pastures in which alfalfa paddocks were stocked season-long than in those with complementary alfalfa stocking. Grazing of

  5. Effects of feeding ratio of beet pulp to alfalfa hay or grass hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity in Holstein dry cows.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). Total rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P < 0.01), and it decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). The ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.05) and feeding AH (P < 0.05). Thickness of the ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P < 0.05). Simple linear regression of ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P < 0.001; n = 16). The results demonstrated that increasing the PRV of the ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.

  6. Enhancing forage yields and soil conservation by interseeding alfalfa into silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...

  7. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  8. Prohexadione rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  9. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  10. Alfalfa: a companion crop with corn for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soybean or as a continuous corn crop for ethanol, including high energy inputs, high soil erosion potential, and high nutrient inputs and loss to the environme...

  11. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  12. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF240, aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH <5.8 was lower in Hu-HD diets. Milk production and components were not different among diets. Total-tract aNDFom and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction

  13. Alfalfa varieties differ markedly in seedling survival when interseeded into corn and treated with prohexadione-calcium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa. R...

  14. Evaluating the accuracy of the presidedress soil nitrogen test when manure is applied during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa has a great capacity to fix nitrogen (N), and it increases the amount of soil N available for the next crop. However, prediction of fertilizer requirement for corn after alfalfa is complicated because N release from organic sources varies with soil temperature and moisture. Furthermore, many...

  15. Validating potassium fertilizer guidelines in alfalfa-corn rotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 2008 to 2010, on-farm research was conducted on 10 fields with medium soil test K (STK) to validate Minnesota K fertilizer guidelines by determining the effect of K fertilizer applications on alfalfa yield and quality in its last production year and estimating the carryover of excess fertilizer...

  16. How reliable are N credits from alfalfa to corn?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first Century farmer and writer, Columella, wrote that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 'dungs the land,' and it is likely that most of the benefit he saw was derived from improved nitrogen (N) supply. Today, there is widespread skepticism among growers and farm advisors about how much fertilizer N ...

  17. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p < 0.05) in specific culture medium of mixed rumen fungi for SLM diet. There was significant decrease in total protozoa population for diet containing SLM (p < 0.05). Results indicated that replacement of alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  18. Effect of intake level and alfalfa substitution for grass hay on ruminal kinetics of fiber digestion and particle passage in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, S A; Bowman, J G P; Firkins, J L; Grove, A V; Hunt, C W

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestion kinetics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) substitution for grass hay in beef cattle. In Exp. 1, forage combinations evaluated in situ consisted of 0% alfalfa-100% big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman), 25% alfalfa-75% big bluestem, 50% alfalfa-50% big bluestem, and 100% alfalfa-0% big bluestem. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the immediately soluble fraction A, the potentially degradable fraction B, the undegraded fraction C, and the disappearance rate of DM and NDF. Dry matter fraction A increased linearly (P = 0.03), and DM and NDF fraction B decreased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing alfalfa substitution. Rate of DM and NDF disappearance increased linearly (P alfalfa substitution. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial testing alfalfa substitution [none or 25% (as-fed basis)] to orchardgrass hay (Dactylis glomerata L.) and intake level [restricted to 1% of BW daily (DM basis) or ad libitum]. Nutrient intakes were lowest (P alfalfa ad libitum. Intake level and forage source had no effect (P >/= 0.23) on total tract apparent digestibility of all nutrients except CP. Steers fed orchardgrass plus alfalfa had 33% greater (P = 0.01) total tract apparent digestibility for CP than those fed orchardgrass alone. Lag time of DM and NDF disappearance was not affected (P >/= 0.20) by alfalfa supplementation or intake level. Rate of DM and NDF disappearance of orchardgrass was faster (P alfalfa, at both restricted and ad libitum levels of feeding, than in animals fed orchardgrass alone. Mean retention times of large and small particles of orchardgrass tended to be shorter (P

  19. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Fiber Composition, Fiber Digestibility, and In Situ Disappearance Kinetics of NDF for Alfalfa-orchardgrass Hays.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hay from three individual harvests during 2006 and 2007 was utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h NDF digestibility (NDFD), and in-situ disappearance kinetics of NDF for large-round bales of mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgra...

  20. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health provider.Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your ...

  1. Substitutions of corn silage, alfalfa silage and corn grain in cow rations impact N use and N loss from dairy farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many dairy farms in the USA are growing and feeding more corn silage (CS) and less alfalfa silage (AS) to reduce feed costs. More corn grain (CG)-based concentrates are also being promoted to reduce enteric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Whole farm simulations illustrate that growing more CS and ...

  2. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  3. Relative partitioning of N from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal into milk, urine, and feces, using stable 15N isotope

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of nitrogen (N) in alfalfa silage (AS), corn silage (CS), corn grain (CG) and soybean meal (SBM) in milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For eleven days, twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means ± SD; ...

  4. Effects of alfalfa silage storage structure and roasting corn on ruminal digestion and microbial CP synthesis in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of unroasted ground shelled corn (GSC) or roasted GSC (RGSC), when fed with alfalfa, ensiled in bag, bunker, or O2-limiting tower silos on ruminal digestion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows. The roasted corn was hea...

  5. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM.

  6. The effect of soaking on protein and mineral loss in orchardgrass and alfalfa hays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are usually targeted for removal during hay soaking, however, other essential nutrients may also be lost. The objectives of this research were to determine impact of water temperature and time of soaking on removal of protein and minerals from legume and cool-season...

  7. The effect of soaking on protein and mineral loss in orchardgrass and alfalfa hays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soaking hay is a common strategy used to manage some diseased horses. Although certain nutrients such as nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are targeted during soaking, other essential nutrients may be inadvertently lost. The objectives of this research were to determine impact of water temperature a...

  8. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  9. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows, including 6 fitted with ruminal cannulas, ...

  10. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) ...

  11. The Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Silage to Corn Silage Ratio on Lactating Cow Performance and Methane Emission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratios in a total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and methane (CH4) emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (mean±SD; 77±35 days in milk and 640±84 kg body weight) housed in a...

  12. Do soil tests help forecast nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa on fine-textured soils?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved methods of predicting grain yield response to fertilizer N for first-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on fine-textured soils are needed. Data from 21 site-years in the North Central Region were used to (i) determine how Illinois soil nitrogen test (ISNT) and pr...

  13. Spatiotemporal soil organic carbon dynamics in irrigated corn silage-alfalfa production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  14. The Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Silage to Corn Silage Ratios on Cow Performance and Ammonia Nitrogen Emission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in a 55:45 forage:concentrate ratio (% DM) total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and ammonia N emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by DIM and randomly assigned to bal...

  15. Nitrogen requirements of first-year corn following alfalfa were not altered by fall-applied manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are no published reports on the direct effects of fall manure application on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) N credits to first-year corn (Zea mays L.) grown as grain or silage. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted at eight locations in Minnesota to test whether manure applied during fal...

  16. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  17. Prohexadione-calcium improves the establishment and yield of alfalfa interseeded as a dual purpose cover-forage crop into silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa an...

  18. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases.

    PubMed

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim

    2014-04-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw.

  19. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Results Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. Conclusion The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw. PMID:24766728

  20. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  1. Molecular comparative assessment of the microbial ecosystem in rumen and faeces of goats fed alfalfa hay alone or combined with oats.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Hamid; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Abecia, Leticia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the biomass and community structure of bacteria, protozoa and archaea communities in samples of rumen and faeces of goats and to what extent the diet (alfalfa hay with or without supplemented oats) offered to them exert an influence. Four cannulated adult goats fistulated in the rumen were used in a cross over design experiment in two experimental periods of 26 days, consisting in 14 days of adaptation, 7 days of sampling rumen contents and 5 days of digestibility measurement. Bacterial, protozoa and archaeal biomass and the communities' structure was assessed by real time PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The numbers of archaea and bacteria in both rumen and faeces were higher and lower, respectively, in animals fed AH diet (P < 0.005). Contrary, protozoal numbers were not affected by the diet but were lower (P < 0.001) in faeces than in rumen. The analysis of the community structure revealed a consistently different population in structure in rumen and faeces for the three studied microbial groups and that supplementing alfalfa hay with oats led to a decrease in the similarity between sites in the rumen and faeces: similarity indexes for bacteria (57 and 27%), archaea (26 and 9%) and protozoa (62 and 22%) in animals fed AH and AHO diets, respectively.

  2. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in vivo digestibility of moist, large rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic acid-based preservative.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Young, A N; Bertram, M G

    2013-04-01

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large round bales composed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating and dry matter (DM) losses, as well as other undesirable changes with respect to forage fiber, protein, and energy density. Various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, normally for use on hays that are not desiccated adequately in the field to facilitate safe bale storage. Our objectives for this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of applying a commercial (buffered) propionic acid-based preservative at 3 rates (0, 0.6, and 1.0% of wet-bale weight) to hays baled at 3 moisture concentrations (19.6, 23.8, and 27.4%) on the subsequent storage characteristics and poststorage nutritive value of alfalfa-orchardgrass forages packaged in large rectangular (285-kg) bales, and then (2) evaluate the in vivo digestibility of these hays in growing lambs. Over a 73-d storage period, the preservative was effective at limiting spontaneous heating in these hays, and a clear effect of application rate was observed for the wettest (27.4%) bales. For drier hays, both acid-application rates (1.0 and 0.6%) yielded comparable reductions in heating degree days >30°C relative to untreated controls. Reductions in spontaneous heating could not be associated with improved recovery of forage DM after storage. In this study, most changes in nutritive value during storage were related to measures of spontaneous heating in simple linear regression relationships; this suggests that the modest advantages in nutritive value resulting from acid treatment were largely associated with perturbations of normal heating patterns during bale storage. Although somewhat erratic, apparent digestibilities of both DM (Y=-0.0080x + 55.6; R(2)=0.45) and

  3. Effects of tallow in diets based on corn silage or alfalfa silage on digestion and nutrient use by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, L D; Drackley, J K; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H

    2003-02-01

    Six multiparous Holstein cows (average 31 days in milk; 36.3 kg/d of milk) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 21-d periods to investigate the effects of diets that varied in forage source and amount of supplemental tallow. Isonitrogenous diets in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement were based on either high corn silage (40:10 corn silage to alfalfa silage, % of dry matter) or high alfalfa silage (10:40 corn silage to alfalfa silage, % of dry matter) and contained 0, 2, or 4% tallow. Intakes of dry matter and total fatty acids were lower when cows were fed the high corn silage diet. Tallow supplementation linearly decreased dry matter intake. Milk yield was unaffected by diet; yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk were higher for the high alfalfa silage diet but were unaffected by tallow. Milk fat percentage was higher for the high alfalfa silage and tended to decrease when tallow was added to the high corn silage diet. Contents of trans-C18:1 isomers in milk fat were increased by high corn silage and tallow, and tended to be increased more when tallow was fed in the high corn silage diet. Ruminal pH and acetate:propionate were lower when high corn silage was fed. Ruminal acetate:propionate decreased linearly as tallow increased; the molar proportion of acetate was decreased more when tallow was added to the high corn silage diet. Ruminal liquid dilution rates were higher for the alfalfa silage diet; ruminal volume and solid passage rates were similar among diets. Total tract apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, starch, energy, and total fatty acids were unaffected by diet. Digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, and cellulose were lower when high corn silage was fed. The high alfalfa silage diet increased intakes of metabolizable energy and N, and increased milk energy and productive N. Tallow decreased the amount of N absorbed but had few other effects on

  4. Stockpiled forage or limit-fed corn as alternatives to hay for gestating and lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Loerch, S C; Rossi, J E; Borger, M L

    2003-05-01

    In Exp. 1, 31, 24, and 17 mature, pregnant Simmental x Angus cows (initial BW = 662.0 +/- 10.4 kg) in each of 3 yr were used to determine the efficacy of stockpiled orchardgrass, limit-fed corn, or ad libitum hay for maintaining cows in mid- to late gestation, respectively. In Exp. 2, 24 mature, pregnant crossbred cows (initial BW = 677.7 +/- 9.4 kg) per treatment in each of 3 yr were used to determine the efficacy of stockpiled orchardgrass, limit-fed corn, or ad libitum hay for maintaining cows in late gestation and early lactation, respectively. Each year, cows were assigned to treatment by BW. From November to February or from January to April, respectively, nutritional needs for mid- to late gestation (Exp. 1) or late gestation and early lactation (Exp. 2) were met either by 1) rotating cows on approximately 15.2 or 21.7 ha of predominantly orchardgrass pasture, set aside and fertilized in late August, 2) limit-feeding approximately 5.8 kg of whole shelled corn, 1.1 kg of a pelleted supplement, and 1.2 kg of hay daily, or 3) ad libitum feeding of round-baled hay. During extreme weather conditions, cows grazing stockpiled orchardgrass were limit-fed a grain-based diet. Postcalving weight (P < 0.10) was greatest for limit-fed cows in Exp. 1 and lowest for cows grazed on stockpiled orchardgrass; cows given ad libitum access to hay were intermediate in weight and did not differ from cows limit-fed or cows grazed on stockpiled orchardgrass (641.8, 657.4, and 634.0 kg, respectively). Calving date, calf birth and weaning weight, and conception rate did not differ among treatments (P > 0.15) in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, weight at weaning did not differ among treatments (P > 0.17); however, postcalving weight (P < 0.01) was greatest for cows given ad libitum access to hay, intermediate for limit-fed cows, and lowest for cows grazed on stockpiled orchardgrass (674.8, 652.4, and 624.5 kg). Body condition score at any time point did not differ among treatments (P > 0.38), nor

  5. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in-vivo digestibility of moist large-rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic-acid-based preservative

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large-round bales comprised of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sens...

  6. Effects of pistachio by-products in replacement of alfalfa hay on populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation and fermentative parameters in the rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, M H; Tahmasbi, A-M; Khorvash, M; Naserian, A-A; Ghaffari, A H; Valizadeh, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sundried pistachio by-products (PBP) as a replacement of alfalfa hay (AH) on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation (BH) in Baluchi sheep. Four adult male Baluchi sheep (41 ± 1.3 kg, BW) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) control, (ii) 12% PBP (0.33 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP), (iii) 24% PBP (0.66 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP) and (iv) 36% PBP (all of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP). The basal diet was 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) alfalfa hay, 160 g/kg DM wheat straw and 480 g/kg DM concentrate. The trial consisted of four periods, each composed of 16 days adaptation and 4 days data collection including measurement of blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and population of bacteria. No differences were observed in rumen pH among the treatments, while rumen ammonia-N concentrations were decreased (p< 0.05) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM of the diets. Using of 36% PBP in the diet reduced (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of acetate, while the concentration of propionate, butyrate and acetate to propionate ratio were similar to all other treatments. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased (p < 0.01) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM in the diets of sheep. However, other blood metabolites were not affected by the experimental diets. It was concluded that PBP in replacement of AH had no effects on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in relation to the control diet.

  7. Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however

  8. In vitro determination of ruminal protein degradability of alfalfa and prairie hay via a commercial protease in the presence or absence of cellulase or driselase.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, I E; Cochran, R C; Titgemeyer, E C; Vanzant, E S

    1997-08-01

    Ruminal protein degradation of alfalfa (2.62% N, 49.6% NDF, and in vivo undegradable intake protein [UIP] = 16.4% of CP) and prairie hay (.88% N, 69.4% NDF, and in vivo UIP = 44.5% of CP) was estimated using the Streptomyces griseus protease (SGP) in vitro method with or without pretreatment with two carbohydrases: cellulase from Penicillium funiculosum or driselase from Basidiomycetes. Driselase is a broad-spectrum carbohydrase. Incubating forage samples for 48 h with cellulase or driselase at a concentration of 800 mg/g per g of hay nearly maximized ADF and NDF disappearances. This concentration and incubation time then were used to pretreat hay samples. A 2-h pretreatment was included to evaluate the potential for reducing the analysis time. Other sets of samples were or were not pretreated with acetate buffer alone. Following pretreatment, samples were subjected to SGP for .25, .5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Pretreatment altered the sizes of protein pools and their degradation rates. When the UIP contents of the forages were estimated using SGP and a single-pool, first-order, kinetic model, cellulase (48 h) or driselase pretreatments yielded UIP predictions that were more similar to in vivo values. Some carbohydrase and protease combinations also yielded single time-point estimates of UIP that were similar to in vivo values. Similarly, when sufficient time was permitted for protease incubation, single time-point estimates derived from protease alone were similar to in vivo values.

  9. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effect of alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in the diet of lactating dairy cows on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, nitrogen (N) balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), ...

  10. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  11. Effects of spontaneous heating on forage protein fractions and in situ disappearance kinetics of crude protein for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Martin, N P

    2010-03-01

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were used to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP), acid detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), and in situ disappearance kinetics of CP and NDICP for large round bales of mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Over the 3 harvests, 96 large round bales were made at preset bale diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5m and at moisture concentrations ranging from 9.3 to 46.6%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period. The change in concentrations of NDICP (poststorage - prestorage) increased with heating degree days (HDD) >30 degrees C in a relationship best explained with a nonlinear model {Y=24.9 - [22.7 x (e(-0.000010 x x x x))]; R(2)=0.892} that became asymptotic at +24.9 percentage units of CP, thereby indicating that NDICP increases rapidly within bales that heat spontaneously. When maximum internal bale temperature (MAX) was used as the independent variable, the best regression model was quadratic and the coefficient of determination was still relatively high (R(2)=0.716). The change in concentrations of ADICP (poststorage - prestorage; DeltaADICP) also increased with HDD and was best fitted to a nonlinear model {Y=14.9 - [15.7 x (e(-0.0000019 x x x x))]} with a very high coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.934). A similar quartic response was observed for the regression of DeltaADICP on MAX (R(2)=0.975). Increases in DeltaADICP as a result of heating (HDD or MAX) were paralleled by concurrent increases in hemicellulose at relatively low increments of heating, but the inverse relationship was observed as hemicelluloses likely became reactive and concentrations decreased in more severely heated hays. Changes in ruminal disappearance rate of CP were best fitted to cubic models for regressions on both HDD (R(2)=0.939) and MAX (R(2)=0.876); these changes

  12. Effect of alfalfa silage storage structure and roasting corn on production and ruminal metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Promkot, C; Colombini, S; Randby, A T

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed 1 of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) averaging 77 d in milk and 43 kg of milk/d pretrial were assigned to 2 cyclic changeover designs. Treatments were AS ensiled in bag, bunker, or O2-limiting tower silos and supplemented with ground shelled corn (GSC) or roasted GSC (RGSC). Silages were prepared from second-cutting alfalfa, field-wilted an average of 24 h, and ensiled over 2 d. Production and N utilization were evaluated in 36 cows during four 28-d periods, and ruminal fermentation was evaluated with 6 cows during five 21-d periods. Experimental diets contained 40% AS, 15% corn silage, and 35% of either GSC or RGSC on a dry matter basis. No significant interactions between AS and corn sources were detected for any production trait. Although the chemical composition of the 3 AS was similar, feeding AS from the O2-limited tower silo elicited positive production responses. Yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat were increased 1.7 kg/ d and 150 g/d, and milk fat content was increased 0.3% when cows were fed diets based on AS from the O2-limiting silo compared with the other 2 silages. The responses in milk fat were paralleled by an average increase in acid detergent fiber digestibility of 270 g/d for cows fed AS from the O2-limiting tower silo. However, ruminal concentrations of lipogenic volatile fatty acids were unchanged with AS source. Cows fed RGSC consumed 0.6 kg/d more dry matter and yielded 30 g/ d more protein and 50 g/d more lactose than cows fed GSC diets. There was no evidence of increased total tract digestibility of organic matter or starch, or reduced ruminal NH(3) concentration, when feeding RGSC. Free amino acids increased, and isovalerate decreased in rumen fluid from cows fed RGSC diets. However, responses in production

  13. Protein level for alfalfa and corn silage-based diets: II. Nitrogen balance and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Karg, K L

    2004-10-01

    This N balance study was completed with 48 multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW] = 653 kg; days in milk = 89) blocked by calving date and assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The total mixed ration included alfalfa silage (AS) or corn silage (CS) as the primary forage source (41 and 14% vs. 14 and 41% of diet dry matter (DM), respectively) and were formulated for recommended (RP) or excessive (HP) amounts of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) according to the guidelines of the National Research Council (NRC). Crude protein (CP) averaged 16.5, 18.0, 16.4, and 17.3% for the AS-RP; AS-HP; CS-RP; and CS-HP diet, respectively (DM basis). Regardless of primary forage source, the reduction in dietary CP to the NRC guidelines tended to improve milk yield (43.4 vs. 41.0 kg/d) but did not alter 3.5% fat-corrected milk (37.0 kg/d) or milk true protein yield (1167 g/d). In this trial, cows fed the CS-based diets consumed less DM than those fed the AS-based diets in part because of rumen acidosis. The adverse effect of low rumen pH was accompanied by an increase in urinary N (UN) as a percentage of N intake, but did not alter milk yield. Notwithstanding partial confounding, fecal N (FN) was 49 g/d lower (213 vs. 164 g/d), UN was unchanged (229 g/d), but milk N tended to be higher (194 vs. 206 g/d) when cows were fed the CS-based diets compared with AS-based diets. Compared with the HP diets, cows fed the RP diets had similar FN (189 g/d) and milk N (200 g/d), but UN and urine urea N were reduced by 41 g/d (249 vs. 208 g/d) and 40 g/d (210 vs. 171 g/d), respectively. Fecal N concentration was higher for CS-based diets, but urinary N concentration was higher for AS-based diets. The reduction in dietary CP did not influence these concentrations but lowered urine volume. The metabolic relationships between energy and protein in determining the fate of excess dietary N (primarily in the form of excess RUP in this

  14. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  15. ALFALFA: BIOFUEL AND FEED

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop that supports Idaho's dairy industry. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of its high biomasss production...

  16. Effects of spontaneous heating on fiber composition, fiber digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of neutral detergent fiber for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C

    2009-06-01

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD), and in situ disappearance kinetics of NDF for large-round bales of mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Over the 3 harvests, 96 large-round bales were made at preset bale diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 m, and at moisture concentrations ranging from 9.3 to 46.6%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, reaching maxima (MAX) of 77.2 degrees C and 1,997 heating degree days >30 degrees C (HDD) for one specific combination of bale moisture, bale diameter, and harvest. Concentrations of all fiber components (NDF, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) increased in response to spontaneous heating during storage. Changes in concentrations of NDF during storage (poststorage - prestorage; DeltaNDF) were regressed on HDD using a nonlinear regression model (R(2) = 0.848) that became asymptotic after DeltaNDF increased by 8.6 percentage units. Although the specific regression model varied, changes (poststorage - prestorage) in concentrations of acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin also increased in nonlinear relationships with HDD that exhibited relatively high coefficients of determination (R(2) = 0.710 to 0.885). Fiber digestibility, as determined by NDFD, was largely unaffected by heating characteristics except within bales incurring the most extreme levels of HDD or MAX. In situ assessment of ruminal NDF disappearance kinetics indicated that disappearance rate (K(d)) declined by about 40% within the range of heating incurred over these hay harvests. The change in K(d) during storage (DeltaK(d)) was related closely to both HDD and MAX by nonlinear models exhibiting high R(2) statistics (0.907 and 0.883, respectively). However, there was no regression

  17. Effects of bale moisture and bale diameter on spontaneous heating, dry matter recovery, in vitro true digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hays.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C

    2009-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hay was made in 96 large-round bales over 3 harvests during 2006 and 2007 to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on dry matter (DM) recovery, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD), and in situ disappearance kinetics of DM. Throughout these harvests, bales were made at preset diameters of 0.9, 1.2, or 1.5 m and at moisture concentrations ranging from 9.3 to 46.6%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, reaching maxima of 77.2 degrees C (MAX) and 1,997 heating degree days >30 degrees C (HDD) for one specific combination of bale moisture, bale diameter, and harvest. Following storage, regressions of DM recovery on HDD and MAX indicated that DM recovery declined linearly in close association with measures of spontaneous heating. For HDD, slopes and intercepts differed across bale diameters, probably because the greater surface area per kilogram of DM for 0.9-m bales facilitated more rapid dissipation of heat than occurred from 1.2- or 1.5-m-diameter bales. Regardless of bale diameter, coefficients of determination were high (r(2) > or = 0.872) when HDD was used as the independent variable. Regressions of DM recovery on MAX also exhibited high r(2) statistics (> or = 0.833) and a common slope across bale diameters (-0.32 percentage units of DM/ degrees C). Changes in concentrations of IVTD during storage (poststorage - prestorage; DeltaIVTD) also were regressed on HDD and MAX. For HDD, the data were best fit with a nonlinear model in which DeltaIVTD became rapidly negative at <1,000 HDD, but was asymptotic thereafter. When MAX was used as the independent variable, a simple linear model (y = -0.23x + 9.5) provided the best fit. In both cases, coefficients of determination were comparable to those for DM recovery (R(2) or r(2) > or =0.820). Changes (poststorage - prestorage) in ruminal DM degradation rate (DeltaK(d)) and effective ruminal degradability of DM

  18. Effect of supplementation with linseed or a blend of aromatic spices and time on feed on fatty acid composition, meat quality and consumer liking of meat from lambs fed dehydrated alfalfa or corn.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Bianchi, G; Bentancur, O; Garibotto, G

    2017-05-01

    Cross-bred lambs (n=72) were fed finishing diets using a factorial arrangement of treatments: BASAL DIET (alfalfa pellets or corn), SUPPLEMENT (none, linseed or aromatic spices), TIME ON FEED (41 or 83days). Carcass and meat quality traits, fatty acid composition, color stability and consumer liking were determined. Feeding alfalfa improved sensory ratings and fatty acid composition of lamb. However, corn or longer alfalfa feeding would be recommended if heavier and fatter carcasses are sought. Consumer liking and fatty acid composition of lamb were improved with addition of spices and linseed, respectively. But additional antioxidant strategies should be considered to delay meat color deterioration during storage if lambs are fed corn-linseed for 83days. Although alfalfa basal diet and linseed supplementation improved fatty acid composition, feeding the basal diets for at least 41days resulted in low n-3 fatty acid concentrations in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of corn silage particle size, supplemental hay, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen pH, feed preference, and milk fat profile of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Harvatine, K J; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study effects of feeding long or short corn silage total mixed rations (TMR) on rumen pH, feed preference, and dairy cow performance and to determine the rate of recovery from grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Both experiments utilized a crossover design with 12 lactating, multiparous, Holstein cows each (including 4 ruminally cannulated cows) and consisted of two 26-d periods. Each period consisted of 12d of adaptation followed by 14d of data collection. Each period was divided into 4 phases: adaptation, d 1 to 12; baseline, d 13 to 14; challenge, d 15 to 19; and recovery, d 20 to 26. Treatments in Exp. 1 were TMR based on corn silage with long (L) or short (ST) particle size in a 65:35 forage-to-concentrate (F:C) diet. Treatments in Exp. 2 were TMR based on corn silage with short (SH) or long (LH) particle size in a 65:35 F:C diet with 3.3% (DM basis) orchardgrass hay offered as a supplement to the diet. In both experiments, during the challenge phase cows received a 50:50 F:C diet to initiate SARA. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate on an as-fed basis. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Feeding L and LH diets increased acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, which resulted in the maintenance of a ratio >2 from the start of the SARA challenge through recovery. In Exp. 1, feeding long corn silage TMR resulted in lower milk fat concentration on the third day of the challenge, whereas cows fed short corn silage TMR had lower milk fat concentration on the final day of the challenge compared with d 13. Providing supplemental hay to cows fed TMR based on long or short corn silage in Exp. 2 prevented acidosis when cows were challenged with a high-grain diet. Milk fat concentrations substantially decreased during the challenge phase in both diets supplemented with hay, but feeding LH did not lower milk fat concentrations until d 20 compared

  20. Optimizing use of distillers grains in finishing diets containing steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Sindt, J J; Cole, N A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Two hundred ninety-nine crossbred yearling steers (363 +/- 15 kg initial BW) were fed for an average of 114 d in a finishing study comparing 7 diets in which steam-flaked corn was used as the principal energy source. Forty-nine pens were used in this study with 7 BW blocks, 7 pens per treatment, and 5 to 7 steers per pen. A control diet with no distillers grains with solubles (DGS) was compared with 6 diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). The diets contained wet sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, dried sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, wet corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay, or dried corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay. Apparent total tract digestibilities were calculated by total collection of fecal material from the concrete-surfaced pens over a 72-h period. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics were similar (P > or = 0.18) for steers fed finishing diets with or without 15% DGS. However, apparent total tract digestibilities of DM and OM were 2.8% less (P < or = 0.03) for finishing diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics were not different (P > or = 0.09) for steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum or corn DGS. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics also were not different (P > or = 0.10) for steers fed finishing diets containing wet or dried DGS. Steers fed sorghum DGS with 6% hay consumed more DM (P < 0.01) and gained more BW (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets without hay, but G:F were not different (P > 0.78). Sorghum DGS diets containing alfalfa hay were 4% less (P = 0.01) digestible than sorghum DGS diets containing no hay. Carcasses of steers fed sorghum DGS diets without hay were lighter, leaner, and had decreased USDA yield grades (P = 0.01) compared with steers fed sorghum DGS diets containing hay. Feeding moderate levels (i.e., 15%, DM basis) of DGS resulted in growth performance and carcass

  1. Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa from bison, cattle-bison hybrids, and cattle fed three alfalfa-corn diets.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Dehority, B A

    1989-01-01

    Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa fiber fractions were compared among bison, bison hybrids, and crossbed cattle (five each) when they were fed alfalfa and corn in a ratio of 100:0, 75:25, and 50:50, respectively. The total number of viable bacteria (2.16 x 10(9) to 5.44 x 10(9)/ml of ruminal fluid) and the number of cellulolytic bacteria (3.74 x 10(7) to 10.9 x 10(7)/ml) were not different among groups of animals fed each diet. The genera of protozoa in all of the animal groups were similar; however, when either the 100:0 or 50:50 diet was used the percentage of Entodinium sp. was lower and the percentage of Diplodiniinae was higher (P less than 0.05) in bison than in bison hybrids or cattle. Bacteroides succinogenes made up the largest number of cellulolytic isolates from bison (58 and 36%, respectively, on the 100:0 and 75:25 diets), which were more numerous (P less than 0.05) than those from bison hybrids (36 and 12%) and cattle (33 and 18%). This was offset by a lower number of cellulolytic Butyrivibrio isolates. The numbers of Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens isolates, in general, were similar among the bovid species, although R. flavefaciens generally made up less than 10% of the cellulolytic isolates. In vitro digestibility coefficients were greater (P less than 0.05) for the bison when the 75:25 diet was used and similar for the other two diets. The concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids was larger (P less than 0.05) in bison than in bison hybrids and cattle when the 50:50 diet was used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effects of supplemental hay and corn silage versus full-time grazing on ruminal pH and chewing activity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Graf, C M; Kreuzer, M; Dohme, F

    2005-02-01

    Grazing young, highly digestible swards with and without supplemental hay or corn silage (5.5 kg of DM/d) offered overnight was tested for its effects on ruminal pH and chewing activity. A double 3 x 3 Latin square arrangement with 6 rumen-cannulated Brown Swiss cows (29 kg/d of milk) was applied. Herbage intake was quantified by controlled-release alkane capsules. Chewing activity was determined using an automatic microcomputer-based system for digital recording of the jaw movements. Except during milking, ruminal pH was measured continuously over 7 d by applying a device consisting of an indwelling pH electrode and a data-recording unit integrated in the cannula's cover. The grazing system had no significant effect on body weight, milk yield or composition (except milk urea), or total DM intake (13.5, 13.8, and 15.7 kg/d with full-time grazing, hay, and corn silage supplementation). No differences occurred for ruminating time per day and time per kilogram of DM intake. Full-time grazing cows spent more time eating per day (+26%) and time per kilogram of DM intake (+31%) than the other cows. Ruminal pH and time with pH <5.8 at night did not differ. Throughout the day, hay-supplemented cows had a significantly lower pH (-0.23) than full-time grazing cows, and the period of pH <5.8 was longer compared with corn-silage fed cows (77 vs. 11 min). Nocturnal supplement feeding gave no advantage over full-time grazing, and supplemental hay led to lower daytime pH.

  3. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Use of real time PCR to determine population profiles of individual species of lactic acid bacteria in alfalfa silage and stored corn stover.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David M; Muck, Richard E; Shinners, Kevin J; Weimer, Paul J

    2006-07-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify seven species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in alfalfa silage prepared in the presence or absence of four commercial inoculants and in uninoculated corn stover harvested and stored under a variety of field conditions. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on recA gene sequences. Commercial inoculants improved the quality of alfalfa silage, but species corresponding to those in the inoculants displayed variations in persistence over the next 96 h. Lactobacillus brevis was the most abundant LAB (12 to 32% of total sample DNA) in all of the alfalfa silages by 96 h. Modest populations (up to 10%) of Lactobacillus plantarum were also observed in inoculated silages. Pediococcus pentosaceus populations increased over time but did not exceed 2% of the total. Small populations (0.1 to 1%) of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactococcus lactis were observed in all silages, while Lactobacillus pentosus and Enterococcus faecium were near or below detection limits. Corn stover generally displayed higher populations of L. plantarum and L. brevis and lower populations of other LAB species. The data illustrate the utility of RT-PCR for quantifying individual species of LAB in conserved forages prepared under a wide variety of conditions.

  5. Alfalfa hay storage losses study as influenced by bale type and storage method. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, G.; Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.

    1997-10-30

    This experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) cooperative. Alfalfa for use as both a biomass energy source and as a protein supplement has been proposed by MnVAP. Research has shown that alfalfa deteriorates over time in storage, and that storage method and bale type affect the amount of deterioration. Therefore, evaluation of different storage methods and bale types on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa leaf and stem components is important information for the alfalfa grower and the MnVAP cooperative. Two bale types were evaluated for four storage methods, and measurements were made of initial and final bale weights, dry matter, leaf and stem components, and forage quality estimates. Few differences were detected among bale types for dry matter losses, and interactions among bale type and storage method were not detected. This indicates that dry matter losses were similar for different bale types regardless of the storage method. However, differences in dry matter losses and visible spoilage were detected among storage methods. No interactions between bale type and storage method were detected for forage quality parameters, indicating that forage quality losses as a result of storage were similar for different bale types. Bale type by sample type and storage method by sample type interactions were detected. Many of these were the result of poorer quality alfalfa. 4 refs., 9 tabs.

  6. Methane emissions changed nonlinearly with graded substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage and corn grain in the diet of sheep and relation with rumen fermentation characteristics in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jonker, A; Lowe, K; Kittelmann, S; Janssen, P H; Ledgard, S; Pacheco, D

    2016-08-01

    Feeding grain and corn silage have been proposed as practices to reduce enteric methane (CH) emissions per unit of intake from ruminants, but the inclusion level required in the diet is normally not specified. The objectives of the current study were to determine the CH emission factor (g/kg DMI) of sheep fed alfalfa silage substituted with increasing levels of corn silage or corn grain at a fixed DMI level (2% of BW) and determine its relationship with rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial community composition and with in vitro fermentation characteristics of the same diets incubated using a standard laboratory method. Romney ewe hoggets (approximately 14 mo old; = 64) were randomly allocated to 8 dietary treatments, which included chaffed alfalfa silage alone or substituted with either 25, 50, 75 or 100% corn silage or 25, 50 or 65% rolled corn grain on a DM basis. After acclimatization to the diet, DMI and CH emissions were measured from individual sheep for 2 consecutive days in open-circuit respiration chambers and a rumen sample was collected at 3 h after feeding. The same diets were also incubated in an automated in vitro gas production system for 48 h using rumen liquid of fistulated nonlactating dairy cows grazing pasture. Increasing the substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage or corn grain in the diet of sheep resulted in a quadratic response ( < 0.01) in CH emissions per unit of DMI (CH/DMI) with either supplement. For both supplements, CH/DMI increased in mixtures of up to 50% supplement inclusion and then decreased with greater supplement inclusion, especially with corn grain inclusion, but the level did not fall below that for 100% alfalfa silage. The ratio of acetate + butyrate to propionate + valerate and the propionate proportion alone in rumen liquid were the strongest single predictors for CH/DMI in the overall data set and explained 37.1 and 32.5%, respectively, of the variation in CH/DMI. Methanogens of (21.1% of total

  7. Interactions of tallow and hay particle size on yield and composition of milk from lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C; Bertrand, J A; Bridges, W C

    1998-05-01

    An 18-wk lactation study was conducted to determine whether the effects of tallow on the lactation performance of dairy cows were influenced by particle size of hay in the ration. A total mixed ration containing 50% concentrate, 25% corn silage, and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis) was fed to Holstein cows. Four total mixed rations were developed based on differences in the percentage of tallow in the concentrate and particle size of alfalfa hay: 1) 0% tallow, long-cut hay; 2) 0% tallow, short-cut hay; 3) 5% tallow, long-cut hay; and 4) 5% tallow, short-cut hay. Ration had no effect on dry matter intake, body weight gain or change in body condition score. Tallow increased milk and milk protein yields but reduced milk protein concentration. However, the effects of tallow on milk and milk protein yields were the same, regardless of hay length in the ration. A tendency for an interaction of tallow and hay particle size was detected for fat-corrected milk (FCM) because tallow increased FCM more when hay was short. Ration had no effect on volatile fatty acids in ruminal samples collected via a stomach tube. In this study, the effects of tallow on milk yield and composition from Holstein cows were the same, regardless of hay particle size in the ration. The tendency for tallow to increase FCM more when hay was short suggests at least a limited role of forage particle size in the determination of how fat supplements in dairy rations affect lactation performance.

  8. Interaction of tallow and hay particle size on ruminal parameters.

    PubMed

    Lewis, W D; Bertrand, J A; Jenkins, T C

    1999-07-01

    Four nonlactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 4 21-d periods to determine if the effects of dietary fat would be affected by hay particle length. Treatments consisted of two levels of tallow (0 and 5%) and two hay particle lengths (short-cut and long-cut) in a 2 x 2 factorial. Diets contained alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate [1:1:2, dry matter (DM) basis] fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) once per day. Samples of the 0 and 5% tallow TMR were ground and incubated in situ in polyester bags for 24 and 48 h. Ruminal samples were taken on day 21 at 0800 h and at 2-h intervals until 1600 h. The total tract digestibilities of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were not affected by tallow or by hay by tallow interactions. There was a trend for tallow to improve total tract digestibility of crude protein (CP) (70.2 vs. 74.7%). After 48 h of ruminal incubation, tallow significantly decreased the digestibilities of DM, ADF, and NDF. No hay length by tallow interactions for DM, NDF, ADF or CP digestibilities occurred after 24 or 48 h. Tallow increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and valerate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Total volatile fatty acids increased when tallow was added to diets with short-cut hay, which suggests that when unprotected fat is added to diets with a high level of hay, a short-cut hay length may be advantageous. This result may be due to shorter rumen retention time of feed particles, which reduces the time for fatty acids to exert antimicrobial effects. Or, it may because the increased surface area of the hay particle provides more area for microbial attachment and increased fermentation.

  9. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  10. Effects of corn condensed distillers solubles supplementation on ruminal fermentation, digestion, and in situ disappearance in steers consuming low-quality hay.

    PubMed

    Gilbery, T C; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2006-06-01

    Two metabolism (4 x 4 Latin square design) experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn condensed distillers solubles (CCDS) supplementation on intake, ruminal fermentation, site of digestion, and the in situ disappearance rate of forage in beef steers fed low-quality switchgrass hay (Panicum virgatum L.). Experimental periods for both trials consisted of a 9-d diet adaptation and 5 d of collection. In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (561 +/- 53 kg of initial BW) were fed low-quality switchgrass hay (5.1% CP, 40.3% ADF, 7.5% ash; DM basis) and supplemented with CCDS (15.4% CP, 4.2% fat; DM basis). Treatments included 1) no CCDS; 2) 5% CCDS; 3) 10% CCDS; and 4) 15% CCDS (DM basis), which was offered separately from the hay. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (266.7 +/- 9.5 kg of initial BW) were assigned to treatments similar to Exp. 1, except forage (Panicum virgatum L.; 3.3% CP, 42.5% ADF, 5.9% ash; DM basis) and CCDS (21.6% CP, 17.4% fat; DM basis) were fed as a mixed ration, using a forage mixer to blend the CCDS with the hay. In Exp. 1, ruminal, postruminal, and total tract OM digestibilities were not affected (P = 0.21 to 0.59) by treatment. Crude protein intake and total tract CP digestibility increased linearly with increasing CCDS (P = 0.001 and 0.009, respectively). Microbial CP synthesis tended (P = 0.11) to increase linearly with increasing CCDS, whereas microbial efficiency was not different (P = 0.38). Supplementation of CCDS to low-quality hay-based diets tended to increase total DM and OM intakes (P = 0.11 and 0.13, respectively) without affecting hay DMI (P = 0.70). In Exp. 2, ruminal OM digestion increased linearly (P = 0.003) with increasing CCDS, whereas postruminal and total tract OM digestibilities were not affected (P > or = 0.37) by treatment. Crude protein intake, total tract CP digestibility, and microbial CP synthesis increased (P < or = 0.06) with increasing level of CCDS

  11. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as

  12. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Forage Protein Fractions and In Situ Disappearance Kinetics of Crude Protein for Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Hays Packaged in Large-Round Bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of crude protein (CP), neutral-detergent insoluble CP (NDICP), acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), and in situ disappearance kinetics of CP and NDICP for large-r...

  14. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  15. Ruminal Methane Emissions by Goats Consuming Dry Hay of Condensed Tannin-Containing Lespedeza With or Without Polyethylene Glycol, Alfalfa, or Sorghum-Sudangrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (initial BW of 37.7 +/- 1.09) were used to assess effects of different sources of dry hay on ruminal methane emission. Treatments were a legume (Sericea lespedeza, Lespedeza cuneata) high in condensed tannins (CT; 15.3%) without (S) or with (P)polyethylene...

  16. Response of lactating dairy cows to diets containing wet corn gluten feed or a raw soybean hull-corn steep liquor pellet.

    PubMed

    Wickersham, E E; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Brouk, M J; DeFrain, J M; Park, A F; Johnson, D E; Ethington, R T

    2004-11-01

    We evaluated effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and a novel product (SHSL) containing raw soybean hulls and corn steep liquor on performance and digestion in lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 46 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to control (C), WCGF (20% of diet DM), or SHSL (20% of diet DM). Diets were fed as a total mixed ration beginning after calving. The C diet contained (dry matter [DM] basis) 30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 32% corn, 9.3% whole cottonseed, 4.4% solvent soybean meal (SBM), and 3.3% expeller SBM. The WCGF replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, and 5% corn grain, while expeller SBM replaced solvent SBM to maintain diet rumen undegradable protein. The SHSL replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, 3% solvent SBM, and 2% corn. Dietary crude protein averaged 18.4%. Milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), DM intake (DMI), and ECM/DMI were similar among diets during the first 13 wk of lactation. During wk 14 through 30 postpartum, WCGF and SHSL improved milk, ECM, milk component yield, and ECM/DMI. In Experiment 2, 6 cows were used to evaluate digestibility and rumen traits. Dry matter intake and total tract digestibilities of DM, fiber, and crude protein were not different among diets. Diets did not affect ruminal liquid dilution rate, pH, or concentrations of total volatile fatty acids or ammonia, but acetate:propionate was higher for C (3.38) than for WCGF (2.79) or SHSL (2.89). The WCGF and SHSL products can serve as alternative feedstuffs in diets fed to lactating dairy cattle.

  17. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle.

  18. Lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and enzyme activity in adipose tissue of short- and long-fed Angus and Wagyu steers fed corn- or hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Yano, H; Smith, S B

    2007-02-01

    Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn

  19. Replacing alfalfa silage with corn silage in dairy cow diets: Effects on enteric methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Julien, C; Massé, D I; Lettat, A; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow total mixed rations (TMR) on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a TMR [forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis], with the forage portion consisting of either alfalfa silage (0% CS; 56.4% AS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% CS; 28.2% AS and 28.2% CS in the TMR), or corn silage (100% CS; 56.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of AS) in the diet was achieved by decreasing the corn grain proportion and increasing that of soybean meal. Intake of DM and milk yield increased quadratically, whereas DM digestibility increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing the dietary CS proportion resulted in changes (i.e., lower ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, reduced fiber digestibility, decreased protozoa numbers, and lower milk fat and higher milk protein contents) typical of those observed when cows are fed high-starch diets. A quadratic response in daily CH4 emissions was observed in response to increasing the proportion of CS in the diet (440, 483, and 434 g/d for 0% CS, 50% CS, and 100% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for intake of DM, and gross or digestible energy was unaffected in cows fed the 50% CS diet, but decreased in cows fed the 100% CS diet (i.e., quadratic effect). Increasing the CS proportion in the diet at the expense of AS improved N utilization, as reflected by the decreases in ruminal NH3 concentration and manure N excretion, suggesting low potential NH3 and N2O emissions. Results from this study, suggest that total replacement of AS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a means of decreasing CH4 output

  20. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Comparative microbiota assessment of wilted Italian ryegrass, whole crop corn, and wilted alfalfa silage using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kuikui; Minh, Tang Thuy; Tu, Tran Thi Minh; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Pang, Huili; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    The microbiota of pre-ensiled crop and silage were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Wilted Italian ryegrass (IR), whole crop corn (WC), and wilted alfalfa (AL) silages stored for 2 months were examined. All silages contained lactic acid as a predominant fermentation product. Across the three crop species, DGGE detected 36 and 28 bands, and NGS identified 253 and 259 genera in the pre-ensiled crops and silages, respectively. The NGS demonstrated that, although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became prevalent in all silages after 2 months of storage, the major groups were different between crops: Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. for IR silage, Lactobacillus spp. for WC silage, and Enterococcus spp. for AL silage. The predominant silage LAB genera were also detected by DGGE, but the presence of diverse non-LAB species in pre-ensiled crops was far better detected by NGS. Likewise, good survival of Agrobacterium spp., Methylobacterium spp., and Sphingomonas spp. in IR and AL silages was demonstrated by NGS. The diversity of the microbiota described by principal coordinate analysis was similar between DGGE and NGS. Our finding that analysis of pre-ensiled crop microbiota did not help predict silage microbiota was true for both DGGE and NGS.

  2. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  3. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  4. Comparison of the effects of three methods of harvesting and storing alfalfa on nutrient digestibility by lambs and feedlot performance of steers.

    PubMed

    Merchen, N R; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1986-10-01

    Two lamb digestion and three steer growth experiments were conducted to study the feeding value of alfalfa harvested as direct-cut silage (DCS) with grain added prior to ensiling or as low-moisture silage (LMS) or hay with grain added at feeding. In all experiments, alfalfa-grain mixtures contained approximately 50% alfalfa and 50% concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In Exp. 1, lambs fed DCS alone consumed less DM than lambs fed LMS or hay alone or any of the alfalfa-grain mixtures. Apparent digestibilities of DM and fiber components were higher (P less than .05) for DCS than for LMS or hay. Lambs that were fed LMS digested more (P less than .05) DM and fiber components than lambs fed hay. Addition of grain resulted in increased (P less than .05) DM digestibility and decreased (P less than .05) digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. In Exp. 2, growing steers (271 kg) fed DCS-grain had increased (P less than .05) weight gains compared with steers fed hay-grain. Steers fed any of the alfalfa-grain mixtures gained weight more rapidly (P less than .05) than steers fed corn silage (CS)-based diets. In a third experiment, finishing steers (283 kg) fed DCS-grain, LMS-grain, hay-grain or CS-based diets performed similarly (P greater than .05), although steers fed DCS-grain had higher (P less than .05) dressing percentages and yield grades than steers that were fed the other three diets and were fatter (P less than .05) than those fed LMS-grain or CS. In Exp. 4, lambs fed DCS-grain or LMS-grain had higher (P less than .05) apparent DM and organic matter digestibilities than lambs fed CS-based diets with similar forage:grain proportions. In Exp. 5, finishing steers (326 kg) fed DCS-grain gained similarly (P greater than .05) to steers fed LMS-grain or an 85% concentrate diet based on high-moisture corn. Steers fed CS diets had lower (P less than .05) gains and increased (P less than .05) feed per gain compared with steers fed DCS-grain, LMS

  5. A protease additive increases fermentation of alfalfa diets by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, D; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-03-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics and mode of action of a protease that increased the ruminal fiber digestibility of alfalfa hay. A commercial source of protease (Protex 6L, Genencor Int., Rochester, NY), already characterized for its main activities, was further analyzed to determine protease activity in response to pH, molecular size by SDS-PAGE, specificity to degrade model or feed substrates, response to autoclaving, and action of specific protease inhibitors in the absence or presence of ruminal fluid. In addition, batch culture in vitro incubations in buffered ruminal fluid were conducted to compare the enzyme product with purified protease sources, and dose-response studies (0 to 10 microL/g of forage DM) were carried out using alfalfa hay as a substrate. The enzyme product was shown to be an alkaline protease (optimum pH >8.5) of approximately 30 kDa. Specificity in the absence of ruminal fluid showed that the enzyme was active against gelatin and casein to the same extent, whereas it had limited (21% of the total) activity on BSA. In the presence of ruminal fluid and with the use of feed substrates, the protease increased (P < 0.05) 22-h IVDMD (%) of alfalfa hay, fresh corn silage, dry-rolled corn, and a total mixed ration composed of the 3 ingredients (39.5 vs. 44.7; 50.3 vs. 54.5; 63.8 vs. 68.4; and 55.4 vs. 56.4 for control vs. protease for each feed, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the absence of ruminal fluid indicated that the enzyme was inhibited most by a serine protease inhibitor but not by cysteine- or metalloprotease inhibitors (10 vs. 1.9 and 0.1%, respectively). In the presence of ruminal fluid, the serine protease inhibitor reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in alfalfa IVDMD achieved by the enzyme product, such that IVDMD was similar to that of the control treatment. Comparisons among different proteases revealed that only pure subtilisin achieved increases in IVDMD that were similar to those with protease

  6. Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Khateri, N.; Azizi, O.; Jahani-Azizabadi, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO), containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control), 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05) in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP) bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent nutrient

  7. Effects of wet corn gluten feed and intake level on diet digestibility and ruminal passage rate in steers.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S P; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Sindt, J J; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Coetzer, C M; Trater, A M; Higgins, J J

    2004-12-01

    Twelve ruminally cannulated Jersey steers (BW = 534 kg) were used in an incomplete Latin square design experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and total DMI level on diet digestibility and ruminal passage rate. Treatments consisted of diets formulated to contain (DM basis) steam-flaked corn, 20% coarsely ground alfalfa hay, and either 0 or 40% WCGF offered once daily for ad libitum consumption or limited to 1.6% of BW (DM basis). Two consecutive 24-d periods were used, each consisting of 18 d for adaptation, 4 d for collection, and a 2-d in situ period. Rumens of all steers were evacuated once daily at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h after feeding. Chromic oxide (10 g/[steer*d]) was fed as a digestibility marker, and steers were pulse-dosed with Yb-labeled alfalfa hay to measure ruminal particulate passage rate. Dacron bags containing 5 g of steam-flaked corn, WCGF, or ground (2-mm screen) alfalfa hay were placed into the rumens of all steers and removed after 3, 6, 12, or 48 h. Wet corn gluten feed increased percent apparent total-tract digestion of OM (P < 0.01), NDF (P < 0.01), and starch (P < 0.03), decreased (P < 0.01) ruminal total VFA concentration, increased (P < 0.01) ruminal NH3 concentration, and increased (P < 0.01) ruminal pH. Wet corn gluten feed also increased (P < 0.01) ruminal passage rate of Yb. Limit feeding decreased (P < 0.01) percent apparent total-tract digestion of both OM and NDF, ruminal total VFA concentration (P < 0.01), and ruminal fill (P < 0.01), but increased (P < 0.01) ruminal NH3 concentration. Apparent total-tract digestion of starch was not affected (P = 0.70) by level of DMI. A DMI level x hour interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for ruminal pH. Limit feeding increased ruminal pH before and 12 h after feeding, but decreased ruminal pH 4 h after feeding compared with diets offered ad libitum. A diet x DMI level interaction (P < 0.02) occurred for in situ degradation of

  8. Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Radloff, W J

    2004-09-01

    Adding sugar to the diet has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. In each of 2 trials, 48 lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were fed covariate diets for 2 wk, blocked by days in milk into 12 groups of 4, and then randomly assigned to diets based on alfalfa silage containing 4 levels of dried molasses (trial 1) or liquid molasses (trial 2). In both studies, production data were collected for 8 wk, ruminal samples were taken in wk 4 and 8, and statistical models were used that included covariate means and block. In trial 1, experimental diets contained 18% CP and 0, 4, 8, or 12% dried molasses with 2.6, 4.2, 5.6, or 7.2% total sugar. With increasing sugar, there was a linear increase in dry matter intake (DMI), and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), but no effect on yield of milk or protein. This resulted in linear decreases in fat-corrected milk (FCM)/DMI and milk N/N-intake. There was a linear decrease in urinary N with increasing sugar, and quadratic effects on milk fat content, yield of fat and FCM, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from these quadratic responses was 4.8% total sugar in these diets. In trial 2, experimental diets contained 15.6% crude protein (CP) and 0, 3, 6, or 9% liquid molasses with 2.6, 4.9, 7.4, or 10.0% total sugar, respectively. Again, there were linear declines in FCM/DMI and milk N/N-intake with increasing sugar, but quadratic responses for DMI, yield of milk, protein, and SNF, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, milk urea, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from all quadratic responses in this trial was 6.3% total sugar. An estimate of an overall optimum, based on yield of fat and FCM (trial 1) and yield of milk, protein, and SNF (trial 2), was 5.0% total sugar, equivalent to adding 2.4% sugar to the basal diets. Feeding more than 6% total sugar appeared to depress production.

  9. Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often ... to use distilled or sterilized water with saline. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to ...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  14. Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Ouellet, D R; Chiquette, J; Chouinard, P Y

    2007-02-01

    Four Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of addition of a specific mixture of essential oil compounds (MEO; 0 vs. 750 mg/d) and silage source [alfalfa silage (AS) vs. corn silage (CS)] on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition. Total mixed rations containing either AS or CS as the sole forage source were balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In general, no interactions between MEO addition and silage source were observed. Except for ruminal pH and milk lactose content, which were increased by MEO supplementation, no changes attributable to the administration of MEO were observed for feed intake, nutrient digestibility, end-products of ruminal fermentation, microbial counts, and milk performance. Dry matter intake and milk production were not affected by replacing AS with CS in the diet. However, cows fed CS-based diets produced milk with lower fat and higher protein and urea N concentrations than cows fed AS-based diets. Replacing AS with CS increased the concentration of NH(3)-N and reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal fluid. Total viable bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, and protozoa were not influenced by MEO supplementation, but the total viable bacteria count was higher with CS- than with AS-based diets. The apparent digestibility of crude protein did not differ between the AS and CS treatments, but digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were lower when cows were fed CS-based diets than when they were fed AS-based diets. Duodenal bacterial N flow, estimated using urinary purine derivatives and the amount of N retained, increased in cows fed CS-based diets compared with those fed AS-based diets. Feeding cows AS increased the milk fat contents of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid) and 18:3 (n-3 fatty

  15. Impact of feeding a raw soybean hull-condensed corn steep liquor pellet on induced subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    DeFrain, J M; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Park, A F; Ethington, R T

    2002-08-01

    We used four ruminally cannulated, multiparous Holstein cows (690 kg; 21 kg/d milk) in a 2-period crossover design to determine the impact of feeding a raw soybean hull-corn steep liquor pellet (SHSL) on induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating cows. Cows were fed control [30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 34% corn, 9% whole cottonseed, 5% soybean meal (SBM)] or SHSL (20% of diet DM) diets as TMR. SHSL replaced 6.2% alfalfa hay, 3.7% corn silage, 6.6% corn, and 3.3% SBM. Periods were 15 d (10 d adaptation, 2 d for prechallenge measures, and 3 d of SARA challenge). Cows were fed once daily at a common DMI dictated by the cow consuming the least. Cows were fasted 12 h before the first SARA challenge. For each of the three SARA challenges, cows were offered 75% of their daily diet at 0600 h. The remaining 25% of diet DM was replaced by ground corn, which was mixed with the orts that remained 2 h after feeding and placed into the rumen. Ruminal pH declined linearly with time after feeding, and this decrease was greater during the SARA challenges. Ruminal lactate increased linearly with repeated SARA challenges. Concentrations of total ruminal VFA increased linearly after feeding, and increases were greater when cows were challenged. No differences were observed due to SHSL inclusion. The model induced SARA, but partial replacement of alfalfa, corn silage, corn, and SBM by SHSL did not influence responses to SARA challenges.

  16. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  17. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  18. Alfalfa: Potential For New Feed and Biofuel - USDFRC Research Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop supporting U.S ruminant livestock industry, particularly dairy. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of i...

  19. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  20. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  1. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    PubMed

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world.

  2. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  3. Substitution of corn and soybean with green banana fruits and Gliricidia sepium forage in sheep fed hay-based diets: effects on intake, digestion and growth.

    PubMed

    Archimède, H; González-García, E; Despois, P; Etienne, T; Alexandre, G

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of imported corn and soybean by local feed resources from tropical production settings such as entire green banana and Gliricidia sepium forage as energy and protein sources, respectively, in sheep diets. Two experiments were conducted: first, a 'growth trial' and second, an in vivo digestion study. In the 'growth trial', 40 Martinik lambs [body weight (BW): 29.4 +/- 3.6 kg; 6 months old) were used and distributed into four groups of 10 lambs each according to treatment: HBGl (banana + gliricidia at low level; 1500 g/day; 119 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBGh (banana + gliricidia at high level; 3000 g/day; 238 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBS (banana + soybean cake) and Control (corn + soybean cake). In digestion trial, four Martinik rams (BW: 57.2 +/- 3.45 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used; treatments (HBG, HBS and Control) were similar but adjusted to metabolic body weight (MW) and just one level of gliricidia was used. Intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed intake to gain index (F:G), apparent total and ruminal digestibilities as well as nitrogen balance, microbial efficiency and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile were monitored. Lambs fed HBGh had greater dry matter (DM) intake based on MW and ADG (173 g/day vs. 141 g/day; p < 0.001), whereas HBGl lambs showed the lowest ADG (71.5 g/day) and the worst F:G (14.4; p < 0.001). The DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were not influenced by treatment, whereas crude protein digestibility was higher (p = 0.024) in diets offered banana or corn + soybean cake (687 g/kg DM and 658 g/kg DM, respectively). Ruminal DM and OM digestibilities did not differ among treatments. Total or individual VFA concentrations were also not influenced by the diet. Higher (p = 0.006) ruminal fluid pH values were recorded for diets combining banana and gliricidia (6.54) or banana and soybean (6.39) until 3 h after a meal. As all animals on

  4. Influence of sugary-Brawn2 or dent corn at two forage levels on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Willcox, M C; Shaver, R D; Coors, J G; Batajoo, K K

    1994-01-01

    Sugary-Brawn2 (su-Bn2) corn endosperm contains higher concentrations of watersoluble polysaccharides than dent corn. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 48 d in milk and 667 kg BW at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Only cows in one square were ruminally cannulated. Treatments were su-Bn2 or dent corn and 45 or 60% of ration DM as alfalfa silage arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial within each square. Diets, formulated to contain 19% CP, were fed as total mixed rations twice daily. Intake of DM and milk yield averaged 26.8 and 39.9 kg/d, respectively, and were not affected by treatment (P > .10). Sugary-Brawn2 corn decreased milkfat percentage (3.27 vs 3.45%), particularly for the low-forage diet (3.15 vs 3.40%). Milk protein percentage was higher (3.15 vs 3.10%) for low-forage diets but was not affected (P > .10) by corn type. Ruminal pH was lower for low-forage diets. Feeding su-Bn2 corn decreased ruminal pH only at 4 h after feeding. Total VFA in ruminal fluid (millimolar) 6 h after feeding were higher, whereas acetate molar percentage and acetate:propionate ratio were lower for su-Bn2 corn. Ruminal in situ evaluation of su-Bn2 and dent corn revealed a larger soluble fraction, a faster rate of degradation, and higher availabilities of both DM and starch for su-Bn2 corn. Ruminal in situ rate of degradation and availability of alfalfa hay DM were reduced by su-Bn2 corn. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM, CP, and starch were greater for su-Bn2 diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Tannin content and rate of ruminal protein degradation of legume hays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work evaluated ruminal protein degradation rates of legume hays that varied in tannin content. Two cuttings of 5 varieties of birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus), selected for different tannin contents but similar NDF and CP contents, and Spredor 4 alfalfa (control) were conserved as hay. S...

  6. A comparison of processed conventional corn silage to unprocessed and processed brown midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ebling, T L; Kung, L

    2004-08-01

    We studied the effects of mechanical processing and type of hybrid on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows. Treatments were brown midrib (BMR) corn silage that was unprocessed (U-BMR), BMR corn silage that was processed (P-BMR), and a conventional corn silage that was processed (P-7511). All silages were harvested at a theoretical chop length of 19 mm. The chemical compositions of the silages were similar among treatments except that BMR silages were lower in lignin and higher in protein than P-7511. Brown midrib silages had greater 30-h in situ and in vitro NDF digestion than did P-7511, and processing had no effect on 30-h in situ and in vitro fiber digestion, but it increased in situ starch digestion after 3 and 12 h of incubation. Both processed silages had a smaller proportion of particles >1.91 cm and fewer whole corn kernels compared with unprocessed silage. Lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 42% of each silage type, 40% concentrate, 10% alfalfa silage, and 8% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Cows fed TMR containing P-BMR ate more DM and produced more milk than cows fed P-7511. At feeding, the TMR containing U-BMR had a larger proportion of particles >1.91 cm when compared with the TMR of cows fed processed silages, and after 24 h the difference was even greater, indicating that cows fed unprocessed corn silage sorted more. Cows fed TMR with P-7511 and P-BMR had greater total tract digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, and starch compared with cows fed U-BMR. In vivo digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greatest for cows fed P-BMR when compared with the other treatments.

  7. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  8. Storage characteristics of large round and square alfalfa bales: low-moisture wrapped bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial dry matter (DM) and quality losses have been reported for partially dried alfalfa that has been rained on before moisture reduction to levels acceptable for dry hay storage. The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of preserving alfalfa baled at less than 45% mois...

  9. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  10. Effects of alfalfa and cereal straw as a forage source on nutrient digestibility and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Mao, S Y; Yang, H J; Wu, Y M; Wang, J K; Li, S L; Shen, Z M; Liu, J X

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient digestibility and lactation performance when alfalfa was replaced with rice straw or corn stover in the diet of lactating cows. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk (164 ± 24.8 d; mean ± standard deviation) and milk yield (29.7 ± 4.7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Diets were isonitrogenous, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained identical concentrate mixtures and 15% corn silage, with different forage sources (on a DM basis): 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH), 30% corn stover (CS), and 30% rice straw (RS). The experiment was conducted over a 14-wk period, with the first 2 wk for adaptation. The DM intake of the cows was not affected by forage source. Yield of milk, milk fat, protein, lactose, and total solids was higher in cows fed diets of AH than diets of RS or CS, with no difference between RS and CS. Contents of milk protein and total solids were higher in AH than in RS, with no difference between CS and AH or RS. Feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was highest for cows fed AH, followed by RS and CS. Cows fed AH excreted more urinary purine derivatives, indicating that the microbial crude protein yield may be higher for the AH diet than for RS and CS, which may be attributed to the higher content of fermentable carbohydrates in AH than in RS and CS. Total-tract apparent digestibilities of all the nutrients were higher in cows fed the AH diet than those fed CS and RS. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in the AH diet than in CS or RS diets, with no difference between CS and RS diets. When the cereal straw was used to replace alfalfa as a main forage source for lactating cows, the shortage of fermented energy may have reduced the rumen microbial protein synthesis, resulting in lower milk protein yield, and lower nutrient digestibility

  11. Impact of beef cattle diets containing corn or sorghum distillers grains on beef color, fatty acid profiles, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Gill, R K; VanOverbeke, D L; Depenbusch, B; Drouillard, J S; Dicostanzo, A

    2008-04-01

    Strip loins from 236 carcasses from crossbred yearling steers were collected on each of 2 slaughter dates (slaughter 1 or 2) to determine the effects of feeding corn or sorghum distillers grains (DG) on beef color, fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, tenderness, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn (SFC) diet without (control) or with 15% (DM basis) corn dry or wet DG (CDDG and CWDG) or sorghum dry or wet DG (SDDG and SWDG) and alfalfa hay (R). Additional treatments included SDDG or SWDG with no alfalfa hay (NR). In slaughter 2, steaks from steers fed SFC had lesser L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed DG. When comparing sorghum and corn DG steaks, the same color differences were detected. Steaks from steers fed sorghum DG had lower L*, but greater a* (P < 0.05) values than those from steers fed corn DG. Also, L* values in steaks from steers fed SWDG with R were greater (P < 0.05) than those from steers fed SWDG with NR. In slaughter 1, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) steak n-6 fatty acid concentrations compared with SFC. In both slaughter groups, feeding dry DG increased (P < 0.05) steak linoleic acid concentrations compared with wet DG. In slaughter 2, feeding corn DG diets increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid concentrations of steaks compared with sorghum DG diets. In addition, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid in steaks resulted from feeding SDDG or SWDG with R compared with those sorghum treatments with NR. In each slaughter group, feeding DG increased (P < 0.05) the n-6:n-3 ratio of steaks compared with SFC, and feeding corn DG increased (P < 0.05) this ratio compared with sorghum DG. Furthermore, steaks from steers fed corn DG had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of trans-vaccenic acid than those from steers fed sorghum DG. In slaughter 1, the CLA isomer 18:2, trans-10, cis-12 was greater (P < 0.05) in steaks from DG diets. On d 1 of retail display, steaks from

  12. Proteolysis, fermentation efficiency, and in vitro ruminal digestion of peanut stover ensiled with raw or heated corn.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-M J

    2005-08-01

    Peanut stover (PS) is similar to full-bloom alfalfa hay in chemical composition. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of adding raw or heated corn meal to PS at ensiling on silage N components, fermentation acids, and digestion by ruminal microorganisms. The PS was collected after harvesting of peanuts and ensiled immediately without and with addition of raw or heated corn meal (100 g/kg of fresh weight). Corn was added to PS so that the initial mixture would contain adequate dry matter (DM) (approximately 30%) and additional nonfiber carbohydrate to enhance silage fermentation. After 8 wk of silo fermentation, corn-treated silages contained less structural carbohydrates but more non-fiber carbohydrates compared with the untreated control. A shift from hemicellulose to nonfiber carbohydrate use during silage fermentation was evident by corn treatment. Additional corn at ensiling resulted in silage N with less water-soluble N, protein N, nonprotein N, nonprotein nonammonia N (peptides plus amino acids), and ammonia N. Based on changes in soluble nonprotein N before and after ensiling, the amount of proteolysis was approximately 66% for control silage and was nearly 40% lower in response to corn treatment. Adding corn increased silage lactic acid, but both acetic and propionic acids decreased. These changes were reflected in the lower pH and higher fermentation efficiency with corn-treated silages. More DM was digested and greater amounts of volatile fatty acids, except for branched-chain acids, were produced in vitro by ruminal microorganisms with corn-treated silages. In addition, incubations with silage treated with heated corn contained higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids compared with raw corn. In vitro ammonia accumulation per unit of DM digested was lower for corn treatments than the control, and for heated corn vs. raw corn-treated silage. These results indicate that supplementation of either raw or heated corn on PS at

  13. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  14. The Use of Gene Modification and Advanced Molecular Structure Analyses towards Improving Alfalfa Forage

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yaogeng; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most important legume forage crops in the world. In spite of its agronomic and nutritive advantages, alfalfa has some limitations in the usage of pasture forage and hay supplement. High rapid degradation of protein in alfalfa poses a risk of rumen bloat to ruminants which could cause huge economic losses for farmers. Coupled with the relatively high lignin content, which impedes the degradation of carbohydrate in rumen, alfalfa has unbalanced and asynchronous degradation ratio of nitrogen to carbohydrate (N/CHO) in rumen. Genetic engineering approaches have been used to manipulate the expression of genes involved in important metabolic pathways for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, forage yield, and the ability to resist abiotic stress. Such gene modification could bring molecular structural changes in alfalfa that are detectable by advanced structural analytical techniques. These structural analyses have been employed in assessing alfalfa forage characteristics, allowing for rapid, convenient and cost-effective analysis of alfalfa forage quality. In this article, we review two major obstacles facing alfalfa utilization, namely poor protein utilization and relatively high lignin content, and highlight genetic studies that were performed to overcome these drawbacks, as well as to introduce other improvements to alfalfa quality. We also review the use of advanced molecular structural analysis in the assessment of alfalfa forage for its potential usage in quality selection in alfalfa breeding. PMID:28146083

  15. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  16. Utilization of chopped and long alfalfa by dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Belyea, R L; Marin, P J; Sedgwick, H T

    1985-05-01

    Two physical forms of alfalfa hay, chopped and long, were fed at maintenance and for ad libitum consumption to dairy heifers to determine effects upon digestibility and energy utilization. Ad libitum intake was associated with lower digestibility of dry matter (56 versus 58%), neutral detergent fiber (45 versus 58%), and acid detergent fiber (45 versus 52%). Energy balance was 1.77 Mcal/day at ad libitum versus .08 Mcal/day at maintenance. Dry matter intake was similar for chopped (5.4 kg/day) versus long alfalfa (5.5 kg/day). Digestibilities of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and cellulose were 7 to 10 percentage units lower when heifers were fed the chopped alfalfa. Metabolizable energy intake generally reflected digestible energy intake, which was about 2 Mcal/day less for heifers consuming chopped alfalfa. Heat production was similar for the two physical forms. Consequently, heifers consuming chopped alfalfa had lower energy balance. Reducing particle size of the alfalfa resulted in lower dry matter and energy digestibility, presumably because of increased rate of passage. Increased intake to compensate for depressed energy utilization of the chopped alfalfa did not occur; effects upon animal gain could not be assessed.

  17. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  18. The effect of treating alfalfa with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Taylor, C C; Lynch, M P; Neylon, J M

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and enzymes (beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, xylanase, and galactomannase) were applied to chopped alfalfa (39% DM) to study their effects on the fermentation and nutritive value of the silage. Alfalfa was treated with nothing, or L. buchneri 40788, for a final application rate of 1 x 10(5), 5 x 10(5), or 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and ensiled in laboratory silos for 2, 4, 8, and 56 d. Treatment with L. buchneri 40788 had few effects on the end products of fermentation through 8 d of ensiling. However, after 56 d of ensiling, treated silages had a higher pH (4.55 vs. 4.38) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (6.40 vs. 4.24%), propionic acid (0.18 vs. 0.06%), and ammonia-N (0.35 vs. 0.29%) when compared to untreated silage. Lactic acid was also numerically lower in treated (3.51%) than untreated (4.12%). Silages treated with the moderate and highest dose of L. buchneri 40788 also resulted in greater recoveries of DM than did untreated silage. Alfalfa (43% DM) was also untreated or treated with a commercial application of L. buchneri 40788 (4 x 10(5) cfu/g, a commercial dose) in farm-scale bag silo. Holstein cows were fed a diet comprised of 32% untreated or treated alfalfa silage, 11% corn silage, 5% chopped alfalfa hay, and 52% of concentrate (DMB) for a 6-wk treatment period. Dry matter intake and milk composition were unaffected by treatment, but cows fed silage treated with L. buchneri 40788 produced 0.8 kg more milk than did cows fed untreated silage. Treated silage had a higher concentration of acetic acid (5.67 vs. 3.35%) but lower lactic acid (3.50 vs. 4.39%) than untreated silage. When exposed to air, the total mixed ration containing treated alfalfa silage remained stable for 100 h, whereas the ration containing untreated silage spoiled after 68 h. Treating alfalfa silage with L. buchneri 40788 increased the concentration of acetic acid, and when the silage was combined into a total mixed ration and fed to lactating

  19. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  20. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues.

  1. Hay fever in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wiseberg, Max

    2014-05-01

    Spring and summer can bring misery to millions who suffer from allergic reactions to pollen. Hay fever can cause runny noses, streaming eyes and sore throats. Sadly, many treatments for this distressing condition are not recommended during pregnancy because of fears surrounding the effect on the unborn child. This article presents the causes and treatments of hay fever and explores the alternatives for use during pregnancy which may be able to relieve or minimise the unpleasant symptoms without harming the baby.

  2. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  3. Manure on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  4. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  5. Manure use on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  6. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  7. Effects of Spontaneous Heating in Large Hay Packages on Fiber Composition, NDF Digestibility, and In Situ Kinetics of Ruminal NDF Disappearance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2006 and 2007, 96 large-round bales of mixed alfalfa-orchardgrass hay obtained from three harvests were used to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h NDF digestibility (NDFD), and in-situ disappearance kinetics of NDF within hay stored in large ...

  8. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  9. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  10. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients.

  11. The effects of corn milling coproducts on growth performance and diet digestibility by beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Peter, C M; Faulkner, D B; Merchen, N R; Parrett, D F; Nash, T G; Dahlquist, J M

    2000-01-01

    Simmental x Angus weanling heifers (n = 96; 239 +/- 2.3 kg) were used in four replications to evaluate three dietary treatments in Trial 1. Treatments were cracked corn-hay diets supplemented with one of three corn milling industry coproducts: dry corn gluten feed (DCGF), dried distillers grains (DDG), and a new modified corn fiber (MCF). In Trial 2, ruminally cannulated mature crossbred beef steers (n = 4; 606 +/-60 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 11-d periods to determine digestibility and ruminal metabolism of limit-fed cracked corn-alfalfa haylage diets supplemented with cornstarch (CON), DCGF, DDG, or MCF. During Periods 3 and 4, an in situ study was conducted to compare the rate and extent of CP degradation of DCGF, DDG, and MCF. In Trial 1, there were no differences (P > .10) in initial weights or DM intake. Average daily gain and feed efficiency (G/F) were improved (P < .01) for heifers fed DCGF or DDG vs heifers fed MCF. In Trial 2, no differences (P > . 10) in digestibilities of any nutrients or in ruminal VFA concentrations were observed for steers fed coproducts. The CON supplementation decreased (P < .05) total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility, improved (P < .10) digestibilities of DM and OM, increased (P < .05) total VFA concentrations and concentrations of propionate and valerate, and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate when compared with the coproducts. Dry corn gluten feed increased (P < .05) and DDG tended (P < .10) to increase percentages of the immediately soluble fraction of CP, and both had increased (P < .05) rates (Kd) and greater (P < .05) extent of ruminal CP degradation than MCF. These data suggest that DCGF and DDG may be utilized in limit-fed high-energy diets without sacrificing performance. Feeding of MCF resulted in poorer performance of heifers, suggesting a limited feeding value that results from high ADIN content and slow in situ protein digestion.

  12. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  13. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  14. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  15. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  16. Tuskegee Airman Lee Hayes

    ScienceCinema

    Lee Hayes

    2016-07-12

    Hayes, a resident of Amagansett who worked at Brookhaven Lab as a custodian from 1958 to 1966, served in an all-black bomber squadron at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama. He was among 994 precedent-breaking black soldiers at Tuskegee who passed rigorous tests between 1942 and 1946 to become pilots in the then-segregated armed forces.

  17. Beverly Hayes | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    Employee name: Bev Hayes Directorate: Management Operations Department or lab: Contracts and Acquisitions How many years have you worked at the Frederick National Lab? Four months going on one year! Job responsibilities: With the C&A management team

  18. Tuskegee Airman Lee Hayes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Hayes

    2006-08-03

    Hayes, a resident of Amagansett who worked at Brookhaven Lab as a custodian from 1958 to 1966, served in an all-black bomber squadron at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama. He was among 994 precedent-breaking black soldiers at Tuskegee who passed rigorous tests between 1942 and 1946 to become pilots in the then-segregated armed forces.

  19. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity

  20. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  1. Correlation of fermentation characteristics with intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage in gestating ewes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...

  2. Effects of varying bulk densities of steam-flaked corn and dietary roughage concentration on in vitro fermentation, performance, carcass quality, and acid-base balance measurements in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; McMeniman, J P; Leibovich, J; Vasconcelos, J T; Quinn, M J; May, M L; DiLorenzo, N; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2010-03-01

    Effects of varying bulk densities of steam-flaked corn (SFC) and level of inclusion of roughage in feedlot diets were evaluated in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, a total of 128 beef steers were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement to evaluate the effects of bulk density of SFC (335 or 386 g/L) and roughage concentration (6 or 10% ground alfalfa hay, DM basis) on performance and carcass characteristics. No interactions were observed between bulk density and roughage concentration for performance data. From d 0 to the end, cattle fed the 335 g/L SFC had greater overall G:F (P = 0.04) than those fed the 386 g/L SFC, with tendencies (P < 0.10) for improved G:F with the lighter flake weight evident at all 35-d intervals throughout the feeding period. Dry matter intake was less for cattle fed 6 vs. 10% roughage from d 0 to 35 (P = 0.03) and d 0 to 70 (P = 0.05), but not for the overall feeding period. Feeding 6 vs. 10% ground alfalfa as the roughage source tended (P = 0.09) to improve overall G:F. Treatment effects on carcass measurements were generally not significant (P > 0.20). In Exp. 2, the effects of bulk density of SFC (283, 335, or 386 g/L) and 6 or 10% ground alfalfa hay on IVDMD and in vitro pH were evaluated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of incubation. With a reduced-strength buffer in vitro fermentation system, pH increased (P < 0.01) with increasing bulk density at 6 and 12 h, and IVDMD decreased (P < 0.03) as bulk density increased. In contrast, in a normal-strength buffer system, there were no treatment differences (P > 0.23) for IVDMD. In Exp. 3, two diets that varied in bulk density of SFC and roughage concentration (335 g/L SFC with 6% alfalfa hay vs. 386 g/L SFC with 10% alfalfa hay) were compared for their effects on the pattern of feed intake and the acid-base balance in Holstein steers (12/treatment). No differences (P > 0.10) between treatments were noted for blood gases or urine pH; however, day effects (P < 0.02) were detected for blood pH, partial pressure

  3. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed corn as whole plant silage and grain produced from genetically modified corn containing event DAS-59122-7 compared to a nontransgenic, near-isogenic control.

    PubMed

    Brouk, M J; Cvetkovic, B; Rice, D W; Smith, B L; Hinds, M A; Owens, F N; Iiams, C; Sauber, T E

    2011-04-01

    The nutritional equivalency of grain plus whole plant silage from genetically modified corn plants containing the DAS-59122-7 (59122) event expressing the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins to grain and silage from a near-isogenic corn hybrid without this trait (control) was assessed using lactating dairy cows. Corn plants with event 59122 are resistant to western corn rootworm and tolerant to the herbicide active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. Effects on feed intake, milk production, and milk composition were determined. The 59122 grain and the control grain were produced in 2005 from isolated plots in Richland, Iowa. Whole plant corn silage for the 59122 and control treatments were grown in isolated plots at the Kansas State University Dairy Center and ensiled in Ag-Bags. Thirty lactating Holstein cows blocked by lactation number, day of lactation, and previous energy-corrected milk production were used in a switchback design. All cows were fed diets that contained 22.7% grain plus 21.3% whole plant silage from either the 59122 or the control hybrid, in addition to 21% wet corn gluten feed, 12.3% protein mix, 8.0% whole cottonseed, and 14.7% alfalfa hay. Each period of the switchback trial included 2 wk for diet adjustment followed by 4 wk for data and sample collection. Milk samples (a.m. and p.m.) collected from 2 consecutive milkings of each collection wk were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Percentages of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were not affected by dietary treatment. Yields of milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, solids-corrected milk, and the concentrations and yields of milk fat, milk protein, milk solids, and milk lactose were not significantly different between treatments. Efficiencies of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk production also were not different when cows were fed crops from 59122 than when they were fed

  4. Effects of pasteurization of potato slurry by-product fed in corn-or barley-based beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Szasz, J I; Hunt, C W; Turgeon, O A; Szasz, P A; Johnson, K A

    2005-12-01

    Pasteurization of vegetable by-products such as potato slurry (PS) before feeding may be necessary to prevent the spread of pathogens and beef carcass blemishes. We hypothesized that pasteurization would increase ruminal fermentability of PS starch. Four ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 432) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the main effects and interactions of pasteurization (54.4 degrees C for 2 h) of PS and grain type (GT; dry-rolled corn and barley) on ruminal and total tract digestion of beef finishing diets. Diets contained 7% alfalfa hay and 14% PS (DM basis) and were fed ad libitum three times daily. Corn-based diets had 71.7% corn, whereas barley-based diets had 60% barley and 11.7% corn. Pasteurization resulted in greater (P = 0.004) soluble, rapidly degradable starch (34.3 vs. 26.7% for pasteurized and nonpasteurized PS, respectively). Ruminal fluid pH was more acidic (P < 0.07) for corn-based diets than for barley-based diets (P = 0.07) at 0200 and 2100 (sample time x GT; P < 0.05). Ruminal fluid pH was more acidic (P = 0.06) at 1400 for corn-based diets containing pasteurized PS compared with other dietary treatments (sample time x pasteurization x GT; P = 0.04). Minimum and maximum ruminal pH were greater (P < 0.10) for barley-based diets than for corn-based diets. Ruminal fluid pH was < 6.0 for a greater (P = 0.04) proportion of the day for corn-based compared with barley-based diets. In vitro incubation measurements revealed that pasteurization of PS resulted in lower (P = 0.06) ruminal fluid ammonia N concentration. Ruminal fluid ammonia N concentration was lower (P = 0.11) for barley-based diets than for corn-based diets. Steers fed barley-based diets had greater (P = 0.02) DMI and lesser (P < 0.05) total tract digestibility of DM and ADF compared with steers fed corn diets. Pasteurization increased (P = 0.10) total tract starch digestibility. Results

  5. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows.

  6. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team is a consortium of 16 institutions engaged in an NSF-sponsored program to promote undergraduate research within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project. In the first two years of the program, more than three dozen undergraduate students have been closely involved in ALFALFA science, observing, and data analysis. A total of 34 students have attended the annual undergraduate workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, their peers, ALFALFA experts, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 26 summer research projects and 14 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. Students and faculty have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and to national meetings to present their results. Eight Team schools have joined to work collaboratively to analyze HI properties of galaxy groups within the ALFALFA volume. (See O'Brien et al., O'Malley et al., and Odekon et al. posters, this meeting.) Students involved in this program are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267, and AST-0725380.

  7. Corn distillers grains with solubles derived from a traditional or partial fractionation process: Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Quinn, M J; Corrigan, M E; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2008-09-01

    Six hundred ten crossbred-yearling heifers (347 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were obtained and used in a randomized complete-block design finishing study. Finishing diets were based on steam-flaked corn and ground alfalfa hay. The control (CONT) treatment contained no distillers grains with solubles (DGS), the second diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a traditional dry-grind ethanol process (TRAD), and the third diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a partial fractionation dry-grind process (FRAC). Dry matter intake, ADG, and gain efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.48) for yearling heifers fed CONT when compared with heifers fed DGS. Heifers fed TRAD consumed more (P = 0.01) feed than heifers fed FRAC. However, ADG and feed efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.07) for heifers fed DGS. Moderate inclusion levels of DGS in finishing flaked corn diets yielded satisfactory performance. Growth performance was not different for heifers fed DGS originating from either ethanol processing method.

  8. Treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  9. Liver disease in cattle induced by consumption of moldy hay.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S W; Rottinghaus, G E; Johnson, G C; Wicklow, D T

    1995-06-01

    Normally innocuous forages are sporadically associated with hepatogenous photosensitization outbreaks at certain times of the year or when grown and harvested during unusual environmental conditions, such as periods of excessive rainfall. Allegations of livestock illness following consumption of such moldy hays are associated with clinical syndromes uncharacteristic of known forage-related diseases, suggesting that unidentified toxin(s) may be responsible. This study was instigated by field observations of hepatogenous photosensitization in cattle fed alfalfa-grass forage. To document the toxic nature of the hay, large bales of hay (450 kg) were fed, ad libitum, to 3 groups of 2 calves each. Elevated serum liver enzymes provided evidence of hepatobiliary disease. Gamma glutamyl transferase activities in serums of the calves sustained at least a 10-fold increase above baseline during the feeding trials. Histologic examination of liver biopsies and postmortem sections revealed mild periportal fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia. Culture material from 12 fungal isolates from the hay failed to induce liver disease in calves.

  10. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  11. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  12. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  13. Effect of anionic salts in prepartum diets based on alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Joyce, P W; Sanchez, W K; Goff, J P

    1997-11-01

    This study compared prepartum diets based on grass, alfalfa, or alfalfa and anionic salts to investigate their effect on Ca metabolism, acid-base status, endocrine response, disease incidence, and lactational performance of periparturient dairy cows. Forty-five nonlactating Holstein cows in their last 3 wk of gestation were fed a control diet based on grass hay with a dietary cation-anion difference [expressed as milli-equivalents of ((Na + K) - (Cl + S))/100 g of dietary dry matter] of +30 or diets based on alfalfa with a dietary cation-anion difference of either +35 or -7. Cows fed the diet with the dietary cation-anion difference of -7 had the lowest urine pH prepartum and had the highest concentrations of ionized Ca in blood and total Ca in serum at parturition. Increases in 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D per unit decrease in total Ca in serum were greatest for cows fed the diet with a dietary cation-anion difference of -7. Also, cows fed this same diet consumed the most dry matter postpartum. Incidences of health disorders were 13% (10 of 75), 12% (9 of 75), and 5% (4 of 75) for cows fed the diets with dietary cation-anion differences of +30, +35, and -7, respectively. Results indicate that alfalfa, when supplemented with anionic salts, is a viable forage for prepartum dairy cows.

  14. Replacement of starch from corn with nonforage fiber from distillers grains and soyhulls in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ranathunga, S D; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-03-01

    Forty Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 6-wk experimental period to evaluate incremental substitution of nonforage fiber provided by dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and soyhulls (SH) for starch provided by corn in the diet. Diets provided decreasing concentrations of starch: 29% starch with 0% DDGS; 26% starch with 7% DDGS; 23% starch with 14% DDGS; and 20% starch with 21% DDGS. Diets contained 27% corn silage, 22% alfalfa hay, and 51% concentrate mix and were formulated to be 17% crude protein, 4.7% fat, and 23% neutral detergent fiber from forage. Total neutral detergent fiber increased as DDGS and SH were included in the diet. Soyhulls were included in a linear fashion along with DDGS to replace soybean meal and expeller soybean meal, thereby maintaining a similar crude protein content across diets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly; consequently, feed efficiency tended to increase linearly as starch was replaced by nonforage fiber. There was no effect of diet on milk production or milk fat and protein percentage or yield. Milk fatty acid profiles were similar across diets. Other response variables, including 4% fat-corrected milk, total solids, and milk urea nitrogen, were unaffected by dietary treatments. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration did not differ between diets. Concentrations of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar across diets. Results from this research suggest that nonforage fiber from DDGS can partially substitute for starch from corn in dairy cow diets without affecting milk production and milk composition. Economic analysis of the diets showed that feeding DDGS and SH in substitution of corn was cost-effective. Results from this experiment indicate that DDGS and SH can replace corn as an energy source to decrease feed costs.

  15. Comparison of full-fat corn germ, whole cottonseed, and tallow as fat sources for lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miller, W F; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Brouk, M J

    2009-07-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (124 +/- 39 d in milk; 682 +/- 72 kg of body weight) were used in 6 simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares to evaluate full-fat corn germ as a fat source for lactating dairy cows. Experimental diets were a control (containing 28% ground corn, 23% alfalfa hay, 19% wet corn gluten feed, and 10% corn silage, dry matter basis), and 3 diets with either whole cottonseed (WCS), tallow (TAL), or full-fat corn germ (FFCG) added to provide 1.6% supplemental fat. Cows were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk did not differ among diets. Efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed WCS than for cows fed the control, TAL, or FFCG. Milk fat percentage from cows fed FFCG was less than that of cows fed WCS or the control, but was similar to that of cows fed TAL. Milk protein percentage was less for cows fed FFCG than for those fed the control. Total saturated fatty acids were less in milk from cows fed fat sources, and cows fed WCS and TAL had greater saturated fatty acids in milk than did cows fed FFCG. Unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed FFCG than in milk from cows fed the control, WCS, or TAL. The cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content was greater in milk from cows fed WCS, TAL, and FFCG than from cows fed the control, and it was greater in milk from cows fed FFCG than in milk from cows fed WCS or TAL. These results indicate that FFCG can be used effectively as a fat source in diets for lactating dairy cattle.

  16. Propionic acid preservatives for hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hay producers working in humid environments are well-acquainted with the consequences of baling moist hays, which include heating, molding, losses of dry matter and nutritive value, and the possibility of spontaneous combustion. Traditionally, the effect of heat damage within forages has focused on ...

  17. Hay preservation with propionic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most hay producers are quite familiar with the problems associated with baling moist hays. Normally, these problems include spontaneous heating, increased evidence of mold, losses of dry matter (DM) during storage, poorer nutritive value, and (in extreme cases) spontaneous combustion. Numerous fact...

  18. Effect of cutting height and genetics on composition, intake, and digestibility of corn silage by beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Kennington, L R; Hunt, C W; Szasz, J I; Grove, A V; Kezar, W

    2005-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of corn genetics and cutting height on the composition and nutritive characteristics of corn silage. An in situ study involving eight commercially available corn hybrids indicated main effects and interactions (P < 0.01) of hybrid and cutting height on NDF, ADF, and starch content and on in situ DM and NDF degradablility. Four ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW = 378 +/- 3 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square digestion experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Main effects and interactions of hybrid (Pioneer Hi-Bred Int., Inc., hybrids 3335 and 3223) and cutting height (LO = 20.3 cm, and HI = 61 cm) were evaluated. Dietary treatment consisted of 40% chopped alfalfa hay and 60% corn silage. Although corn silage hybrids used were of equivalent maturity at harvest (60% milkline), 3335 treatments had 37.8% starch and 34.8% NDF, whereas 3223 treatments had 33.7% starch and 38.6% NDF. The LO treatments averaged 3.1 percentage units greater in NDF and 3.45 percentage units less in starch content than the HI treatments. Intake of DM was greater for heifers fed 3335-HI than 3335-LO; however, DMI was greater by heifers fed 3223-LO than 3223-HI (hybrid x cutting height interaction, P < 0.05). Starch intake was greater (P < 0.05) and NDF intake was less (P < 0.05) by heifers fed HI vs. LO and fed 3335 vs. 3223 dietary treatments. Digestibility of DM, starch, and NDF was greater (P < 0.05) by heifers fed 3223 than 3335 dietary treatments, but digestibility differences were not observed (P > 0.10) between cutting heights. Rate of in situ DM and starch degradability was not affected (P > 0.10) by hybrid or cutting height; however DM degradability was greater (P < 0.05) for HI than LO corn silage substrates at 8, 16, and 24 h of incubation. Rate of NDF degradability tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for 3223 than for 3335, and for LO compared with HI corn silage. Degradability of NDF was greater (P < 0

  19. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  20. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  1. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  2. Variation Due to Growth Environment in Alfalfa Yield, Cellulosic Ethanol Traits, and Paper Pulp Characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a promising bioenergy and bioproduct feedstock because of its high yield, N-fixation capacity, potential for planting in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.), and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on bio...

  3. Impact of growth environment variability on alfalfa yield, cellulosic ethanol traits, and paper pulp characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is a promising bioenergy feedstock due to its high yield, nitrogen-fixation capacity, high net energy ratio, potential for planting in rotation with corn, and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on biomass yield, cellulosic e...

  4. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH.

  5. Environmental Impact Research Program: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Section 7.3.1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Part 7.3 -- LEGUMES , of the US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS WILDLIFE RESOURCES . MANAGEMENT MANUAL. Each section of the manual is published as a separate...birds and small mammals. Alfalfa is used for grazing on rangelands and farm pastures and serves as winter forage in the form of hay or silage . Leaves...and can often be grown on apparently unsuitable sites if properly cultured. DESCRIPTION Alfalfa is a long-lived, herbaceous, perennial legume composed

  6. Effects of feeding formate-treated alfalfa silage or red clover silage on omasal nutrient flow and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Broderick, G A; Olmos Colmenero, J J; Reynal, S M

    2007-03-01

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of nonprotein N (NPN) content of alfalfa silage (AS) and red clover silage (RCS) on omasal nutrient flows. Diets, fed as total mixed rations, contained 50% dry matter from control AS (CAS), ammonium tetraformate-treated AS (TAS), late maturity RCS (RCS1), or early maturity RCS (RCS2). Silages differed in NPN and acid detergent insoluble N (% of total N): 50 and 4% (CAS); 45 and 3% (TAS); 27 and 8% (RCS1); 29 and 4% (RCS2). The CAS, TAS, and RCS2 diets had 36% high-moisture shelled corn and 3% soybean meal, and the RCS1 diet had 31% high-moisture shelled corn and 9% soybean meal. All diets contained 10% corn silage, 27% neutral detergent fiber, and 17 to 18% crude protein. Compared with RCS, feeding AS increased the supply of rumen-degraded protein and omasal flows of nonammonia N and microbial protein, which may explain the improved milk yield observed in the companion lactation trial. However, omasal flow of rumen-undegraded protein was 34% greater on RCS. Except for Arg, omasal flows of individual AA, branched-chain AA, nonessential AA, essential AA, and total AA did not differ between cows fed AS vs. RCS. Within AS diets, no differences in omasal AA flows were observed. However, omasal flows of Asp, Ser, Glu, Cys, Val, Ile, Tyr, Lys, total nonessential AA, and total AA all were higher in cows fed RCS1 vs. cows fed RCS2. In this trial, there was no advantage to reducing NPN content of hay-crop silage.

  7. Effects of supplemental fat on growth performance and quality of beef from steers fed corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M L; Busboom, J R; Ross, C F; O'Fallon, J V

    2008-04-01

    To measure the effects of dietary fat on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics, and on beef appearance, moisture binding, shelf life, palatability, and fatty acid content, 126 crossbred beef steers (321.1 +/- 0.57 kg of BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block (3) design with a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The main effects were level of yellow grease (0, 3, or 6%) and alfalfa hay (3.5 or 7%) in corn-based diets containing 15% potato by-product (PB). The added treatment was 6% tallow and 7% alfalfa in a barley-based diet containing 15% PB. Dry matter intake and ADG were not affected by diet; however, G:F and diet NE content increased linearly (P < 0.10) with yellow grease. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.0 to 2.3 +/- 0.07) and yield grade (2.8 to 3.1 +/- 0.09) increased linearly (P < or = 0.05) with yellow grease. Steers fed corn plus 6% yellow grease had lower (P < 0.05) beef firmness and beef texture scores but greater (P < 0.01) fat color score than those fed barley plus 6% tallow. Moisture retention of beef was not affected by dietary treatment, except purge score during retail storage, which was decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 2.1 to 1.6 +/- 0.06 by level of yellow grease. Steaks from steers fed barley plus 6% tallow had greater (P < 0.05) shear force than those from steers fed corn plus 6% yellow grease, and beef flavor increased linearly (P < 0.05) from 6.2 to 6.7 +/- 0.11 as the level of yellow grease increased. Level of yellow grease linearly increased (P < 0.01) transvaccenic acid (TVA) by 61% and CLA content of beef by 48%. Beef from steers fed corn plus yellow grease had lower (P < 0.05) palmitoleic and oleic acids and greater (P < 0.05) linoleic, TVA, and CLA than beef from steers fed the barley-tallow diet. Feeding yellow grease increased diet energy content, which increased carcass fatness, and altered beef fatty acid content, which increased beef flavor without affecting moisture retention, shelf life

  8. Why is my alfalfa yellow?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2016, many parts of the Midwest experienced far wetter than normal summer weather and by August or September, many growers were asking, “Why is my alfalfa yellow?” When all or part of an alfalfa field is yellow, it is a certain sign that something has gone wrong. In this case the problem in most ...

  9. Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive values and dry matter intake by horses.

    PubMed

    Earing, J E; Hathaway, M R; Sheaffer, C C; Hetchler, B P; Jacobson, L D; Paulson, J C; Martinson, K L

    2013-12-01

    Management strategies for horses with respiratory disease include soaking hay before feeding. Hay steaming is an alternative to this practice; however, little is known about its impact on forage nutritive values or intake. The objective was to determine the effect of steaming on forage nutritive value and intake by horses. Two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) mixed hays were evaluated: a low moldy (NM) and moderately moldy (MM) hay. Six mature horses were used in a 10 d crossover design. Three horses were assigned to each hay type and treatments were switched on d 6. Each day, one bale of each hay was sampled (pre- and poststeaming) and steamed for 90 min using a commercial hay steamer. Two flakes of steamed or unsteamed NM or MM hay were weighed and offered simultaneously to each horse in individual hay nets. Horses were allowed access to hay for 2 h, orts were collected, and 2 h DMI was calculated. Six additional bales of NM and MM were used to evaluate the effect of steaming on total suspended particulate (TSP). Flakes of unsteamed or steamed hay were agitated in an electric cement mixer, and TSP were recorded every min for 30 min using a tapered element oscillating microbalance sampler. Paired t tests and PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) were used to compare steamed and unsteamed hay nutritive values, mold concentration, TSP, and 2 h DMI. Steaming increased hay moisture and therefore reduced DM to 77 and 81% for NM and MM, respectively (P < 0.001). In NM and MM hay, steaming reduced P content by 16 and 17%, respectively (P ≤ 0.007). Steaming reduced water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) by 13% (P = 0.001) and 27% (P = 0.003), respectively, for MM but had no effect on NM (P > 0.05). Steaming reduced mold concentrations in both hays by ≥ 91% (P < 0.001). Total suspended particulate of MM hay was reduced by 55% (P = 0.043), but TSP in NM hay was not affected by steaming (P = 0

  10. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  11. Effect of applying bacterial inoculants containing different types of bacteria to corn silage on the performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of applying different bacterial inoculants to corn silage at the time of ensiling on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Corn plants were harvested at 35% dry matter (DM), chopped, and ensiled in 2.4-m-wide bags after application of (1) no inoculant (CON); (2) Biotal Plus II (B2) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacteria freudenreichii; (3) Buchneri 40788 (BUC) containing Lactobacillus buchneri; or (4) Buchneri 500 (B500) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and L. buchneri. All inoculants were supplied by Lallemand Animal Nutrition (Milwaukee, WI). Each of the 4 silages was included in separate total mixed rations consisting of 44% corn silage, 50% concentrate, and 6% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows were stratified according to milk production and parity and randomly assigned at 22 d in milk to the 4 dietary treatments. Cows were fed for ad libitum consumption and milked twice daily for 49 d. Dietary treatment did not affect intakes (kg/d) of DM (20.0), crude protein (CP; 3.7), neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 5.7), or acid detergent fiber (ADF; 3.6), or digestibility (%) of DM (73.9) or CP (72.4). However, NDF digestibility was lower in cows fed B2 compared with those fed other diets (45.3 vs. 53.0%). Consequently, cows fed B2 had lower digestible NDF intake (kg/d) than those fed other diets (2.5 vs. 3.0 kg/d). Dietary treatment did not affect milk yield (32.3 kg/d), efficiency of milk production (1.61), concentrations of milk fat (3.18%) and protein (2.79%), or yields of milk fat (1.03 kg/d) and protein (1.26 kg/d). Inoculant application to corn silage did not affect milk yield or feed intake of cows.

  12. Synthesis of southern corn root worm pheromone from S-Citronellol and its field evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern corn rootworm (SCR), also called as larvae of spotted cucumber beetle has devastating impact on several grass crops such as soybean, sorghum, wheat, cucumber, alfalfa, cucurbits and it is most damaging to corn and peanuts. In recent times there has been tremendous improvement in the pe...

  13. Inoculants for ensiling low-dry matter corn crop: a midlactation cow perspective.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, A; Ghaempour, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R

    2011-10-01

    In many regions, optimum dry matter (DM) content of corn crop pre-ensilage cannot be ensured for management, agronomical and climatic reasons. Under such conditions, corn crops are harvested at low DM, and are easily exposed to unfavourable fermentation pathways and plant spoilage and wastage. Thus, it is a major question for dairy agriculturists whether certain microbial inoculants application to low-DM corn crop pre-ensilage affects silage quality and cow performance. The objective was to determine effects of adding microbial inoculants to low-DM corn crop at ensiling on silage quality, rumen fermentation and milk production of eight Holstein cows fed the treated silages. Whole corn plant was harvested at milk stage of maturity with 204 g DM/kg of fresh crop, cut to a theoretical particle length of 2 cm, filled in 60 t bunker silos, and treated layer by layer with either no inoculant (control), inoculant 'E' (100 000 cfu/g of fresh crop) containing mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, inoculant 'B' (100 000 cfu) containing mainly Pediococcus pentosanus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacter freudenreichii or a mixture of inoculants 'E' and 'B' (200,000 cfu). Inoculants were mixed with water and sprayed on thin layers of corn chops layer by layer followed by rolling to ensure proper oxygen outage and even microbial distribution throughout the plants. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows at 100 ± 20.5 days in milk were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 20-day periods including 14 days of adaptation and 6 days of sampling. Dietary treatments were mixed rations containing corn silages with or without the inoculants. The basal diet contained 32.9% corn silage, 14.3% alfalfa hay and 52.8% concentrate on a DM basis. Inoculants did not affect silage pH or content of DM, CP, lactate, acetate, ash and total volatile fatty acids (VFA). Applying 'B' to corn crop resulted in higher water soluble carbohydrates (47.7 g/kg vs 29.8 g/kg) and lower

  14. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively.

  15. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  16. Influence of endosperm vitreousness and kernel moisture at harvest on site and extent of digestion of high-moisture corn by feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Szasz, J I; Hunt, C W; Szasz, P A; Weber, R A; Owens, F N; Kezar, W; Turgeon, O A

    2007-09-01

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus-Jersey crossbred steers (450 kg of BW) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square to evaluate the effect of kernel vitreousness and moisture on intake and digestibility of high-moisture corn. Arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial, diets included a floury (FLO) or a vitreous (VIT) endosperm corn hybrid harvested at 28.1% (DRY), 31.2% (MID), or 35.7% (WET) kernel moisture content. Diet DM consisted of 88.25% high-moisture corn, 6% chopped alfalfa hay, 2% corn gluten meal, 0.75% urea, and 3% supplement. Supplement was included to ensure that the diets contained a minimum (DM basis) of 0.6% Ca, 0.6% K, 0.2% S, 33 mg/kg of monensin, and 11 mg/kg of tylosin. Geometric mean diameter of lyophilized high-moisture corn tended to be less (P = 0.06) for VIT than for FLO, and the calculated particle surface area was 15.8% greater (P = 0.03). An interaction of vitreousness with the quadratic effect of moisture was noted (P < 0.001), such that fraction a and effective degradation for starch tended to be greater for the vitreous hybrid at the least and greatest moisture content but lower for the vitreous hybrid at the intermediate moisture content. Intake and ruminal disappearance of DM, OM, and starch were not influenced by vitreousness or moisture, with ruminal starch disappearance averaging 90.9%. Intestinal starch digestion measured as a percentage of starch entering the intestines averaged 91% and was greater (P < 0.05) for VIT than FLO corn. Averaged across moisture levels, total tract starch digestibility was greater (P < 0.003) for VIT than FLO. Compared with FLO kernels, VIT kernels appeared to be more brittle and therefore shattered more readily when rolled, particularly at the driest kernel moisture level. Furthermore, increased surface area of smaller particles may have been responsible for the greater starch utilization from VIT corn. In contrast with the results from other in situ and in vivo trials with dry-rolled corn grain, in which

  17. Protein quality and utilization of timothy, oat-supplemented timothy, and alfalfa at differing harvest maturities in exercised Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A D; Nielsen, B D; Liesman, J; Lavin, T; Trottier, N L

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the protein quality and postgut N utilization of full-bloom timothy hay, oat-supplemented timothy-hay diets, and alfalfa hay harvested at different maturities, apparent whole tract N digestibility, urinary N excretion, and serum AA profiles were determined in light to moderately exercised Arabian horses. Six Arabian geldings (16.0 ± 0.3 yr; 467 ± 11 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Diets included full-bloom timothy grass hay (G), G + 0.2% BW oat (G1), G + 0.4% BW oat (G2), mid-bloom alfalfa (A1), early-bloom alfalfa (A2), and early-bud alfalfa hay (A3). Forages were fed at 1.6% of the BW of the horse (as-fed). Each period consisted of an 11-d adaptation period followed by total collection of feces and urine for 3 d. Blood samples were taken on d 11 for analysis of serum AA concentrations. During the 3-d collection period, urine and feces were collected every 8 h and measured and weighed, respectively. Approximately 10% of the total urine volume and fecal weight per period was retained for N analyses. Fecal DM output was less (P < 0.05) in A1, A2, or A3 compared with G, G1, or G2. Apparent whole tract N digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) in A1, A2, and A3 compared with G, G1, or G2, and was greater (P < 0.05) in G1 and G2 compared with G. Nitrogen retention was not different from zero, and there were no differences (P > 0.05) in N retention among diets. Urinary N excretion and total N excretion were greater (P < 0.05) in A1, A2, and A3 compared with G, G1, or G2. Plasma concentrations for the majority of AA increased curvilinearly in response to feeding G, A1, A2, and A3 (quadratic, P < 0.05), with values appearing to maximize 2-h postfeeding. Although alfalfa N digestibility increased with decreasing harvest maturity, N retention did not differ and urinary volume and N excretion increased, indicating that postabsorptive N utilization decreased. In contrast, inclusion of oats at either 0.2 or 0.4% of the BW of the

  18. Corning's Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Brad

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Corning, Inc.'s relationship with the surrounding community and the problem that arose when a large Corning-backed campus-style high school was proposed that brought objections from many local residents. (GR)

  19. CORN FLAVOR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  20. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  1. Use of legume manures as nitrogen sources for corn production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent volatility in supplies and prices of natural gas and synthetic N fertilizer suggests a need to develop and refine alternative strategies for supplying N to corn. In this study, conducted in northeastern Iowa, we examined the use of red clover and alfalfa green manures as means of supplying N ...

  2. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  3. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa or red clover silage as the sole forage.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Walgenbach, R P; Sterrenburg, E

    2000-07-01

    Three Latin square trials, with 20 (two trials) or 24 (one trial) multiparous lactating Holstein cows (four in each trial with ruminal cannulae), compared the feeding value of red clover and alfalfa silages harvested over 3 yr. Overall, the forages contained similar amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber; however, red clover silage contained more hemicellulose, less ash and crude protein (CP), and only 67% as much nonprotein N, as a proportion of total N, as did alfalfa silage. Diets were formulated with equal dry matter (DM) from alfalfa or red clover silage and contained on average 65% forage, 33 or 30% ground high moisture ear corn, and 0 or 3% low soluble fishmeal (DM basis). Diets fed in the Latin squares contained (mean dietary CP): 1) alfalfa (17.8% CP); 2) red clover (15.1% CP); 3) alfalfa plus fishmeal (19.6% CP); and 4) red clover plus fishmeal (16.9% CP). Although performance varied somewhat among trials, overall statistical analysis showed that replacing alfalfa with red clover reduced yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and SNF; these effects were related to the 1.2 kg/d lower DM intake for cows fed red clover. Replacing alfalfa with red clover improved body weight gain and reduced concentrations of milk and blood urea and ruminal NH3. Apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose all were greater when red clover was fed. There were no significant forage x fishmeal interactions for DM intake and yield of milk and milk components, indicating that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein gave similar increases in production on both forages. Net energy of lactation (NE(L)), estimated from maintenance, mean milk yield, and body weight change, in alfalfa and red clover silage were, respectively, 1.25 and 1.38 Mcal NE(L)/kg of DM, indicating 10% greater NE(L) in red clover.

  4. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  5. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G.

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  6. Microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability of whole crop corn and a total mixed ration ensiled with and without inoculation of Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri.

    PubMed

    Nishino, N; Wada, H; Yoshida, M; Shiota, H

    2004-08-01

    Whole crop corn (DM 29.2%) and a total mixed ration (TMR, DM 56.8%) containing wet brewers grains, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, cracked corn, soybean meal, and molasses at a ratio of 5:1:1:1:1:1 on fresh weight basis, were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus buchneri in laboratory silos. The effects of inoculation on microbial counts, fermentation products, and aerobic stability were determined after 10 and 60 d. Untreated corn silage was well preserved with high lactic acid content, whereas large numbers of remaining yeasts resulted in low stability on exposure to air. Inoculation with L. casei suppressed heterolactic fermentation, but no improvements were found in aerobic stability. The addition of L. buchneri markedly enhanced the aerobic stability, while not affecting the DM loss and NH3-N production. Large amounts of ethanol were found when the TMR was ensiled, and the content of ethanol overwhelmed that of lactic acid in untreated silage. This fermentation was related to high yeast populations and accounted for a large loss of DM found in the initial 10 d. The ethanol production decreased when inoculated with L. casei and L. buchneri, but the effects diminished at 60 d of ensiling. Inoculation with L. buchneri lowered the yeasts in TMR silage from the beginning of storage; however, the populations decreased to undetectable levels when stored for 60 d, regardless of inoculation. No heating was observed in TMR silage during aerobic deterioration test for 7 d. This stability was achieved even when a high population of yeasts remained and was not affected by either inoculation or ensiling period. The results indicate that inoculation with L. buchneri can inhibit yeast growth and improve aerobic stability of corn and TMR silage; however, high stability of TMR silage can be obtained even when no treatments were made and high population (>10(5) cfu/g) of yeasts were detected.

  7. Performance of dairy cattle fed citrus pulp or corn products as sources of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Leiva, E; Hall, M B; Van Horn, H H

    2000-12-01

    The effects of modifying the dietary profile of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) on milk production and rumen fermentation were determined. Corn silage and alfalfa hay-based diets were formulated to contain 40% calculated NDSC supplied primarily by dried citrus pulp as a source of neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF), or corn products as sources of starch. Diets were compared within cow with reversal experiments with two periods. In experiment 1, 11 multiparous Holstein cows including three ruminally cannulated animals were individually fed diets containing 23.6% citrus pulp (diet CPD) or 25.3% corn hominy (diet HD) on a dry matter basis. In experiment 2, 184 animals fed as two groups received diets containing 20.5% citrus pulp (diet CPD) or 19.5% cornmeal (diet CMD). Diets CPD provided more dietary NDSF and HD and CMD more starch. In experiment 1, cows fed HD had a greater milk protein percentage (+0.12%), and tended to yield more milk protein (0.08 kg/d) than cows fed CPD. Although ruminal H+ concentrations did not differ between diets, diet x time postfeeding interactions were significant. Ruminal organic acid concentrations did not differ between diets. In experiment 2, cows fed CMD yielded more milk (3.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat- and protein-corrected milk (2.6 kg/d), fat (0.05 kg/d), and protein (0.08 kg/d), whereas cows fed CPD produced greater concentrations of fat (+0.18%), and milk urea nitrogen (0.76 mg/dl). Modifying the proportions of NDSC in the diet can alter milk production and composition, the pattern of ruminal fermentation, and N utilization in dairy cows.

  8. Milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein dairy cows fed diets based on corn stover or mixed forage.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongwei; Zheng, Nan; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Xiaowei; Bu, Dengpan; An, Pengpeng; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shimin; Wang, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    In this study the influence of modulated concentrate-to-roughage ratio on the fatty acid profile of milk fat was investigated in dairy cows. Therefore, corn stover was compared with better-quality roughages. Two groups of in total 24 Holstein dairy cows (136 ± 37 days in milk) received either a high-forage diet (Diet MF, forage-to-concentrate ratio [F:C] = 60:40) with alfalfa hay, corn silage and Chinese wild rye as forage sources, or a low-forage diet with corn stover as forage source (Diet CS, F: C = 40:60) for an experimental period of nine weeks. During the study, milk yield as well content and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were examined. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield and milk fat content, whereas dry matter intake (p < 0.01) and milk fat yield (p < 0.05) were higher for Diet MF than for Diet CS. Compared with Diet CS, feeding Diet MF increased the daily intake of total unsaturated fatty acids and the C18:0 and C18:3 contents (p < 0.01) in milk fat, whereas the total content of fatty acids <16C was decreased (p < 0.05). No influence on total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk was observed. The ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat to its daily intake was substantially lower for Diet MF compared with Diet CS, suggesting that the high proportion of roughage resulted in a high rate of biohydrogenation in the rumen.

  9. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  10. Splanchnic and mammary nitrogen metabolism by dairy cows fed steam-rolled or steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Elorduy, A; Theurer, C B; Huber, J T; Alio, A; Lozano, O; Sadik, M; Cuneot, P; De Young, H D; Simas, I J; Santos, J E P; Nussio, L; Nussio, C; Webb, K E; Tagari, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives were to determine net release or uptake of a-amino N, ammonia N, and urea N across portal-drained viscera, liver, splanchnic, and mammary tissues of lactating Holstein cows (n = 6; 109 +/- 9 d in milk) fed alfalfa hay-based total mixed rations (TMR) containing 40% steam-rolled or steam-flaked corn grain. The TMR were offered at 12-h intervals in a crossover design. Blood samples were obtained from indwelling catheters in portal, hepatic, and mammary veins and mesenteric or costo abdominal arteries, every 2 h for each cow and diet. Steam-flaked compared with steam-rolled corn greatly increased in vitro starch hydrolysis (56 vs. 34%). Daily intake of dry matter (18.4 +/- 0.4 kg/d), starch, N, and net energy for lactation by cows were not altered by processing corn; neither were daily yield of milk (29.1 +/- 0.7 kg/d), fat-corrected milk, nor fat-corrected milk per dry matter intake. Steam-flaking tended to increase percent milk protein (2.97 vs. 2.82%; P = 0.07), but not yield, and decrease percent lactose (4.83 vs. 4.94) but not yield. Portal and hepatic blood flows were not affected by diet, nor were net absorption of alpha-amino N and ammonia N. Steam-flaking compared with steam-rolling increased urea N cycling to portal-drained viscera (212 vs. 87 g/d) by 140%, estimated mammary uptake and extraction ratio of alpha-amino N. Flaking versus rolling of corn improved N utilization in dairy cows by increasing urea cycling to the gut and uptake of a-amino N by the mammary gland. Higher mammary uptake of alpha-amino N (78 vs. 50 g/d) by dairy cows fed steam-flaked corn tended to increase milk protein content and may explain the previously observed effects of cows fed steam-flaked versus steam-rolled corn.

  11. Grain source and processing in diets containing varying concentrations of wet corn gluten feed for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Loe, E R; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P

    2006-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate combinations of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and barley, as well as the particle size of dry-rolled barley and corn, in finishing steer diets containing WCGF. In Exp. 1, 144 crossbred steers (initial BW = 298.9 +/- 1.4 kg) were used to evaluate barley (0.566 kg/L and 23.5% NDF for whole barley) and WCGF combinations in finishing diets containing 0, 17, 35, 52, or 69% WCGF (DM basis), replacing barley and concentrated separator byproduct. A sixth treatment consisted of corn (0.726 kg/L and 11.1% NDF for whole corn), replacing barley in the 35% WCGF treatment. In Exp. 2, 144 crossbred steers (initial BW = 315.0 +/- 1.5 kg) were used to evaluate coarse or fine, dry-rolled barley or corn (0.632 and 0.699 kg/L; 26.6 and 15.9% NDF for whole barley and corn, respectively) in finishing diets containing WCGF. A factorial treatment design was used; the factors were grain source (corn or barley) and degree of processing (coarse or fine). The diets contained 50% WCGF, 42% grain (corn or barley), 5% alfalfa hay, and 3% supplement (DM basis). In Exp. 1, DMI and ADG responded quadratically (P < or = 0.03), peaking at 35 and 52% WCGF, respectively. The efficiency of gain was not affected (P > or = 0.42) by dietary treatment. Steers fed dry-rolled corn and 35% WCGF had heavier HCW, lower DMI, greater ADG, increased G:F, increased s.c. fat thickness at the 12th rib, and greater yield grades compared with steers fed dry-rolled barley and 35% WCGF (P < or = 0.04). The apparent dietary NEg was similar among the barley and WCGF combinations (P > or = 0.51); however, the corn and 35% WCGF diet was 25% more energy dense (P < 0.001) than was the barley and 35% WCGF diet. In Exp. 2, no grain x processing interactions (P > or = 0.39) were observed. Particle size was 2.15 and 2.59 mm for fine- and coarse-rolled barley and was 1.90 and 3.23 mm for fine- and coarse-rolled corn. Steers fed a combination of corn and WCGF had increased ADG, greater G

  12. Microbial inoculation of alfalfa haylage: ensiling characteristics and milk production response when fed to early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kent, B A; Arambel, M J; Winsryg, M D; Walters, J L

    1989-09-01

    Third-cutting alfalfa hay harvested at bud stage and wilted to approximately 65% moisture was treated with a live bacterial inoculant at the rate of 300,000 cfu/g fresh alfalfa. Treated alfalfa was packed in polyethylene bags. Samples were taken at time of ensiling and d 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 28 postensiling. Mean pH was lower in the treated haylage (5.09 and 5.71 for treatment and control, respectively). Mean temperatures were higher in the treated haylage (30.0 and 28.0 degrees C for treatment and control, respectively). Mold count, water-soluble carbohydrate, alpha amino nitrogen, CP, and ADF were not affected by treatment. Regardless of treatment, pH, mold counts, and water-soluble carbohydrates declined with time. There was no significant difference between treatments for DM intake, milk production, and milk composition.

  13. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  14. Managing hay fever during the exam period.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Linda

    Hay-fever symptoms are common and debilitating and can have a detrimental effect on students' examination results. It is important to provide effective treatment using medication that optimises symptom control while ensuring drug side-effects are minimised. Research has confirmed that uncontrolled hay fever or medication side-effects can have a detrimental outcome on exam results. Ideally treatment should commence shortly before the start of the hay-fever season.

  15. Effect of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of corn silage on intake and digestibility by beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Andrae, J G; Hunt, C W; Pritchard, G T; Kennington, L R; Harrison, J H; Kezar, W; Mahanna, W

    2001-09-01

    A study involving a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate effects of hybrid (Pioneer 3335 and 3489), maturity (half milkline and blacklayer), and mechanical processing (field chopper with and without on-board rollers engaged) on intake and digestibility of corn silage. Forty Angus steers (322 +/- 5.2 kg BW) were assigned to the eight silage treatments (five steers per treatment) and individually fed using electronic gates. Diets consisted of 60% corn silage and 40% chopped alfalfa hay (DM basis). Following a 5-d adaptation period, intake was measured for 7 d and subsequently fecal samples were collected for 5 d. Chromic oxide (5 g/d) was fed beginning 7 d before fecal sample collection and digestibility was determined by the ratio of Cr in the feed and feces. Steers were reallocated to treatments and these procedures were repeated, providing 10 observations per treatment. In addition, all silages were ruminally incubated in six mature cows for 0, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 96 h to determine extent and rate of DM, starch, NDF, and ADF disappearance. Processing increased DMI of hybrid 3489 but did not affect DMI of hybrid 3335 (hybrid x processing; P < 0.06). Total tract digestibility of DM, starch, NDF, and ADF decreased (P < 0.01) as plant maturity increased. Maturity tended to decrease starch digestibility more for hybrid 3489 than for hybrid 3335 (hybrid x maturity; P < 0.10). Processing increased (P < 0.01) starch digestibility but decreased (P < 0.01) NDF and ADF digestibility, resulting in no processing effect on DM digestibility. There was a numerical trend for processing to increase starch digestibility more for latethan for early-maturity corn silage (maturity x processing; P = 0.11). Processing increased in situ rates of DM and starch disappearance and maturity decreased in situ disappearance rates of starch and fiber. These data indicate that hybrid, maturity, and processing all affect corn silage digestibility. Mechanical

  16. Hay Contest Evaluation and Organization for Teaching and Promoting Hay Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, A. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the development and implementation of an evaluation method for exhibitions of commercially produced hay that combines forage analysis with a procedure for visual appraisal of hay. This model is utilized to improve awareness and foster improvement and appreciation for forage quality among hay producers at county and state shows. (16…

  17. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  18. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  19. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  20. Preservation of hay with propionic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most hay producers are quite familiar with the problems associated with baling moist hays. Normally, these problems include spontaneous heating, increased evidence of mold, losses of dry matter (DM) during storage, poorer nutritive value, and (in extreme cases) spontaneous combustion. Numerous fact...

  1. Effects of dietary forage source and amount of forage addition on intake, milk yield, and digestion for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    West, J W; Hill, G M; Gates, R N; Mullinix, B G

    1997-08-01

    Lactating cows were used to determine the effects of increasing forage content from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) hay on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and nutrient digestion. Forage proportions and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of diets were (dry basis) 1) 45% corn (Zea mays L.) silage (control), 33.5% NDF; 2) 15% bermudagrass hay and 30% corn silage, 39.5% NDF; 3) 30% bermudagrass hay and 15% corn silage, 46.6% NDF; 4) 15% alfalfa hay and 30% corn silage, 35.5% NDF; or 5) 30% alfalfa hay and 15% corn silage, 33.5% NDF. The DMI was greater with alfalfa diets than with bermudagrass diets, with low hay diets than with high hay diets, and with the control diet than with the hay diets. Digestibility of NDF in bermudagrass diets was greater than that in alfalfa diets, in high hay diets than in low hay diets, and in hay diets than in the control diet. In vitro NDF digestion was most rapid for bermudagrass hay, intermediate for corn silage, and slowest for alfalfa hay. Results suggest that NDF from bermudagrass was digested more completely and rapidly than was NDF from corn silage or alfalfa, which improved the rate of passage despite the high NDF content of diets containing bermudagrass. Milk yield followed trends for DMI. The control diet and diets containing alfalfa elicited the greatest DMI and milk yield, but DMI per 100 kg of body weight for Holsteins was equal for diets containing either bermudagrass or alfalfa. High quality bermudagrass can be used in rations for lactating dairy cows.

  2. Influence of replacing corn silage with barley silage in the diets of buffalo cows on milk yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Tudisco, R; Calabrò, S; Grossi, M; Piccolo, G; Guglielmelli, A; Cutrignelli, M I; Caiazzo, C; Infascelli, F

    2010-06-01

    A 150-day trial was carried out on 40 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that, immediately after calving, were equally divided into two homogeneous groups (M and O) based on the number of calving events and previous milk yield. The animals were fed (16 kg dry matter (DM)/head) two isoenergy/isoprotein diets (NEl: 6.39 MJ/kg DM; 15.4 CP% DM), composed of corn (diet M) or barley silage (diet O) concentrate, alfalfa hay, and a vitamin-mineral supplement. The fermentation characteristics of both silage diets were evaluated by an in vitro gas production technique, and their nutritional values were calculated as follows: NEl (MJ/kg DM) = 0.54 + 0.0959 GP + 0.0038 CP + 0.0001733 CP(2), where GP is the gas production after 24 h of incubation (ml/200 mg DM) and CP is the protein content of silage (g/kg DM). The nutritional values of the silages were slightly different (4.16 vs. 4.14 MJ/kg DM for M and O, respectively) likely due to the high content of hemicellulose in the O diet (22.0 vs. 16.9%). Average milk yield did not differ between the groups; instead, milk fat (8.39 vs. 9.06%; P < 0.01) and protein (4.41 vs. 4.60%; P < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in the O group. The results elicit great interest in southern Italy where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of irrigation.

  3. Source and level of energy supplementation for yearling cattle fed ammoniated hay.

    PubMed

    Royes, J B; Brown, W F; Martin, F G; Bates, D B

    2001-05-01

    Brahman x British crossbred steers were used in growth and digestion trials to evaluate the response of source (corn, sugar cane molasses, or soybean hulls) and feeding rate (0, 1.4, or 2.8 kg DM per steer daily in the growth trials; 0, 15, or 30% of the ration DM in the digestion trial) of energy supplementation in cattle fed ammoniated (4% of forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Cattle on all treatments were fed 0.5 kg cottonseed meal daily. In the growth trials, steers grazed dormant bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture. Increasing the levels of supplementation decreased hay intake but increased total dietary intake for all diets (P < 0.07). Daily gain and feed efficiency of steers were improved (P < 0.03) with supplementation. Steers supplemented with corn or soybean hulls at 2.8 kg DM/d had a higher ADG (0.92 kg) and gain/feed (0.103) than steers supplemented with molasses (0.78 kg, 0.08, respectively) at the same level. Seven crossbred steers (200 kg) were used in a five-period digestion trial to evaluate apparent OM, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility. Apparent OM digestibility of all diets increased linearly (P = 0.02) as the level of supplementation increased. Apparent NDF and ADF digestibility decreased (P < 0.03) as the level of supplementation with corn or molasses increased, whereas increasing the level of soybean hulls in the diet increased (P < 0.06) apparent NDF and ADF digestibility. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred steers (472 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 latin square design to investigate ruminal characteristics with energy supplementation at 30% of ration DM. Ruminal pH in steers supplemented with soybean hulls or corn declined after feeding. Ruminal pH decreased more rapidly with corn supplementation and remained below 6.2 for a longer period of time than with the other diets. Ruminal pH did not change within 24 h after feeding for steers fed the control or molasses diets. No change in total VFA

  4. Agroecology of corn production in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, M.A.; Trujillo, J.

    1987-06-01

    The primary components of Tlaxcalan corn agriculture are described, including cropping patterns employed, resource management strategies, and interactions of human and biological factors. Tlaxcalan farmers grow corn in an array of polyculture and agroforestry designs that result in a series of ecological processes important for insect pest and soil fertility management. Measurements derived from a few selected fields show that trees integrated into cropping systems modify the aerial and soil environment of associated understory corn plants, influencing their growth and yields. With decreasing distance from trees, surface concentrations of most soil nutrients increase. Certain tree species affect corn yields more than others. Arthropod abundance also varies depending on their degree of association with one or more of the vegetational components of the system. Densities of predators and the corn pest Macrodactylus sp. depend greatly on the presence and phenology of adjacent alfalfa strips. Although the data were derived from nonreplicated fields, they nevertheless point out some important trends, information that can be used to design new crop association that will achieve sustained soil fertility and low pest potentials.

  5. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on Corn Grown in Soil in Fested with Arthrobotrys conoides

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazmi, A. S.; Schmitt, D. P.; Sasser, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil incorporation of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides and green alfalfa mulch on the population dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on corn. Reproduction of M. incognita and the incidence of root galling were reduced by the addition of A. conoides and/or green alfalfa in all tests. Numbers of juveniles were reduced by as much as 84%, and eggs were fewest in early to mid-season soil samples from microplots. Yields increased in treatments with A. conoides and/or green alfalfa in greenhouse tests and in the microplot tests in 1979. No interaction was found between the fungus and green alfalfa in the reduction of the nematode population. PMID:19295673

  6. Design, experimental and economic evaluation of a commercial-type solar dryer for production of high-quality hay

    SciTech Connect

    Arinze, E.A.; Sokhansanj, S.; Schoenau, G.J.; Crerar, B.; Opoku, A.

    1998-03-01

    Design features, development, experimental functional performance and economic evaluation of an energy efficient solar energy dryer for commercial production of high-quality hay and processed forage products are presented. The solar hay dryer consists of an improved solar collector with selective coated aluminum absorber plate and spaced fins, and a drying shed connected to the collector by an insulated duct and having a perforated metal grate floor, swing-away plywood frames and polyethylene curtains for effectively sealing the hay stack, and a crawl space below the floor where a 3-hp in-line centrifugal fan is housed for air circulation by suction. In late August and in early September, 1996, 160 small rectangular bales of alfalfa hay with about 25% bromegrass were successfully dried from 33% initial moisture content to 13%, and from 25% to 11% moisture in 4 and 3 days, respectively, under average weather conditions in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. With about 18 m{sup 3}/min per tonne airflow, 10--15 C temperature rise above ambient was obtained during peak bright sunshine hours. Relatively high daily average collector efficiency of 76%, high drying effectiveness, drying uniformity, uniform air distribution and tight sealing of the stack were achieved which resulted in an attractive green color of hay, no mold growth on hay, and an overall system drying efficiency of about 79%. Compared to a conventional natural gas drying system or field-drying method, the payback period on extra investment costs recovered through drying cost savings of $3/t to $6/t or through over two times higher prices for high-quality hay produced by the solar drying system may be just one or two years, respectively.

  7. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  8. Ryegrass or alfalfa silage as the dietary forage for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Walgenbach, R P; Kraus, T J

    2002-07-01

    Renewed interest exists in using grass forages to dilute the higher crude protein (CP) and lower digestible fiber present in legumes fed to lactating dairy cows. A 3 x 3 Latin square feeding study with 4-wk periods was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to compare ryegrass silage, either untreated control or macerated (intensively conditioned) before ensiling, with alfalfa silage as the sole dietary forage. Ryegrass silages averaged [dry matter (DM) basis] 18.4% CP, 50% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 10% indigestible acid detergent fiber (ADF) (control) and 16.6% CP, 51% NDF, and 12% indigestible ADF (macerated). Alfalfa silage was higher in CP (21.6%) and lower in NDF (44%) but higher in indigestible ADF (26%). A lower proportion of the total N in macerated ryegrass silage was present as nonprotein N than in control ryegrass and alfalfa silages. Diets were formulated to contain 41% DM from either rye-grass silage, or 51% DM from alfalfa silage, plus high moisture corn, and protein concentrates. Diets averaged 17.5% CP and 28 to 29% NDF. The shortfall in CP on ryegrass was made up by feeding 7.6% more soybean meal. Intake and milk yields were similar on control and macerated ryegrass; however, DM intake was 8.3 kg/d greater on the alfalfa diet. Moreover, feeding the alfalfa diet increased BW gain (0.48 kg/d) and yield of milk (6.1 kg/d), FCM (6.8 kg/d), fat (0.26 kg/d), protein (0.25 kg/d), lactose (0.35 kg/d), and SNF (0.65 kg/d) versus the mean of the two ryegrass diets. Both DM efficiency (milk/DM intake) and N efficiency (milk-N/N-intake) were 27% greater, and apparent digestibility was 16% greater for DM and 53% greater for NDF and ADF, on the ryegrass diets. However, apparent digestibility of digestible ADF was greater on alfalfa (96%) than on ryegrass (average = 91%). Also, dietary energy content (estimated as net energy of lactation required for maintenance, milk yield, and weight gain) per unit of digested DM was similar for all three diets. Results of

  9. Chewing, rumen pool characteristics, and lactation performance of dairy cows fed 2 concentrations of a corn wet-milling coproduct with different forage sources.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, D M; Firkins, J L; VonBehren, P

    2014-09-01

    We used a novel corn wet-milling coproduct [CMP; approximately 70% dry matter, 28% crude protein, 36% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 18% nonstructural carbohydrates] in diets formulated to contain 18.4% forage NDF, 17.4% crude protein, 20.2% starch, and 3.7% sugar. Six primiparous, rumen-cannulated Jersey cows were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain 20 and 30% CMP with 3 forage sources [corn silage (CS) and 40.5% NDF, CS replaced with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) and 45.0% NDF, or CS replaced with 7% grass hay (GH) and 67.4% NDF], with each providing 18.4% forage NDF in the diet. Total-tract digestibilities of NDF, N, and organic matter were not affected by treatment. Similarly, no treatment effects were detected for kinetics of NDF disappearance in situ from CMP or respective forage source or for N disappearance in situ from CMP. Grass hay increased total and liquid pool size of rumen contents compared with AH (by 3.2 and 3.0kg, respectively). Total time spent chewing increased in cows fed GH by over 35min compared with those fed AH, partially due to a trend for increased minutes spent ruminating. Mean particle size of rumen contents also tended to be higher in the GH (0.55mm) than AH (0.69mm) diets. No effects on production of milk or milk components were detected, but dry matter intake (DMI) tended to decrease when CMP increased from 20 to 30%. Gross feed efficiency (fat-corrected milk/DMI) tended to be greater when cows were fed AH and GH compared with CS and was greater for AH than GH diets. In diets containing low starch, increasing CMP from 20 to 30% potentially maintained similar fat-corrected milk production with lower DMI. However, more consideration also should be given to interactions among forages with respect to fill, digestion, and passage of fiber with increased inclusion rates of CMP.

  10. Antibacterial activity of plant defensins against alfalfa crown rot pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the fourth most widely grown crop in the United States. Alfalfa crown rot is a disease complex that severely decreases alfalfa stand density and productivity in all alfalfa-producing areas. Currently, there are no viable methods of disease control. Plant defensins are sm...

  11. Feed intake, digestibility, and live weight gain by cattle consuming forage supplemented with rice bran and(or) corn.

    PubMed

    Forster, L A; Goetsch, A L; Galloway, D L; Johnson, Z B

    1993-11-01

    Effects of supplementing cattle consuming forage with rice bran and(or) corn on feed intake, digestibility, and live weight gain were determined. Holstein steer calves (176 +/- 4.3 kg average trial BW), in two simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin squares, had ad libitum access to bermudagrass or ryegrass-wheat hay without supplementation (Control) or with (DM basis) .5% of BW of ground corn (C), .64% of BW of rice bran (R), or .25% of BW of corn plus .32% of BW of rice bran (CR). Total OM intake with bermudagrass diets was less for R than for C, but values for R and C were not different with ryegrass-wheat (forage source x supplement type interaction; P < .05). An interaction (P < .06) between supplement type and forage source also occurred in digestible OM intake (3.33, 3.66, 2.93, 3.37, 3.77, 4.04, 3.73, and 3.94 kg/d for Control, C, R, and CR with bermudagrass and ryegrass-wheat, respectively). Mature beef cows (504 +/- 25.5 kg BW), in a 6 x 6 Latin square, were limit-fed ryegrass-wheat and alfalfa hay (3:1; air-dry basis) without supplementation (Control) or with (DM basis) .2 or .4% of BW of ground corn (L-C and H-C), .26 or .52% of BW of rice bran (L-R and H-R), or .2% of BW of corn plus .26% of BW of rice bran (H-CR). Duodenal flows of total (125, 122, 123, 137, 136, and 129 g/d) and microbial N (63.3, 64.7, 64.8, 70.3, 73.1, and 65.1 g/d for Control, L-C, H-C, H-R, and H-CR, respectively) were greater (P < .05 and .06, respectively) for rice bran than for corn supplements. Crossbred beef steers (96; 235 +/- 3.2 kg initial BW) of two frame sizes, with half treated with an estrogenic growth promotant, grazed fescue-clover and received Control, L-C, H-C, L-R, H-R, and H-CR supplements for 84 d. Supplement amounts were 50% greater relative to BW than in the preceding experiment. Overall ADG was increased (P < .05) by supplementation and was affected (P < .05) by a supplement type x level interaction (.71, .76, .97, .85, .76, and .94 kg/d for Control, L-C, H-C, L-R, H

  12. Effects of chemical composition variation on the dynamics of ruminal fermentation and biological value of corn milling (co)products.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dynamics of gas production of several corn (co)products, to develop equations to predict the rate of ruminal fiber digestion, to estimate total digestible nutrients (TDN) and net energy for lactation (NE(L)), and to assess the stochasticity of chemical composition and nutritive value variability. Four corn milling (co)products were evaluated in this study: high protein dried distillers grains (HP-DDG), corn bran (BRAN) and dehydrated germ (GERM), and a dried distillers grains plus soluble produced with a low-heat drying process (BPX). Alfalfa hay was used as an internal standard feed in the in vitro fermentation dynamics analysis. Standard chemical analyses, in vitro digestibility, and in vitro gas production techniques were used to obtain the necessary physicochemical characterization of feeds. The in vitro dry matter digestibility at 24 and 48 h of incubation decreased exponentially as acid detergent insoluble nitrogen increased. However, the degree of in vitro dry matter digestibility reduction was more accentuated at 24 than at 48 h of incubation. The difference among these feeds regarding the dynamics of the anaerobic fermentation within different substrates (intact feed, and fiber and defatted residues) was evaluated. Results suggested that the proportion of fiber digested in the rumen was affected by the degree of sample processing and fat removal. Fractional fermentation rate (kf) of neutral detergent residue (without sodium sulfite) and defatted fiber residue for BRAN, GERM, HP-DDG, and BPX was estimated to be 0.0635 and 0.0852 h(-1), 0.0803 and 0.0914 h(-1), 0.118 and 0.117 h(-1), and 0.0695 and 0.0844 h(-1), respectively. The most influential variables affecting kf(NDR) of HP-DDG and BPX also affected the predicted TDN, suggesting that fiber quality is essential to ensure higher TDN values for these feeds. Our study indicated that it is possible to routinely quantify the rate of fiber digestion and this

  13. Interactions between supplement energy source and tall fescue hay maturity on forage utilization by beef steers.

    PubMed

    Fieser, B G; Vanzant, E S

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tall fescue hay maturity on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation responses to different supplemental energy sources fed to beef steers. Twelve ruminally cannulated, crossbred steers (initial BW = 228 +/- 21 kg) were used in a split-plot experiment with a 3 x 4 factorial treatment arrangement. Steers were assigned randomly to three supplement treatments: 1) no supplement, 2) pelleted soybean hulls, or 3) coarse cracked corn. The second treatment factor was fescue hay maturity: 1) vegetative (VEG), 2) boot-stage (BOOT), 3) heading-stage (HEAD), and 4) mature (MAT). Supplements were fed once daily at 0.67% of BW (OM basis) and tall fescue hay was offered once daily at 150% of average intake. Supplement type x forage maturity interactions were not detected (P > or = 0.25) for forage, total, or digestible OM intake, which generally decreased (P < 0.01) with advancing forage maturity. Supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) forage and increased (P < 0.01) total OM intake. Supplement type had no effect (P = 0.56) on substitution ratio (unit change in forage intake per unit of supplement intake). Digestible OM intake was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.05) with soybean hulls than with corn. Supplement type x forage maturity interactions (P < or = 0.10) were observed for OM and NDF digestibilities and N retention. Increases in digestibility with soybean hulls relative to corn were greater and supplementation elicited greater increases in N retention with more mature forages. Compared with soybean hulls, corn supplementation resulted in greater (P < 0.01) negative associative effects on OM digestibility. Supplementation did not affect (P > or = 0.10) ruminal pH, total VFA concentrations, or acetate:propionate ratio. Corn supplementation decreased (P < or = 0.07) ruminal NH3-N concentrations compared with control and soybean hulls; however, decreases in ruminal NH3-N concentrations

  14. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  15. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  16. Effects of roughage source and inclusion in beef finishing diets containing corn wet distillers' grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Benton, J R; Watson, A K; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Pol, K J Vander; Meyer, N F; Greenquist, M A

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of roughage source and inclusion in diets containing wet distillers' grains plus solubles (WDGS) on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism. In Exp. 1, 385 crossbred steer calves (initial BW = 346 kg [SD 29]) were used in a finishing trial. A control diet with no roughage inclusion was compared with 6 diets containing either alfalfa hay (ALF), corn silage (CSIL), or corn stalks (CSTK) at 2 inclusions as a 3 × 2 factorial. Alfalfa hay was included at 4 (low) or 8% (standard) of diet DM. Diets containing CSIL or CSTK were formulated to provide total dietary NDF equal to the low and standard ALF inclusion diets. The final diets contained 6.13 and 12.26% CSIL or 3.04 and 6.08% CSTK (DM basis). All diets contained 30% WDGS and a 1:1 mixture of dry-rolled and high-moisture corn (DM basis). Cattle fed no roughage had reduced ( < 0.01) DMI and tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have the lowest final BW and ADG compared with cattle fed roughage. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.11) in DMI, ADG, or G:F due to roughage source. Cattle fed a standard inclusion of roughage had greater ( ≤ 0.04) DMI and ADG compared with cattle fed diets with low inclusion, regardless of roughage source. Feed efficiency tended to be different among treatments ( = 0.09), with cattle fed no roughage having greater G:F than all treatments ( ≤ 0.06) except cattle fed the low level of CSTK, which had a similar G:F ( = 0.48). Feed efficiency was not affected by source of roughage ( = 0.23) or inclusion of roughage ( = 0.49). In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally fistulated steers (347 kg BW [SD 25]) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial with ALF or CSTK included at zero, low, or standard levels similar to Exp. 1. Apparent total tract digestibility (%) of DM, OM, and NDF decreased linearly ( ≤ 0.07) due to increasing roughage inclusion. Average, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH increased linearly ( ≤ 0

  17. Corn insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  18. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  19. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    PubMed

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final

  20. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  2. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China. PMID:25049816

  3. [Effects of different water harvesting modes on alfalfa planting in semi-arid areas of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Huo, Hai-Li; Wang, Qi; Zhang, En-He; Shi, Shang-Li; Ren, Xiang; Wang, He-Ling; Wang, Tian-Tao; Liu, Qing-Lin

    2013-10-01

    A field experiment with complete random design was conducted to investigate the effects of different mulching materials [common plastic film (CMR), biodegradable mulch film (BMR), and soil crust (SR)] and different ratios of furrow to ridge (60 cm:30 cm, 60 cm:45 cm, and 60 cm:60 cm) on the runoff efficiency, soil water storage, soil water content, and hay yield and water use efficiency of alfalfa in semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau. The runoff efficiency in treatments SR, BMR, and CMR was 32.0%, 90.7%, and 96.4%, respectively. In the early growth period of alfalfa (from April to June) , the soil water storage between the treatments had no significant difference, but in the late growth period (from July to September), the soil water storage in CMR and BMR was significantly higher than that in SR. The soil water storage in SR was significantly higher than that in traditional planting (TP). At budding stage, the soil water storage in TP, SR, BMR, and CMR was 223.27, 248.56, and 277. 81, and 284.16 mm, respectively. In the whole growth period, the hay yield of alfalfa in TP, SR, BMR, and CMR was 4112.1, 3397.5, 4317.8, and 4523.8 kg x hm(-2), and the water use efficiency was 11.08, 10.48, 14.56, and 14.95 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2), respectively. The ratio of furrow to ridge had no significant effects on the water use efficiency in the same treatments. When the ratio of furrow to ridge was 60 cm:44 cm, the hay yield in CMR and BMR reached the maximum.

  4. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  5. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (p<0.05) for animals fed corn relative to those fed SH or TH. Time expended in rumination and total chewing time were higher (p<0.05) for animals fed TH than those fed SH or corn. In vivo nutrient digestibilities were similar for all dietary treatments and averaged 69.6%, 74.8%, 69.9%, and 61.8% for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and NDF, respectively. Feeding SH relative to TH and corn decreased ruminal pH (p<0.05) and increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05). However, ruminal NH3-N concentration was higher (p<0.05) for animal fed TH than for those fed SH or corn. Abdominal distension and ruminal biofilm production were greater (p<0.05) in animals fed corn or SH than in those fed TH. It was concluded that replacing corn with SH or TH up to 15% of the diet DM in a cactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants.

  6. Investigating the origin of the Chinese name for alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q. Z.; Xu, L. J.; Tang, X. J.; Ma, J. T.; Wang, D.; Li, D.; Liu, Q.; Tao, Y.; Li, F.

    2017-02-01

    It is assured that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was introduced in Han dynasty. There are cognitive differences on whether Zhang Qian introduced alfalfa. Based on the previous studies, research inductive method was used. The relationship between Zhang Qian and alfalfa introduction was analyzed from the motivation, experience and influence of Zhang Qian to the Western Regions and the image generation of Zhang Qian brought back alfalfa’s seeds. Till to now, there are four opinions about Zhang Qian introducing Alfalfa seeds, including : (1) Zhang Qian introduced alfalfa seeds;(2) Zhang Qian did not introduce alfalfa seeds;(3) the information of Zhang Qian transferring alfalfa;(4)for commemoration Zhang Qian to the Western Regions. Although there are not direct historical materials to support Zhang Qian brought alfalfa seed to Han dynasty, it believes and confirms that the introducing of alfalfa is inextricably interwoven with Zhang Qian’s western travel. Zhangqian brought relative information from western regions during the introduction, which was the basis of non-native theory, and after that, Chinese began to plant alfalfa in Han dynasty., According to historical literatures, it is clear that the Chinese diplomat brought alfalfa seeds back to China. Alfalfa, as the favorite forage to Ferghana horse, have been already planted in Dawan in Han dynasty. Despite the debate, Zhangqian played an important pioneering role in introducing alfalfa.

  7. Stay-green ranking and maturity of corn hybrids: 2. Effects on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2012-02-01

    To address producer concerns that feeding high stay-green (SG) corn hybrids is associated with decreased performance and health problems in dairy cows, this study examined how the performance of cows was affected by feeding hybrids with contrasting SG rankings and maturities. Two near-isogenic corn hybrids with high (HSG; Croplan Genetics 691, Croplan Genetics, St. Paul, MN) and low (LSG; Croplan Genetics 737) SG rankings were grown on separate halves of a 10-ha field, harvested at 27% (maturity 1) or 35% (maturity 2) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in bag silos for 84 and 77 d, respectively. A further treatment involved addition of water (15 L/t) to the HSG maturity 1 hybrid during packing to compound the potential negative effects of excess water in the HSG hybrid. Each of the resulting silages was included in a total mixed ration consisting of 35, 55, and 10% (DM basis) of corn silage, concentrate, and alfalfa hay, respectively. In experiment 1, the total mixed ration was fed for ad libitum consumption twice daily to 30 Holstein cows (92±18 d in milk). This experiment had a completely randomized design and consisted of two 28-d periods, each with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for sample collection. In experiment 2, the ruminal fermentation of the diets was measured using 5 ruminally cannulated cows on the last day of three 15-d periods. Ruminal contraction rate (2.28±0.14 contractions/min), milk yield (36.7±1.3 kg/d), yield of milk protein (1.1±0.03 kg/d), and concentration of milk protein (2.9±0.03%) were not affected by treatment. Feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG reduced intake of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, and concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and milk fat when the hybrids were harvested at 27% DM but not 35% DM. Across maturity stages, feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG decreased DM and CP digestibility, increased rectal temperature and plasma

  8. Multivariate Analog of Hays Omega-Squared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachdeva, Darshan

    The multivariate analog of Hays omega-squared for estimating the strength of the relationship in the multivariate analysis of variance has been proposed in this paper. The multivariate omega-squared is obtained through the use of Wilks' lambda test criterion. Application of multivariate omega-squared to a numerical example has been provided so as…

  9. Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad program provides grants to support overseas projects in training, research, and curriculum development in modern foreign languages and area studies by teachers, undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty engaged in a common endeavor. Projects may include short-term seminars, curriculum development,…

  10. Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad program provides grants to colleges and universities to fund faculty to maintain and improve their area studies and foreign language skills by conducting research in other countries for periods of three to 12 months. This program holds an annual competition. Institutions of higher education in the United…

  11. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  12. Physical and nutritional properties of buffalo meat finished on hay or maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana

    2014-04-01

    The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246 ± 9.00 kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368 ± 20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P < 0.05). Overall, the data indicated differences between the fatty acid profiles of meat as a consequence of different feeding systems. The higher fat deposition in the MS group resulted in meat with a less favorable fatty acid profile (i.e. a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and α-linolenic fatty acid content) in relation to human health compared with meat from animals fed the AH diet. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.05 Asparagus 0.05 Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.05 Barley, straw 0.05 Bean, mung, sprouts 2.0 Carrot, roots 1.0 Celery 0.05 Corn, field, forage 0.05...

  14. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.05 Asparagus 0.05 Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.05 Barley, straw 0.05 Bean, mung, sprouts 2.0 Carrot, roots 1.0 Celery 0.05 Corn, field, forage 0.05...

  15. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... million Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.05 Asparagus 0.05 Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.05 Barley, straw 0.05 Bean, mung, sprouts 2.0 Carrot, roots 1.0 Celery 0.05 Corn, field,...

  16. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.05 Asparagus 0.05 Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.05 Barley, straw 0.05 Bean, mung, sprouts 2.0 Carrot, roots 1.0 Celery 0.05 Corn, field, forage 0.05...

  17. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa, hay 2.0 Almond, hulls 0.05 Asparagus 0.05 Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.05 Barley, straw 0.05 Bean, mung, sprouts 2.0 Carrot, roots 1.0 Celery 0.05 Corn, field, forage 0.05...

  18. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  19. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  20. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, Ganesan; Bugos, Robert C.; Campbell, Wilbur H.; Maxwell, Carl A.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) catalyzes the conversion of caffeic acid to ferulic acid, a key step in the biosynthesis of lignin monomers. We have isolated a functionally active cDNA clone (pCOMT1) encoding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) COMT by immunoscreening a λZAPII cDNA expression library with anti-(aspen COMT) antibodies. The derived amino acid sequence of pCOMT1 is 86% identical to that of COMT from aspen. Southern blot analysis indicates that COMT in alfalfa is encoded by at least two genes. Addition of an elicitor preparation from bakers' yeast to alfalfa cell suspension cultures resulted in a rapid accumulation of COMT transcripts, which reached a maximum level around 19 hours postelicitation. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from different organs of alfalfa plants at various developmental stages showed that COMT transcripts are most abundant in roots and stems. Transcripts encoding ATP: i-methionine-S-adenosyl transferase (AdoMet synthetase, EC 2.5.1.6), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the methyl donor for the COMT reaction, were coinduced with COMT transcripts in elicitor-treated cells and exhibited a similar pattern of expression to that of COMT in different organs of alfalfa plants at various stages of development. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:16668418

  1. Evaluation of alfalfa inter-seeding effect on bahiagrass baleage fermentation and lactating Holstein performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research indicates that bahiagrass may be successfully conserved as baleage, but nutritive value is typically low for lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding modest amounts of alfalfa forage (22%), achieved by inter-seeding alfalfa into an existing bahiagrass pasture, on baleage nutritive value and lactation performance of Holstein cows. Forage treatments employed were monoculture bahiagrass baleage (MBB; negative control), bahiagrass-alfalfa mixture baleage (BAB) and conventional corn silage (CCS; positive control). Thirty six mid lactation Holstein cows [34.8 ± 5.8 kg 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 112 ± 19 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 forage treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common CCS-based TMR in a 10-d covariance period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Results The BAB contained more protein and less NDF than MBB (12.6 vs 10.3% CP and 71.8 vs 76.6% NDF). Diet DMI was similar for MBB and BAB (19.5 vs 21.6 kg/hd/d), but cows consumed more of the CCS diet (25.5 kg/hd/d) than either baleage-based diet. Cows offered BAB tended to produce more milk than cows offered MBB based TMR (28.4 vs 26.1 kg/hd/d), but both baleage diets generated less milk than CCS-based diets (33.1 kg/hd/d). Milk composition was similar across diets except for milk protein concentrations which were higher for CCS than either MBB or BAB diets; however, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest for cows fed CCS diets. Cow BW gain was higher for BAB than MBB implying that a portion of the higher energy contributed by the alfalfa was being used to replenish weight on these mid lactation cows. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that alfalfa inter-seeded in bahiagrass sod that produces BAB with as little as 22% alfalfa may improve nutritive value compared to monoculture bahiagrass baleage and marginally

  2. Toxicologic evaluation of a high-selenium hay diet in captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Raisbeck, M F; O'Toole, D; Schamber, R A; Belden, E L; Robinson, L J

    1996-01-01

    Five captive-raised pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) were fed an alfalfa-grass hay diet containing 15 ppm total dietary selenium (Se) for 164 days. Four additional captive-raised pronghorns fed a similar diet containing approximately 0.3 ppm total dietary Se served as controls. None of the pronghorns had clinical signs attributable to the high Se hay. Plasma Se increased more rapidly than blood Se concentrations, from baseline concentrations (< 0.15 g/ml) to > 0.40 g/ml within the first 50 days on the high selenium diet, but thereafter declined to approximately 0.30 microgram/ml. Mean primary antibody response to hen egg albumin was less in pronghorn on Se hay. No significant gross or histological lesions attributable to selenosis were found, nor was there any evidence of dystrophic hoof growth. The greatest Se tissue concentrations were found in liver and kidney (5.67 to 10.4 micrograms/g and 2.36 to 3.14 micrograms/g, respectively) from experimental animals; liver and kidney from the controls contained considerably less (< or = 0.52 microgram/g and < or = 0.61 microgram/g, respectively). Exposure of pronghorns for more than 5 mo to a diet containing 15 ppm Se caused significant increases in plasma, liver and kidney Se concentrations, in the absence of clinical disease or pathologic lesions due to selenosis. Based on these results, we propose that pronghorns are less susceptible to selenosis than previously reported and that diagnostic criteria for the disease should be modified.

  3. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  4. 76 FR 28060 - Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... statement, final Hays County regional habitat conservation plan, and draft record of decision. SUMMARY: We... (EIS), the final Hays County regional habitat conservation plan (RHCP) under the National Environmental...

  5. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  6. Hay fever & homeopathy: a case series evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vinita

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is common and can considerably reduce the quality of life of sufferers. Despite the wide everyday application and promising results with homeopathy, scientific evidence of its effectiveness for most ailments is scarce. The assessment of the clinical effectiveness of homeopathic remedies in the alleviation of hay fever symptoms in a typical clinical setting. We performed a clinical observational study of eight patients in the treatment of hay fever symptoms over a two-year period (2012 and 2013) using Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) self-evaluation questionnaires at baseline and again after two weeks and four weeks of homeopathic treatment. The individualized prescription - either a single remedy or multiple remedies - was based on the totality of each patient's symptoms. The average MYMOP scores for the eyes, nose, activity and wellbeing had improved significantly after two and four weeks of homeopathic treatment. The overall average MYMOP profile score at baseline was 3.83 (standard deviation, SD, 0.78). After 14 and 28 days of treatment the average score had fallen to 1.14 (SD, 0.36; P<0.001) and 1.06 (SD, 0.25; P<0.001) respectively. Individualized homeopathic treatment was associated with significant alleviation of hay fever symptoms, enabling the reduction in use of conventional treatment. The results presented in this study can be considered as a step towards a pilot pragmatic study that would use more robust outcome measures and include a larger number of patients prescribed a single or a multiple homeopathic prescription on an individualized basis. Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  8. Grazax for hay fever--what's new?

    PubMed

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, we reviewed Grazax, a sublingual tablet containing standardised allergen extract of grass pollen.1 At the time, this product was licensed for the treatment of adults with proven grass-pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis (hay fever). However, we were not convinced that the effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores in published trials was clinically relevant. Also, given that no published studies had compared Grazax with symptomatic therapies or subcutaneous immunotherapy for hay fever, it was expensive and its long-term efficacy and safety were not known, we could not recommend its use. Since our review, the terms of the marketing authorization for Grazax have been changed, such that it is now described in the summary of product characteristics (SPC) as a "disease-modifying treatment", and the drug is now also licensed for use in children aged 5 years and above. Here we assess the latest evidence for Grazax and reconsider the drug's place in the management of patients with hay fever.

  9. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  10. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  11. From model to crop: functional analysis of a STAY-GREEN gene in the model legume Medicago truncatula and effective use of the gene for alfalfa improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanen; Han, Lu; Pislariu, Catalina; Nakashima, Jin; Fu, Chunxiang; Jiang, Qingzhen; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B; Tang, Yuhong; Bouton, Joseph H; Udvardi, Michael; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model legume. Its close relative alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most widely grown forage legume crop in the United States. By screening a large population of M. truncatula mutants tagged with the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type1 (Tnt1), we identified a mutant line (NF2089) that maintained green leaves and showed green anthers, central carpels, mature pods, and seeds during senescence. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that the mutation was caused by Tnt1 insertion in a STAY-GREEN (MtSGR) gene. Transcript profiling analysis of the mutant showed that loss of the MtSGR function affected the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological processes. Further analyses revealed that SGR is implicated in nodule development and senescence. MtSGR expression was detected across all nodule developmental zones and was higher in the senescence zone. The number of young nodules on the mutant roots was higher than in the wild type. Expression levels of several nodule senescence markers were reduced in the sgr mutant. Based on the MtSGR sequence, an alfalfa SGR gene (MsSGR) was cloned, and transgenic alfalfa lines were produced by RNA interference. Silencing of MsSGR led to the production of stay-green transgenic alfalfa. This beneficial trait offers the opportunity to produce premium alfalfa hay with a more greenish appearance. In addition, most of the transgenic alfalfa lines retained more than 50% of chlorophylls during senescence and had increased crude protein content. This study illustrates the effective use of knowledge gained from a model system for the genetic improvement of an important commercial crop.

  12. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  13. Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kornilaki, Ekaterina N; Treglown, Luke; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the associations between social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood hay fever in a longitudinal birth cohort study. A total of 5780 participants with data on parental social class, childhood hay fever up to age 7 years, childhood cognitive ability at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels and adult hay fever (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood hay fever identified by medical doctors and traits Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood. PMID:25836333

  14. Effects of silo type on ensiling alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various silo types are used on dairy farms, but there is uncertainty as to how silo type affects losses and silage quality. The objective of this study was to compare three silo types, filled with alfalfa from the same fields and emptied simultaneously, relative to filling rates, dry matter (DM) los...

  15. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  16. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  17. Apparent deposition velocity and compensation point of ammonia inferred from gradient measurements above and through alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Seth M.; Bouldin, David R.

    Understanding the cycling of ammonia between croplands and the atmosphere is of importance to agriculturalists and atmospheric scientists. Flux densities of gaseous ammonia (NH 3), particulate ammonium (NH 4+), and total ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) were measured using an aerodynamic method above an alfalfa ( Medicago sativa, L.) canopy between April and July 1981 at a rural location in central New York State. In air not influenced by local sources, NH 3 and NH 4+ averaged 1.5 and 3.0 ppb, respectively, at 1 m above the crop. Ambient NH 4+ varied consistently with synoptic air masses, being lowest (2.3 ppb) for NW and highest (6.4 ppb) for SW flows. Concentrations and gradients of both species were higher during periods of hay harvest. Gradients of NH 3 were much steeper than those of NH 4+ within the alfalfa canopy, but NH 4+ contributed appreciably (36% on average) to above-canopy AN gradients. Alfalfa's NH 3 compensation point was estimated by combining concentration and gradient data with transport resistances. Gaseous gradients indicated a compensation point of 2 ppb, lower than previously published estimates. Conversion of NH 3 to NH 4+ within the canopy air could have reduced NH 3 gradients and caused a low estimate of the compensation point. Acidic aerosols, by keeping NH 3 levels low, may compete with plants for NH 3. Future studies of ammonia exchange should distinguish between NH 3 and NH 4+ if flux densities are to be related to ambient conditions. Total AN level is a poor predictor of soil-plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange since high AN was frequently associated with low NH 3, and NH 3 is more surface reactive than NH 4+.

  18. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  19. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  20. The HayWired earthquake scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  1. [Soil dryness characteristics of alfalfa cropland and optimal growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-zhu; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Yi-ning; Cai, Li-qun; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Xie, Jun-hong

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated soil moisture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropland with different growth years (1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years) and discussed the optimum growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu. The results showed that the soil moisture along 0-300 cm soil profile of alfalfa croplands with different growth years was obviously lower than that of the local soil stable moisture. The soil water contents in croplands with alfalfa that had grown for 12 and 14 years were only 9.2% and 7.1% of local soil stable moisture, respectively, which were even lower than the lower limit of alfalfa growth. The average soil dryness indexes along 0-300 cm soil profile in 1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years alfalfa croplands were 125.4%, 30.5%, 18.4%, -34.2% and -83.3% respectively. The results indicated that soil dryness occurred to varying degrees with different growth years except croplands with alfalfa grown for 1 year. With the increase of growth years of alfalfa, the soil dryness intensity increased and the soil dryness rate decreased. According to the soil moisture and alfalfa productivity results in this study, it could be concluded that the optimum growth years of alfalfa are 8-10 years in semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau.

  2. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  3. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  4. Cultivation of alfalfa (medicago sativa L).

    PubMed

    Rashmi, R; Sarkar, M; Vikramaditya

    1997-10-01

    Madicago sativa Linn, commonly known as 'Alfalfa', is a tonic plant rich in proteins, minerals, enzymes and vitamins, Bulk quantity of the whole plant is required in the pharmaceutical industries especially in homoecopathic pharmacies, Hence, there is a great need to cultivate this plant for sustained supply of the drug. Use of good and adequate phosphatecontaining farm yard manure, timely irrigation and appropriate spacing between plants results in good yield.

  5. Effects of corn processing on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Vervuert, I; Coenen, M; Bothe, C

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different corn processing techniques on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in horses. It was hypothesized that the changes in pre-caecal starch digestibility caused by various types of corn processing would alter the post-prandial glycaemic and/or insulinaemic response. Six horses were fed in random order: untreated, finely ground, steamed, micronized, steam-flaked and popped corn. The total corn intake was adjusted to 630 g starch/horse/day (1.2-1.5 g starch/kg BW/day). During a stabilization period of 10 days, horses also received 6 kg grass hay/horse/day. At blood collection day horses were fed their test diet (exclusively corn), and blood samples were taken at defined times. Corn feeding resulted in a significant increase in mean plasma glucose and insulin concentration, but glucose and insulin peaks as well as areas under the curve (AUC) were not clearly influenced by corn processing. The glycaemic index (in which each test diet's plasma glucose AUC was expressed relative to untreated corn) varied between 91.4 +/- 9.4% (steamed corn) and 108.4 +/- 11.8% (popped corn, treatment n.s.), the insulinaemic index (in which each test diet's plasma insulin AUC was expressed relative to untreated corn) ranged between 98.2 +/- 12.6% (steamed corn) and 121.0 +/- 29.9% (micronized corn, treatment n.s.). However, the well-established improvement in pre-caecal starch digestibility was not reflected by differences in the glucose or insulin responses.

  6. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. ); Geno, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  7. Whole linted cottonseed as a forage substitute fed with ground or steam-flaked corn: digestibility and performance.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, D I; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    2002-08-01

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design. The objective was to evaluate any potential interactions in site of nutrient digestion when neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from cottonseed was incrementally substituted for forage NDF (FNDF) from alfalfa silage and when starch availability was varied by feeding ground (G) or steam-flaked (SF) corn. Iso-NDF diets were forage control with G corn (21% FNDF), 5% whole cottonseed (WCS) with G or SF corn (18% FNDF), 10% WCS with G or SF corn (15% FNDF), and 15% WCS with G corn (12% FNDF). Ruminal or total tract digestibilities of organic matter (OM) or nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) were unaffected, but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis decreased as WCS increased. Ruminal NDF digestibility was not affected despite a linear decrease in pH, but postruminal NDF digestibility decreased with increasing WCS. Ruminal digestibilities of OM and NSC were higher for SF than G corn but did not affect efficiency of microbial N synthesis. Dry matter intake increased quadratically with increasing level of WCS but decreased when SF replaced G corn. Milk yield did not differ across treatments. Milk fat percentage was affected quadratically and milk protein increased linearly with increasing WCS. Milk fat percentage decreased but milk protein was not affected when SF replaced G corn. Lack of an interaction between corn source and level of WCS substitution suggests that WCS was equally effective in maintaining ruminal fermentation and digestibility in diets varying in ruminal starch availability.

  8. Hay-scented fern spore production following clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Kathy A. Penrod; Larry H. McCormick

    1997-01-01

    Hay-scented fern is a common forest understory weed native to the Appalachian region. It interferes with oak and other hardwood seedling growth and often leads to regeneration failures. Harvesting is know to increase rates of vegetative expansion, spore germination, and possibly spore production of hay-scented fern. To examine the latter effect, a progressive series of...

  9. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Estimates of Energy from Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Hays Stored in Large-Round Bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using the summative approach to estimate total digestible nutrients (TDN), truly digestible fiber can be estimated from inputs of: i) protein-corrected NDF and acid-detergent lignin (LIG-METHOD); or ii) protein-corrected NDF and 48-h neutral-detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD-METHOD). Our objective...

  10. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  11. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  12. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  13. Practices that support coexistence: A survey of Alfalfa growers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alfalfa industry has worked hard to foster the coexistence of genetically-engineered (GE) and conventional alfalfa production by developing a set of best management practices that aim to limit adventitious-presence (AP) of GE traits in conventional seed. The general goal is to minimize transgene...

  14. Persistence and diversity of rhizobial bacteria nodulating alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with an inoculant consisting of several strains of the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti to enhance nodulation of seedlings. One strategy for increasing alfalfa forage yields, particularly in less fertile sites, is selection and use of highly competitive a...

  15. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  16. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  17. Yield and forage nutritive value of reduced lignin alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars have the potential to increase the feeding value of alfalfa for livestock by improving the forage fiber digestibility and to increase harvest management flexibility. The objectives were to compare the yield and forage nutritive value of reduced ...

  18. Allelopathic effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on bladygrass (Imperata cylindrica).

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, A A; Habib, S A

    1989-09-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted at the Agricultural and Water Resources Research Center Station, Baghdad, in 1985 and 1986 to investigate the possible allelopathic potential of alfalfa (Medicago saliva L.) and its decomposed residues on bladygrass (Imperata cylin-drica L. Beauv.), a noxious weed in Iraq, and to isolate, characterize, and quantify possible allelopathic agents in alfalfa residues and root exudates. Results indicated that decomposed alfalfa roots and their associated soil produced a 51-56% reduction in bladygrass seed germination. Root and shoot length of bladygrass seedlings were reduced by an average of 88%. Decayed and undecayed mixtures of alfalfa roots and soil at 0.015∶1 (w/w) inhibited bladygrass seedlings reproduced from rhizomes by 30 and 42%. It was found that root exudates of alfalfa seedlings caused significant reduction in shoot and root dry weights of bladygrass seedlings when alfalfa and bladygrass were grown together in nutrient culture. Caffeic, chlorogenic, isochloro-genic,p-coumaric,p-OH-benzoic, and ferulic acids were detected in alfalfa root exudates and residues. The highest amount (126 fig phenolic acids/g soil) of these compounds was found in alfalfa root residues after six months of decomposition in soil.

  19. Alfalfa forage and seed crop tolerance to flumioxazin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed and forage. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa forage and seed production in 2007 and 2008 in Washington State. Flumioxazin applied at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat in February t...

  20. Alfalfa suppression of weeds is affected by preceding crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined the impact of the preceding crop on alfalfa suppression of weeds. Alfalfa was most competitive with weeds following soybean. When following spring wheat, v...

  1. Water Transfer in an Alfalfa/Maize Association 1

    PubMed Central

    Corak, Steven J.; Blevins, Dale G.; Pallardy, Stephen G.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the −/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (−/−), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (−*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the −/+ treatment fell to −1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near −1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the −/− and −* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after 3H2O was injected into the bottom −/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the −/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16665484

  2. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  3. 'Don' a Diploid Falcata Alfalfa for Western US Rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Don' (Reg. No. CV-______, PI _______) a diploid falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp falcata L.) developed by the Forage and Range Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Recent interest in falcata alfalfa has been ...

  4. Alfalfa virus S, a new species in the family Alphaflexiviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of the family Alphaflexiviridae provisionally named alfalfa virus S (AVS) was discovered in alfalfa samples originating from Sudan. A complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome consisting of 8,349 nucleotides excluding the 3’ poly(A) tail was determined by high throughput sequenc...

  5. Alfalfa leafcutting bee population dynamics, flower availability, and pollination rates in two Oregon alfalfa fields.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P

    2005-08-01

    Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern Oregon. Despite marked differences in bee management, establishment was very similar in the two fields (approximately 0.5 females per nesting cavity) and lagged peak bloom by approximately 2 wk. Pollination rates increased from 0-10% in the first 3 wk to 80-90% in week 4-5. By then, M. rotundata females had difficulty finding untripped (nonpollinated) flowers and visited large numbers of already tripped or not fully matured flowers. M. rotundata progeny mortality was very high (54-78%). Estimated seed yields were similar in both fields. We contend similar seed yields, and improved bee production, could be accomplished with smaller bee populations, better timed with alfalfa bloom.

  6. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  7. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  8. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  9. Actinomycetales from corn.

    PubMed

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  10. Actinomycetales from Corn

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, A. J.; Pridham, T. G.; Rogers, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewer's grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27%) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes—two from brewer's grits and one from break flour. Images PMID:803819

  11. Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kornilaki, Ekaterina N; Treglown, Luke; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the associations between social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood hay fever in a longitudinal birth cohort study. A total of 5780 participants with data on parental social class, childhood hay fever up to age 7 years, childhood cognitive ability at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels and adult hay fever (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood hay fever identified by medical doctors and traits Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood.

  12. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  13. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  14. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and

  15. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  16. Reproductive response of ewes fed alfalfa pellets containing sodium selenate or Astragalus bisulcatus as a selenium source.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; James, L F; Mayland, H F

    1995-02-01

    Selenium fed to open cycling ewes in the form of sodium selenate or Astragalus bisulcatus (a selenium accumulator plant) at 24 or 29 ppm selenium, respectively, in alfalfa hay pellets did not alter the estrous cycle length, estrus behavior, progesterone or estrogen profiles, pregnancy rate or outcome of parturition (P > 0.05). There was wool loss in some ewes fed seleniferous pellets and the mean whole blood selenium levels were 0.45, 1.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively, for control, A bisulcatus and sodium selenate; however, ewe condition and appearance remained good. All lambs appeared normal and the number of lambs born and the individual and total lamb weight averages were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between treatment groups and control group.

  17. From Model to Crop: Functional Analysis of a STAY-GREEN Gene in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula and Effective Use of the Gene for Alfalfa Improvement1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuanen; Han, Lu; Pislariu, Catalina; Nakashima, Jin; Fu, Chunxiang; Jiang, Qingzhen; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Tang, Yuhong; Bouton, Joseph H.; Udvardi, Michael; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model legume. Its close relative alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most widely grown forage legume crop in the United States. By screening a large population of M. truncatula mutants tagged with the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type1 (Tnt1), we identified a mutant line (NF2089) that maintained green leaves and showed green anthers, central carpels, mature pods, and seeds during senescence. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that the mutation was caused by Tnt1 insertion in a STAY-GREEN (MtSGR) gene. Transcript profiling analysis of the mutant showed that loss of the MtSGR function affected the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological processes. Further analyses revealed that SGR is implicated in nodule development and senescence. MtSGR expression was detected across all nodule developmental zones and was higher in the senescence zone. The number of young nodules on the mutant roots was higher than in the wild type. Expression levels of several nodule senescence markers were reduced in the sgr mutant. Based on the MtSGR sequence, an alfalfa SGR gene (MsSGR) was cloned, and transgenic alfalfa lines were produced by RNA interference. Silencing of MsSGR led to the production of stay-green transgenic alfalfa. This beneficial trait offers the opportunity to produce premium alfalfa hay with a more greenish appearance. In addition, most of the transgenic alfalfa lines retained more than 50% of chlorophylls during senescence and had increased crude protein content. This study illustrates the effective use of knowledge gained from a model system for the genetic improvement of an important commercial crop. PMID:21957014

  18. Tetrasomic Segregation for Multiple Alleles in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Quiros, Carlos F.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence of tetrasomic inheritance in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L., for multiple codominant alleles at three isozymic loci is reported in this study. The locus Prx-1 governing anodal peroxidase and the loci Lap-1 and Lap-2 governing anodal leucine-aminopeptidase were studied by starch gel electrophoresis in seedling root tissue or seeds. The progenies from several di-, tri- or tetra-allelic plants belong to the species M. sativa and M. falcata and their hybrids were studied for the segregation of the three genes. In all cases, tetrasomic inheritance of chromosomal-type segregation was observed. In another progeny resulting from the crossing of two plants involving four different alleles at locus Lap-2, tetrasomic segregation with the possible occurrence of double reduction was observed. This study presents direct evidence of autotetraploidy and the existence of tetra-allelic loci in alfalfa. It also supports the concept that the species M. sativa and M. falcata are genetically close enough to be considered biotypes of a common species. PMID:17246077

  19. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jorrin, Jesus; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    l-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase has been purified from elicitor-treated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cell suspension cultures using two protocols based on different sequences of chromatofocusing and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Three distinct forms of the intact enzyme were separated on the basis of affinity for Octyl-Sepharose, with isoelectric points in the range pH 5.1 to 5.4. The native enzyme was a tetramer of Mr 311,000; the intact subunit Mr was about 79,000, although polypeptides of Mr 71,000, 67,000 and 56,000, probably arising from degradation of the intact subunit, were observed in all preparations. Two-dimensional gel analysis revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of differing isoelectric points. The purified isoforms of the native enzyme had different Km values for l-phenylalanine in the range 40 to 110 micromolar, although mixtures of the forms in crude preparations exhibited apparent negative rate cooperativity. The enzyme activity was induced approximately 16-fold within 6 hours of exposure of alfalfa cells to a fungal elicitor or yeast extract. Analysis by hydrophobic interaction chromatography revealed different proportions of the different active enzyme isoforms, depending upon either time after elicitation or the elicitor used. The elicitor-induced increase in enzyme activity was associated with increased translatable phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA activity in the polysomal fraction. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:16667296

  20. Effect of processing high moisture ear corn on ruminal fermentation and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, C; Broderick, G A

    1997-12-01

    Thirty-six multiparous dairy cows (8 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 16 primiparous dairy cows were blocked by days in milk and parity and assigned to one of four diets containing 53% alfalfa silage [dry matter (DM) basis] plus 1) high moisture ear corn, 2) high moisture ear corn plus expeller soybean meal, 3) ground high moisture ear corn, or 4) ground high moisture ear corn plus expeller soybean meal. The high moisture ear corn was rolled before ensiling at 68% DM. Ground high moisture ear corn was prepared by further grinding through a 9.5-mm screen; grinding reduced the geometric mean particle size from 4.33 to 1.66 mm. Diets contained 1.69 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM. Relative to cows fed diet 1, milk yield was 4 kg/d greater for cows fed diet 2; numerically, milk yield was about 2 kg/d greater for cows fed diets 3 and 4 than for cows fed diet 1. Yield of milk components also was greater for cows fed diets 2 and 3 but not for cows fed diet 4. Intake of DM and yield of 4% FCM were greatest for cows fed diet 3 and lowest for cows fed diet 1. Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were increased, and ruminal NH3 concentration was depressed, by the grinding of high moisture corn; expeller soybean meal increased ruminal NH3. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not different among in vivo treatments, but the molar proportion of acetate decreased, and propionate increased, for cows fed diet 3. The grinding of high moisture corn significantly decreased pH, increased total volatile fatty acid concentration, and increased the rate of decline of NH3 concentration in ruminal in vitro incubations. Grinding improved the utilization of high moisture corn by lactating cows by stimulating ruminal fermentation.

  1. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  2. 64. ELECTRIC MOTOR HAYES STREET POWERHOUSE 1905: Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. ELECTRIC MOTOR - HAYES STREET POWERHOUSE - 1905: Photocopy of April 1905 photograph showing an early electric motor installation used to drive the winding machinery at the Hayes Street powerhouse of the United Railroads of San Francsico. A portion of the steam engine originally used to power the machinery is visible behind the winding sheave in the left background of the photograph. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Development of solid-supported Glaser-Hay couplings.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Valerie T; Lampkowski, Jessica S; Tyler, Ryan; Young, Douglas D

    2014-04-14

    While the Glaser-Hay coupling of terminal alkynes is a useful reaction, several issues associated with chemoselectivity preclude its widespread application in synthetic chemistry. To address these issues, a solid-supported Glaser-Hay methodology was developed to afford only asymmetric diyne products. This methodology was then applied to a series of immobilized alkynes with a diverse set of soluble alkynes to generate an array of heterocoupled products in high yields and purities.

  4. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  5. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  6. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  7. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  8. The alfalfa research program in USDA-ARS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa research is currently conducted by scientists employed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in nine laboratories located in Minnesota (Saint Paul), Wisconsin (Madison, Prairie du Sac, Marshfield), Maryland (Beltsville), Utah (Logan), Washington (Prosser, Pullman), and Iowa (Ames)....

  9. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.

  10. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  11. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  12. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) hay replacing Buffel grass hay.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Paulo André Vidal; Filho, José Morais Pereira; de Azevêdo Silva, Aderbal Marcos; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Bakke, Olaf Andreas; Silva, Uilma Laurentino; Borburema, Jucileide Barbosa; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) hay replacing Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Twenty-eight Santa Inês male lambs with an average body weight (BW) of 20.3 ± 1.49 kg(mean ± SD) were allocated in individual stalls and distributed in a completely random design with four treatments (0, 20, 40, and 60 g/100 g total DM M. tenuiflora hay replacing Buffel grass hay in diet) with seven replications. M. tenuiflora hay at the level of 20% dry matter (DM) total replacing Buffel grass hay increased final weight (P = 0.006), total weight gain (P < 0.001), average daily weight gain (ADWG; P < 0.001), DM intake (P < 0.001), and feed efficiency (P < 0.001). Intake of crude protein, NDFap, ADFap, ash, ether extract, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients presented a positive quadratic effect with M. tenuiflora hay replacing Buffel grass hay and 40 g/100 g total DM level presented greater intake. There were positive quadratic effects by M. tenuiflora hay inclusion at 20 g/100 g total DM level on slaughtering weight (P = 0.005), hot carcass weight (P = 0.002), cold carcass weight (P = 0.002), empty body weight (P = 0.001), hot carcass yield (P = 0.002), cold carcass yield (P = 0.003), and increase linear on biological yield (P = 0.003). There was no influence on cooling weight loss (P = 0.284). M. tenuiflora hay may be included in lamb diets at amounts up to 20 g/100 g total DM substitution of Buffel grass hay because increase in the nutrients intake, growth performance, and carcass characteristics.

  17. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  18. Voluntary intake and digestibility of teff hay fed to horses.

    PubMed

    Staniar, W B; Bussard, J R; Repard, N M; Hall, M H; Burk, A O

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient composition, voluntary DMI, and apparent DM digestibility of teff hay cut at 3 different stages of maturity to evaluate its potential as a preserved forage for horses. Six mature Quarter Horse mares (12 +/- 3 yr; 553 +/- 39 kg of BW) were used in a replicated balanced Latin square design with 3 periods and 3 maturities of teff hay. Eragrostis tef ('Tiffany' teff) was planted in May and harvested at the boot, early-heading, or late-heading stage of maturity through the summer. Horses were acclimated to a mixture of maturities of teff hay for 8 d before the beginning of the study. After this acclimation period, each period consisted of a 9-d voluntary DMI phase, followed by a 3-d DM digestibility phase. The percentages of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) increased from 5.4% in the boot stage to 8.4% in the late-heading stage, whereas concentrations of CP, K, Fe, and Mn decreased. The Ca:P ratio was 2.0 ± 0.3 for all maturities. Horses had less DMI of late-heading teff hay (1.5% BW) than teff hay of other maturities (1.8% BW; P < 0.05), indicating a preference for the earlier maturities. The intake and nutrient composition of the boot and early-heading maturities was sufficient to meet 90 to 97% of the average DE of the horses and most other nutrient requirements. Digestibility decreased from boot to late-heading teff hay for DM, CP, ADF, and NDF (P < 0.05). Digestibility increased from boot to early-heading to late-heading hay for nonfiber carbohydrates and water-soluble carbohydrates (P < 0.05). For all maturities of teff hay, the NSC intake was below 10% of the total intake. In conclusion, the low NSC and DE of teff hay grown in central Pennsylvania under the conditions in this study make it an appropriate forage source for obese horses and those at risk for laminitis or other metabolic disorders.

  19. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  20. Alfalfa benefits from Medicago truncatula: The RCT1 gene from M. truncatula confers broad-spectrum resistance to anthracnose in alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengming; Gao, Muqiang; Xu, Chenwu; Gao, Jianchang; Deshpande, Shweta; Lin, Shaoping; Roe, Bruce A.; Zhu, Hongyan

    2008-01-01

    Alfalfa is economically the most important forage legume worldwide. A recurrent challenge to alfalfa production is the significant yield loss caused by disease. Although knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance should facilitate the genetic improvement of alfalfa, the acquisition of such knowledge is hampered by alfalfa's tetrasomic inheritance and outcrossing nature. However, alfalfa is congeneric with the reference legume Medicago truncatula, providing an opportunity to use M. truncatula as a surrogate to clone the counterparts of many agronomically important genes in alfalfa. In particular, the high degree of sequence identity and remarkably conserved genome structure and function between the two species enables M. truncatula genes to be used directly in alfalfa improvement. Here we report the map-based cloning of RCT1, a host resistance (R) gene in M. truncatula that confers resistance to multiple races of Colletotrichum trifolii, a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease of alfalfa. RCT1 is a member of the Toll-interleukin-1 receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of plant R genes and confers broad-spectrum anthracnose resistance when transferred into susceptible alfalfa plants. Thus, RCT1 provides a novel resource to develop anthracnose-resistant alfalfa cultivars and contributes to our understanding of host resistance against the fungal genus Colletotrichum. This work demonstrates the potential of using M. truncatula genes for genetic improvement of alfalfa. PMID:18719113

  1. Site of nutrient digestion by dairy cows fed corn of different particle sizes or steam-rolled.

    PubMed

    Callison, S L; Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L; Hull, B L

    2001-06-01

    Five primiparous Holstein cows were cannulated in the rumen, duodenum, and ileum and were fed diets containing 50% alfalfa silage and 36.6% coarse-, medium-, or fine-ground corn (CGC, MGC, and FGC, respectively, with mean particle sizes of 4.8, 2.6, or 1.2 mm), steam-rolled corn (SRC; density of 0.53 kg/L), or a 50:50 mix of CGC and SRC (SC) to evaluate how corn processing affects site of digestibility of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Decreasing the particle size of corn quadratically affected true ruminal digestibility of NSC (49.8, 46.5, and 87.0%, respectively). Because of compensatory digestion postruminally, a smaller increase (from 91.3 to 98.0%) in total tract digestibility of NSC was noted as particle size decreased. A small but significant linear shift in NDF digestion from the rumen to the large intestine was detected as corn particle size decreased. The addition of SRC to CGC linearly increased true NSC digestibility in the rumen about 20 percentage units but had much smaller effects on total tract digestibility. Despite the large impact of corn processing on NSC digestibility in the rumen, flow of bacterial N to the rumen was not affected by treatment. Reducing the particle size of corn decreased the apparent escape of corn protein, but steam-rolling had no effect. Corn should be finely ground to maximize total tract OM digestibility or steam-processed to densities less than 0.53 kg/L for maximal starch digestibility. However, fine-grinding or steam-processing of corn may have only a modest impact on total tract OM digestibility.

  2. COMMENT ON PAPER BY HAYES, HASKELL, AND KENNER [Letter

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L R.; Shishkina, Elena A.; Shved, Valentina A.; Degteva, M O.; Tolstykh, E I.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2003-11-01

    Hayes et al. (2002) have presented an ''EPR model'' for separating internal 90Sr doses from external gamma-ray doses in teeth and propose application to the ''Techa River population.'' Dose reconstruction for members of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) has been a focus of our studies for many years (Degteva et al. 2000a,b; 2002), and it is disappointing that Hayes et al. did not discuss this issue with us. It is our opinion that the model proposed by Hayes et al. cannot be regarded as applicable, because it is based on unrealistic assumptions. Their ''simplified'' model is far from simple, except for its unrealistic characterization of the source configuration of 90Sr deposited within the tooth. Our objections to this paper are numerous, and only the more important are given.

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host.

  4. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated...

  5. Degree-day requirements for alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) development in eastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, A R; Wright, R J; Hunt, T E; Blankenship, E E

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), is a serious, yet sporadic defoliator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., in Nebraska. A 2-yr study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to test for variation in degree-day requirements by location in eastern Nebraska. Sampling took place along a latitudinal gradient in three regions of eastern Nebraska. Three fields were sampled in each region during the 2 yr of the study. Alfalfa weevil larval degree-day requirements were found to vary by latitude in eastern Nebraska. Alfalfa weevil larvae were discovered in southern regions after fewer developmental degree-days had accumulated than in fields in the northern regions. Alfalfa weevils may be more damaging to alfalfa in southern regions than in northern regions of eastern Nebraska because they emerge earlier relative to alfalfa growth. Management implications of this shift in alfalfa weevil phenology are discussed.

  6. Development and Optimization of Glaser-Hay Bioconjugations.

    PubMed

    Lampkowski, Jessica S; Villa, Jordan K; Young, Travis S; Young, Douglas D

    2015-08-03

    The prevalence of bioconjugates in the biomedical sciences necessitates the development of novel mechanisms to facilitate their preparation. Towards this end, the translation of the Glaser-Hay coupling to an aqueous environment is examined, and its potential as a bioorthogonal conjugation reaction is demonstrated. This optimized, novel, and aqueous Glaser-Hay reaction is applied towards the development of bioconjugates utilizing protein expressed with an alkynyl unnatural amino acid. Unnatural amino acid technology provides a degree of bioorthognality and specificity not feasible with other methods. Moreover, the scope of the reaction is demonstrated through protein-small molecule couplings, small-molecule-solid-support couplings, and protein-solid-support immobilizations.

  7. Controlling herbicide-resistant weeds: consider incorporating alfalfa in a corn/soybean rotation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide resistant weeds (HRW) are a serious problem in the U.S. In 1968, the first confirmed case of herbicide resistance in weeds was reported in Washington state. In the 46 years since, the number of HRW in the U.S. has increased dramatically. A major reason for the recent increase in HRW has be...

  8. Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles.

  9. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  10. Comparison of alternative methods, sample grinds, and fermentation times for determining indigestible neutral detergent fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of sample grind, fermentation method, and time on the determination of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF). Samples of: 1) alfalfa hay and silage, 2) corn stalks and silage, and 3) ryegrass and mixed grass hays were ground through 2-m...

  11. Digestion of feed amino acids in the rumen and intestine of steers measured using a mobile nylon bag technique.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Valizadeh, R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Stanford, K

    2005-05-01

    The disappearance of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) in steers after rumen incubation and intestinal passage of alfalfa hay, barley hay, corn silage, barley grain, corn grain, wheat bran, meat meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal, and soybean meal were measured in 3 steers using a mobile nylon bag technique. Ruminal degradation of individual AA differed between feedstuffs. For barley hay and corn silage, the ruminal disappearance of total AA was higher and lower than the other feedstuffs, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of total AA in alfalfa hay was lower than the digestion of CP. The intestinal digestibility of Arg and His was higher than that of total AA in alfalfa hay, meat meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, barley hay, and wheat bran. In addition, the intestinal digestibility of Lys was higher than that of total AA in alfalfa hay, meat meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, barley hay, corn silage, and wheat bran. The intestinal disappearance of CP in most cases was higher than that of DM. The results indicated that feedstuffs with lower ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, total AA, essential AA, and nonessential AA generally had a higher intestinal disappearance, resulting in a relatively constant total tract disappearance. These results could be used to improve the current system of diet formulation in ruminants.

  12. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    PubMed

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake.

  13. Effect of wheat and corn variety on fiber digestion in beef steers fed high-grain diets.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Philippeau, C; Michalet-Doreau, B

    1999-08-01

    Six Salers steers, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, were used in a double 3x3 Latin square design to assess the depressive effect of the nature of wheat, flint corn, and dent corn on fiber digestion in animals fed high-concentrate diets, and to determine the mechanisms involved in these negative digestive effects. Diets were balanced to be equal in starch content (47.7+/-2.3%). The three cereals were characterized by ruminal starch digestibilities of 86.6, 60.8, and 34.8% for the wheat, dent corn, and flint corn, respectively. Ruminal digestion of NDF was lower with wheat- than with corn-based diets (49.4 vs. 55.2%; P<.001), and with dent corn than with flint corn (53 vs. 57.3%; P<.01). Degradability of hay in nylon bags was not affected by the grain source in the diet (P>.1). The mean retention time of forage particles in the rumen was similar between wheat and corn diets (P>.1), but it was lower for steers fed dent corn than for those fed flint corn (P<.05). Most fibrolytic activities of the solid-associated microorganisms were lower (P<.05) in animals fed wheat than in those fed corn. Differences in fibrolytic activities of the solid-associated microorganisms between the two corn genotypes were not statistically significant (P>.1), but activities of all fibrolytic enzymes were lower (P<.05) with the dent than with the flint corn diet. Protozoal number in ruminal fluid was lower in animals receiving wheat than in those fed corn (177 vs. 789x10(3)/mL; P<.001) and was related to the high ruminal acidity (P<.01) of the wheat diet. Large modifications in the rumen microbial ecosystem between the two corn genotypes were not visible in protozoal numbers or pH. Total-tract digestion of NDF was the same for wheat and for corn diets, averaging 55% for the three diets. A postruminal compensation of NDF digestion (14% of the total tract NDF digestion) seemed to occur with the wheat diet. The lack of any postruminal NDF digestion (0%) with the two corn diets may

  14. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  15. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: Widespread distribution of race 2 in Minnesota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strong seedling establishment in alfalfa is important to achieve the plant density needed to out-compete weeds and produce high biomass yields. Establishing alfalfa can be challenging because alfalfa seeds and seedlings are vulnerable to several pathogens present in soil. Wet soil conditions favor t...

  16. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  17. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  18. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  19. Enhancing pollination by attracting & retaining leaf cutting bees (Megachile rotundata) in alfalfa seed production fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), has become an important managed pollinator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. One problem when using alfalfa leafcutting bees as managed pollinator, is the dispersal of many females upon release, even when adequate nesting sites are present. While d...

  20. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  1. Seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota caused by Pythium and Fusarium species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in the Midwestern U.S. are lacking. Pathogens were isolated by a seedling baiting technique from soil of five alfalfa fields in Minnesota with high levels...

  2. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  3. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Bentley, G; Trevino, S G

    1996-06-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses.

  4. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  5. Foliar diseases of corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  6. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-12-07

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l(-1) CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe(3)O(4)-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe(3)O(4). CNTs bearing Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up.

  7. Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern South Dakota on alfalfa and soybean relative to tillage, fertilization, and yield.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S

    2010-06-01

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is constructed of hand-hewn, 10" square post and beams with mortise and tenon, pegged joints. The photograph also shows the hayfork and track, double doors on the north façade, and window opening. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. International Students at Fort Hays State University: An Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Joe D.

    This paper presents a summary of selected data and issues related to international education at Fort Hays State University (FHSU) in Kansas focusing specifically on international student populations. The paper also outlines results of recent initiatives to increase international student enrollment at FHSU together with a summary of arguments…

  10. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  11. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated,…

  12. Maturity and Regrowth Influences on Quality of Caucasian Bluestem Hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’], appears adapted to the mid-Atlantic region. Three experiments (Exp.), one with sheep and two with steers were conducted to assess hay quality. In Exp. 1, initial growth was cut at early boot, anthesis, and post-anthesis and...

  13. Soil changes after hay meadow abandonment in southwestern Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    M. Dean Knighton

    1977-01-01

    Soil properties were monitored in early spring and late fall for 3 years following hay meadow abandonment. Bulk density decreased, organic carbon increased, total porosity increased in the large pore fraction, and infiltration rate increased 100%. Earthworm activity was considered to be primarily responsible for the improvement.

  14. Winter cereals as a pasture-hay system in Montana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006-2008 ‘Willow Creek’ winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ‘Trical 102’ triticale (X Triticosecale Wttn.) were evaluated, under dryland conditions, for biomass production and forage quality under grazing and haying systems. Grazing enclosures were constructed in uniform sites of the fields....

  15. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  16. Swimming pool attendance and hay fever rates later in life.

    PubMed

    Kohlhammer, Y; Döring, A; Schäfer, T; Wichmann, H-E; Heinrich, J

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to chlorination by-products through swimming pool attendance showed adverse health effects on children. The aim of our study was to assess whether pool attendance in childhood would be related to higher rates of allergic diseases in adulthood, with special regard to hay fever. 2606 adults aged 35-74 years provided retrospectively collected information on swimming pool attendance and medical history, including data on atopic diseases. Information was assessed by a combination of a personal interview and a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to study associations between hay fever and swimming pool attendance, adjusted for potentially relevant confounders, such as age, gender, region, education and smoking. Higher rates of hay fever could be seen when frequently exposed at school age (aOR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.09-2.77), frequently exposed during the past 12 months (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.92-1.89) and ever exposed (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.98-2.78). Strongest associations were found for the youngest subjects and were dose-related to the extent of current and school-age pool attendance. Impaired integrity of the lung epithelial by exposure to chlorination by-products might facilitate a closer contact to allergens and therefore could result in higher rates of hay fever.

  17. New Developments in Grass Breeding for Hay and Haylage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ew forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season and warm-season forage grasses used for hay or haylage production and some with potential as biofuel crops....

  18. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  19. A broader definition of occupancy: Comment on Hayes and Monfils

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Martha M. Ellis; Courtney L. Amundson

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy models are widely used to analyze presence-absence data for a variety of taxa while accounting for observation error (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2006; Tyre et al. 2003; Royle and Dorazio 2008). Hayes and Monfils (2015) question their use for analyzing avian point count data based on purported violations of model assumptions incurred by avian mobility....

  20. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program and Special Bilateral Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program and Special Bilateral Projects provides short-term study and travel seminars abroad for U.S. educators in the social sciences and humanities for the purpose of improving their understanding and knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. There are approximately 10 seminars with 16 participants…

  1. On Interdisciplinary Curriculum: A Conversation with Heidi Hayes Jacobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1991-01-01

    The editor of ASCD's "Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Design and Implementation," Heidi Hayes Jacobs, has worked with hundreds of schools to discover best curriculum planning practices. She finds doing too much at once and forcing subject overlaps the biggest obstacles to interdisciplinary curriculum planning. Moving to standardized…

  2. A different voice: Mary Hays's the Memoirs of Emma Courtney.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A

    2001-01-01

    Mary Hays wrote in the decade of the 1790s, a period of intense creative flowering in England. Writing in a period enshrined to the works of the canonical Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hays explored through her Jacobinical novel, The Memoirs of Emma Courtney, the contentious relationship between self and society. Like other Jacobin women writers - Elizabeth Inchbald, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft - Mary Hays too used her novel to explode the insidious connection between education and gender construction. Emma Courtney is a landmark novel that wrestles with the paradigm of decorum and propriety which disallows women from voicing their aspirations. In the process, Hays merges the plots of the domestic novel of courtship and love with the novel of ideas to create a searing portrait of women's intellectual confinement and psychic dissonance in a society that only projects them in terms of their gender construction. Memoirs of Emma Courtney is a remarkable novel in its depiction of the emotional imbalance created by thwarted desire: intellectual and sexual.

  3. Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad program provides grants to colleges and universities to fund individual doctoral students to conduct research in other countries in modern foreign languages and area studies for periods of six to 12 months. This program holds an annual competition. Institutions of higher education in the…

  4. 40 CFR 180.626 - Prothioconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts permillion Alfalfa, forage 0.02 Alfalfa, hay 0.02 Beet, sugar, roots 0.25 Corn, sweet kernel..., cereal, group 15, except sweet corn and sorghum 0.35 Pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C 0.9 Peanut 0.02 Potato 0.02 Rapeseed, seed 0.15 Rice, hulls 0.90 Soybean, forage 4.5 Soybean...

  5. 40 CFR 180.626 - Prothioconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts permillion Alfalfa, forage 0.02 Alfalfa, hay 0.02 Beet, sugar, roots 0.25 Corn, sweet kernel..., cereal, group 15, except sweet corn and sorghum 0.35 Pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C 0.9 Peanut 0.02 Potato 0.02 Rapeseed, seed 0.15 Rice, hulls 0.90 Soybean, forage 4.5 Soybean...

  6. Effect of ensiling alfalfa at low and high dry matter on production of milk used to make Grana cheese.

    PubMed

    Colombari, G; Borreani, G; Crovetto, G M

    2001-11-01

    The effect of alfalfa ensiled in bunker silos at high moisture [HM, 34% dry matter (DM)] and low moisture (LM, 56% DM) content on milk production and Grana Padano cheese quality was studied. Forty Italian Friesian lactating cows were allotted to two groups and fed, in a crossover design experiment, two corn silage-based diets containing 27% of the total DM as HM or LM. Each of the two periods included 10 d of adaptation and 3 experimental weeks. Forage was cut in the mid-vegetative stage with, on average, 34% neutral detergent fiber and 19% crude protein (DM basis). The two alfalfa silages showed a different fermentation pattern with 4.04 and 1.25% of lactic acid, 1.95 and 0.42% of acetic acid, 9.1 and 4.8% of total N ammonia-N for HM and LM, respectively. No butyric acid was found. Clostridial spores and yeast showed no growth in both silages except in the first 2 wk of the experiment where slight aerobic deterioration occurred. The HM treatment resulted in slightly lower DM intake (19.3 vs. 19.9 kg/d) and milk protein content (3.33 vs. 3.38%), higher milk fat content (3.56 vs. 3.37%), and 4% fat-corrected milk (25.7 vs. 24.4 kg/d). Totally, 38 cheeses obtained from over 19 tons of milk with an average yield efficiency of 6.8%, were produced. The milk renneting and microbiological properties and the cheese quality were not significantly different between treatments. However, both treatments had on average 40% of low quality (butyric fermentation) cheeses observed mainly in the first 2 wk of the experiment, when the number of clostridial spores found in alfalfa silages was significantly higher than in the subsequent weeks. The data obtained suggest that the microbial quality of milk depends more on careful management and monitoring all of the steps in milk production, from silage harvest through to cheese making, than on the moisture level of alfalfa silage, provided that the latter is in a range of 35 to 55% DM.

  7. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease.

  8. Transformation of nitrogen contained in alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal into milk, manure and recycled back to corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To better understand the transformative nature of feed nitrogen (N) on confinement dairy farms (cows fed stored feed in barns), a series of cow, laboratory, and field experiments was undertaken to quantify the relative amounts of N contained in individual ration components that are secreted in milk,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  14. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  15. Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2012-09-01

    Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), a byproduct of the wet-milling industry, is commonly substituted in lactating dairy rations for both forages and concentrates. Previous research has shown that increasing WCGF in the diet decreased ruminal pH, likely due in part to decreasing particle size as forage inclusion rate decreased. The objective of this study was to maintain at least 10% of ration particles >19 mm in length across diets while increasing WCGF inclusion in the diet. We hypothesized that as WCGF increased in this scenario, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield would increase and ruminal pH would be maintained. Seven ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows (4 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in an incomplete 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments included 0, 12.4, 24.5, or 35.1% WCGF and used alfalfa hay to maintain particle size. Across treatments, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were held relatively constant. Four 21-d periods were used with 17d of adaptation and 4d of sample collection. Indwelling ruminal pH probes were used during sampling periods and recorded pH every 5 min. Particle size of total mixed rations and orts were analyzed using a Penn State Particle Separator (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park). Results were analyzed with mixed models to test the fixed effect of treatment. All diets contained ≥10% of particles >19 mm; however, as WCGF increased, the proportion of particles >19 mm decreased. Interestingly, with increasing WCGF, cows sorted for the particles >19 mm but against particles on the bottom screen and pan. With increasing WCGF, ruminal pH was not affected, but DMI and milk yield increased in a quadratic fashion, with the peak responses for the 24.5% WCGF diet. Milk protein, lactose, and fat concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, milk protein and lactose yields increased with the inclusion of WCGF because of the increased milk yield. Production efficiency was not

  16. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  17. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Su, Huawei; Akins, Matt S; Esser, Nancy M; Ogden, Robin; Coblentz, Wayne K; Kalscheur, Kenneth F; Hatfield, Ron

    2017-09-01

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems contain high fiber and moderate protein content and have the potential to be used to replace straw to reduce dietary energy. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intakes, digestibilities, growth performance, and feeding behaviors of dairy heifers offered an alfalfa silage/corn silage high-energy diet (HE; 13.1% crude protein, 65.4% total digestible nutrients, 39.7% neutral detergent fiber) with 2 energy-diluted diets that replaced various proportions of the corn or alfalfa silages with either alfalfa stemlage (STM; 12.6% crude protein, 59.1% total digestible nutrients, 46.4% neutral detergent fiber) or chopped wheat straw (WS; 12.6% crude protein, 61.9% total digestible nutrients, 43.7% neutral detergent fiber). Seventy-two pregnant Holstein heifers (16.8 ± 1.3 mo) were stratified into 3 blocks (24 heifers/block) by initial body weight (light, 440 ± 18.0 kg; medium, 486 ± 18.6 kg; heavy, 534 ± 25.1 kg), with each block composed of 3 pens (8 heifers/pen), with diets assigned randomly to 1 pen within the block. Diets were offered in a 56-d feeding trial. Both dry matter intake and energy intake were decreased with the addition of low-energy forages to the diets, but no differences in dry matter intake were observed across diluted diets. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and apparent N were greater for HE compared with diluted diets, and for WS compared with STM. Total body weight gain (74 vs. 56 kg) and average daily gain (1.32 vs. 1.00 kg/d) were greater for heifers offered HE compared with diluted diets. Feed efficiency tended to be less for heifers offered the diluted diets compared with HE (10.7 vs. 8.6 kg of feed/kg of gain). Heifers did not

  18. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M Laura; Murúa, M Gabriela; García, M Gabriela; Ontivero, Marta; Vera, M Teresa; Vilardi, Juan C; Groot, Astrid T; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference differences between them, and field studies showed high rates of hybridization, as well as some degree asymmetric host use. To determine the distribution of the two strains and their association with host plants, we collected fall armyworm larvae from different crops (corn, rice, alfalfa, and sorghum) and grasses in 15 different localities over 4 yr in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The strain identity was analyzed using two polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. We identified the corn and rice haplotypes and three types of populations were characterized based on the frequencies of the individuals that belonged to any of these haplotypes: in 44% of populations the corn haplotype predominated, in 44% of populations the rice haplotype was the most frequent, and 11% of populations showed both haplotypes at similar proportions. In total, eight populations (47%) showed the expected pattern, two populations (12%) were polymorphic within the same field, and seven populations (41%) showed the inverse pattern. Taken together, there was no consistent pattern of host association between the two sympatric genotypes and their respective host plants. This investigation supports the need for additional studies to determine which other forces keep the genotypes separate, and what is the degree of genetic differentiation between these populations.

  19. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  20. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  1. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  2. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  3. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  4. Effect of mid-summer haying on growth and reproduction in prairie forbs

    Treesearch

    Becky Begay; Helen M. Alexander; Erin Questad

    2011-01-01

    Mid-summer haying is a common management practice for prairies; plant species could differ in the effect of haying on subsequent growth and reproduction. We examined the effect of haying on prairie species by performing a clipping experiment. For each of seven species, sixteen plants were chosen and half were randomly assigned to a clipping treatment and half to a...

  5. 9 CFR 95.21 - Hay and straw; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay and straw; requirements for... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.21 Hay and straw; requirements for unrestricted entry. Except as provided in §...

  6. 9 CFR 95.22 - Hay and straw; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay and straw; importations permitted... ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.22 Hay and straw; importations permitted subject to...

  7. Effectiveness of buffered propionic-acid preservatives for large hay packages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most hay producers realize that hays packaged in large-round or large-square bales are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating, dry matter losses, and negative changes in forage quality. During the last two decades, this has become an important dilemma for hay producers because the cost and av...

  8. Forage conservation efficiency and lactation response to bahiagrass conserved as barn-stored hay, outdoor-stored hay, or baleage.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M E; Han, K J; Moreira, V R; Blouin, D C; Forbes, S

    2011-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of conserving bahiagrass as outdoor-stored hay (OSH), barn-stored hay (BSH), or baleage (BAL) on storage losses and lactation performance by Holstein cows. For baleage production, bahiagrass forage was cut and allowed to dry for 20 h in windrows, baled (1.2 × 1.4 m), and individually wrapped with white stretch film. Forage cut on the same day was dried to hay stage, baled (1.2 × 1.6 m round bales), and stored either outdoors (OSH) or in an enclosed hay barn (BSH). Bales were core sampled and weighed at harvest and again following a 6-mo storage period. At the end of the storage period, 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows [39.2 ± 5.6 kg of 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 142 ± 27 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 forage conservation treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common partial mixed ration in a 10-d covariate period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Forage dry matter losses were highest for OSH, but were similar between BSH and baleage. Conservation method had little effect on poststorage crude protein levels, but acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were higher in OSH than in either BSH or BAL, which resulted in a 12.8% depression in net energy for OSH compared with the other treatments. Dry matter intake (20.5 vs. 22.1 kg/d) and milk yield (28.2 vs. 30.2 kg/d) tended to be lower for OSH than for BSH. Lactation performance was similar between BSH and BAL: 29.6 versus 28.7 kg/d of fat-corrected milk, respectively. No differences in milk composition, feed efficiency, body weight, or body condition score change related to conservation system were observed. In this study, dry matter losses and lactation performance from bahiagrass conserved as baleage were similar to that of similar forage stored indoors as hay, whereas hay stored outside resulted in less satisfactory

  9. Management of seedling damping-off of alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A vigorous and productive alfalfa stand starts with strong and uniform seedling establishment. Seed rot and seedling damping-off are a significant cause of poor stand establishment in wet soils. A number of organisms cause seed rot and seedling damping-off including several species of Pythium. As a ...

  10. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  11. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  12. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  13. Oxidative burst in alfalfa-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction.

    PubMed

    Santos, R; Hérouart, D; Sigaud, S; Touati, D; Puppo, A

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as an early event in plant defense response against avirulent pathogens. We show here that alfalfa responds to infection with Sinorhizobium meliloti by production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. This similarity in the early response to infection by pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria addresses the question of which mechanism rhizobia use to counteract the plant defense response.

  14. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  15. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  16. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  17. Alfalfa genomics: importance to sustainability and ecological services

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of genomic approaches has the potential to impact alfalfa improvement for any number of traits. We have focused on using genomic and molecular approaches to understand how symbiotic nitrogen fixation, acclimation to phosphorus stress, and cell wall synthesis processes are regulated in alfalf...

  18. The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

  19. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  20. Strategies for managing foliar and root rot diseases of alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diseases can be a major source of yield loss and stand decline in alfalfa. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution of pathogens for which there is limited resistance in commercial varieties and tests were done with new crop chemicals to determine their effectiveness in controlling sever...

  1. Soil particulate organic matter response to incorporation of alfalfa regrowth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the potential effects of climate change have driven a need to understand the potential of agricultural soils to store carbon (C). In Midwestern cropping systems, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has received attention from researchers because including it in crop r...

  2. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  3. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  5. Lignin modification leads to increased nodule numbers in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K; Monteros, Maria J; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials.

  6. Hay fever treatments — which should be tried first?

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, M.F.; Tooley, M.; Charlton, J.R.H.

    1987-01-01

    A series of comparative trials on nine popular and pharmacologically distinct regimens for the treatment of hay fever was undertaken in the course of normal general practice in the pollen seasons of 1981-83. One hundred and forty doctors recruited 640 patients to assess the overall usefulness of the treatments on daily diaries. `Usefulness' was scored on a linear analogue scale weighing up the degree of hay fever symptoms during treatment, side effects and ease of use of the preparation. The regimen with the highest overall usefulness score was beclomethasone diproprionate with sodium cromoglycate eye drops (Beconase and Opticrom). Although the score was not significantly higher than those for methylprednisolone acetate (Depo-Medrone), astemizole (Hismanal) or terfenadine (Triludan), Beconase/Opticrom scored significantly better than mequitazine (Primalan), chlorpheniramine maleate (Piriton), sodium cromoglycate nasal insufflation with xylometazoline/antazoline eye drops (Rynacrom and Otrivine-Antistin) and azatadine maleate (Optimine). Beconase/Opticrom was first in rank order with respect to all the other regimens for the treatment of both mild and severe hay fever. Dimethothiazine (Banistyl), also shown to be useful, has since been withdrawn from prescription. PMID:2896796

  7. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  8. Quality Evaluation of Biscuits Supplemented with Alfalfa Seed Flour

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Fahim; Ahmad, Sajjad; Wahab, Said; Zeb, Alam; Khan Khattak, Mansoor; Khan, Saleem; Kang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alfalfa seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of refined wheat flour-based biscuits was studied. The proximate composition of refined wheat flour and alfalfa seed flour was determined. Refined wheat flour contained 12.43% moisture, 11.52% crude protein, 1.61% crude fat, 0.71% crude fiber, 1.43% ash and 70.83% nitrogen free extract, while alfalfa seed flour contained 5.79%, 29.49%, 12.71%, 5.53%, 4.80% and 41.73% moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract correspondingly. Alfalfa seed flour at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% supplementation levels was incorporated in refined wheat flour to produce composite flour. The biscuits prepared were subjected to quality evaluation. Physical analysis of biscuits disclosed that supplementation of alfalfa seed flour decreased the width from 47.25 to 42 mm and the spread factor from 62.7 to 53.12, while it increased the thickness from 7.53 to 8.10 mm. Supplementation of refined wheat flour–based biscuits with alfalfa seed flour at different inclusion levels significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crude protein content from 10.19% to 15.30%, the crude fiber content from 0.73% to 1.62%, the crude fat content from 17.46% to 21.59% and the ash content from 1.37% to 1.92%, whereas it decreased the moisture content from 3.57% to 3.26% and the nitrogen free extract from 66.90% to 59.32%. The effect of supplementation on the mineral contents of biscuits was also significant (p < 0.05). Potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc contents increased from 105.30, 14.65, 43.91, 3.74 and 0.94 to 145.00, 26.64, 79.60, 7.93 and 1.60 mg/100 g, respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed that the quality score of biscuits in terms of color, taste, texture and overall acceptability decreased with increased supplementation. The present research work confirmed that a maximum of 10% alfalfa seed flour supplementation in refined wheat flour could produce acceptable biscuits with an

  9. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance.

  10. Effects of processing corn on the carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Letícia Silva; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Carvalho, Roberta Ferreira; Pesce, Domingos Marcelo Cenachi; Da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Gallo, Sarita Bonagurio; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effect of the corn grain processing (whole grain, dry beans ground, and wet grain) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in lambs. Twenty-two Dorper vs. Santa Inês uncastrated lambs (27 ± 4 kg BW; ±3 months old) were distributed in a randomized complete block (initial BW). The diets were composed of 20 % protein-mineral pellet, 5 % hay, and 75 % corn in the form of whole grain, ground grain, or wet grain. The harvest weight of animals fed whole corn (50.2 kg) and ground (49.03 kg) were equal and higher than the moisture corn fed lambs (44.89 kg); therefore, the same differences were expected to be seen in the cold vs hot carcass comparison. However, there was no difference between treatments comparing hot or cold carcass performance, averaging 47 and 46 %, respectively. Also unaffected by the treatments were subcutaneous fat thickness values, loin muscle area, pH, temperature, drip loss, water loss by cooking, color, and tenderness. It can be concluded that the shape and size of corn grain in diets of high concentrate resulted in no measurable influence on carcass traits, but whole grain is more easily managed by the producer.

  11. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  12. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  13. Expression of β-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Joyce A.; Kalengamaliro, Newton E.; Cunningham, Suzanne M.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of β-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a β-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The β-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant β-amylases. Starch concentrations, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase mRNA levels were measured in roots of alfalfa after defoliation, in suspension-cultured cells incubated in sucrose-rich or -deprived media, and in roots of cold-acclimated germ plasms. Starch levels, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase transcripts were reduced significantly in roots of defoliated plants and in sucrose-deprived cell cultures. β-Amylase transcript was high in roots of intact plants but could not be detected 2 to 8 d after defoliation. β-Amylase transcript levels increased in roots between September and October and then declined 10-fold in November and December after shoots were killed by frost. Alfalfa roots contain greater β-amylase transcript levels compared with roots of sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Southern analysis indicated that β-amylase is present as a multigene family in alfalfa. Our results show no clear association between β-amylase activity or transcript abundance and starch hydrolysis in alfalfa roots. The great abundance of β-amylase and its unexpected patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation support our current belief that this protein serves a storage function in roots of this perennial species. PMID:9847126

  14. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 2464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and most were up-regulated at early (4 h) and/or late (24 h) Al exposure time points rather than at the middle exposure time point (8 h). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the DEGs involved in ribosome, protein biosynthesis, and process, the citrate cycle, membrane transport, and hormonal regulation were preferentially enriched and regulated. Biosynthesis inhibition and signal transduction downstream of auxin- and ethylene-mediated signals occur during alfalfa responses to root growth inhibition. The internal Al detoxification mechanisms play important roles in alfalfa roots under Al stress. These findings provide valuable information for identifying and characterizing important components in the Al signaling network in alfalfa and enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress. PMID:28217130

  15. Dairy slurry application effect on alfalfa silage fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many dairy farmers rely increasingly on corn silage to meet their forage needs. While the efficiencies associated with the production, harvest, and storage of corn silage are attractive, a less-desirable corollary of this management trend is the increased linkage of manure distribution with producti...

  16. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression in fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an adaptive trait in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). It appeared in the regrowth process in late summer or early autumn after alfalfa was harvested. FD affects the biomass accumulation and winter survival in high latitude area. However, the molecular mechanism under FD is still not clear at present. Performing RNA-seq of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties at different time points, we obtained differentially expressed genes between different FD types or time points. These differentially expressed genes may relate to FD in alfalfa. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study (Zhang S et al., De novo Characterization of Fall Dormant and Nondormant Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Relate to Fall Dormancy, submitted for publication) for reproducible research. Data generated in our work provide a resource to help decipher the molecular mechanism of FD in alfalfa. PMID:26484109

  17. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  18. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng; Liu, Dongxia; Sun, Bingda; Ruan, Liu; Ma, Zhanhong; Wang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis), rust (caused by Uromyces striatus), Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana) and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis) are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering) and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis). After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection), disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features) was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  19. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa ensiled with a lactic acid bacterial inoculant.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Beauchemin, K A; Muck, R E; Weimer, P J

    2012-01-01

    Some silage inoculants help to improve silage quality and promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) would be different in cows fed alfalfa ensiled with the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LP) compared with those fed alfalfa ensiled without the inoculant (Ctrl). Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were allotted to 2 diets (Ctrl or LP) in a double crossover design with four 28-d periods. Diets were formulated to contain (% dry matter basis) 28.0% neutral detergent fiber and 16.2% crude protein, and contained alfalfa silage, 50.9; corn silage, 20.6; high-moisture shelled corn, 21.4; soy hulls, 4.7; plus minerals and vitamins, 2.4. Ruminal digesta were collected just before feeding on 3 consecutive days near the end of each period, and were separated into solid and liquid phases. Microbial DNA was extracted from each phase, amplified by PCR using domain-level bacterial primers, and subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The pH was 4.56 and 4.86 and the lactate-to-acetate ratio 9.8 and 4.4, respectively, for the treated and untreated alfalfa silages. Dry matter intakes and milk production data were not influenced by diets but showed a cow effect. Total volatile fatty acids (mM) tended to be greater for LP compared with Ctrl. Individual volatile fatty acids were not influenced by diets but showed a significant cow effect. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower and propionate (mol/100 mol) greater for the 2 milk fat-depressed (MFD; <3.2% fat content) cows compared with the other 6 cows. Correspondence analysis of the 265 peaks in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis profile across the 188 samples revealed that the first 2 components contributed 7.1 and 3.8% to the total variation in the profile. The ordination points representing the liquid and solid phases clustered separately

  20. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.

  1. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  2. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  3. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  4. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  7. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  8. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  9. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  10. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  11. "Hay Sacks Anonymous": Living in the Shadow of the Unidentified. Psychological Aspects of Physical Inactivity from a Phenomenological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Anni; Norlander, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The present qualitative study emanates from a phenomenological perspective and has the purpose of creating an understanding for what a so-called hay sack is as well as understanding the experiences of a hay sack. In this context a hay sack refers to a person with low physical activity. Eight hay sacks between 36-58 years of age were interviewed…

  12. "Hay Sacks Anonymous": Living in the Shadow of the Unidentified. Psychological Aspects of Physical Inactivity from a Phenomenological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Anni; Norlander, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The present qualitative study emanates from a phenomenological perspective and has the purpose of creating an understanding for what a so-called hay sack is as well as understanding the experiences of a hay sack. In this context a hay sack refers to a person with low physical activity. Eight hay sacks between 36-58 years of age were interviewed…

  13. An investigation of the use of hay fever masks for the youth.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Mika; Kishida, Koya; Uozumi, Takashi; Kamijo, Masayoshi

    2011-12-01

    Specific examinations of university students in Japan revealed numerous people affected by hay fever among the younger population, various measures for hay fever prevention and dissatisfaction with commercially available hay fever masks. Questionnaire replies from 1519 students demonstrated the following results: (1) those with hay fever accounted for 36.5% of males and 44.0% of females; (2) masks and chemicals were mainly used hay fever treatments; (3) 38.4% males and 41.0% females wore masks to prevent problems from hay fever; (4) almost all of the users reported problems with commercially available hay fever masks; (5) male mask users reported 'humidity' and 'occurrence of mist over glasses', whereas female users reported 'ruining make-up', 'humidity', and 'breathing difficulties' as problems. These results confirmed that many young people suffered from hay fever. Further, we investigated the use of hay fever masks among young patients and the factors that could improve the effectiveness of the masks and eliminate the discomfort caused by masks used to prevent hay fever.

  14. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  15. Allelopathic interference of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes to annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

    PubMed

    Zubair, Hasan Muhammad; Pratley, James E; Sandral, G A; Humphries, A

    2017-07-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes at varying densities were investigated for allelopathic impact using annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) as the target species in a laboratory bioassay. Three densities (15, 30, and 50 seedlings/beaker) and 40 alfalfa genotypes were evaluated by the equal compartment agar method (ECAM). Alfalfa genotypes displayed a range of allelopathic interference in ryegrass seedlings, reducing root length from 5 to 65%. The growth of ryegrass decreased in response to increasing density of alfalfa seedlings. At the lowest density, Q75 and Titan9 were the least allelopathic genotypes. An overall inhibition index was calculated to rank each alfalfa genotype. Reduction in seed germination of annual ryegrass occurred in the presence of several alfalfa genotypes including Force 10, Haymaster7 and SARDI Five. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis using Quadruple Time of Flight (Q-TOF), was conducted to compare six alfalfa genotypes. Variation in chemical compounds was found between alfalfa root extracts and exudates and also between genotypes. Further individual compound assessments and quantitative study at greater chemical concentrations are needed to clarify the allelopathic activity. Considerable genetic variation exists among alfalfa genotypes for allelopathic activity creating the opportunity for its use in weed suppression through selection.

  16. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  17. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  18. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  19. Star Formation in Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Haynes, Martha P.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Troischt, Parker; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around 36 nearby (z<0.03) groups and clusters of varied richness, morphological type mix, and X-ray luminosity. By studying a large range of environments and considering the spatial distributions of star formation, we probe mechanisms of gas depletion and morphological transformation. The project uses ALFALFA HI observations, optical observations, and digital databases like SDSS, and incorporates work undertaken by faculty and students at different institutions within the UAT. Here we present results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO, including an analysis of radial star formation rates and extents of galaxies in the NGC 5846, Abell 779, NRGb331, and HCG 69 groups/clusters. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  20. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270