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Sample records for alfalfa hay corn

  1. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to enhance in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Schulze, H

    2007-03-01

    Two in vitro experiments were performed to identify promising exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) and optimum dose rates (DR) for improving the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The relationship between enzymatic activity and fermentation responses was examined to identify optimum formulations. In experiment 1, 5 EFE containing mainly endoglucanase and xylanase activities, with different ratios between the 2 activities, were assessed at a DR of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 mg/g of DM forage. Milled alfalfa hay or corn silage was incubated in an in vitro batch culture with buffer, ruminal fluid, and EFE. Gas production (GP) was measured during 24 h of incubation, and degradabilities of DM and fiber were measured after terminating the incubation at 24 h. Two (E1 and E3) EFE substantially improved GP and degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage fiber. The optimum DR of these EFE was 1.4 mg/g of DM for both forages with improvements in NDF degradability up to 20.6% for alfalfa hay and up to 60.3% for corn silage. Whereas added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in NDF degradability for alfalfa hay and corn silage, there was no relationship between added xylanase activity and NDF degradability. The 2 most promising EFE from experiment 1 were reevaluated in experiment 2, alone and in combination with a high xylanase EFE, to determine whether their effectiveness could be enhanced by decreasing the endoglucanase to xylanase ratio. The 2 EFE improved GP and fiber degradation in a manner similar to that observed in experiment 1, but the combination treatments resulted in no further beneficial effects. Exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products can greatly improve forage utilization, but DR and the activities supplied are critical for achieving this response. Products used with alfalfa hay and corn silage should contain high endoglucanase activity, with an ideal ratio of endoglucanse to xylanase. PMID:17297117

  2. Enhancing in vitro degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage using feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    A series of in vitro fermentation experiments was performed to assess the effects of 4 feed enzyme products (FE) that varied in enzymatic activities on the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The FE contained a range of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase, and protease activities, and a range of dose rates (DR) was used. The objective of the study was to identify effective formulations and optimum DR, and to establish if combining FE would further improve fiber degradation. For alfalfa hay, quadratic increases in gas production and degradation of dry matter (DM) and fiber were observed for all FE, with maximum responses at low to medium DR. For corn silage, none of the FE increased gas production or DM degradation, but all FE increased NDF degradation, with optimum DR in the low to medium range. The proteolytic enzyme papain improved fiber degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage in a manner similar to that observed for polysaccharidase FE. Among the polysaccharidase FE, added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability of corn silage, whereas only added endoglucanase activity tended to be correlated with improvement in NDF degradability of alfalfa hay. Combining effective polysaccharidase FE further improved fiber degradation of both forages, with greater improvements for corn silage. Combining polysaccharidase and proteolytic FE further improved NDF degradation of corn silage, but not alfalfa hay. Combination treatments generally resulted in additive effects with increases in fiber degradation equal to the sum of the improvements for the individual enzyme components. Improved fiber degradation of corn silage was associated with decreased acetate to propionate ratios. Enzyme products that improve in vitro degradation of forages may have the potential to improve lactational performance of dairy cows. PMID:17517724

  3. Short communication: effects of replacing part of corn silage and alfalfa hay with Leymus chinensis hay on milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Yan, R; Chen, S; Zhang, Xian; Han, J; Zhang, Y; Undersander, D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of replacing part of corn silage (CS) and alfalfa hay (AH) with Leymus chinensis hay on milk production and composition. Twenty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a randomized block design for a 14-week period and 2 treatments. Treatments were (dry matter basis): (1) Non-Leymus chinensis hay diet (NLC; 35% CS, 15% AH) and (2) added Leymus chinensis hay diet (ALC; 30% CS, 10% AH, 10% Leymus chinensis hay). Adding Leymus chinensis hay increased neutral detergent fiber content and in vitro digestibility of the diet. Cows receiving the ALC diet had higher dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, lactose yield, solids-not-fat yield, and milk fat content compared with those fed the NLC diet. Somatic cell counts of cows decreased in the ALC compared with the NLC treatment. Cis-11 18:1 and 18:2 contents in milk increased, whereas trans-9 and cis-9 18:1 fatty acid contents decreased. Trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid content was not influenced by adding Leymus chinensis hay to the diet. Leymus chinensis hay can be used to replace part of CS and AH in diets of dairy cows to get higher milk yield and good milk quality. PMID:21700048

  4. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  5. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization. PMID:27040919

  6. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  7. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  8. Effects of altering alfalfa hay quality when feeding steam-flaked versus high-moisture corn grain on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Kelley, A W; Neal, K; Young, A J; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was performed to test a hypothesis that nutritive benefits of feeding high-moisture corn (HMC) would be different when fed with different qualities of alfalfa hay (AH) due to associative effects on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization efficiency. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used; 4 were surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Days in milk averaged 184 ± 10.7 at the start of the experiment. The experiment was performed in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; fair-quality AH [FAH; 39.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 17.9% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH; 33.6% NDF and 21.9% CP) was combined with steam-flaked corn (SFC) or HMC to form 4 treatments: FAH with SFC, FAH with HMC, HAH with SFC, and HAH with HMC. The AH was fed at 32% dry matter (DM) content, whereas SFC or HMC was included at 17% DM content. Quality of AH did not affect DM intake, whereas feeding HMC decreased DM intake, regardless of quality of AH. Digestibility of DM was greater for cows fed HAH compared with those fed FAH (70.1 vs. 67.6%). Digestibility of NDF increased by feeding HMC (67.6 vs. 58.4%), but not by quality of AH. Under FAH, starch digestibility decreased by feeding HMC compared with SFC (85.7 vs. 95.0%), but it was similar under HAH, resulting in an interaction between quality of AH and type of corn grain (CG). Feeding different qualities of AH did not affect milk yield; however, feeding HMC decreased milk yield in FAH diet, causing an AH × CG interaction. Efficiency of milk yield/DM intake was improved due to feeding HMC, regardless of the quality of the AH. In addition, dietary N utilization for milk N tended to increase by feeding HMC, but it was not influenced by quality of AH. Yield of microbial

  9. Does Alfalfa-Hay NDFD Matter in a Dairy TMR?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three feeding trials were conducted to study the effect of alfalfa-hay in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, 48-hour laboratory incubation in rumen fluid) on Holstein dairy cow performance. Treatments (Lh, Ll, Hh, and Hl) included four alfalfa hays selected for relatively low-(L) o...

  10. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  11. In vitro ruminal degradation and synthesis of protein on fractions extracted from alfalfa hay and silage.

    PubMed

    Peltekova, V D; Broderick, G A

    1996-04-01

    Net release of degraded N as NH3 and total AA plus microbial protein synthesis, quantified from incorporation of 15NH3 into microbial protein, was used to estimate the rate and extent of in vitro degradation of protein fractions isolated from alfalfa hay and silage. Seven proteins (casein, alfalfa hay, alfalfa silage, extracts from alfalfa hay and silage, and residues from alfalfa hay and silage) were studied. Results from (NH4)2SO4 and SDS-PAGE fractionations suggested that soluble proteins in alfalfa hay and silage differed in susceptibility to proteolytic attack. Although the net release of NH3 plus total AA N from alfalfa silage and alfalfa silage extract was twofold greater than that from alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract, net microbial protein synthesis on alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract was 33 and 43% greater. Despite greater NPN content in alfalfa silage, protein degradation rate and estimated escape were similar for intact alfalfa hay (0.103/h and 43%) and silage (0.067/h and 43%). This result might be explained by the less efficient microbial utilization of silage NPN, greater protozoal numbers on hay, greater soluble true protein in hay, or differences in molecular mass and stability of soluble proteins in hay versus silage. Use of a two-compartment model, based on water-soluble and insoluble CP fractions assumed to pass with the liquid and solid phases, respectively, yielded RUP estimates for alfalfa hay and silage that were similar to NRC estimates. PMID:8744226

  12. Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K

    1994-01-15

    Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States. PMID:7908282

  13. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  15. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  16. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  17. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  18. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  19. Potassium management during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for growers to apply optimum K rates to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Current University of Minnesota fertilizer guidelines in the Corn Belt do not change for the last production year when alfalfa stand persistence is not a...

  20. Soil N to corn after alfalfa through tillage and regrowth management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting corn after alfalfa can eliminate or greatly reduce the nitrogen (N) fertilizer requirement for first-year corn while increasing corn yield potential due to the rotation effect. Current University of Minnesota guidelines regarding alfalfa N credits to corn are based on alfalfa stand density ...

  1. Corn response to nitrogen after alfalfa as affected by tillage and regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current N guidelines for corn following alfalfa in Minnesota suggest that when compared to corn following corn, N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa can be reduced by 168 kg N/ha when greater than or equal to 43 alfalfa plants/square meter are present at termination. Two unanswered questions re...

  2. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression. PMID:15202650

  3. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  4. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  5. Nitrogen management for first-year corn after alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn can increase corn yield potential due to improved soil physical properties that enhance water infiltration and root extension, altered soil microbial communities, and reduced pest pressure. In addition, fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements are commonly reduced by about 100...

  6. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  7. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  8. Growth, Intake, Diet Digestibility, and Nitrogen Use in Three Hair Sheep Breeds Fed Alfalfa Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...

  9. Effects of phytase supplementation in mature horses fed alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lavin, T E; Nielsen, B D; Zingsheim, J N; O'Connor-Robison, C I; Link, J E; Hill, G M; Shelton, J

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study P digestibility in mature horses because of the growing environmental concerns regarding P runoff and previous equine research focused mostly on young and growing animals or used ponies as a model. Phytase supplementation of swine and poultry diets can result in greater phytate-P digestibility, leading to a decreased need for inorganic P supplementation and a decrease in P excreted to the environment; this, however, has not been demonstrated in the horse. Six mature Arabian geldings were fed 6 diets consisting of pelleted concentrate and alfalfa hay. The concentrates consisted mainly of soybean hulls, ground corn, wheat midds, broken rice, and beet pulp, and phytase was added to the concentrates accordingly before pelleting. There were 3 diet types: control (concentrate and hay), high P (greater P concentrate and hay), and forage only, and each diet type included 1 phytase-supplemented diet and 1 non-phytase-supplemented diet, resulting in 6 total diets. Phytase supplementation for the forage only diet was accomplished by feeding a nominal amount of concentrate formulated solely as a vehicle for the phytase. Horses had unrestricted access to water throughout the experiment. Using a Latin square design, all horses received all diets over a period of 12 wk. In each week, the new diet was fed for 11 d of diet acclimation, which was followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine for each horse. There was no effect (P < 0.05) of phytase supplementation on P output in the urine or feces, resulting in no differences in P apparent digestibility. Analysis of the feed and feces for phytate revealed a 93% average disappearance rate of phytate, indicating that horses are highly capable of degrading phytate and that phytase supplementation was not beneficial. Thus, the results indicate that mature horses are able to maintain a near 0 P balance, with adequate P provided in the diet even as phytate, and increased P intakes above

  10. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  11. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  12. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  13. Alfalfa: A Companion Crop with Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. Corn is an attractive biofuel crop because it is easy to manage, process, and ship; is high yielding; and has significant industry support and research. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soyb...

  14. Diurnal shifts in nutritive value of alfalfa harvested as hay and evaluated by animal intake and digestion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forages accumulate nonstructural carbohydrates during the day with animals showing preference and improved daily responses from PM compared with AM cut hays. This study evaluated alfalfa hay harvested at 0700, 1000, 1300, 1600 and 1900 h to determine diurnal changes in nutritive value and assess th...

  15. Growth and carcass characteristics in goat kids fed grass and alfalfa hay-based diets with limited concentrate supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding legume hay (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or mixed grass hay on ADG and carcass characteristics of growing goats. In Experiment 1, 24 Spanish kids, equally representing intact male, female, and wether goats, were pen-fed ad libitum eit...

  16. Effect of Feeding Selenium-Fertilized Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Weaned Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Bobe, Gerd; Hunter, Janice K.; Vorachek, William R.; Stewart, Whitney C.; Vanegas, Jorge A.; Estill, Charles T.; Mosher, Wayne D.; Pirelli, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (PLinear<0.001) and body weights (PLinear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations. PMID:23536788

  17. Hepatic enzyme changes in bovine hepatogenous photosensitivity caused by water-damaged alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Putnam, M R; Qualls, C W; Rice, L E; Dawson, L J; Edwards, W C

    1986-07-01

    In the winter of 1983, practitioners reported extensive photosensitization in 7 herds of cattle. All herds had a history of having been fed water-damaged alfalfa hay. A cow from one herd was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital at Oklahoma State University. In this herd of approximately 40 adult Polled Herefords, all cattle had had some degree of clinical involvement over the past 4 to 6 weeks. Clinical signs included scaling and erythema of sparsely haired skin, muzzle, and teats, as well as icterus, anorexia, and weight loss. One cow died, and the remaining cattle recovered over an 8- to 10-week period after removal of the hay from the ration. In the referred cow, values for total and conjugated bilirubin, BUN, creatinine, sorbitol dehydrogenase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum aspartate transaminase, and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase were higher than normal. In the herd of origin, extremely high serum gamma-glutamyl transferase values (180 to 1,400 IU/L) persisted (normal, 2 to 35 IU/L). Feeding the same alfalfa hay to 2 clinically normal cows reproduced the syndrome. The characteristic hepatic lesion was bile duct necrosis, with secondary bile duct hyperplasia. PMID:2874123

  18. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  19. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  20. Effect of fungal biomass in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion in growing beef calves.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, C V; Wittenberg, K M; Crow, G H

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of fungal biomass (FB), as determined by glucosamine analysis, in alfalfa hay on intake and total tract digestion when fed to growing beef calves. Mycotoxins were not detected in hays used for these experiments. A feedlot trial using 40 weaned Angus calves (270.2 +/- 9.7 kg) showed that DM intake was not affected (P > .05) by FB content of the hay diets. No adaptation response was observed when animals with no previous exposure to molded feed were introduced to hay containing various levels of FB. Hematocrit and plasma cortisol levels were not affected (P > .05) by the presence of FB in the hay. Eight steers were used, in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, for intake and total tract digestibility determinations of two alfalfa hays having similar nutrient profiles but differ in FB concentrations. Hays were fed in long or chopped form. Level of FB did not affect (P > .05) DM intake or total tract DM digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber and ADF digestibilities were 5.4 and 3.7 percentage units higher (P < .05), respectively, for hay with a high vs low FB concentration. Forage chopping reduced (P < .05) DM, NDF, ADF, and CP digestibilities; the effect being similar for the two hay types tested. Results suggest that FB concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 5.5 mg/g of DM do not affect DM intake, however, nutrient digestion can be influenced by molding during field wilting or storage. PMID:8791206

  1. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprised of high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because non-protein N (NPN) formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, conde...

  2. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  3. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  4. Digestibility by lambs offered alfalfa hay treated with a propionic acid hay preservative and baled at different concentrations of moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen crossbred wether lambs (76.1 ± 8.18 lb initial BW) were used for a 2 period digestion study to evaluate the effect of hay preservative concentration (0, 0.56, or 0.98% buffered propionic acid) and hay moisture concentration at baling (19.6, 23.8, or 27.4% moisture) on digestibility of alfal...

  5. It's still true: plowing up alfalfa releases plenty of N for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers and their advisors question the accuracy of published fertilizer N replacement values that alfalfa provides to first-year corn. Their skepticism has risen as corn yields have increased, but higher fertilizer prices have heightened the need to trim unproductive inputs. Recent Minnesota data c...

  6. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  7. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  8. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  9. Comparison of Alfalfa and Orchardgrass Hay as Replacements for Grain in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While alfalfa has been the predominant perennial forage fed to dairy cows in the Midwest, there has been recent interest to increase use of perennial grasses. This interest is because alfalfa can be expensive to produce (short stand life), the perception that manure cannot be applied to alfalfa, and...

  10. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  11. Effects of varying rates of tallgrass prairie hay and wet corn gluten feed on productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezac, D J; Grigsby, K N; Bello, N M; Bradford, B J

    2012-02-01

    Productivity of lactating dairy cows fed diets with wet corn gluten feed (WCGF, Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) as the primary energy substrate and prairie hay as the primary source of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was assessed relative to a control diet. Forty-eight Holstein cows, 100 to 250 d in milk, were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens and pens were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Treatments were a control diet with 18% alfalfa, 18% corn silage, 33% WCGF, and 15% forage NDF (CON); a diet with 20% tallgrass prairie hay, 46% WCGF, and 13% forage NDF (TPH20); and a diet with 14% tallgrass prairie hay, 56% WCGF, and 9% forage NDF (TPH14). Midway through period 2, TPH14 was discontinued due to the high prevalence of diarrhea among cows on that treatment. Data from period 2 for TPH14 pens were discarded, and the pens that had been assigned to TPH14 for period 3 were randomly assigned to the other 2 treatments. Pen-level data were analyzed using linear mixed models, including the random effects of period and pen and the fixed effect of treatment. For animal-level data, additional random effects were introduced to account for subsampling. No evidence for treatment effects was apparent on dry matter intake. Least squares mean milk yields were 36.2, 34.6, and 35.2 kg/d for CON, TPH20, and TPH14, respectively, and were not significantly different. Milk fat concentration was higher for CON and TPH20 than for TPH14, with means of 3.48, 3.41, and 2.82%, respectively. Fat yield was significantly greater for CON compared with TPH20 and TPH14. Milk urea nitrogen was greatest for TPH20 and TPH14 and least for CON, consistent with differences in dietary protein content. Efficiencies, expressed as energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake, were 1.47, 1.42, and 1.24 for CON, TPH20, and TPH14, respectively, and were not significantly different. These data indicate that TPH14 did not provide adequate pe

  12. Partial replacement of alfalfa fiber with fiber from ground corn cobs or wheat middlings.

    PubMed

    Depies, K K; Armentano, L E

    1995-06-01

    This trial examined the effect of using corn cobs or wheat middlings to replace alfalfa partially as the dietary fiber source for lactating cows. Multiparous midlactation cows were used in three 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A low fiber, basal diet contained 26.8 g of total NDF, including 14.7 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dietary DM. Dietary fiber was increased by addition of more alfalfa, corn cobs, or wheat middlings to obtain 27.4, 28.9, and 27.9%, respectively, of total dietary NDF. Intake (24.9 kg of DM/d) and milk yield (31.6 kg/d) were not different among treatments. Nonforage fiber sources raised milk fat concentration above basal amounts (3.1% to 3.4% fat) and decreased ruminating time below that of the high alfalfa diet (423 to 390 min/d). Fat test was raised approximately one-half as much per unit of NDF from these nonforage feeds as it was per unit of NDF from alfalfa. When additional dietary fiber came from nonforage sources, milk protein concentration (3.3%) was greater than when alfalfa provided the added fiber (3.2%). PMID:7673522

  13. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  14. Alfalfa: a companion crop with corn for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soybean or as a continuous corn crop for ethanol, including high energy inputs, high soil erosion potential, and high nutrient inputs and loss to the environme...

  15. Validating potassium fertilizer guidelines in alfalfa-corn rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2008 to 2010, on-farm research was conducted on 10 fields with medium soil test K (STK) to validate Minnesota K fertilizer guidelines by determining the effect of K fertilizer applications on alfalfa yield and quality in its last production year and estimating the carryover of excess fertilizer...

  16. How reliable are N credits from alfalfa to corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first Century farmer and writer, Columella, wrote that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 'dungs the land,' and it is likely that most of the benefit he saw was derived from improved nitrogen (N) supply. Today, there is widespread skepticism among growers and farm advisors about how much fertilizer N ...

  17. Evaluating the accuracy of the presidedress soil nitrogen test when manure is applied during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has a great capacity to fix nitrogen (N), and it increases the amount of soil N available for the next crop. However, prediction of fertilizer requirement for corn after alfalfa is complicated because N release from organic sources varies with soil temperature and moisture. Furthermore, many...

  18. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Fiber Composition, Fiber Digestibility, and In Situ Disappearance Kinetics of NDF for Alfalfa-orchardgrass Hays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hay from three individual harvests during 2006 and 2007 was utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h NDF digestibility (NDFD), and in-situ disappearance kinetics of NDF for large-round bales of mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgra...

  19. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health provider.Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your ...

  20. Alfalfa leaf protein and stem cell wall polysaccharide yields under hay and biomass management systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock in which the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a modified management regime with reduced population density and delayed, less frequent harvests be implemente...

  1. The effect of soaking on carbohydrate removal and dry matter loss in orchardgrass and alfalfa hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To manage horses affected with laminitis and Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy, owners soak hay in water to remove nonstructural carbohydrates. However, the loss of dry matter (DM) and its effect on carbohydrate concentrations after soaking has not been evaluated. The objective was to determine the im...

  2. The effect of soaking on protein and mineral loss in orchardgrass and alfalfa hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soaking hay is a common strategy used to manage some diseased horses. Although certain nutrients such as nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are targeted during soaking, other essential nutrients may be inadvertently lost. The objectives of this research were to determine impact of water temperature a...

  3. The effect of soaking on protein and mineral loss in orchardgrass and alfalfa hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are usually targeted for removal during hay soaking, however, other essential nutrients may also be lost. The objectives of this research were to determine impact of water temperature and time of soaking on removal of protein and minerals from legume and cool-season...

  4. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  5. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM. PMID:11949868

  6. Influence of maturity on alfalfa hay nutritional fractions and indigestible fiber content.

    PubMed

    Palmonari, A; Fustini, M; Canestrari, G; Grilli, E; Formigoni, A

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on changes in fibrous and protein fractions, changes in fiber digestibility and amount of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as a consequence of increased maturity in alfalfa. A total area of 720 m(2) was divided in 18 blocks randomly assigned to 3 treatments, differing in cutting intervals. Treatment 1 was harvested with a 21-d cutting schedule, at a prebloom stage; treatment 2 with a 28-d schedule, at about first-bloom stage; whereas a full bloom was observed in treatment 3, harvested with a 35-d cutting schedule. Treatments were replicated 4 times through the spring-summer period for 2 subsequent years, 2011 and 2012. Statistical differences were observed for crude protein [treatment 1: 20.8%, treatment 2: 17.3%, and treatment 3: 17.0%; standard error of the mean (SEM)=0.83], soluble protein, and nonprotein nitrogen among treatments on a dry matter basis. Similar results were observed for acid detergent lignin (6.3, 6.9, and 7.3%, respectively; SEM=0.39), lower in treatment 1 compared with others, and in vitro NDF digestibility at 24 or 240 h. Indigestible NDF at 240 h resulted in lower values for treatment 1 compared with treatments 2 and 3 (15.5, 17.2, and 18.3%, respectively; SEM=1.54). Moreover, the indigestible NDF:acid detergent lignin ratio varied numerically but not statistically among treatments, being as much as 9% greater than the 2.4 fixed value applied for rate of digestion calculation and Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)-based model equations. Assuming the diet composition remained unchanged, treatment 3 (35-d cutting interval) would be expected to yield 1.4 kg less milk per day based on energy supply, and 2.8 kg less milk daily based on protein supply than treatment 1. PMID:25262189

  7. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  8. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) ...

  9. The Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Silage to Corn Silage Ratios on Cow Performance and Ammonia Nitrogen Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in a 55:45 forage:concentrate ratio (% DM) total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and ammonia N emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by DIM and randomly assigned to bal...

  10. Nitrogen requirements of first-year corn following alfalfa were not altered by fall-applied manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no published reports on the direct effects of fall manure application on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) N credits to first-year corn (Zea mays L.) grown as grain or silage. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted at eight locations in Minnesota to test whether manure applied during fal...

  11. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows, including 6 fitted with ruminal cannulas, ...

  12. The Effect of Dietary Alfalfa Silage to Corn Silage Ratio on Lactating Cow Performance and Methane Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratios in a total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and methane (CH4) emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (mean±SD; 77±35 days in milk and 640±84 kg body weight) housed in a...

  13. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Results Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. Conclusion The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw. PMID:24766728

  14. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Estimates of TDN for Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Hays Packaged in Large-Round Bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-round or large-square hay packages are more likely to heat spontaneously during storage than hay packaged in conventional (45-kg) bales, and the consequences of this phenomenon on the resulting forage energy estimates for these hays can be severe. Our objectives for this project were to assess...

  15. Prohexadione-calcium improves the establishment and yield of alfalfa interseeded as a dual purpose cover-forage crop into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa an...

  16. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  17. Effect of different levels of Quebracho tannin on nitrogen utilization and growth performance of Najdi sheep fed alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay as a sole diet.

    PubMed

    Al-Dobaib, Soliman N

    2009-10-01

    A commercial tannin source (Quebracho tannin, QT), containing 75% condensed tannins (CT) in dry matter (DM) was used to evaluate the effects of addition of different levels of QT to alfalfa hay on the in vitro degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) in experiment 1 (Exp. 1), N utilization and microbial N synthesis (MNS) in experiment 2 (Exp. 2) and growth performance of growing Najdi lambs in experiment 3 (Exp. 3). Alfalfa hay was treated with QT at the levels of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of DM to form four treatments of QT0, QT1, QT2 and QT3 to have actual levels of CT being 0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25% of DM, respectively. Degradation rate and the effective degradability of N were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) for QT2 and QT3 as compared with the QT0. In Exp. 2, digestibility coefficients for OM, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at QT3, whereas QT1 and QT2 showed no difference to QT0. In the metabolism trial (Exp. 2), digested N (DN) and urinary N (UN) excretion for QT2 and QT3 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to QT0 and QT1. The DN and UN as percentage of N intake were 79.2, 76.9, 75.5 and 69.8%; and 24.4, 22.6, 19.9 and 19.6% for QT0, QT1, QT2 and QT3, respectively. QT2 had the highest MNS and the lowest value was in QT3, the MNS of the treatments were 18.1, 18.7, 19.2 and 15.8 g/day for QT0, QT1, QT2 and QT3, respectively. In the growth trial of 56 days duration (Exp. 3, n = 24 lambs), the addition of QT at the level of QT2 enhanced (P < 0.05) the average daily gain and feed conversion rate compared with the QT0, while, QT1 and QT3 had intermediate values. It is concluded that alfalfa hay treated with QT at the level of 2% of DM could be used to protect alfalfa N from ruminal degradation that would lead to improve growth performance of lambs. PMID:20163617

  18. Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay or corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Stokes, S R; Goetsch, A L; Nejad, H H; Murphy, G; Jones, A L; Mashburn, S; Beers, K W; Johnson, Z B; Piper, E L

    1988-01-01

    Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay (BG) or ground corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue (I) were studied. In Exp. 1, a Latin square study, five growing Holstein steers (158.1 kg) consumed I ad libitum and were offered 0, .3, .6, .9 or 1.2% body weight (BW) of BG daily. Total dry matter (DM) intake rose linearly (P less than .05) with increasing BG, although intake was numerically similar with .6, .9 and 1.2% BW of BG. Digestibility was constant with diet (P greater than .10). Six growing Holstein steers used in Exp. 2, a Latin square with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ingested I or noninfected (NI) fescue hay ad libitum with 0, .5 or 1.0% BW of ground corn. Total DM intake increased linearly as the level of corn rose (P less than .05). Total intake with I increased more with the first than with the second addition of corn, and the opposite occurred with NI (interaction between fescue infection and the quadratic effect of corn level, P less than .10). Organic matter digested (g/d) was greater for NI than for I and rose linearly with increasing corn ingestion (P less than .05). Ninety-six crossbred beef heifers and steers (184.2 kg avg initial live weight) were used in a 77-d fall grazing experiment (Exp. 3) with a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Cattle grazed I or NI paddocks and were given no supplement or .34% BW of BG or .65% BW of ground corn on a daily basis (DM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3366707

  19. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in-vivo digestibility of moist large-rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic-acid-based preservative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large-round bales comprised of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sens...

  20. Reduced Lignin Alfalfa - Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. farmers harvested alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for hay or haylage from 24.5million acres in 2009. Midwestern states harvested 57 % of 2009 acreage for hay and haylage. However, acreage is stable to declining. Alfalfa provides an excellent source of fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins that partia...

  1. Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by

  2. ALFALFA LEAF PROTEIN AND STEM CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDE YIELDS AND THEORETICAL ETHANOL PRODUCTION UNDER HAY AND BIOMASS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock, where the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a different management regime reducing population density, delaying harvest, and cutting less frequently per gro...

  3. Alfalfa leaf protein and stem cell wall polysaccharide yields and theoretical ethanol production under hay and biomass management systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock, where the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a different management regime reducing population density, delaying harvest and cutting less frequently per grow...

  4. Performance, intake and blood parameters in young goats offered high forage diets of lespedeza or alfalfa hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    July-born F1 Boer x Spanish (BxS), Nubian, and Spanish buck kids (n=18) were used in an experiment to evaluate the use of lespedeza (LESP) hay in goat diets. Bucklings were weaned at 60 d of age and maintained on pasture and in pens, before being assigned to the experiment at 6 mo of age. Kids wer...

  5. Validating Topdressed K Fertilizer Recommendations in an Alfalfa-Corn Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) fertilizer prices are higher than average and may reduce bottom line returns for alfalfa growers. Potassium supports plant stress tolerance and plays a critical role in alfalfa yield by moving sugars from shoots to roots. Current University of Minnesota recommendations are to apply bet...

  6. ALFALFA: BIOFUEL AND FEED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop that supports Idaho's dairy industry. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of its high biomasss production...

  7. Protein level for alfalfa and corn silage-based diets: II. Nitrogen balance and manure characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Karg, K L

    2004-10-01

    This N balance study was completed with 48 multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW] = 653 kg; days in milk = 89) blocked by calving date and assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The total mixed ration included alfalfa silage (AS) or corn silage (CS) as the primary forage source (41 and 14% vs. 14 and 41% of diet dry matter (DM), respectively) and were formulated for recommended (RP) or excessive (HP) amounts of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) according to the guidelines of the National Research Council (NRC). Crude protein (CP) averaged 16.5, 18.0, 16.4, and 17.3% for the AS-RP; AS-HP; CS-RP; and CS-HP diet, respectively (DM basis). Regardless of primary forage source, the reduction in dietary CP to the NRC guidelines tended to improve milk yield (43.4 vs. 41.0 kg/d) but did not alter 3.5% fat-corrected milk (37.0 kg/d) or milk true protein yield (1167 g/d). In this trial, cows fed the CS-based diets consumed less DM than those fed the AS-based diets in part because of rumen acidosis. The adverse effect of low rumen pH was accompanied by an increase in urinary N (UN) as a percentage of N intake, but did not alter milk yield. Notwithstanding partial confounding, fecal N (FN) was 49 g/d lower (213 vs. 164 g/d), UN was unchanged (229 g/d), but milk N tended to be higher (194 vs. 206 g/d) when cows were fed the CS-based diets compared with AS-based diets. Compared with the HP diets, cows fed the RP diets had similar FN (189 g/d) and milk N (200 g/d), but UN and urine urea N were reduced by 41 g/d (249 vs. 208 g/d) and 40 g/d (210 vs. 171 g/d), respectively. Fecal N concentration was higher for CS-based diets, but urinary N concentration was higher for AS-based diets. The reduction in dietary CP did not influence these concentrations but lowered urine volume. The metabolic relationships between energy and protein in determining the fate of excess dietary N (primarily in the form of excess RUP in this

  8. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of the fiber in corn silage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1999-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the influence of particle size on the effectiveness of fiber in corn silage relative to that in hay crop, which consisted of mostly alfalfa silage. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to five treatments in each of 2 yr. The design was replicated but truncated 5 x 5 Latin squares with three 21-d periods in 1994 and four 21-d periods in 1995. The five diets (2-yr average, dry basis) were a basal, low fiber control with 12% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from hay crop forage (60% of total diet NDF); a high fiber control with 22% NDF from hay crop forage (82% of total diet NDF); and three diets each containing 12% NDF from hay crop forage and 9% NDF from coarse corn silage, fine corn silage, or an equal mixture of the two. An increase in the forage content above the basal amount with either hay crop or corn silage increased rumination and total chewing time. No detectable differences in rumination, total chewing time, or milk fat concentration were detected among the corn silage diets. In yr 1, yield of milk components and dry matter intake were greater for cows fed the four low alfalfa diets, but there was no effect due to particle size of the corn silage. In yr 2, linear increases in milk, fat, and protein yields were observed as the mean particle size of the corn silage decreased. Reduction of corn silage particle size did not affect chewing behavior. PMID:10194677

  9. Potash and nitrogen in alfalfa-corn rotations: withholding pays dividends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With high fertilizer prices, farmers need to reevaluate the rates they apply in order to optimize their profitability. In on-farm work in Minnesota, we determined how much potash fertilizer was needed for the last year of alfalfa production and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer needed on the next ye...

  10. Rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and growth performance of calves during transition from liquid to solid feed: Effects of dietary level and particle size of alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Amanlou, H; Khorvash, M; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of particle size (PS) and dietary level of alfalfa hay (AH) on rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, eating behavior, and growth performance in dairy calves during transition from liquid to solid feed. Sixty newborn dairy calves (41 ± 2.5,kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary AH level (medium, 12.5%, or high, 25%, on DM basis) and PS (fine = 1mm or medium = 3mm, as geometric means) of AH. Hence, the dietary treatments were (1) medium level of AH with fine PS (M-FPS), (2) medium level of AH with medium PS (M-MPS), (3) high level of AH with fine PS (H-FPS), and (4) high level of AH with medium PS (H-MPS). Particle size of AH did not affect total DMI (TDMI) during the preweaning period, although TDMI was greater for calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS during the postweaning and overall periods. Calves fed MPS spent more time eating solid feed and ruminating and less time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with FPS calves. The dietary level of AH did not affect behavioral parameters. Average daily gain of calves was not affected by dietary treatment before weaning. During the postweaning and overall periods, average daily gain was greater in calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS at the 25% AH level, but this effect was absent with 12.5% AH. Furthermore, the rumen pH values on d 35 and 70 of the study were greater for MPS than for FPS, regardless of the dietary level of AH. Effects of AH level, PS, and their interaction did not affect blood glucose concentrations in developing calves. These results indicate that feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be affected by rations differing in forage PS; thus, providing calves with MPS can improve calf performance and reduce their nonnutritive oral behaviors. PMID:26277318

  11. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. PMID:22741923

  12. Alfalfa hay storage losses study as influenced by bale type and storage method. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, G.; Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.

    1997-10-30

    This experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) cooperative. Alfalfa for use as both a biomass energy source and as a protein supplement has been proposed by MnVAP. Research has shown that alfalfa deteriorates over time in storage, and that storage method and bale type affect the amount of deterioration. Therefore, evaluation of different storage methods and bale types on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa leaf and stem components is important information for the alfalfa grower and the MnVAP cooperative. Two bale types were evaluated for four storage methods, and measurements were made of initial and final bale weights, dry matter, leaf and stem components, and forage quality estimates. Few differences were detected among bale types for dry matter losses, and interactions among bale type and storage method were not detected. This indicates that dry matter losses were similar for different bale types regardless of the storage method. However, differences in dry matter losses and visible spoilage were detected among storage methods. No interactions between bale type and storage method were detected for forage quality parameters, indicating that forage quality losses as a result of storage were similar for different bale types. Bale type by sample type and storage method by sample type interactions were detected. Many of these were the result of poorer quality alfalfa. 4 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1023 - Propanoic acid; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following raw agricultural commodities: Alfalfa, forage; alfalfa, hay; alfalfa, seed; barley, grain; Bermudagrass, forage; Bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, forage; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, forage; bromegrass, hay; clover, forage; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, forage;...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1023 - Propanoic acid; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following raw agricultural commodities: Alfalfa, forage; alfalfa, hay; alfalfa, seed; barley, grain; Bermudagrass, forage; Bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, forage; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, forage; bromegrass, hay; clover, forage; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, forage;...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1023 - Propanoic acid; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following raw agricultural commodities: Alfalfa, forage; alfalfa, hay; alfalfa, seed; barley, grain; Bermudagrass, forage; Bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, forage; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, forage; bromegrass, hay; clover, forage; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, forage;...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1023 - Propanoic acid; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following raw agricultural commodities: Alfalfa, forage; alfalfa, hay; alfalfa, seed; barley, grain; Bermudagrass, forage; Bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, forage; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, forage; bromegrass, hay; clover, forage; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, forage;...

  18. Effect of varying dietary ratios of alfalfa silage to corn silage on production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Broderick, G A

    2006-10-01

    Twenty-eight (8 ruminally cannulated) lactating, multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by DIM and randomly assigned to 7 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares (28-d periods) to investigate the effects of different dietary ratios of alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) on production, N utilization, apparent digestibility, and ruminal metabolism. The 4 diets contained (dry matter basis): A) 51% AS, 43% rolled high-moisture shelled corn (HMSC), and 3% solvent soybean meal (SSBM); B) 37% AS, 13% CS, 39% HMSC, and 7% SSBM; C) 24% AS, 27% CS, 35% HMSC, and 12% SSBM; and D) 10% AS, 40% CS, 31% HMSC, and 16% SSBM. Dietary crude protein contents were 17.2, 16.9, 16.6, and 16.2% for diets A, B, C, and D. All 4 diets were high in energy, averaging 49% nonfiber carbohydrates and 24% neutral detergent fiber. Intake of dry matter, yield of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat, milk fat content, and apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber all decreased linearly when CS replaced AS. Effects on fiber digestion and milk fat may have been due to increasing fluctuation in ruminal pH and time the pH remained < 6.0 when CS replaced AS. Milk protein content increased linearly with increasing CS, but there were no differences in protein yield. There were linear increases in apparent N efficiency and decreases in N excreted in urine and feces when CS replaced AS. Production was depressed on the diet highest in CS. Quadratic analysis indicated that milk and protein yields were maximal at dietary AS:CS ratios of, respectively, 37:13 and 31:19. No diet minimized N excretion without negatively affecting production. Diet C, with an AS:CS ratio of 24:27, was the best compromise between improved N efficiency and sustained production. Because CS is complementary with AS, it is recommended that CS be fed in AS-based diets to maintain milk yield while improving N utilization. PMID:16960068

  19. Ruminal Methane Emissions by Goats Consuming Dry Hay of Condensed Tannin-Containing Lespedeza With or Without Polyethylene Glycol, Alfalfa, or Sorghum-Sudangrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (initial BW of 37.7 +/- 1.09) were used to assess effects of different sources of dry hay on ruminal methane emission. Treatments were a legume (Sericea lespedeza, Lespedeza cuneata) high in condensed tannins (CT; 15.3%) without (S) or with (P)polyethylene...

  20. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  1. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Forage Protein Fractions and In Situ Disappearance Kinetics of Crude Protein for Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Hays Packaged in Large-Round Bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2006 and 2007, forages from 3 individual hay harvests were utilized to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of crude protein (CP), neutral-detergent insoluble CP (NDICP), acid-detergent insoluble CP (ADICP), and in situ disappearance kinetics of CP and NDICP for large-r...

  2. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as

  3. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. PMID:24632062

  4. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  5. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of the fiber in alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of alfalfa silage particle length on milk yield, milk composition, and chewing activity. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holsteins were used in each of two separate feeding trials over a 2-yr period providing two repetitions. Each trial was based on 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. All four diets (2-yr average, dry basis) contained a basal level of 10.7% neutral detergent fiber from corn silage and 2.3% neutral detergent fiber from chopped alfalfagrass hay. One of the diets served as a low forage, low fiber control and contained only the basal forages. The other three diets contained an additional 8.6% neutral detergent fiber from coarser alfalfa silage, finely rechopped alfalfa silage or an equal mixture ofthe two. An increase in the forage content above the basal amount using alfalfa silage increased 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat yield and concentration, eating time, and total chewing time. Dry matter intake was not influenced by diet. Linear increases in rumination and total chewing times were observed as the mean particle size of the alfalfa silage increased from finer to coarser. There was no linear effect of alfalfa silage particle size on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk composition. PMID:12487465

  6. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P < 0.01) for SD and further reduced (P < 0.01) for SA. Hay intake was 1.54, 1.19, and 1.02% of BW (SEM ± 0.036) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. There was a treatment (P < 0.01) × day interaction for mean ruminal pH. On the day of supplementation, ruminal pH for SA (6.13) was lower (P < 0.01) than those for both SD (6.29) and NS (6.52). However, on the day the SA treatment did not receive supplement, ruminal pH of SA (6.53) did not differ (P = 0.87) from ruminal pH of NS and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of SD. Ruminal pH of SD was lower (P < 0.01) than that of NS. Diet DM digestibility was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.58) because of frequency. Dry matter digestibility was 57.9, 64.1, and 64.6% (SEM ± 0.65) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. The amount of N retained did not differ (P = 0.47) because of frequency (24.9 ± 5.61 and

  7. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26162794

  8. Protein level for alfalfa and corn silage-based diets: I. Lactational response and milk urea nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wattiaux, M A; Karg, K L

    2004-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate lactational responses of cows fed corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) as primary forage source when the diet was balanced for recommended (RP) or excessive (HP) amounts of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and undegradable protein (RUP) according to the recommendations of the National Research Council (NRC). A second objective was to evaluate different sources of variations in milk urea N (MUN). The total mixed rations included 55% forage on a dry matter (DM) basis as either 14% CS and 41% AS or 14% AS and 41% CS. Diets were offered to 48 multiparous Holstein cows (body weight = 652 kg) that were assigned randomly to treatments arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial in 12 complete blocks based on calving date. Data collected during wk 4 to 12 of lactation were adjusted to those obtained from a pretreatment diet fed during wk 1 to 3. Crude protein (CP) averaged 16.5, 18.0, 16.2, and 17.1% of DM in the AS-RP; AS-HP; CS-RP; and CS-HP diets, respectively. Overall DM intake (DMI) was 1.5 kg/d lower than predicted by NRC (24.6 vs. 26.1 kg/d), but 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) was higher than expected (46.1 vs. 45.0 kg/d). The responses to a reduction in dietary protein were independent of primary forage source, except for milk true protein (TP) percentage. Primary forage source did not influence DMI, 3.5% FCM, TP yield, or MUN. However, compared with the AS-based diets, cows fed CS-based diets produced more milk (49.0 vs. 46.4 kg/d), less fat (3.07% vs. 3.54% and 1500 vs. 1651 g/d), and tended to gain more body weight. There were no benefits to feeding diets above NRC protein recommendations, regardless of forage source. Reducing CP from 17.5 to 16.4% of diet DM did not alter milk yield (47.7 kg/d) or milk TP yield (1293 g/d), but lowered N intake by 65 g/d (700 vs. 635 g/d) and lowered MUN by 1 unit (12.7 vs. 11.7 mg/dL). A positive correlation between MUN and production efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI) on wk 3 of lactation suggested that body

  9. Lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and enzyme activity in adipose tissue of short- and long-fed Angus and Wagyu steers fed corn- or hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Yano, H; Smith, S B

    2007-02-01

    Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn

  10. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. PMID:25599766

  11. Corn

    MedlinePlus

    ... composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between ... a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should ...

  12. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  13. A protease additive increases fermentation of alfalfa diets by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, D; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-03-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics and mode of action of a protease that increased the ruminal fiber digestibility of alfalfa hay. A commercial source of protease (Protex 6L, Genencor Int., Rochester, NY), already characterized for its main activities, was further analyzed to determine protease activity in response to pH, molecular size by SDS-PAGE, specificity to degrade model or feed substrates, response to autoclaving, and action of specific protease inhibitors in the absence or presence of ruminal fluid. In addition, batch culture in vitro incubations in buffered ruminal fluid were conducted to compare the enzyme product with purified protease sources, and dose-response studies (0 to 10 microL/g of forage DM) were carried out using alfalfa hay as a substrate. The enzyme product was shown to be an alkaline protease (optimum pH >8.5) of approximately 30 kDa. Specificity in the absence of ruminal fluid showed that the enzyme was active against gelatin and casein to the same extent, whereas it had limited (21% of the total) activity on BSA. In the presence of ruminal fluid and with the use of feed substrates, the protease increased (P < 0.05) 22-h IVDMD (%) of alfalfa hay, fresh corn silage, dry-rolled corn, and a total mixed ration composed of the 3 ingredients (39.5 vs. 44.7; 50.3 vs. 54.5; 63.8 vs. 68.4; and 55.4 vs. 56.4 for control vs. protease for each feed, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the absence of ruminal fluid indicated that the enzyme was inhibited most by a serine protease inhibitor but not by cysteine- or metalloprotease inhibitors (10 vs. 1.9 and 0.1%, respectively). In the presence of ruminal fluid, the serine protease inhibitor reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in alfalfa IVDMD achieved by the enzyme product, such that IVDMD was similar to that of the control treatment. Comparisons among different proteases revealed that only pure subtilisin achieved increases in IVDMD that were similar to those with protease

  14. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including Alfalfa, seed; alfalfa, hay; barley, grain; bermudagrass, hay; bluegrass, hay; bromegrass, hay; clover, hay; corn, field, grain; corn, pop, grain; cowpea, hay; fescue, hay; lespedeza, hay; lupin; oat, grain; orchardgrass, hay; peanut, hay; timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or...

  17. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  18. Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often ... to use distilled or sterilized water with saline. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to ...

  19. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  20. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  1. Alfalfa: Potential For New Feed and Biofuel - USDFRC Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop supporting U.S ruminant livestock industry, particularly dairy. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of i...

  2. Sampling requirements for forage quality characterization of rectangular hay bales

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, C.C.; Martin, N.P.; Jewett, J.G.; Halgerson, J.; Moon, R.D.; Cuomo, G.R.

    2000-02-01

    Commercial lots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay are often bought and sold on the basis of forage quality. Proper sampling is essential to obtain accurate forage quality results for pricing of alfalfa hay, but information about sampling is limited to small, 20- to 40-kg rectangular bales. Their objectives were to determine the within-bale variation in 400-kg rectangular bales and to determine the number and distribution of core samples required to represent the crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and dry matter (DM) concentration in commercial lots of alfalfa hay. Four bales were selected from each of three hay lots and core sampled nine times per side for a total of 54 cores per bale. There was no consistent pattern of forage quality variation within bales. Averaged across lots, any portion of a bale was highly correlated with bale grand means for CP, ADF, NDF, and DM. Three lots of hay were probed six times per bale, one core per bale side from 55, 14, and 14 bales per lot. For determination of CP, ADF, NDF, and DM concentration, total core numbers required to achieve an acceptable standard error (SE) were minimized by sampling once per bale. Bootstrap analysis of data from the most variable hay lot suggested that forage quality of any lot of 400-kg alfalfa hay bales should be adequately represented by 12 bales sampled once per bale.

  3. Nitrogen use and carbon sequestered by corn rotations in the northern corn belt, U.S.

    PubMed

    Pikul, J L; Schumacher, T E; Vigil, M

    2001-09-27

    Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements for corn (Zea mays L.), and increase soil carbon (C) storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll) near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn-soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotations were conventional tillage (CS) and ridge tillage (CSr). Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC), and a 4-year rotation of corn-soybean-wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) companion-seeded with alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa hay (CSWA). Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha(-1) (highN), of 5.3 Mg ha(-1) (midN), and with no N fertilizer (noN). Total (1990-2000) corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha(-1) under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990-2000) corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha-1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha(-1) under CS, and 35 Mg ha(-1) under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments) was 0.68 Mg ha(-1) under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha(-1) under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha(-1) under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha(-1) under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha(-1) under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg(-1)) with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg(-1)) under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (-0.75) with CSWA and widened (0.72) under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce fertilizer N

  4. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    PubMed

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world. PMID:14691309

  5. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  6. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  7. Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

    1996-05-28

    The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

  8. Substitution of corn and soybean with green banana fruits and Gliricidia sepium forage in sheep fed hay-based diets: effects on intake, digestion and growth.

    PubMed

    Archimède, H; González-García, E; Despois, P; Etienne, T; Alexandre, G

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of imported corn and soybean by local feed resources from tropical production settings such as entire green banana and Gliricidia sepium forage as energy and protein sources, respectively, in sheep diets. Two experiments were conducted: first, a 'growth trial' and second, an in vivo digestion study. In the 'growth trial', 40 Martinik lambs [body weight (BW): 29.4 +/- 3.6 kg; 6 months old) were used and distributed into four groups of 10 lambs each according to treatment: HBGl (banana + gliricidia at low level; 1500 g/day; 119 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBGh (banana + gliricidia at high level; 3000 g/day; 238 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBS (banana + soybean cake) and Control (corn + soybean cake). In digestion trial, four Martinik rams (BW: 57.2 +/- 3.45 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used; treatments (HBG, HBS and Control) were similar but adjusted to metabolic body weight (MW) and just one level of gliricidia was used. Intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed intake to gain index (F:G), apparent total and ruminal digestibilities as well as nitrogen balance, microbial efficiency and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile were monitored. Lambs fed HBGh had greater dry matter (DM) intake based on MW and ADG (173 g/day vs. 141 g/day; p < 0.001), whereas HBGl lambs showed the lowest ADG (71.5 g/day) and the worst F:G (14.4; p < 0.001). The DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were not influenced by treatment, whereas crude protein digestibility was higher (p = 0.024) in diets offered banana or corn + soybean cake (687 g/kg DM and 658 g/kg DM, respectively). Ruminal DM and OM digestibilities did not differ among treatments. Total or individual VFA concentrations were also not influenced by the diet. Higher (p = 0.006) ruminal fluid pH values were recorded for diets combining banana and gliricidia (6.54) or banana and soybean (6.39) until 3 h after a meal. As all animals on

  9. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  10. Responses of Medicago sativa and M. falcata type alfalfas to different defoliation times and grass competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating alfalfa into rangelands can enhance the quantity and quality of forage production. We evaluated the impact of defoliation timing and selective defoliation on two grazing- (Anik and SCMF 3713) and one hay-type alfalfas (Vernal) near Mandan, North Dakota, USA. Entries were space-plante...

  11. Storage characteristics of large round and square alfalfa bales: low-moisture wrapped bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial dry matter (DM) and quality losses have been reported for partially dried alfalfa that has been rained on before moisture reduction to levels acceptable for dry hay storage. The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of preserving alfalfa baled at less than 45% mois...

  12. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  13. Effects of alfalfa and cereal straw as a forage source on nutrient digestibility and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Mao, S Y; Yang, H J; Wu, Y M; Wang, J K; Li, S L; Shen, Z M; Liu, J X

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient digestibility and lactation performance when alfalfa was replaced with rice straw or corn stover in the diet of lactating cows. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk (164 ± 24.8 d; mean ± standard deviation) and milk yield (29.7 ± 4.7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Diets were isonitrogenous, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained identical concentrate mixtures and 15% corn silage, with different forage sources (on a DM basis): 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH), 30% corn stover (CS), and 30% rice straw (RS). The experiment was conducted over a 14-wk period, with the first 2 wk for adaptation. The DM intake of the cows was not affected by forage source. Yield of milk, milk fat, protein, lactose, and total solids was higher in cows fed diets of AH than diets of RS or CS, with no difference between RS and CS. Contents of milk protein and total solids were higher in AH than in RS, with no difference between CS and AH or RS. Feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was highest for cows fed AH, followed by RS and CS. Cows fed AH excreted more urinary purine derivatives, indicating that the microbial crude protein yield may be higher for the AH diet than for RS and CS, which may be attributed to the higher content of fermentable carbohydrates in AH than in RS and CS. Total-tract apparent digestibilities of all the nutrients were higher in cows fed the AH diet than those fed CS and RS. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in the AH diet than in CS or RS diets, with no difference between CS and RS diets. When the cereal straw was used to replace alfalfa as a main forage source for lactating cows, the shortage of fermented energy may have reduced the rumen microbial protein synthesis, resulting in lower milk protein yield, and lower nutrient digestibility

  14. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  15. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  16. Effect of alfalfa maturity on fiber utilization by high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Lamas, G; Combs, D K

    1990-04-01

    Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to study the effect of alfalfa maturity on utilization of DM and fiber. Cows were fed three diets based on alfalfa hay at early vegetative, late bud, or full bloom maturities. Forage:concentrate ratios were: 68:32, 53:47, and 45:55 for diets with early vegetative, late bud, and full bloom hays. Concentrations of NDF in the early vegetative and late bud diets was higher (32.6%) than NDF in the full bloom diet (27.9%) after accounting for feed refusals. Fat-corrected milk yield was similar, but fat percentage was higher for the diet with early vegetative hay than the diets with late bud or full bloom alfalfa. Dry matter intake was higher for the diet with early vegetative hay than the diets with late bud or full bloom hay (26.1, 24.4, and 24.8 kg/d). Ruminal dacron bag incubations of the three hays suggest that the high digestibility of the early vegetative hay was due to more soluble DM, more potentially digestible DM and fiber, and a faster rate of digestion. These factors compensated for the faster passage of the early vegetative hay and resulted in a higher intake and better utilization of DM and fiber. PMID:2161023

  17. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  18. EFFECTS OF REPLACING DIETARY ALFALFA SILAGE WITH FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON MILK PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen Holstein cows averaging 256 DIM were blocked by parity and DIM and randomly assigned to 5 squares in a 3x3 Latin square trial and fed TMR containing (DM basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS), 20% corn silage, 33% high moisture corn, 6% soybean meal (18% CP); 40% ammonium tetraformate-trea...

  19. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fall hay fever symptoms. While avoiding the allergens that trigger symptoms is the best way to ... before you first come into contact with spring allergens, the medication can prevent the release of histamine ...

  20. Effects of Spontaneous Heating in Large Hay Packages on Fiber Composition, NDF Digestibility, and In Situ Kinetics of Ruminal NDF Disappearance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2006 and 2007, 96 large-round bales of mixed alfalfa-orchardgrass hay obtained from three harvests were used to assess the effects of spontaneous heating on concentrations of fiber components, 48-h NDF digestibility (NDFD), and in-situ disappearance kinetics of NDF within hay stored in large ...

  1. Drought and alfalfa nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although established alfalfa can access deep subsoil water, dry topsoils limit the availability of many nutrients. Dry topsoils can limit the uptake of many plant nutrients. With the potential for drought in 2007, farmers should consider fertilizing alfalfa if the soil tends to be droughty, is shall...

  2. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  3. Manure use on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  4. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  5. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  6. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  7. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF EASTERN GAMAGRASS CONSERVED AS HAY OR SILAGE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.), a native, warm-season, perennial tall grass, was evaluated for its potential as a forage source in dairy rations. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were fed gamagrass hay or silage without or with supplemental corn to determine effects on milk producti...

  8. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  9. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  10. The influence of processing corn grain on glucose metabolism in ewes.

    PubMed

    Landau, S; Nitsan, Z; Zoref, Z; Madar, Z

    1992-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was studied in ewes fed 800 g chopped alfalfa hay (H) or 400 g alfalfa hay and 400 g corn grain given in whole (HWC), ground (HGC) or extruded (HEC) form. Daily intake of metabolisable energy and crude protein were: 5.8 MJ, 109 g; 9.0 MJ, 84 g; 9.5 MJ, 84 g and 8.5 MJ, 88 g in H, HWC, HGC and HEC, respectively. In situ ruminal degradability ranked whole, ground, and extruded corn in ascending order. Ruminal pH and concentration of acetic acid were lower and of propionic acid higher (P less than 0.05) in HEC than in HGC and HWC groups. Plasma level of glucose (P less than 0.10), insulin (P less than 0.05), and the ratio of insulin to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) (P less than 0.01) were higher in HEC than in other groups. Glucose irreversible loss (GILR) and entry rate (GER), recycling (GRec) and reentry (GRee) were determined by double isotope dilution procedure. GER, but not GILR, was higher in HWC than in H and HGC (6.98 mg/min/kg BW0.75 vs 3.97 and 4.24 mg/min/kg BW0.75, respectively; P less than 0.05) and than in HEC (4.84 mg/min/kg BW0.75; P less than 0.10). GRec and GRee were higher in HWC than in the other treatments. Grinding or extruding the grain increased ruminal degradability and decreased glucose entry rate. PMID:1449607

  11. Use of Alfalfa for Soil Phosphorus Removal Following Long-Term Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to examine alfalfa remediation effects on a cornfield treated during a 10-yr period with manure at rates matching either the N (MN) or P (MP) requirements of silage corn (Zea mays L.). A commercial fertilizer (NCK) was used as a control. The site was removed from corn prod...

  12. EFFECTS OF FEEDING FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In trial 1, 15 Holsteins were fed 3 total mixed rations (TMR) with 33% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in 3 x 3 Latin squares (28 d periods). Two TMR contained (dry matter basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS) or 40% ammonium-tetraformate treated alfalfa silage (TAS), 20% corn silage (CS), 33% high...

  13. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  14. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  15. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  16. Tuskegee Airman Lee Hayes

    ScienceCinema

    Lee Hayes

    2010-09-01

    Hayes, a resident of Amagansett who worked at Brookhaven Lab as a custodian from 1958 to 1966, served in an all-black bomber squadron at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama. He was among 994 precedent-breaking black soldiers at Tuskegee who passed rigorous tests between 1942 and 1946 to become pilots in the then-segregated armed forces.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of fiber from nonforage sources used to replace alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Swain, S M; Armentano, L E

    1994-08-01

    The effectiveness of NDF from nonforage fiber sources was evaluated in two trials using midlactation Holsteins. Dietary NDF was added to the basal diet using either alfalfa silage or a nonforage high fiber feed. Diets were fed for 21 d. In trial 1, four amounts of alfalfa were fed. Basal milk fat percentage was 2.61% at 144 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet and increased linearly by .066 for each additional 1% alfalfa NDF added, up to 22.8 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet. Based on one amount of added nonforage fiber, the ratio of fat test increase to NDF added was .014 for brewers grains, .040 for oat hulls, and .047 for corn gluten feed. In trial 2, one amount of added alfalfa and each nonforage fiber source was used. The ratio of fat test increase to added NDF was .094 for alfalfa, .043 for brewers grains, .067 for oat hulls, .038 for corn gluten feed, .041 for beet pulp, and .044 for malt sprouts. When added to low fiber diets, NDF from the nonforage fiber sources elevated milk fat concentration approximately one-half as effectively as did NDF from alfalfa. Chewing activity was less affected by nonforage NDF than was milk fat concentration. PMID:7962854

  18. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  19. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients. PMID:21605774

  20. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  1. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows. PMID:18218755

  2. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity

  3. Fermentation kinetics of sainfoin hay with and without PEG.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, S; Guglielmelli, A; Iannaccone, F; Danieli, P P; Tudisco, R; Ruggiero, C; Piccolo, G; Cutrignelli, M I; Infascelli, F

    2012-10-01

    The in vitro gas production technique was applied to evaluate the biological activity of tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) hay cut at four progressive phenological stages. The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen fluid was used as inoculum, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added as specific binding agent and an alfalfa hay (AH) was used as control. All samples were analysed for chemical composition and condensed tannin (CTs). According to the phenological stage of sainfoin, crude protein gradually decreased [from 219 to 122 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased (from 391 to 514 g/kg DM). Condensed tannins showed the highest value at the first phenological stage [31.5 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g DM], and their level significantly decreased at the subsequent growth stages. Gas production and fermentation rate were significantly affected by substrate type and PEG addition. The first stage of sainfoin showed the lowest value of gas and volatile fatty acids production and the slowest fermentation kinetics compared with the other samples, when incubated without PEG, because of the CTs effect. The incubation with PEG improved the fermentation process of the first stage of sainfoin, but no effect was registered on AH, where CTs were not detected. Among the sainfoin samples, the slowest kinetics with PEG was observed in the hay harvested at the fourth stage, probably due to its chemical composition. The use of PEG allowed to verify the effect of tannins on the in vitro fermentation characteristics of sainfoin hay. PMID:22168179

  4. Liver disease in cattle induced by consumption of moldy hay.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S W; Rottinghaus, G E; Johnson, G C; Wicklow, D T

    1995-06-01

    Normally innocuous forages are sporadically associated with hepatogenous photosensitization outbreaks at certain times of the year or when grown and harvested during unusual environmental conditions, such as periods of excessive rainfall. Allegations of livestock illness following consumption of such moldy hays are associated with clinical syndromes uncharacteristic of known forage-related diseases, suggesting that unidentified toxin(s) may be responsible. This study was instigated by field observations of hepatogenous photosensitization in cattle fed alfalfa-grass forage. To document the toxic nature of the hay, large bales of hay (450 kg) were fed, ad libitum, to 3 groups of 2 calves each. Elevated serum liver enzymes provided evidence of hepatobiliary disease. Gamma glutamyl transferase activities in serums of the calves sustained at least a 10-fold increase above baseline during the feeding trials. Histologic examination of liver biopsies and postmortem sections revealed mild periportal fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia. Culture material from 12 fungal isolates from the hay failed to induce liver disease in calves. PMID:7571359

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

  6. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  7. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  8. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  9. Effects of particle size of alfalfa-based dairy cow diets on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

    2003-02-01

    Effects offorage particle size measured as physically effective NDF and ratio of alfalfa silage to alfalfa hay of diets on feed intake, chewing activity, particle size reduction, salivary secretion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of dairy cows were evaluated using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The diets consisted of 60% barley-based concentrate and 40% forage, comprised either of 50:50 or 25:75 of alfalfa silage:alfalfa hay, and alfalfa hay was either chopped or ground. Various methods were used to determine physically effective NDF content of the diets. Cows surgically fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered ad libitum access to these total mixed diets. The physically effective NDF content of the diets was significantly lower when measured using the Penn State Particle Separator than when measured based on particles retained on 1.18-mm screen. Intake of DM was increased by increasing the ratio of silage to hay but was not affected by physically effective NDF content of diets. Eating time (hours per day) was not affected by the physically effective NDF content of diets, although cows spent more time eating per unit of DM or NDF when consuming high versus low alfalfa hay diets. Ruminating time (hours per day) was increased with increased physically effective NDF content of the diets. Rumen pH was affected more by changing dietary particle size than altering the ratio of silage to hay. Feeding chopped hay instead of ground hay improved ruminal pH status: time during which ruminal pH was above 6.2 increased and time during which ruminal pH was below 5.8 decreased. Milk production was increased by feeding higher concentrations of alfalfa silage due to increased DM intake, but was not affected by dietary particle size. Feed particle size, expressed as mean particle length or physically effective NDF was moderately correlated with ruminating time but not with eating time. Although physically

  10. Hay preservation with propionic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most hay producers are quite familiar with the problems associated with baling moist hays. Normally, these problems include spontaneous heating, increased evidence of mold, losses of dry matter (DM) during storage, poorer nutritive value, and (in extreme cases) spontaneous combustion. Numerous fact...

  11. Potential dangers of hay bailing.

    PubMed

    Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Individuals engaged in farming have higher risks of injury and death from trauma than many other workers. Fatalities most often involve tractor-related incident such as roll-overs. Although it is also recognized that farm machinery may result in serious injuries and death, little has been reported on problems associated with hay baling, transport and storage. Case 1: A 43-year-old man trying to dislodge jammed hay in a hay baler had either been pulled, or had fallen, into the baler, where he had been crushed, rotated and then cocooned within a hay bale. The body showed extensive blunt trauma to the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and limbs, with burning from a fire that subsequently started within the overheated machine. Case 2: A 58-year-old man was crushed between the moving arms of a hay shuttle and a safety fence. Death was attributed to blunt chest and abdominal trauma with crush asphyxia. Case 3: A 56-year-old man fell some distance from the top of stacked hay bales fracturing his neck and causing virtual transection of his cervical spinal cord. These cases demonstrate rare forms of farm deaths that may be associated with the creation (baling), moving (shuttling) and storage of hay bales. All forms of farm machinery should be treated circumspectly, given the possibility that serious injury or death may result from inattention or inappropriate handling. Temporary stacking of hay bales may create high work platforms that risk falls with lethal consequences. PMID:24365691

  12. Propionic acid preservatives for hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hay producers working in humid environments are well-acquainted with the consequences of baling moist hays, which include heating, molding, losses of dry matter and nutritive value, and the possibility of spontaneous combustion. Traditionally, the effect of heat damage within forages has focused on ...

  13. The economics of hay storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When it comes to storing hay, there are many options available. This is particularly true for hay in large round bales. A shed provides the best protection from the weather, but it also requires a relatively large investment. Setting bales outside without any protection requires little investment, b...

  14. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  15. Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive values and dry matter intake by horses.

    PubMed

    Earing, J E; Hathaway, M R; Sheaffer, C C; Hetchler, B P; Jacobson, L D; Paulson, J C; Martinson, K L

    2013-12-01

    Management strategies for horses with respiratory disease include soaking hay before feeding. Hay steaming is an alternative to this practice; however, little is known about its impact on forage nutritive values or intake. The objective was to determine the effect of steaming on forage nutritive value and intake by horses. Two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) mixed hays were evaluated: a low moldy (NM) and moderately moldy (MM) hay. Six mature horses were used in a 10 d crossover design. Three horses were assigned to each hay type and treatments were switched on d 6. Each day, one bale of each hay was sampled (pre- and poststeaming) and steamed for 90 min using a commercial hay steamer. Two flakes of steamed or unsteamed NM or MM hay were weighed and offered simultaneously to each horse in individual hay nets. Horses were allowed access to hay for 2 h, orts were collected, and 2 h DMI was calculated. Six additional bales of NM and MM were used to evaluate the effect of steaming on total suspended particulate (TSP). Flakes of unsteamed or steamed hay were agitated in an electric cement mixer, and TSP were recorded every min for 30 min using a tapered element oscillating microbalance sampler. Paired t tests and PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) were used to compare steamed and unsteamed hay nutritive values, mold concentration, TSP, and 2 h DMI. Steaming increased hay moisture and therefore reduced DM to 77 and 81% for NM and MM, respectively (P < 0.001). In NM and MM hay, steaming reduced P content by 16 and 17%, respectively (P ≤ 0.007). Steaming reduced water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) by 13% (P = 0.001) and 27% (P = 0.003), respectively, for MM but had no effect on NM (P > 0.05). Steaming reduced mold concentrations in both hays by ≥ 91% (P < 0.001). Total suspended particulate of MM hay was reduced by 55% (P = 0.043), but TSP in NM hay was not affected by steaming (P = 0

  16. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  17. Impact of growth environment variability on alfalfa yield, cellulosic ethanol traits, and paper pulp characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a promising bioenergy feedstock due to its high yield, nitrogen-fixation capacity, high net energy ratio, potential for planting in rotation with corn, and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on biomass yield, cellulosic e...

  18. Variation Due to Growth Environment in Alfalfa Yield, Cellulosic Ethanol Traits, and Paper Pulp Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a promising bioenergy and bioproduct feedstock because of its high yield, N-fixation capacity, potential for planting in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.), and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on bio...

  19. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH. PMID:23658347

  20. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  1. Biotechnological advancements in alfalfa improvement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2011-05-01

    Review of biotechnology research in alfalfa shows that molecular techniques are extensively being used for basic and applied research toward alfalfa improvement. Biotechnological approaches have been used in two major areas, genomics and transgenics. In genomics, molecular markers, structural and functional genomics allowed identification of genes of interest and their regulatory components. Alfalfa being obstinate to genetic and genomic analysis, comparative genomics is used for molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes in alfalfa. Alternatively, transgenic approach involves incorporation of specific and useful genes into alfalfa to improve the traits of interest. Input traits to improve agronomic performance and output traits to improve forage quality, or to produce novel industrial/pharmaceutical proteins, are the focus of current transgenic research in alfalfa. However, transgenic approach is controversial requiring cautious experimental design to combat bioisafety concerns. Ideally, forage alfalfa needs to possess more fermentable carbohydrates, proteins with balanced amino acid profile that degrade slower in rumen, improved winter hardiness, better water use efficiency, pest resistance and no anti-quality factors. Concerted efforts are required to bring together maximum of these characteristic features into the alfalfa plant. PMID:21279557

  2. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  3. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P < 0.004; 8.9 vs. 8.1% GEI; P < 0.008) was greater at early, rather than at later, growth. When fed as hay (Exp. 2), sainfoin, compared with alfalfa, had greater digestibility of OM (60.5 vs. 50.3%; P = 0.007), lower digestibility of CP (64.2 vs. 68.8%; P = 0.004), yet there was no difference between the legume hays for CH4 emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for

  4. Local production of agricultural fuel: conversion of alfalfa to ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Tjostem, J.; Koeltzow, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    Initial project goals were to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol from the sugars contained in alfalfa and other legumes using a small-scale, single-farm production facility. These data indicate that alfalfa from the field does have reducing sugar present before any breakdown due to the presence of the mold. There is also plenty of natural bacterial contamination which quickly depletes the sugar supply. However, if the alfalfa is autoclaved prior to incubation, the number of bacteria present in the samples is greatly reduced. There was no difference between the flasks which contained an inoculum of Tricoderma reesei and those that did not. Analysis of these solutions failed to show any trace of cellulase activity even after 288 hours (12 days). Therefore, one can also conclude that the Tricoderma reesei strain QM9414 does not grow on alfalfa under these conditions. Future experiments will involve different conditions of temperature and pH. Acid insoluble lignin levels in our 3rd cutting alfalfa samples range from 16.8% to 19.77% with an average of 18.3%. This agrees well with the levels of 13.8% and 15.9% reported by Linder, et al. Results of lipid, water, protein, lignin and cellulose analysis of alfalfa are given. Over 80% of the cellulose in alfalfa can be converted into glucose. Subsequent fermentation by S. carlisbergenois produced near theoretical yields of ethanol. However, the cost of the hay was $440.00; the market value of the ethanol was $120.00. The poor economics results since only 13.1% of the alfalfa contains cellulose. Results show that while production of ethanol from legume-type plants is technically possible, it is not economically feasible.

  5. Protein quality and utilization of timothy, oat-supplemented timothy, and alfalfa at differing harvest maturities in exercised Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A D; Nielsen, B D; Liesman, J; Lavin, T; Trottier, N L

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the protein quality and postgut N utilization of full-bloom timothy hay, oat-supplemented timothy-hay diets, and alfalfa hay harvested at different maturities, apparent whole tract N digestibility, urinary N excretion, and serum AA profiles were determined in light to moderately exercised Arabian horses. Six Arabian geldings (16.0 ± 0.3 yr; 467 ± 11 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Diets included full-bloom timothy grass hay (G), G + 0.2% BW oat (G1), G + 0.4% BW oat (G2), mid-bloom alfalfa (A1), early-bloom alfalfa (A2), and early-bud alfalfa hay (A3). Forages were fed at 1.6% of the BW of the horse (as-fed). Each period consisted of an 11-d adaptation period followed by total collection of feces and urine for 3 d. Blood samples were taken on d 11 for analysis of serum AA concentrations. During the 3-d collection period, urine and feces were collected every 8 h and measured and weighed, respectively. Approximately 10% of the total urine volume and fecal weight per period was retained for N analyses. Fecal DM output was less (P < 0.05) in A1, A2, or A3 compared with G, G1, or G2. Apparent whole tract N digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) in A1, A2, and A3 compared with G, G1, or G2, and was greater (P < 0.05) in G1 and G2 compared with G. Nitrogen retention was not different from zero, and there were no differences (P > 0.05) in N retention among diets. Urinary N excretion and total N excretion were greater (P < 0.05) in A1, A2, and A3 compared with G, G1, or G2. Plasma concentrations for the majority of AA increased curvilinearly in response to feeding G, A1, A2, and A3 (quadratic, P < 0.05), with values appearing to maximize 2-h postfeeding. Although alfalfa N digestibility increased with decreasing harvest maturity, N retention did not differ and urinary volume and N excretion increased, indicating that postabsorptive N utilization decreased. In contrast, inclusion of oats at either 0.2 or 0.4% of the BW of the

  6. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  7. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  8. Effect of applying bacterial inoculants containing different types of bacteria to corn silage on the performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of applying different bacterial inoculants to corn silage at the time of ensiling on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Corn plants were harvested at 35% dry matter (DM), chopped, and ensiled in 2.4-m-wide bags after application of (1) no inoculant (CON); (2) Biotal Plus II (B2) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacteria freudenreichii; (3) Buchneri 40788 (BUC) containing Lactobacillus buchneri; or (4) Buchneri 500 (B500) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and L. buchneri. All inoculants were supplied by Lallemand Animal Nutrition (Milwaukee, WI). Each of the 4 silages was included in separate total mixed rations consisting of 44% corn silage, 50% concentrate, and 6% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows were stratified according to milk production and parity and randomly assigned at 22 d in milk to the 4 dietary treatments. Cows were fed for ad libitum consumption and milked twice daily for 49 d. Dietary treatment did not affect intakes (kg/d) of DM (20.0), crude protein (CP; 3.7), neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 5.7), or acid detergent fiber (ADF; 3.6), or digestibility (%) of DM (73.9) or CP (72.4). However, NDF digestibility was lower in cows fed B2 compared with those fed other diets (45.3 vs. 53.0%). Consequently, cows fed B2 had lower digestible NDF intake (kg/d) than those fed other diets (2.5 vs. 3.0 kg/d). Dietary treatment did not affect milk yield (32.3 kg/d), efficiency of milk production (1.61), concentrations of milk fat (3.18%) and protein (2.79%), or yields of milk fat (1.03 kg/d) and protein (1.26 kg/d). Inoculant application to corn silage did not affect milk yield or feed intake of cows. PMID:21787933

  9. Blending soil conservation with production: Assessment of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management for agronomic yield and soil C sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual...

  10. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  11. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G.

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  12. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  13. Genetic Mapping of Persistence in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence is a critical trait for alfalfa, yet the genetics of this trait is poorly understood. Herein, we characterize an F1 alfalfa population derived from the cross between the two cultivated alfalfa subpecies for persistence in three production seasons at Ames and Nashua, Iowa locations and o...

  14. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  15. Use of legume manures as nitrogen sources for corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent volatility in supplies and prices of natural gas and synthetic N fertilizer suggests a need to develop and refine alternative strategies for supplying N to corn. In this study, conducted in northeastern Iowa, we examined the use of red clover and alfalfa green manures as means of supplying N ...

  16. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  17. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  18. [Alfalfa quality evaluation in the field by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Xuan; Li, Dong-Ning; Yang, Dong-Hai; Lin, Jian-Hai; Xiang, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2013-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate alfalfa quality rapidly in the field and try to find the appropriate machine and sample preparation method, the representative population of 170 fresh alfalfa samples collected from different regions with different stages and different cuts were scanned by a portable NIRS spectrometer (1 100 - 1 800 nm). This is the first time to build models of fresh alfalfa to rapidly estimate quality in the field for harvesting in time. The calibrations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were developed through the partial least squares regression (PLS). The determination coefficients of cross-validation (R2((CV)) were 0.831 4, 0.597 9, 0.803 6, 0.786 1 for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, respectively; the root mean standard error of cross-validation (RMSECV) were 1.241 1, 0.261 4, 0.990 3, 0.830 6; The determination coefficients of validation (R2(V)) were 0.815 0, 0.401 1, 0.784 9, 0.752 1 and the root mean standard errors of validation(RMSEP)were 1.06, 0.31, 0.95, 0.80 for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, respectively. For fresh alfalfa ,the calibration of DM, NDF, ADF can do rough quantitative analysis but the CP's calibration is failed. however, as CP in alfalfa hay is enough for animal and the DM, NDF and ADF is the crucial indicator for evaluating havest time, the model of DM, NDF and ADF can be used for evaluating the alfalfa quality rapidly in the field. PMID:24555370

  19. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. PMID:26314050

  20. Hay Contest Evaluation and Organization for Teaching and Promoting Hay Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, A. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the development and implementation of an evaluation method for exhibitions of commercially produced hay that combines forage analysis with a procedure for visual appraisal of hay. This model is utilized to improve awareness and foster improvement and appreciation for forage quality among hay producers at county and state shows. (16…

  1. Digestion and performance responses to lasalocid and concentrate supplements by beef cattle fed bermudagrass hay.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, D S; Goetsch, A L; Galloway, D L; Forster, L A; Sun, W; Harrison, K F

    1992-01-01

    Beef cattle consuming bermudagrass hay were not supplemented or received a limited amount of ground corn alone or with a mix of protein meals to determine influences of concentrate supplementation on digestion and performance when the ionophore lasalocid (200 mg daily) was given. With limited feed intake, supplement treatment did not change the acetate to propionate shift in beef cows occurring with lasalocid (P < 0.06). Lasalocid did not affect sites of digestion of organic matter or nitrogen with any supplement treatment. However, lasalocid decreased (P < 0.10) ruminal digestion of neutral and acid detergent fibre. Live-weight gain by growing beef calves ingesting bermudagrass hay ad libitum was higher (P < 0.05) with than without supplementation and tended (P < 0.12) to be greater for corn plus protein meals than for corn alone. Lasalocid did not affect or interact with supplement treatment in feed intake or live-weight gain of heifers (236 kg; no growth stimulant) or steers (237 kg; treated with 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol benzoate). Lasalocid at 200 mg daily did not improve digestion characteristics or influence performance by beef cattle consuming a Basal diet of bermudagrass hay. Further, effects of lasalocid were not modulated by supplementation with concentrate, concentrate type or sex or growth stimulant usage. PMID:1295485

  2. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  3. Corn transformed

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1990-08-10

    Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

  4. Preservation of hay with propionic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most hay producers are quite familiar with the problems associated with baling moist hays. Normally, these problems include spontaneous heating, increased evidence of mold, losses of dry matter (DM) during storage, poorer nutritive value, and (in extreme cases) spontaneous combustion. Numerous fact...

  5. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  6. Replacement of alfalfa neutral detergent fiber with a combination of nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1997-04-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa neutral detergent fiber (NDF), with NDF from a combination of whole linted cottonseed, dried distillers grains, and wheat middlings. The four diets were a basal control diet that was low in forage and fiber [(5.9 g of corn silage NDF and 6.1 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dry matter (DM)], a normal forage diet (low forage plus 10 g of additional alfalfa NDF/100 g of DM), and two low forage diets with either 5 or 10 g of NDF from the nonforage fiber sources added per 100 g of DM. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk protein percentage were higher, and milk fat percentage and fat yield were lower, for cows fed the low forage diets than for those fed the alfalfa control diet that was higher in fiber. Among the low forage diets, dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and fat yield all increased linearly as NDF content increased. The ratio of acetate to propionate in the rumen and rumination times were greater for the normal forage control diet than for the high nonforage fiber diet. Added NDF from these nonforage fiber sources increased milk fat percentage and yield, but this increase was less than the NDF from alfalfa and less than predicted. In agreement with results of similar previous trials, milk protein yield and percentage were increased when alfalfa NDF was replaced with fiber from nonforage fiber sources. PMID:9149962

  7. Design, experimental and economic evaluation of a commercial-type solar dryer for production of high-quality hay

    SciTech Connect

    Arinze, E.A.; Sokhansanj, S.; Schoenau, G.J.; Crerar, B.; Opoku, A.

    1998-03-01

    Design features, development, experimental functional performance and economic evaluation of an energy efficient solar energy dryer for commercial production of high-quality hay and processed forage products are presented. The solar hay dryer consists of an improved solar collector with selective coated aluminum absorber plate and spaced fins, and a drying shed connected to the collector by an insulated duct and having a perforated metal grate floor, swing-away plywood frames and polyethylene curtains for effectively sealing the hay stack, and a crawl space below the floor where a 3-hp in-line centrifugal fan is housed for air circulation by suction. In late August and in early September, 1996, 160 small rectangular bales of alfalfa hay with about 25% bromegrass were successfully dried from 33% initial moisture content to 13%, and from 25% to 11% moisture in 4 and 3 days, respectively, under average weather conditions in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. With about 18 m{sup 3}/min per tonne airflow, 10--15 C temperature rise above ambient was obtained during peak bright sunshine hours. Relatively high daily average collector efficiency of 76%, high drying effectiveness, drying uniformity, uniform air distribution and tight sealing of the stack were achieved which resulted in an attractive green color of hay, no mold growth on hay, and an overall system drying efficiency of about 79%. Compared to a conventional natural gas drying system or field-drying method, the payback period on extra investment costs recovered through drying cost savings of $3/t to $6/t or through over two times higher prices for high-quality hay produced by the solar drying system may be just one or two years, respectively.

  8. Source and level of energy supplementation for yearling cattle fed ammoniated hay.

    PubMed

    Royes, J B; Brown, W F; Martin, F G; Bates, D B

    2001-05-01

    Brahman x British crossbred steers were used in growth and digestion trials to evaluate the response of source (corn, sugar cane molasses, or soybean hulls) and feeding rate (0, 1.4, or 2.8 kg DM per steer daily in the growth trials; 0, 15, or 30% of the ration DM in the digestion trial) of energy supplementation in cattle fed ammoniated (4% of forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Cattle on all treatments were fed 0.5 kg cottonseed meal daily. In the growth trials, steers grazed dormant bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture. Increasing the levels of supplementation decreased hay intake but increased total dietary intake for all diets (P < 0.07). Daily gain and feed efficiency of steers were improved (P < 0.03) with supplementation. Steers supplemented with corn or soybean hulls at 2.8 kg DM/d had a higher ADG (0.92 kg) and gain/feed (0.103) than steers supplemented with molasses (0.78 kg, 0.08, respectively) at the same level. Seven crossbred steers (200 kg) were used in a five-period digestion trial to evaluate apparent OM, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility. Apparent OM digestibility of all diets increased linearly (P = 0.02) as the level of supplementation increased. Apparent NDF and ADF digestibility decreased (P < 0.03) as the level of supplementation with corn or molasses increased, whereas increasing the level of soybean hulls in the diet increased (P < 0.06) apparent NDF and ADF digestibility. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred steers (472 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 latin square design to investigate ruminal characteristics with energy supplementation at 30% of ration DM. Ruminal pH in steers supplemented with soybean hulls or corn declined after feeding. Ruminal pH decreased more rapidly with corn supplementation and remained below 6.2 for a longer period of time than with the other diets. Ruminal pH did not change within 24 h after feeding for steers fed the control or molasses diets. No change in total VFA

  9. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  10. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is known as the “Queen of the Forages” as it is primarily used as animal feed for dairy cows, beef cattle, horses, sheep, chickens and other domesticated animals. Alfalfa is the forage of choice due to its high feed value and high biomass production along with its ease of establishment; res...

  11. The Tradeoff Between Alfalfa Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  12. Past and Present Management of Alfalfa Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter covers the history of alfalfa pollination by bees. The management of alkali bees, Nomia melanderi, and alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata, is described. Concerns surrounding the current and future use of these bee species as commercial pollinators are discussed....

  13. Influence of replacing corn silage with barley silage in the diets of buffalo cows on milk yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Tudisco, R; Calabrò, S; Grossi, M; Piccolo, G; Guglielmelli, A; Cutrignelli, M I; Caiazzo, C; Infascelli, F

    2010-06-01

    A 150-day trial was carried out on 40 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that, immediately after calving, were equally divided into two homogeneous groups (M and O) based on the number of calving events and previous milk yield. The animals were fed (16 kg dry matter (DM)/head) two isoenergy/isoprotein diets (NEl: 6.39 MJ/kg DM; 15.4 CP% DM), composed of corn (diet M) or barley silage (diet O) concentrate, alfalfa hay, and a vitamin-mineral supplement. The fermentation characteristics of both silage diets were evaluated by an in vitro gas production technique, and their nutritional values were calculated as follows: NEl (MJ/kg DM) = 0.54 + 0.0959 GP + 0.0038 CP + 0.0001733 CP(2), where GP is the gas production after 24 h of incubation (ml/200 mg DM) and CP is the protein content of silage (g/kg DM). The nutritional values of the silages were slightly different (4.16 vs. 4.14 MJ/kg DM for M and O, respectively) likely due to the high content of hemicellulose in the O diet (22.0 vs. 16.9%). Average milk yield did not differ between the groups; instead, milk fat (8.39 vs. 9.06%; P < 0.01) and protein (4.41 vs. 4.60%; P < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in the O group. The results elicit great interest in southern Italy where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of irrigation. PMID:20464483

  14. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  15. Short-term low temperature storage of alfalfa leafcutting bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a major pollinator in alfalfa seed production systems throughout North America. Recent studies have shown that improved timing of female establishment and alfalfa bloom may allow producers to pollinate alfalfa seed crop...

  16. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever, and Hives: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that ... prescription only, monthly costs reflect nationwide retail average prices for February 2013, rounded to the nearest dollar. ...

  17. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  18. Chewing, rumen pool characteristics, and lactation performance of dairy cows fed 2 concentrations of a corn wet-milling coproduct with different forage sources.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, D M; Firkins, J L; VonBehren, P

    2014-09-01

    We used a novel corn wet-milling coproduct [CMP; approximately 70% dry matter, 28% crude protein, 36% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 18% nonstructural carbohydrates] in diets formulated to contain 18.4% forage NDF, 17.4% crude protein, 20.2% starch, and 3.7% sugar. Six primiparous, rumen-cannulated Jersey cows were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain 20 and 30% CMP with 3 forage sources [corn silage (CS) and 40.5% NDF, CS replaced with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) and 45.0% NDF, or CS replaced with 7% grass hay (GH) and 67.4% NDF], with each providing 18.4% forage NDF in the diet. Total-tract digestibilities of NDF, N, and organic matter were not affected by treatment. Similarly, no treatment effects were detected for kinetics of NDF disappearance in situ from CMP or respective forage source or for N disappearance in situ from CMP. Grass hay increased total and liquid pool size of rumen contents compared with AH (by 3.2 and 3.0kg, respectively). Total time spent chewing increased in cows fed GH by over 35min compared with those fed AH, partially due to a trend for increased minutes spent ruminating. Mean particle size of rumen contents also tended to be higher in the GH (0.55mm) than AH (0.69mm) diets. No effects on production of milk or milk components were detected, but dry matter intake (DMI) tended to decrease when CMP increased from 20 to 30%. Gross feed efficiency (fat-corrected milk/DMI) tended to be greater when cows were fed AH and GH compared with CS and was greater for AH than GH diets. In diets containing low starch, increasing CMP from 20 to 30% potentially maintained similar fat-corrected milk production with lower DMI. However, more consideration also should be given to interactions among forages with respect to fill, digestion, and passage of fiber with increased inclusion rates of CMP. PMID:24996267

  19. 40 CFR 180.568 - Flumioxazin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be determined by measuring only flumioxazin. Commodity Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa... 0.02 Cabbage, Chinese, napa 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.02 Corn, field, grain 0.02 Corn, field... Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.02 Wheat, forage 0.02 Wheat, grain 0.40 Wheat, hay 0.02...

  20. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    PubMed

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa. PMID:3771403

  1. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  2. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  3. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on Corn Grown in Soil in Fested with Arthrobotrys conoides.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Schmitt, D P; Sasser, J N

    1982-01-01

    Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil incorporation of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides and green alfalfa mulch on the population dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on corn. Reproduction of M. incognita and the incidence of root galling were reduced by the addition of A. conoides and/or green alfalfa in all tests. Numbers of juveniles were reduced by as much as 84%, and eggs were fewest in early to mid-season soil samples from microplots. Yields increased in treatments with A. conoides and/or green alfalfa in greenhouse tests and in the microplot tests in 1979. No interaction was found between the fungus and green alfalfa in the reduction of the nematode population. PMID:19295673

  4. Agroecology of corn production in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, M.A.; Trujillo, J.

    1987-06-01

    The primary components of Tlaxcalan corn agriculture are described, including cropping patterns employed, resource management strategies, and interactions of human and biological factors. Tlaxcalan farmers grow corn in an array of polyculture and agroforestry designs that result in a series of ecological processes important for insect pest and soil fertility management. Measurements derived from a few selected fields show that trees integrated into cropping systems modify the aerial and soil environment of associated understory corn plants, influencing their growth and yields. With decreasing distance from trees, surface concentrations of most soil nutrients increase. Certain tree species affect corn yields more than others. Arthropod abundance also varies depending on their degree of association with one or more of the vegetational components of the system. Densities of predators and the corn pest Macrodactylus sp. depend greatly on the presence and phenology of adjacent alfalfa strips. Although the data were derived from nonreplicated fields, they nevertheless point out some important trends, information that can be used to design new crop association that will achieve sustained soil fertility and low pest potentials.

  5. Seeding Rate Effect on Establishment and Yield of Alfalfa in Bermudagrass Sod

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing alfalfa often requires field conversion from another forage species. Planting alfalfa into bermudagrass sod reduces risk of forage loss because bermudagrass would remain if alfalfa was not successfully established. Previous Arkansas experiments on establishing alfalfa in bermudagrass so...

  6. Effects of roughage source and inclusion in beef finishing diets containing corn wet distillers' grains plus solubles.

    PubMed

    Benton, J R; Watson, A K; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Pol, K J Vander; Meyer, N F; Greenquist, M A

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of roughage source and inclusion in diets containing wet distillers' grains plus solubles (WDGS) on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism. In Exp. 1, 385 crossbred steer calves (initial BW = 346 kg [SD 29]) were used in a finishing trial. A control diet with no roughage inclusion was compared with 6 diets containing either alfalfa hay (ALF), corn silage (CSIL), or corn stalks (CSTK) at 2 inclusions as a 3 × 2 factorial. Alfalfa hay was included at 4 (low) or 8% (standard) of diet DM. Diets containing CSIL or CSTK were formulated to provide total dietary NDF equal to the low and standard ALF inclusion diets. The final diets contained 6.13 and 12.26% CSIL or 3.04 and 6.08% CSTK (DM basis). All diets contained 30% WDGS and a 1:1 mixture of dry-rolled and high-moisture corn (DM basis). Cattle fed no roughage had reduced ( < 0.01) DMI and tended ( ≤ 0.10) to have the lowest final BW and ADG compared with cattle fed roughage. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.11) in DMI, ADG, or G:F due to roughage source. Cattle fed a standard inclusion of roughage had greater ( ≤ 0.04) DMI and ADG compared with cattle fed diets with low inclusion, regardless of roughage source. Feed efficiency tended to be different among treatments ( = 0.09), with cattle fed no roughage having greater G:F than all treatments ( ≤ 0.06) except cattle fed the low level of CSTK, which had a similar G:F ( = 0.48). Feed efficiency was not affected by source of roughage ( = 0.23) or inclusion of roughage ( = 0.49). In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally fistulated steers (347 kg BW [SD 25]) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial with ALF or CSTK included at zero, low, or standard levels similar to Exp. 1. Apparent total tract digestibility (%) of DM, OM, and NDF decreased linearly ( ≤ 0.07) due to increasing roughage inclusion. Average, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH increased linearly ( ≤ 0

  7. Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes, with more than 650 genera and 20,000 species, range from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials that are important for providing quality human diet and livestock diet. Legumes also contribute to sustainable agriculture because they can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with the soil bacteria called...

  8. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... like estrogen, and this might affect the pregnancy. “Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus ( ... active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. There are two case reports of ...

  9. Production of a diagnostic monoclonal antibody in perennial alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Khoudi, H; Laberge, S; Ferullo, J M; Bazin, R; Darveau, A; Castonguay, Y; Allard, G; Lemieux, R; Vézina, L P

    1999-07-20

    The increasing use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in diagnostic reagents necessitates efficient and cost-effective mAb production methods. In blood banks, one of the most routinely used reagents is the anti-human IgG reagent used for the detection of non-agglutinating antibodies. Here we report the production of a functional, purified anti-human IgG, through the expression of its encoding genes in perennial transgenic alfalfa. Transgenic plants expressing the light- and heavy-chain encoding mRNAs were obtained, and plants from crosses were found to express fully assembled C5-1. The purification procedure yielded mainly the H2L2 form with specificity and affinity identical to those of hybridoma-derived C5-1. The ability to accumulate the antibody was maintained both in parental F1 lines during repeated harvesting and in clonal material; the antibody was stable in the drying hay as in extracts made in pure water. Also, plant and hybridoma-derived C5-1 had similar in vivo half-lives in mice. These results indicate that plant C5-1 could be used in a diagnostic reagent as effectively as hybridoma-derived C5-1, and demonstrates the usefulness of perennial systems for the cost-effective, stable, and reliable production of large amounts of mAbs. PMID:10397849

  10. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  11. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  12. Corn kernel oil and corn fiber oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most edible plant oils that are obtained directly from oil-rich seeds by either pressing or solvent extraction, corn seeds (kernels) have low levels of oil (4%) and commercial corn oil is obtained from the corn germ (embryo) which is an oil-rich portion of the kernel. Commercial corn oil cou...

  13. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (p<0.05) for animals fed corn relative to those fed SH or TH. Time expended in rumination and total chewing time were higher (p<0.05) for animals fed TH than those fed SH or corn. In vivo nutrient digestibilities were similar for all dietary treatments and averaged 69.6%, 74.8%, 69.9%, and 61.8% for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and NDF, respectively. Feeding SH relative to TH and corn decreased ruminal pH (p<0.05) and increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05). However, ruminal NH3-N concentration was higher (p<0.05) for animal fed TH than for those fed SH or corn. Abdominal distension and ruminal biofilm production were greater (p<0.05) in animals fed corn or SH than in those fed TH. It was concluded that replacing corn with SH or TH up to 15% of the diet DM in a cactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants. PMID:19731062

  14. Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad program provides grants to support overseas projects in training, research, and curriculum development in modern foreign languages and area studies by teachers, undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty engaged in a common endeavor. Projects may include short-term seminars, curriculum development,…

  15. Nitrogen Rates for Dryland Triticale Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland farmers/ranchers in the CGPR have recently taken an interest in triticale as a hay crop. Triticale is well adapted and its forage is palatable and nutritionally competitive with other annual forages grown in the region. On deficient soils, triticale’s forage-yield response to applied fertili...

  16. Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad program provides grants to colleges and universities to fund faculty to maintain and improve their area studies and foreign language skills by conducting research in other countries for periods of three to 12 months. This program holds an annual competition. Institutions of higher education in the United…

  17. Cool Season Perennial Grasses for Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to choose appropriate species or mix of species for hay production, the following questions need to be answered 1) how much available water (annually) and when is it available, 2) soil type (texture, depth, salinity, water table, etc.), 3) soil fertility (nitrogen availability - best determ...

  18. Physical and nutritional properties of buffalo meat finished on hay or maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana

    2014-04-01

    The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246 ± 9.00 kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368 ± 20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P < 0.05). Overall, the data indicated differences between the fatty acid profiles of meat as a consequence of different feeding systems. The higher fat deposition in the MS group resulted in meat with a less favorable fatty acid profile (i.e. a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and α-linolenic fatty acid content) in relation to human health compared with meat from animals fed the AH diet. PMID:24261881

  19. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages. PMID:25040128

  20. Ovarian development and ovipositional preference of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) variant in east central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Silvia I; Gray, Michael E

    2004-04-01

    The rotation of maize, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been the traditional cultural tactic to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in the Corn Belt. The reduced effectiveness of this rotation as a pest management tool in east central Illinois, northern Indiana, and southern Michigan can be explained by the shift in the ovipositional behavior of the new variant of western corn rootworm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of maize, soybean, oat, Avena sativa L., stubble, and alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., on the ovarian development and ovipositional preferences of the variant western corn rootworm. Field research was conducted near Urbana, IL, during 1998-2000. Gravid females were present throughout the season in all crops, and due to the prolonged period in which western corn rootworm females can lay eggs, none of the crops were immune from oviposition. Results indicated that the western corn rootworm variant oviposits in maize, soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa In 1998 and 1999, maize was the preferred oviposition site among crops; however, in 2000, maize, soybean, and oat stubble treatments had similar densities of western corn rootworm eggs. Lack of oviposition preference of the western corn rootworm variant demonstrated in this experiment represents a reasonable explanation of why the effectiveness of the rotation strategy to control western corn rootworm has diminished. PMID:15154460

  1. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  2. Using genomics to develop alfalfa as a biomass crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is frequently overlooked as a biomass feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. However, alfalfa has a number of advantages compared to other potential feedstocks. Alfalfa is a perennial, non-food crop that fixes atmospheric nitrogen, improves soil quality, and provides environmental bene...

  3. Understanding the Regulation of Cell Wall Composition in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and has excellent potential to be a sustainable cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. As the alfalfa stem matures, the xylem tissues become rich in cellulose, xylan, and lignin. The ideal alfalfa plant would have stems...

  4. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  5. Stay-green ranking and maturity of corn hybrids: 2. Effects on the performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2012-02-01

    To address producer concerns that feeding high stay-green (SG) corn hybrids is associated with decreased performance and health problems in dairy cows, this study examined how the performance of cows was affected by feeding hybrids with contrasting SG rankings and maturities. Two near-isogenic corn hybrids with high (HSG; Croplan Genetics 691, Croplan Genetics, St. Paul, MN) and low (LSG; Croplan Genetics 737) SG rankings were grown on separate halves of a 10-ha field, harvested at 27% (maturity 1) or 35% (maturity 2) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in bag silos for 84 and 77 d, respectively. A further treatment involved addition of water (15 L/t) to the HSG maturity 1 hybrid during packing to compound the potential negative effects of excess water in the HSG hybrid. Each of the resulting silages was included in a total mixed ration consisting of 35, 55, and 10% (DM basis) of corn silage, concentrate, and alfalfa hay, respectively. In experiment 1, the total mixed ration was fed for ad libitum consumption twice daily to 30 Holstein cows (92±18 d in milk). This experiment had a completely randomized design and consisted of two 28-d periods, each with 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for sample collection. In experiment 2, the ruminal fermentation of the diets was measured using 5 ruminally cannulated cows on the last day of three 15-d periods. Ruminal contraction rate (2.28±0.14 contractions/min), milk yield (36.7±1.3 kg/d), yield of milk protein (1.1±0.03 kg/d), and concentration of milk protein (2.9±0.03%) were not affected by treatment. Feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG reduced intake of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, and concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and milk fat when the hybrids were harvested at 27% DM but not 35% DM. Across maturity stages, feeding diets containing HSG instead of LSG decreased DM and CP digestibility, increased rectal temperature and plasma

  6. Effects of feeding increasing levels of wet corn gluten feed on production and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Anderson, D E; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary inclusion rates of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) on milk production and rumen parameters. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 90±13 d in milk (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF on a dry matter basis; alfalfa hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements were varied to maintain similar nutrient concentrations across diets. Performance and measures of ruminal fermentation were monitored. Linear and quadratic effects of increasing WCGF inclusion rate were assessed using mixed-model analysis. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly increased dry matter intake (26.7, 25.9, 29.3, and 29.7 kg/d for 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF, respectively) and milk production (36.8, 37.0, 40.1, and 38.9 kg/d). Concentrations of milk components did not differ among treatments; however, protein and lactose yields increased linearly and fat yield tended to increase linearly when more WCGF was fed. This led to greater production of energy-corrected milk (38.2, 38.8, 41.7, and 40.4 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (35.2, 35.7, 38.5, and 37.2 kg/d), but efficiency of production linearly decreased. Increased WCGF in the diet tended to linearly decrease ruminal pH (6.18, 6.12, 6.14, and 5.91), possibly because mean particle size was below typical recommendations for all diets, and diets with greater proportions of WCGF had a smaller mean particle size. Ruminal acetate concentration decreased linearly and propionate increased linearly as WCGF inclusion rate increased. Treatments had a quadratic effect on ammonia concentration, with greater concentrations for the 0 and 34% WCGF diets. In situ digestibility of soybean hulls showed a significant diet-by-time interaction, and

  7. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China. PMID:25049816

  8. Evaluation of alfalfa inter-seeding effect on bahiagrass baleage fermentation and lactating Holstein performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research indicates that bahiagrass may be successfully conserved as baleage, but nutritive value is typically low for lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding modest amounts of alfalfa forage (22%), achieved by inter-seeding alfalfa into an existing bahiagrass pasture, on baleage nutritive value and lactation performance of Holstein cows. Forage treatments employed were monoculture bahiagrass baleage (MBB; negative control), bahiagrass-alfalfa mixture baleage (BAB) and conventional corn silage (CCS; positive control). Thirty six mid lactation Holstein cows [34.8 ± 5.8 kg 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 112 ± 19 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 forage treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common CCS-based TMR in a 10-d covariance period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Results The BAB contained more protein and less NDF than MBB (12.6 vs 10.3% CP and 71.8 vs 76.6% NDF). Diet DMI was similar for MBB and BAB (19.5 vs 21.6 kg/hd/d), but cows consumed more of the CCS diet (25.5 kg/hd/d) than either baleage-based diet. Cows offered BAB tended to produce more milk than cows offered MBB based TMR (28.4 vs 26.1 kg/hd/d), but both baleage diets generated less milk than CCS-based diets (33.1 kg/hd/d). Milk composition was similar across diets except for milk protein concentrations which were higher for CCS than either MBB or BAB diets; however, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest for cows fed CCS diets. Cow BW gain was higher for BAB than MBB implying that a portion of the higher energy contributed by the alfalfa was being used to replenish weight on these mid lactation cows. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that alfalfa inter-seeded in bahiagrass sod that produces BAB with as little as 22% alfalfa may improve nutritive value compared to monoculture bahiagrass baleage and marginally

  9. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  10. Effect of formic acid or formaldehyde treatment of alfalfa silage on nutrient utilization by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nagel, S A; Broderick, G A

    1992-01-01

    Third-cutting alfalfa with 37% DM was ensiled untreated or treated with either 2.8 g of formic acid/100 g of DM or .31 g of formaldehyde/100 g of DM and fed to lactating dairy cows in two experiments. Silage treated with formic acid had the lowest pH and concentrations of NPN, NH3, and total free AA. Both treatments decreased rumen in vitro protein degradability but did not affect in vitro rumen plus pepsin digestibility. In trial 1, part 1, 22 Holstein cows received a standard diet for 18 d postpartum and then were fed for 6 wk one of three diets containing 98% alfalfa silage DM. Although DMI was comparable, yields of milk, SCM, fat, protein, lactose, and SNF were higher when treated silages were fed. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain, essential, and total AA increased when formic acid-treated silage was fed. Rumen pH and concentrations of NH3 and VFA were similar for all diets. Rumen escape protein, estimated using 15N as a microbial protein marker, was increased more by formic acid than by formaldehyde treatment. In trial 1, part 2, supplementation with 4.8% fish meal increased concentration of milk protein and yields of milk, protein, lactose, and SNF. Milk urea concentration was higher on the untreated silage diet. Total tract apparent DM and N digestibilities were not affected by silage treatment, although fish meal decreased apparent DM digestibility. In trial 2, 80:20 alfalfa silage:ground corn diets were fed to 12 midlactation cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square study. Milk production was unaffected, but milk protein concentration and DMI were higher when treated silages were fed. Feeding treated silages increased plasma concentrations of branched-chain AA, essential AA, and total AA. Formaldehyde and especially formic acid treatment effectively improved utilization of nutrients in alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows. PMID:1541728

  11. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  12. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  13. EFFECTS OF FEEDING EASTERN GAMAGRASS WITH OR WITHOUT CORN SUPPLEMENTATION ON LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN COWS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactating cows fed gamagrass hay(GH) or silage(GS) produced similar daily milk yields(27.3 vs 29.5 kg/d). Including supplemental corn with GS at 12.6 % of the diet did not increase daily milk production(29.5 vs 32.4 kg/d), but when corn supplementation was increased to 27.8 and 54.6 % of the diet i...

  14. 40 CFR 180.122 - Parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Alfalfa, forage 1.25 12/31/05 Alfalfa, hay 5.0 12/31/05 Barley 1.0 12/31/05 Corn 1.0 12/31/05 Corn, forage 1.0 12/31/05...

  15. 40 CFR 180.122 - Parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Expiration/Revocation Date Alfalfa, forage 1.25 12/31/05 Alfalfa, hay 5.0 12/31/05 Barley 1.0 12/31/05 Corn 1.0 12/31/05 Corn, forage 1.0 12/31/05...

  16. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Na, Y. J.; Lee, I. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR) on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight) in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk) were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH) or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP). Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI) on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH. PMID:25050037

  17. MANURE MANAGEMENT: ALFALFA FIELDS GIVE US OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in the U.S. produces more than 18,000 lbs. of milk each year and generates about 42,000 lbs. of manure. Manure management is not the only task on the farmer's 'to do' list, but in today’s world it is increasingly important to do it right. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively smal...

  18. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  19. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  20. N fixation versus N uptake in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer N is the single most expensive input in nearly all crop-production systems and has been implicated in declining groundwater quality due to nitrate contamination. Commercial alfalfas are highly productive in the absence of nitrogen inputs because of the symbiotic association with soil bact...

  1. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  2. ALFALFA TRAITS THAT WILL IMPACT BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in production of energy from renewable resources such as biomass has increased tremendously with the recent price spike for oil and growing recognition of the threat posed by global warming. Alfalfa is an attractive alternative for biomass production because of its perennial nature, ability...

  3. Utilization of three maturities of alfalfa by dairy cows fed rations that contain similar concentrations of fiber.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R M; Combs, D K

    1989-09-01

    The effect of alfalfa maturity on ration utilization and lactation performance by high producing dairy cows was measured in a 13-wk lactation study. Eighteen multiparous Holsteins were fed one of three rations containing first crop alfalfa hay harvested at early vegetative (36.1% NDF), late bud (51.7% NDF), or full bloom (51.7% NDF) maturity. Forage to concentrate ratios were 68:32, 53:47, and 45:55 for early vegetative, late bud, and full bloom rations, respectively. As offered, the late bud ration was higher in fiber (34.6% NDF) than either the early vegetative (31.8% NDF) or full bloom (30.6% NDF) rations. Cows fed the ration with early vegetative hay produced as much 4% FCM (32.5 kg) as cows fed the ration containing more fiber (late bud, 32.9 kg) or the later maturity hay (full bloom, 32.2 kg). Milk fat and protein composition were not affected by ration fiber concentration or forage maturity. Average dry matter intake per day and body weight change were similar across treatments. Time spent ruminating was similar for the three rations (6.8 h/d), but eating time was affected by forage maturity (early vegetative, 4.4 h/d vs. full bloom, 5.7 h/d). Cows receiving the higher fiber diet (late bud, 6.2 h/d) spent more time eating than cows receiving the lower fiber diets. Fiber concentration and forage maturity did not affect milk production, milk composition, or body weight change of high producing dairy cows in early lactation. PMID:2556460

  4. Hay fever in adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Hay fever is found throughout the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests considerable geographical variation in its prevalence. Symptoms are caused by an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to airborne allergens such as pollen or fungal spores, and may also cause eye, sinus, respiratory, and systemic problems. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for hay fever in adolescents and adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 211 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intranasal corticosteroids, oral antihistamines, intranasal antihistamines, oral leukotriene receptor antagonists, systemic corticosteroids, intranasal ipratropium bromide, oral decongestants, and combinations of these treatments. PMID:21726475

  5. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

  6. Effect of electromagnetic stimulation of alfalfa seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwintal, M.; Dziwulska-Hunek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the conducted experiments the effect of presowing He-Ne laser light, magnetic field stimulation or the combination of these two factors of alfalfa seeds on the field emergence, structure and yields in the year of sowing and during three following years of full land use were studied. The examined factors had a significant effect on the number of shoots per 1 m2, plant height, mass of shoots, fresh and dry mass. Electromagnetic stimulation resulted in a significant increase in alfalfa seeds emergence (from 35% - control to 47.8% - magnetic field), number of shoots per 1m2 (from 608 - control to 813 - laser light in cut), but a decrease of the mass of the shoots (from 0.61 g - control to 0.50 g - laser light).

  7. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  8. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. ); Geno, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  9. Renal failure in Hay-Wells syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dhanya; Sugathan, Dileep K; Railey, Mohammed; Alrukhaimi, Mona

    2013-11-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of disorders involving developmental defects of the ectodermal structures, with abnormalities in the skin, hair, nails and sweat glands. Ankyloblepharon - ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome, also known as Hay-Wells syndrome, is characterized by eyelid fusion, ED and cleft lip/palate. We report a 15-year-old Omani boy with AEC syndrome who presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy. Genitourinary anomalies including hypospadiasis, posterior urethral stricture and bilateral vesicoureteric reflux were noted. These led to secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and ESRD. Screening for genitourinary anomalies and renal function tests must be performed in all patients with ED to facilitate early detection of renal disease and appropriate management. PMID:24231488

  10. Analyses of boll weevils captured near hay bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevils re-infesting cotton fields in Louisiana were often correlated with the movement of large hay bales in the area. Boll weevils were collected in pheromone traps that were placed downwind from hay bales that were in varying stages of decay in numbers ranging from 10 to greater than 30. B...

  11. 76 FR 28060 - Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... of the RHCP and to evaluate alternatives, along with the draft RHCP (74 FR 56655). We included public... Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... statement, final Hays County regional habitat conservation plan, and draft record of decision. SUMMARY:...

  12. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

  13. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  14. Captures of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults with Pherocon AM and vial traps in four crops in east central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Silvia I; Gray, Michael E

    2003-06-01

    It is hypothesized that the long-term rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) in east central Illinois has caused a significant change in the ovipositional behavior of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Since the mid 1990s in east central Illinois, western corn rootworm adults have been observed feeding on soybean foliage and also now use soybean fields as egg laying sites. This behavioral adaptation has greatly decreased the effectiveness of rotation as a pest management tactic. By using Pherocon AM and vial traps, we evaluated the influence of maize, soybean, oat stubble (Avena sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on male and female adult western corn rootworm densities from April 1998 through September 2000 near Urbana, IL. Our results indicated that western corn rootworm adults are common inhabitants of maize, soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa. Trapping efforts with both Pherocon AM (attractive) and vial traps (passive) revealed that initial densities of both male and female western corn rootworm adults were greater in maize. Soon after emergence, densities of females began to decline within maize and increase in other crops (soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa). Results from this experiment support the hypothesis that variant western corn rootworm females in east central Illinois are colonizing crops other than maize at densities of potential economic importance. Those producers who choose to rotate maize with soybean or alfalfa may remain at risk to economic larval injury to maize roots. Potentially, oat stubble also may support levels of western corn rootworm females resulting in sufficient oviposition to cause economic losses to rotated maize the following season. PMID:12852611

  15. Effects of Spontaneous Heating on Estimates of Energy from Alfalfa-Orchardgrass Hays Stored in Large-Round Bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the summative approach to estimate total digestible nutrients (TDN), truly digestible fiber can be estimated from inputs of: i) protein-corrected NDF and acid-detergent lignin (LIG-METHOD); or ii) protein-corrected NDF and 48-h neutral-detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD-METHOD). Our objective...

  16. Alfalfa forage and seed crop tolerance to flumioxazin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed and forage. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa forage and seed production in 2007 and 2008 in Washington State. Flumioxazin applied at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat in February t...

  17. Reductions in potash for last-year alfalfa production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying the correct amount of potassium (K) fertilizer is critical for alfalfa yield and stand persistence; however, excess K fertilizer will decrease profits and increase the risk of milk fever when alfalfa is fed to fresh cows. Stand persistence is often not a major concern in the last year of al...

  18. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  19. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  20. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  1. ALFALFA YIELD AND QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN INDIVIDUAL HARVESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within cuttings over the whole growi...

  2. Harvest management impacts on stem quality in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem total cell wall concentration, Kla...

  3. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  4. Dig Alfalfa Plants to Assess Root Rots and Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digging alfalfa plants and inspecting their crowns and roots for rot is critical to assess stand health and production potential. Brown root rot (BRR) has been a significant plant disease on alfalfa for decades but until recently was thought to only cause significant damage in western Canada. With i...

  5. New strategies for managing leaf diseases of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation from leaf diseases has been measured from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, age of the stand, and location. In addition to yield loss, foliar diseases can reduce forag...

  6. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: fermentation products and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of fourteen microbial inoculants on the fermentation and nutritive value of alfalfa silages was studied under laboratory conditions. First (477 g dry matter (DM)/kg) and second cuttings (393 g DM /kg) of a second year alfalfa stand were ensiled in two experiments. In both experiments, alf...

  7. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  8. CYTOGENETIC INVESTIGATIONS OF NON-DORMANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined techniques of chromosome C-banding, image analysis, and cluster analysis were utilized to compare the four historically distinct non-dormant alfalfa germplasm sources of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa). Cytogenetic analyses revealed polymorphisms for heterochromatic DN...

  9. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  10. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  11. Alfalfa Biomass Germplasms: SFP Detection and Transcriptome Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex polysomic inheritance. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve ...

  12. 'Don' a Diploid Falcata Alfalfa for Western US Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Don' (Reg. No. CV-______, PI _______) a diploid falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp falcata L.) developed by the Forage and Range Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Recent interest in falcata alfalfa has been ...

  13. 77 FR 28577 - Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA) Fellowship Program... Information; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA) Fellowship Program; Notice Inviting...-Hays DDRA Fellowship Program provides opportunities to doctoral candidates to engage in...

  14. 78 FR 25705 - Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Applications for New Awards; Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA) Fellowship Program...: Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad (DDRA) Fellowship Program Notice inviting applications...-Hays DDRA Fellowship Program provides opportunities to doctoral candidates to engage in...

  15. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  16. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  17. Host density drives spatial variation in parasitism of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, across dryland and irrigated alfalfa cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control against the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), a destructive pest of alfalfa, has resulted in the establishment of nine hymenpoteran parasitoid species in the USA. Despite widespread redistribution of a number of these species, there remains little post-release data on th...

  18. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  19. MOLECULAR DNA MARKERS UTILIZED TO DISCERN ALFALFA FALL DORMANCY CHECK CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa cultivars are difficult to distinguish based upon morphological traits. Only a few morphological traits have been used to describe alfalfa. Molecular markers especially simple sequence repeats (SSR) have not been utilized in alfalfa to characterize alfalfa cultivars. This study was conduct...

  20. The feeding value of corn distillers solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sasikala-Appukuttan, A K; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primiparous) in early to mid lactation (79.3 +/- 9.2 d in milk) were used in a multiple 5 x 5 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to evaluate and compare the use of condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the total mixed ration. The forage portion of the diets was kept constant at 27.5% corn silage and 27.5% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (control); 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4) 20% CCDS; and 5) a combination diet of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS. Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS or CCDS, whereas diet 4 contained 4% fat from CCDS and diet 5 contained 4% fat from the blend of DDGS and CCDS. The diets were balanced to provide 17% crude protein with variation in acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and fat concentration. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk yield (33.8, 36.2, 35.5, 36.0, and 36.0 kg/d) tended to be greater for diets 2 to 5 than for diet 1, whereas yields of fat (1.04 kg/d), protein (1.02 kg/d), fat percentage (2.94), and protein percentage (2.98) were similar for all diets. Energy-corrected milk (32.2 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.58 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar for all diets. Milk urea nitrogen (15.0, 10.9, 11.1, 11.0, and 11.4 mg/dL) as well as blood urea nitrogen (15.6, 12.5, 14.6, 13.8, and 14.2 mg/dL) were decreased in diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids were greater and medium-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.33, 0.68, 0.51, 0.85, and 1.07 g/100 g of fatty acids) as well as trans-10, cis-12 CLA (<0.01, 0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 g/100 g of fatty acids) were greater for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Molar proportions of ruminal

  1. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  2. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  3. 14. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS STRUCTURE AND HAY HOOK CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS STRUCTURE AND HAY HOOK CABLE AND PULLEY SYSTEM LOCATED ON WEST END OF BARN. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  4. Tetrasomic Segregation for Multiple Alleles in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Quiros, Carlos F.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence of tetrasomic inheritance in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L., for multiple codominant alleles at three isozymic loci is reported in this study. The locus Prx-1 governing anodal peroxidase and the loci Lap-1 and Lap-2 governing anodal leucine-aminopeptidase were studied by starch gel electrophoresis in seedling root tissue or seeds. The progenies from several di-, tri- or tetra-allelic plants belong to the species M. sativa and M. falcata and their hybrids were studied for the segregation of the three genes. In all cases, tetrasomic inheritance of chromosomal-type segregation was observed. In another progeny resulting from the crossing of two plants involving four different alleles at locus Lap-2, tetrasomic segregation with the possible occurrence of double reduction was observed. This study presents direct evidence of autotetraploidy and the existence of tetra-allelic loci in alfalfa. It also supports the concept that the species M. sativa and M. falcata are genetically close enough to be considered biotypes of a common species. PMID:17246077

  5. 64. ELECTRIC MOTOR HAYES STREET POWERHOUSE 1905: Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. ELECTRIC MOTOR - HAYES STREET POWERHOUSE - 1905: Photocopy of April 1905 photograph showing an early electric motor installation used to drive the winding machinery at the Hayes Street powerhouse of the United Railroads of San Francsico. A portion of the steam engine originally used to power the machinery is visible behind the winding sheave in the left background of the photograph. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.; Wiant, B.; Oelke, E.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant to operate in conjunction with an alfalfa processing plant that provides the gasification feedstock and a mid-level protein animal feed co-product. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a gasification feedstock. The leaf material was evaluated as a mid-level protein animal feed supplement. The alfalfa leaf-stem separation and power generation operations have dual and/or synergistic functions which contribute to a technically and economically compatible combination. The pressurized biomass gasification process selected is the IGT RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corp. Adaptation of the air-blown gasification process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion with low tar production, overcome ash agglomeration, and provide for control of volatile alkali species. A hot gas clean-up system removes particulate matter with a ceramic filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa. The physical and chemical properties of the alfalfa feedstock were evaluated for the gasification process. The alfalfa char carbon-steam reaction, which is the slowest step in the complete conversion of biomass to gases, was measured and the char proved to have a high reactivity. Ash components were measured and evaluated in terms of agglomeration within the gasifier. Using this information, the alfalfa gasification conditions were predicted. A subsequent preliminary gasification test confirmed the alfalfa gasification conditions. To complete the engineering design of the IGCC system, additional testing is required, but the results to date are positive for a successful process.

  7. The unusual mineralogy of the Hayes River rhyolite, Hayes Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, L. A.; Coombs, M. L.; McHugh, K.

    2013-12-01

    Hayes Volcano is an ice-covered volcanic massif located in the northern Cook Inlet region approximately 135 miles northwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The last major eruptive episode of Hayes, and the only known in any detail, occurred ~3,700 yr B.P. and produced the Hayes Tephra Set H, a series of dacitic fall deposits widespread throughout southcentral Alaska (Riehle et al., 1994, Quat. Res. 33, p. 91-108). An undated, early Holocene pyroclastic-flow deposit exposed beneath Tephra Set H in the Hayes River valley is unusual in the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in whole-rock composition and mineralogy. The deposit comprises rhyolite pumice (~75 wt% SiO2) that contain phenocrysts of plagioclase, sanidine, quartz, and biotite in vesicular, clear matrix glass, and <1% dense, white cognate inclusions with the same whole-rock composition and phenocryst assemblage as the pumice, but a crystalline matrix. Holocrystalline inclusions may represent portions of the magma body that rapidly quenched in the shallow subsurface as dikes or chamber rinds and were then excavated during explosive eruption. Rhyolite and inclusions are peraluminous (2-3 % normative corundum), high-K, enriched in incompatible elements, and depleted in Sr and Eu. In accord with its evolved and enriched composition the rhyolite pumice and inclusions contain an abundance of accessory phases, including apatite, monazite, xenotime, and zircon. Monazite are euhedral, as large as 500 um, ThO2-rich (up to 4 wt%) and contain significant amounts of Ag (200-500 ppm). Xenotime are generally smaller than the monazite and occur frequently as small blebs. Rhyolite pumices also contain Fe-sulfides, Cu, Sn, Ni, and barite. Sanidine phenocrysts in the pumice and inclusions are sharply zoned and highly enriched in the celsian component (up to 5 wt% BaO) and also show LREE enrichment. Inclusions contain abundant Mn-rich cordierite (~3 wt% Mn2O3) in the san-plag-qtz matrix, as well as Fe-Ti oxides that are relatively high in

  8. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  9. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  10. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  11. The effect of harvest moisture and bale wrapping on temperature and mold counts in grass hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting hay can be complicated by poor drying conditions and the threat of rainfall. In an effort to avoid rain and other adverse weather conditions, hay is often baled before the hay is dried adequately, resulting in mold development and reduced forage quality. Hays baled at moisture levels <15%...

  12. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  13. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  14. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  15. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  16. Effect of crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) hay harvest interval on forage quality and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Hutchison, S; Stewart, C B; Shockey, J D; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Twelve 0.81-ha crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) hay fields were harvested at 21, 35, and 49 d of regrowth (average phonological growth stage of 30, 51, and 56, respectively). Increased harvest interval exhibited a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in CP (14.1, 13.7, and 10.6% of DM, respectively) and increase (P < 0.01) in NDF (65.3, 70.6, and 70.2% of DM, respectively) and ADF (35.7, 38.9, and 42.7% of DM, respectively). Hays were incorporated into 3 diets that contained 20% (DM basis) crabgrass hay, ground corn (33%), and soybean hulls (32%). Diets contained 14.4, 14.4, and 13.6% CP; 1.83, 1.72, and 1.81 Mcal of NE(m)/kg; and 1.21, 1.10, and 1.17 Mcal of NE(g)/kg; respectively. Diets were fed to beef calves in 12 pens at a rate of 2.3% (DM basis) of BW in 1 experiment (n = 120, initial BW 210 +/- 4.4 kg) and ad libitum in another experiment (n = 60, initial BW 207 +/- 4.4 kg). To measure passage rate of the hay and concentrate portions of the diets, 12 heifer calves (BW = 145 +/- 4.5 kg) were individually fed at 2.3% of BW for 14 d and dosed with Dy-labeled soybean hulls and Yb-labeled hay. In situ DM digestibility of the hays and diets were determined using 3 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 584 +/- 10.4 kg). Harvest interval did not affect (P > or = 0.11) ADG of limit-fed calves during the diet acclimation or growing phases (average 0.32 and 0.80 kg, respectively) or ADG of calves fed ad libitum (average 1.21 kg). Dry matter intake of calves fed ad libitum averaged 7.9 kg/d (3.28% of BW) and was not affected (P > or = 0.22) by harvest interval. Gain:feed was not affected (P > or = 0.20) by harvest interval (0.13 and 0.15 for limit-fed and ad libitum-fed calves, respectively). Increased harvest interval linearly increased (P < 0.01) ruminal retention time of the hay and tended (P = 0.06) to linearly increase ruminal retention time of the concentrate portions of the diet. Harvest interval linearly decreased (P < or = 0.05) the extent of degradability and

  17. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  18. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  19. Voluntary intake and digestibility of teff hay fed to horses.

    PubMed

    Staniar, W B; Bussard, J R; Repard, N M; Hall, M H; Burk, A O

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient composition, voluntary DMI, and apparent DM digestibility of teff hay cut at 3 different stages of maturity to evaluate its potential as a preserved forage for horses. Six mature Quarter Horse mares (12 +/- 3 yr; 553 +/- 39 kg of BW) were used in a replicated balanced Latin square design with 3 periods and 3 maturities of teff hay. Eragrostis tef ('Tiffany' teff) was planted in May and harvested at the boot, early-heading, or late-heading stage of maturity through the summer. Horses were acclimated to a mixture of maturities of teff hay for 8 d before the beginning of the study. After this acclimation period, each period consisted of a 9-d voluntary DMI phase, followed by a 3-d DM digestibility phase. The percentages of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) increased from 5.4% in the boot stage to 8.4% in the late-heading stage, whereas concentrations of CP, K, Fe, and Mn decreased. The Ca:P ratio was 2.0 ± 0.3 for all maturities. Horses had less DMI of late-heading teff hay (1.5% BW) than teff hay of other maturities (1.8% BW; P < 0.05), indicating a preference for the earlier maturities. The intake and nutrient composition of the boot and early-heading maturities was sufficient to meet 90 to 97% of the average DE of the horses and most other nutrient requirements. Digestibility decreased from boot to late-heading teff hay for DM, CP, ADF, and NDF (P < 0.05). Digestibility increased from boot to early-heading to late-heading hay for nonfiber carbohydrates and water-soluble carbohydrates (P < 0.05). For all maturities of teff hay, the NSC intake was below 10% of the total intake. In conclusion, the low NSC and DE of teff hay grown in central Pennsylvania under the conditions in this study make it an appropriate forage source for obese horses and those at risk for laminitis or other metabolic disorders. PMID:20581289

  20. COMMENT ON PAPER BY HAYES, HASKELL, AND KENNER [Letter

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L R.; Shishkina, Elena A.; Shved, Valentina A.; Degteva, M O.; Tolstykh, E I.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2003-11-01

    Hayes et al. (2002) have presented an ''EPR model'' for separating internal 90Sr doses from external gamma-ray doses in teeth and propose application to the ''Techa River population.'' Dose reconstruction for members of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) has been a focus of our studies for many years (Degteva et al. 2000a,b; 2002), and it is disappointing that Hayes et al. did not discuss this issue with us. It is our opinion that the model proposed by Hayes et al. cannot be regarded as applicable, because it is based on unrealistic assumptions. Their ''simplified'' model is far from simple, except for its unrealistic characterization of the source configuration of 90Sr deposited within the tooth. Our objections to this paper are numerous, and only the more important are given.

  1. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  3. Conserving alfalfa wild relatives: is past introgression with Russian varieties evident today?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia, particularly Kazakhstan, supports a rich concentration of wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) relatives. Because they freely cross with domesticated alfalfa, they are important genetic resources. When identifying in situ populations to conserve, contamination of wild populations with dom...

  4. Comparison of alternative methods, sample grinds, and fermentation times for determining indigestible neutral detergent fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of sample grind, fermentation method, and time on the determination of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF). Samples of: 1) alfalfa hay and silage, 2) corn stalks and silage, and 3) ryegrass and mixed grass hays were ground through 2-m...

  5. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    PubMed

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake. PMID:24788311

  6. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  7. TQM at Corning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J

    1992-01-01

    Houghton has been with Corning for 30 years, up through the ranks. Now, as chairman and CEO, his individual leadership stamp is TQM. It's a major turn-around story with Total Quality at its center. PMID:10117839

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L.; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe3O4-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe3O4. CNTs bearing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up. PMID:22977097

  9. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  10. Winter cereals as a pasture-hay system in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006-2008 ‘Willow Creek’ winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ‘Trical 102’ triticale (X Triticosecale Wttn.) were evaluated, under dryland conditions, for biomass production and forage quality under grazing and haying systems. Grazing enclosures were constructed in uniform sites of the fields....

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is constructed of hand-hewn, 10" square post and beams with mortise and tenon, pegged joints. The photograph also shows the hayfork and track, double doors on the north façade, and window opening. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  12. Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad program provides grants to colleges and universities to fund individual doctoral students to conduct research in other countries in modern foreign languages and area studies for periods of six to 12 months. This program holds an annual competition. Institutions of higher education in the…

  13. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  14. Biology and Effects of Spontaneous Heating in Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative consequences of baling hay before it is adequately dried are widely known to producers. Frequently, these problems are created by uncooperative weather conditions that prevent forages from drying (rapidly) to moisture levels that allow safe and stable storage of harvested forages. When ...

  15. A CONTINUATION OF REMEDIATION OF BRINE SPILLS WITH HAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    First order rate constants for salt removal are shown in Table 1. For Gibbs 7, tilling with hay and fertilizers proved to be the best treatment for salt removal (80% confidence level, CL). For Gibbs 9, which is rockier than Gibbs 7, tilling was the best treatment for salt remo...

  16. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated, Interdisciplinary…

  17. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  18. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  19. MANAGING COOL-SEASON CRP WITH FIRE AND HAYING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if there were detrimental effects of timed burns and mowing or haying applied to Conservation Reserve Plantings (CRP) with birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) grown in combination with the cool-season grasses Bromus inermis (L.) and Festuca arundinacea (Shreb...

  20. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program and Special Bilateral Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program and Special Bilateral Projects provides short-term study and travel seminars abroad for U.S. educators in the social sciences and humanities for the purpose of improving their understanding and knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. There are approximately 10 seminars with 16 participants…

  1. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  2. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Methods and Results: Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa, and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population stru...

  3. INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED MALATE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION BY ALFALFA ON DIVERSITY OF RHIZOBACTERIA AND SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic alfalfa over-expressing a nodule-enhanced malate dehydrogenase (neMDH) cDNA and untransformed alfalfa plants were grown at the same field site and rhizosphere soils collected after 53 weeks of plant growth. These alfalfa lines differ in the amount and composition of root organic acids pro...

  4. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  5. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  6. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  7. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  8. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  9. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  10. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  11. Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24701903

  12. Controlling herbicide-resistant weeds: consider incorporating alfalfa in a corn/soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide resistant weeds (HRW) are a serious problem in the U.S. In 1968, the first confirmed case of herbicide resistance in weeds was reported in Washington state. In the 46 years since, the number of HRW in the U.S. has increased dramatically. A major reason for the recent increase in HRW has be...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  17. 40 CFR 180.626 - Prothioconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts permillion Alfalfa, forage 0.02 Alfalfa, hay 0.02 Beet, sugar, roots 0.25 Corn, sweet kernel..., cereal, group 15, except sweet corn and sorghum 0.35 Pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C 0.9 Peanut 0.02 Potato 0.02 Rapeseed, seed 0.15 Rice, hulls 0.90 Soybean, forage 4.5...

  18. 40 CFR 180.626 - Prothioconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts permillion Alfalfa, forage 0.02 Alfalfa, hay 0.02 Beet, sugar, roots 0.25 Corn, sweet kernel..., cereal, group 15, except sweet corn and sorghum 0.35 Pea and bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C 0.9 Peanut 0.02 Potato 0.02 Rapeseed, seed 0.15 Rice, hulls 0.90 Soybean, forage 4.5...

  19. Effectiveness of buffered propionic-acid preservatives for large hay packages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most hay producers realize that hays packaged in large-round or large-square bales are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating, dry matter losses, and negative changes in forage quality. During the last two decades, this has become an important dilemma for hay producers because the cost and av...

  20. Dry matter losses during hay production and storage of sweet sorghum used for methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.

    1987-01-01

    Losses from production and storage of large round hay bales from sweet sorghum were measured. Dry matter losses from hay production were 55.3%. Storage losses were 18.1% and 10.1% for outdoor and indoor storage, respectively. It was concluded hay storage of sweet sorghum used for anaerobic digestion is not a viable option.

  1. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  2. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    PubMed

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  3. Development and Optimization of Glaser-Hay Bioconjugations.

    PubMed

    Lampkowski, Jessica S; Villa, Jordan K; Young, Travis S; Young, Douglas D

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of bioconjugates in the biomedical sciences necessitates the development of novel mechanisms to facilitate their preparation. Towards this end, the translation of the Glaser-Hay coupling to an aqueous environment is examined, and its potential as a bioorthogonal conjugation reaction is demonstrated. This optimized, novel, and aqueous Glaser-Hay reaction is applied towards the development of bioconjugates utilizing protein expressed with an alkynyl unnatural amino acid. Unnatural amino acid technology provides a degree of bioorthognality and specificity not feasible with other methods. Moreover, the scope of the reaction is demonstrated through protein-small molecule couplings, small-molecule-solid-support couplings, and protein-solid-support immobilizations. PMID:26088803

  4. Soil particulate organic matter response to incorporation of alfalfa regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the potential effects of climate change have driven a need to understand the potential of agricultural soils to store carbon (C). In Midwestern cropping systems, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has received attention from researchers because including it in crop r...

  5. The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

  6. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: widespread distribution of race 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early spring of 2012 with prolonged wet soil conditions in many parts of the country resulted in reports of poor performance of alfalfa due to Aphanomyces root rot (ARR). Varieties with resistance to ARR are available, although fewer varieties have resistance to both race 1 and race 2 of the pat...

  7. Hourly and daily evapotranspiration of alfalfa under regional advection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional advection often affects the evapotranspiration rates of irrigated crops in the Southern High Plains. In 1998, during a 10-day period (13-22 June) of unusually strong advection, high evapotranspiration (ET) rates for unstressed, irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were measured with two prec...

  8. In-Situ Use of Ground Water By Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated column lysimeter study was conducted over a 4 year period to determine the effect of groundwater salinity and depth to ground water on the in-situ use of groundwater by a salt tolerant alfalfa crop. The treatments included a control with no groundwater, and ground water with electrical ...

  9. QTL Underlying Self-Fertility in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential strategy to decrease the levels of self-seed production during the seed increase stages of alfalfa synthetic cultivar development is selection for decreased self-fertility. The underlying genetics of this trait have not been elucidated, and therefore, a study was designed to identify ge...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus.

    PubMed

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  11. Reducing Alfalfa Brown Root Rot with Crop Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stand injury resulting from brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa, caused by Phoma sclerotioides, may be noted this spring as warmer temperatures promote stand emergence. BRR development occurs primarily over the winter and is favored when stands are covered with snow for an extended period of time. It is...

  12. RATE OF YIELD AND QUALITY CHANGE IN ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  13. Biochemical Conversion of Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Stems Into Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has potential utility as an energy crop for conversion to biofuels because it is already produced commercially, grows as a perennial, and the protein enriched leaves can be marketed for animal feed. In this paper, the biomass processing characteristics of the stem mater...

  14. The role of disease resistance in alfalfa persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of disease resistance on alfalfa persistence, a five-year field study was conducted using sixteen cultivars with release dates from 1940 to 1996. Fusarium wilt and anthracnose were the prevalent lethal diseases observed. Disease was present in all cultivars, with higher incide...

  15. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  16. ADVECTION INFLUENCES ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF ALFALFA IN A SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advective enhancement of crop evapotranspiration (ET) occurs when drier, hotter air is transported into the crop by wind and can be an important factor in the water balance of irrigated crops in a semiarid climate. Thirteen days of moderate to extremely high ET rates of irrigated alfalfa (Medicago ...

  17. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  18. Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

  19. Orchardgrass vs. alfalfa for replacing dairy-cow grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is currently the predominant forage fed to lactating dairy cows in the Midwestern United States however interest in incorporating grasses into lactating dairy cow diets has recently been rejuvenated. Due to differences in chemical composition and physical characteristics of grasses and legum...

  20. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  1. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  2. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  3. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  5. Thermoperiodism in the cavity nesting alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is the most intensively managed solitary bee, and is the third most used pollinator in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that while the eclosion pattern of this cavity nesting bee is unaffected by photoperiod, a thermoperiod can give...

  6. Morphological and Molecular Variation in Perennial Medicago (Alfalfa) Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important cultivated forage legumes worldwide. Understanding the areas of adaptation and genetic variation available in a crop species facilitates efforts to identify suitable germplasm for integration in plant breeding programs. Accessions that repr...

  7. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  8. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  9. Alfalfa genomics: importance to sustainability and ecological services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of genomic approaches has the potential to impact alfalfa improvement for any number of traits. We have focused on using genomic and molecular approaches to understand how symbiotic nitrogen fixation, acclimation to phosphorus stress, and cell wall synthesis processes are regulated in alfalf...

  10. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  11. Analysis of alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes, AZ-88NDC and AZ-GERM SALT-II in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by and/or involved in adaptation to salt stress. Both accessions were considered susceptible due to the stage at which samples were collected. A total ...

  12. Rate of yield and quality change in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  13. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  14. Protein requirements of growing steers limit-fed corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Wessels, R H; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-12-01

    In Exp. 1, six steers (254 kg) were used in a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square to determine the effects of solvent-extracted soybean meal alone or in combination with rumen-protected methionine and lysine on N balance in steers limit-fed a high-corn diet to gain 1.1 kg/d. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 80% rolled corn, 15% alfalfa, and .9% urea (13.9% CP), and 2 or 4% soybean meal replaced corn to give CP concentrations of 14.8 and 15.6%, respectively. Each diet was fed with and without 5 g/d of Smartamine-ML (.75 and 2.0 g of rumen-protected methionine and lysine, respectively). Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P = .09) with level of soybean meal. Rumen-protected methionine and lysine had no effect on N balance. In Exp. 2, seven steers (233 kg) were used in a 7 x 4 incomplete Latin square experiment to investigate optimal levels and sources of CP for steers limit-fed to gain 1 kg/d. Treatments included a negative-control diet (urea; 11.7% CP) and six diets containing either 13.5, 15.4, or 17.2% CP with either solvent-extracted or expeller-processed soybean meal. Diets provided 75, 87.5, 100, or 112.5% of estimated CP requirement for a gain of 1 kg/d. The basal diet contained 83% rolled corn, 15% alfalfa, and .2% urea. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P = .006) with soybean meal addition, and no differences were observed between CP sources. The CP system underpredicted the protein requirements of limit-fed steers under our conditions. PMID:9420002

  15. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  16. Expression of β-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Joyce A.; Kalengamaliro, Newton E.; Cunningham, Suzanne M.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of β-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a β-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The β-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant β-amylases. Starch concentrations, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase mRNA levels were measured in roots of alfalfa after defoliation, in suspension-cultured cells incubated in sucrose-rich or -deprived media, and in roots of cold-acclimated germ plasms. Starch levels, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase transcripts were reduced significantly in roots of defoliated plants and in sucrose-deprived cell cultures. β-Amylase transcript was high in roots of intact plants but could not be detected 2 to 8 d after defoliation. β-Amylase transcript levels increased in roots between September and October and then declined 10-fold in November and December after shoots were killed by frost. Alfalfa roots contain greater β-amylase transcript levels compared with roots of sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Southern analysis indicated that β-amylase is present as a multigene family in alfalfa. Our results show no clear association between β-amylase activity or transcript abundance and starch hydrolysis in alfalfa roots. The great abundance of β-amylase and its unexpected patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation support our current belief that this protein serves a storage function in roots of this perennial species. PMID:9847126

  17. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  18. Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2012-09-01

    Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), a byproduct of the wet-milling industry, is commonly substituted in lactating dairy rations for both forages and concentrates. Previous research has shown that increasing WCGF in the diet decreased ruminal pH, likely due in part to decreasing particle size as forage inclusion rate decreased. The objective of this study was to maintain at least 10% of ration particles >19 mm in length across diets while increasing WCGF inclusion in the diet. We hypothesized that as WCGF increased in this scenario, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield would increase and ruminal pH would be maintained. Seven ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows (4 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in an incomplete 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments included 0, 12.4, 24.5, or 35.1% WCGF and used alfalfa hay to maintain particle size. Across treatments, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were held relatively constant. Four 21-d periods were used with 17d of adaptation and 4d of sample collection. Indwelling ruminal pH probes were used during sampling periods and recorded pH every 5 min. Particle size of total mixed rations and orts were analyzed using a Penn State Particle Separator (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park). Results were analyzed with mixed models to test the fixed effect of treatment. All diets contained ≥10% of particles >19 mm; however, as WCGF increased, the proportion of particles >19 mm decreased. Interestingly, with increasing WCGF, cows sorted for the particles >19 mm but against particles on the bottom screen and pan. With increasing WCGF, ruminal pH was not affected, but DMI and milk yield increased in a quadratic fashion, with the peak responses for the 24.5% WCGF diet. Milk protein, lactose, and fat concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, milk protein and lactose yields increased with the inclusion of WCGF because of the increased milk yield. Production efficiency was not

  19. Transformation of nitrogen contained in alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal into milk, manure and recycled back to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the transformative nature of feed nitrogen (N) on confinement dairy farms (cows fed stored feed in barns), a series of cow, laboratory, and field experiments was undertaken to quantify the relative amounts of N contained in individual ration components that are secreted in milk,...

  20. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  1. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  2. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  3. Agronomic field evaluation of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase downregulated alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a widely used forage legume. Increasing alfalfa digestibility would increase forage value. One digestibility limitation in alfalfa is stem lignification, which presents an attractive target for genetic manipulation and selection. Lignin biosynthesis is controlled by the...

  4. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression in fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an adaptive trait in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). It appeared in the regrowth process in late summer or early autumn after alfalfa was harvested. FD affects the biomass accumulation and winter survival in high latitude area. However, the molecular mechanism under FD is still not clear at present. Performing RNA-seq of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties at different time points, we obtained differentially expressed genes between different FD types or time points. These differentially expressed genes may relate to FD in alfalfa. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study (Zhang S et al., De novo Characterization of Fall Dormant and Nondormant Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Relate to Fall Dormancy, submitted for publication) for reproducible research. Data generated in our work provide a resource to help decipher the molecular mechanism of FD in alfalfa. PMID:26484109

  5. Dairy slurry application effect on alfalfa silage fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy farmers rely increasingly on corn silage to meet their forage needs. While the efficiencies associated with the production, harvest, and storage of corn silage are attractive, a less-desirable corollary of this management trend is the increased linkage of manure distribution with producti...

  6. A buffer value index to evaluate effects of buffers on ruminal milieu in cows fed high or low concentrate, silage, or hay diets.

    PubMed

    Tucker, W B; Hogue, J F; Aslam, M; Lema, M; Martin, M; Owens, F N; Shin, I S; Le Ruyet, P; Adams, G D

    1992-03-01

    Our objective was to develop a buffer value index that would incorporate alterations in both ruminal fluid pH and buffering capacity as indicators of the influence of dietary buffering and alkalinizing agents on ruminal acid-base status. This index was evaluated using ruminal fluid from four lactating Holstein cows fed either sorghum silage or alfalfa hay in high or low concentrate diets. Ruminal fluid was incubated in vitro for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 h with no buffer or with 7.1 g of either NaHCO3, sodium sesquicarbonate, or a multielement buffer added per liter of ruminal fluid. Ruminal fluid pH was lower for diets based on high concentrate or alfalfa; buffering capacity between pH 5 and 7 was greater for high concentrate diets but was not affected by forage type. Ruminal fluid pH was higher for sesquicarbonate than for NaHCO3, the multielement buffer, or the control; however, ruminal fluid H+ concentration was similar between sesquicarbonate and NaHCO3, and both were lower than for the multielement buffer. Hydrogen ion concentration for the multielement buffer was lower than for the control. Buffering capacity was highest for NaHCO3, followed by sesquicarbonate, the multielement buffer, and the control. The buffer value index, which accounted for alterations in both H+ concentration and buffering capacity, was highest for NaCHO3, followed by sesquicarbonate, the multielement buffer, and the control. The poor response to the multielement buffer may be attributable to our relatively short incubation interval (less than 5 h). Dietary buffers increase both ruminal fluid pH and buffering capacity; both of these responses are beneficial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1314858

  7. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  8. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  9. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  10. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa ensiled with a lactic acid bacterial inoculant.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Beauchemin, K A; Muck, R E; Weimer, P J

    2012-01-01

    Some silage inoculants help to improve silage quality and promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) would be different in cows fed alfalfa ensiled with the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LP) compared with those fed alfalfa ensiled without the inoculant (Ctrl). Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were allotted to 2 diets (Ctrl or LP) in a double crossover design with four 28-d periods. Diets were formulated to contain (% dry matter basis) 28.0% neutral detergent fiber and 16.2% crude protein, and contained alfalfa silage, 50.9; corn silage, 20.6; high-moisture shelled corn, 21.4; soy hulls, 4.7; plus minerals and vitamins, 2.4. Ruminal digesta were collected just before feeding on 3 consecutive days near the end of each period, and were separated into solid and liquid phases. Microbial DNA was extracted from each phase, amplified by PCR using domain-level bacterial primers, and subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The pH was 4.56 and 4.86 and the lactate-to-acetate ratio 9.8 and 4.4, respectively, for the treated and untreated alfalfa silages. Dry matter intakes and milk production data were not influenced by diets but showed a cow effect. Total volatile fatty acids (mM) tended to be greater for LP compared with Ctrl. Individual volatile fatty acids were not influenced by diets but showed a significant cow effect. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower and propionate (mol/100 mol) greater for the 2 milk fat-depressed (MFD; <3.2% fat content) cows compared with the other 6 cows. Correspondence analysis of the 265 peaks in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis profile across the 188 samples revealed that the first 2 components contributed 7.1 and 3.8% to the total variation in the profile. The ordination points representing the liquid and solid phases clustered separately

  11. Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms.

    PubMed

    Moellenbeck, D J; Peters, M L; Bing, J W; Rouse, J R; Higgins, L S; Sims, L; Nevshemal, T; Marshall, L; Ellis, R T; Bystrak, P G; Lang, B A; Stewart, J L; Kouba, K; Sondag, V; Gustafson, V; Nour, K; Xu, D; Swenson, J; Zhang, J; Czapla, T; Schwab, G; Jayne, S; Stockhoff, B A; Narva, K; Schnepf, H E; Stelman, S J; Poutre, C; Koziel, M; Duck, N

    2001-07-01

    Field tests of corn co-expressing two new delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have demonstrated protection from root damage by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). The level of protection exceeds that provided by chemical insecticides. In the bacterium, these proteins form crystals during the sporulation phase of the growth cycle, are encoded by a single operon, and have molecular masses of 14 kDa and 44 kDa. Corn rootworm larvae fed on corn roots expressing the proteins showed histopathological symptoms in the midgut epithelium. PMID:11433280

  12. Effects of processing corn on the carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Letícia Silva; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Carvalho, Roberta Ferreira; Pesce, Domingos Marcelo Cenachi; Da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Gallo, Sarita Bonagurio; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effect of the corn grain processing (whole grain, dry beans ground, and wet grain) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in lambs. Twenty-two Dorper vs. Santa Inês uncastrated lambs (27 ± 4 kg BW; ±3 months old) were distributed in a randomized complete block (initial BW). The diets were composed of 20 % protein-mineral pellet, 5 % hay, and 75 % corn in the form of whole grain, ground grain, or wet grain. The harvest weight of animals fed whole corn (50.2 kg) and ground (49.03 kg) were equal and higher than the moisture corn fed lambs (44.89 kg); therefore, the same differences were expected to be seen in the cold vs hot carcass comparison. However, there was no difference between treatments comparing hot or cold carcass performance, averaging 47 and 46 %, respectively. Also unaffected by the treatments were subcutaneous fat thickness values, loin muscle area, pH, temperature, drip loss, water loss by cooking, color, and tenderness. It can be concluded that the shape and size of corn grain in diets of high concentrate resulted in no measurable influence on carcass traits, but whole grain is more easily managed by the producer. PMID:25851927

  13. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  14. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  15. Effects of tabtoxinine-. beta. -lactam treatments on alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Margiotta, E.A.; Weaver, L.M.; Unkefer, P.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam (T{beta}L), excreted by the tobacco pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, is an active site directed, irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C.6.3.2.1). Previously, we have shown infestation of the alfalfa rhizosphere with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci results in selective impairment of GS and increased plant growth and nodule number. We have now shown purified T{beta}L, when administered to alfalfa roots, can produce the same effects as colonization of the rhizosphere with P. syringae pv. tabaci. Results of GS specific activity, nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction, and plant growth response to T{beta}L dosage are presented.

  16. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  17. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  18. Processing and chop length effects in brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G

    2002-03-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance. PMID:11949866

  19. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  20. Patient education in the effective management of hay fever.

    PubMed

    Bartle, Janette

    2016-06-22

    Hay fever, or seasonal allergic rhinitis, is a common condition that affects one in four people in the UK. It is characterised by cold-like symptoms that may include a runny nose, itchy eyes, sneezing and nasal congestion or blockage. Patient education is important in improving patient concordance with treatment regimens and effectively managing hay fever symptoms, and may include advice on ways to avoid pollen. Encouraging patients to start treatment in advance of pollen dispersal, before they experience symptoms, enables optimum management of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Adjunctive treatment, using a nasal douche before applying a nasal corticosteroid spray, is recommended as an aid to nasal hygiene, to improve the efficacy of medication and to reduce allergic inflammation. Often a nasal corticosteroid spray is applied using an incorrect technique, rendering it ineffective. It is important for patients to understand how a nasal corticosteroid spray works and the need for continuous daily treatment using a correct application technique for maximum efficacy of the medication delivered. Standard operating procedures have been developed to demonstrate the effective technique for applying a nasal spray and to improve patients' understanding of the recommended nasal douching treatment. PMID:27332610

  1. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Kessmann, Helmut; Edwards, Robert; Geno, Paul W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with l-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures. PMID:16667691

  2. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    PubMed

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-11-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960

  3. Primary photosensitization related to ingestion of alfalfa silage by cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; George, L W; Oslund, K L; Galey, F D; Stannard, A W; Koch, L M

    1996-11-01

    A herd of 650 Holstein cows was examined for skin disease. Approximately 400 of the lactating adults were affected, but heifers, calves, and nonlactating cows were clinically normal. The condition was characteristic of primary photosensitization. Milk production of the affected cows was normal. Affected cows did not appear to be ill, and none of the cows was icteric. Three of 7 cows had high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, but in the other 4 cows, activity was within the reference range. Serum activities of other hepatic enzymes were within reference ranges in the 7 cows that were examined. Hepatic biopsy specimens from 3 cows were normal. Specimens from 4 other cows had changes that ranged from minimal to mild, chronic, lymphoplasmacytic periportal hepatitis to acute, random, necrotizing hepatitis. Development of photosensitivity was related to ingestion of alfalfa silage. Acetone extracts of the alfalfa silage, but not of other feedstuffs, were found to inhibit growth of Candida albicans under ultraviolet light. Cows experimentally fed a diet composed exclusively of the alfalfa silage developed skin lesions after 6 days, but did not have detectable serum concentrations of phylloerythrin. PMID:8899027

  4. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and glutelin. Corn gluten is a... soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  5. Effect of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hay inclusion in the diets of sheep.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Gustavo Araújo; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Cardoso, Daniel Barros; de Castro Soares, Pierre; de Morais, Nadja Nara Gomes; Souza, Andresa Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing Tifton-85 hay (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % on a dry matter basis) with water hyacinth hay (Eichhornia crassipes) on intake and digestibility of nutrients, feeding behaviour, rumen and blood parameters of sheep. Five uncastrated male sheep, cannulated in the rumen, with an average body weight of 40 kg were assigned in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The water hyacinth hay contained 870 g/kg dry matter (DM), 159 g/kg crude protein (CP), 547 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 461 g/kg total digestible nutrients (TDN). The DM intake and digestibility of NDF and non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) were linearly reduced by replacing the Tifton-85 hay with water hyacinth hay. Similarly, there was a linear reduction of rumination time and efficiencies of feeding and rumination of DM and NDF. The concentrations of urea, glucose, AST and GGT in blood plasma were not changed by replacing the Tifton-85 hay with water hyacinth hay. Although water hyacinth hay reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients, the Tifton-85 hay replacement could be economically advantageous for sheep feeding. PMID:26739344

  6. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS. PMID:27157570

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity Among Nondormant and Semi-Dormant Alfalfa Populations using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphisms (SRAPs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic alfalfa populations consist of genetically heterogeneous plants, which has contributed to difficulties in applying molecular markers for examining genetic relationships among alfalfa cultivars. Molecular marker techniques combined with bulked plant DNA analyses provide perhaps the best com...

  8. GENETIC MAPPING FORAGE YIELD, PLANT HEIGHT, AND REGROWTH AT MULTIPLE HARVESTS IN TETRAPLOID ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between Medicago sativa subspecies falcata and sativa result in high levels of heterosis for alfalfa forage production. However, desirable alfalfa cultivars must have acceptable performance for other agronomic traits including regrowth following harvest and appropriate autumn dormancy. In ...

  9. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA HI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release [1] detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function [2]. Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey [3], this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation.[1] Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142[2] Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810[3] Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815

  10. Negative-pressure solar dryer for large round alfalfa bales

    SciTech Connect

    Frisby, J.C.; George, R.M.; Everett, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A single-bale, portable, negative-pressure solar dryer was constructed and tested. It was found that design criteria established on pressurized systems could be used for negative-pressure systems. Hay packaged at 40 percent moisture content dried more uniformly if baled with a fixed-chamber baler.

  11. Best practices to hasten field drying of grasses and alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid drying of hay and silage shortens the harvest window, enhances forage quality, and reduces the chance for rain damage. Forage generally has about 75% moisture when it is cut. This means the crop must lose 2.3 to 3 tons of water per acre (550 to 720 gal/acre) to dry to haylage at 60 to 65% mois...

  12. Effects of fat supplementation and immature alfalfa to concentrate ratio on lactation performance of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jerred, M J; Carroll, D J; Combs, D K; Grummer, R R

    1990-10-01

    Forty-six multiparous Holstein cows were assigned 5 d postpartum to a completely randomized design employing a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Factors were 0 or 5% added prilled fat (DM basis) substituted for shelled corn and alfalfa silage fed in forage-to-concentrate ratios of 45:55, 64:36, and 84:16 (DM basis). Interactions between fat and forage level were not observed for any of the parameters measured. Energy density, calculated using data from a digestibility trial, was similar between 45:55 and 64:36 diets (1.66 Mcal NE1/kg) and was lower with 84:16 diets (1.48 Mcal NE1/kg) for the 100 d trial. Fat supplementation increased energy density of the diets (1.67 vs. 1.53 Mcal NE1/kg). Dry matter digestibility, energy intake, and 4% FCM yields were similar for cows fed 45:55 and 64:36 diets and lower for those fed the 84:16 diets. Fat supplementation did not affect DM digestibility. Dry matter intake declined with increasing forage level and fat supplementation. Milk yield decreased as forage level increased. Fat supplementation did not affect yield of milk or FCM. Milk fat percentage was lower for cows fed 45:55 than 64:36 or 84:16 diets. Fat supplementation increased milk fat percentage. Milk protein yield decreased as forage level increased but was unaffected by fat supplementation. Results suggest higher levels of concentrate support higher milk yields, and prilled fat supplementation improves fat test when fed with immature forages. Prilled fat supplementation did not enhance lactation performance because of depressed DM intake in early lactation. PMID:2178173

  13. Milk from forage as affected by carbohydrate source and degradability with alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, E; Chouinard, P Y; Allard, G; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D

    2006-01-01

    Milk from forage (MF) is an estimation of the milk produced solely from forage intake. It is calculated by subtracting milk production theoretically allowed by concentrates from total milk production, assuming that maintenance requirements are covered by the forage portion of the diet. Eight multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the impact on MF of different sources of carbohydrate with forage that was high in RDP. Diets were alfalfa-based total mixed rations that were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NEL and CP while differing in rumen degradability of concentrate carbohydrates. Treatments were 1) cracked corn (control), 2) ground corn (GC), 3) GC plus wheat starch (GC+S), and 4) GC plus dried whey permeate (GC+W). The GC and the GC+S treatments increased MF as calculated on a protein basis (14.8 vs. 10.5 kg) and increased average MF production (8.6 vs. 5.5 kg) compared with the control. Protein of forage was used more efficiently with GC and with GC+S, as shown by the lower differences between allowable MF, which estimates the potential for milk production from forage, and MF on a protein basis for these 2 treatments when compared with the control. Compared with the control, DMI increased with GC and GC+S; GC+W yielded the highest DMI. Milk production with GC+W (35.8 kg/d) was lower than with GC and GC+S (37.5 kg/d) but was higher than the control (34.0 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was higher with GC+W and lower with GC+S; GC and the control had intermediate values. Milk urea was higher with the control diet compared with the other 3 treatments. Results emphasize the advantage of using concentrates of higher degradability in the rumen to improve MF and milk production when feeding silage with high rumen-degradable protein. PMID:16357292

  14. Identification of molecular markers associated with verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) using high-resolution melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to VW, an association study was conducted using autotetraploid alfalfa populations composed of 352...

  15. Assessing the potential of forage alfalfa crops to serve as Xylella fastidiosa, primary inoculum sources in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for forage alfalfa to serve as a primary inoculum source of Xylella fastidiosa in the San Joaquin Valley of California was evaluated. Laboratory inoculation of fourteen cultivars of alfalfa indicated that all alfalfa cultivars tested were equally suitable hosts for X. fastidiosa. Inci...

  16. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  18. Production of bio-oil from alfalfa stems by fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study focused on the production of bio-oil from alfalfa stem material. Two alfalfa maturity stages, harvested at early bud and full flower stages of development, were examined to evaluate the impact of variation in cell wall polysaccharide and lignin content on pyrolysis oil yields, production ...

  19. Yield and ion relations of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in response to irrigation with saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a major forage crop utilized in arid and semi-arid regions under irrigation; these regions are commonly impacted by saline water and soils. Four commercial non-dormant, purported salt tolerant Alfalfa cultivars 'Salado', 'S&W8421s', 'S&W9720' and 'S&W9215' were grown in 24 outdoor sand ta...

  20. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions ...

  1. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot of Alfalfa: An Emerging Problem in Minnesota and Wisconsin?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot was observed on alfalfa plants from southeastern MN and southwestern WI during the summer of 2009. The disease was observed in new plantings and established stands. Although the disease has been known since the 1950's, it has not caused severe problems in alfalfa p...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  3. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  4. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  5. Effect of temperature on post-wintering development and total lipid content of alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature plays an important role in effective management of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata L.), the major commercial pollinator of seed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in North America. Previous studies of the effects of temperature on post-wintering development of M. rotundata ha...

  6. Gain from selection for 16- and 96-h in vitro NDF digestibility of alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a high-quality forage, but stems are high in NDF and of limited digestibility. A gain from selection study with alfalfa populations selected for divergent in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) was planted at St. Paul and Becker, MN. Two cycles of selection were conducted starting with a bas...

  7. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  8. Fungicide Tests on Adult Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera:Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of bee larvae caused by Ascosphaera aggregata. It causes significant mortality in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), a bee that is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the U.S. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fung...

  9. Ensuring coexistence of GE and non-GE alfalfa: status of current research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa routinely places among the top five crops in the nation in terms of both farmgate value and total acreage. In 2011 USDA APHIS announced the complete deregulation of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa in 2011. Since then grower demand for RRA seed has surged. Recognizing the need to support all fac...

  10. INCIDENCE OF INTROGRESSION BETWEEN CULTIVATED ALFALFA AND WILD RELATIVES IN NORTHWESTERN KAZAKHSTAN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia is considered the primary center of origin for alfalfa and has a rich diversity of taxa in the Medicago sativa Complex. An exploration was carried out in 2000 to collect germplasm of wild relatives of alfalfa in Northwestern Kazakhstan. Russian scientists had previously proposed areas w...

  11. Identification of Drought Response Genes fom Two Alfalfa Cultivars Using Medicago Truncatula Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the first step to identify drought-responsive genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and understand how nitrogen fixation interacts with drought response, the alfalfa Ladak and 53V08 were studied when subjected to drought stress. A small set of genes shared by these two cultivars were identified ...

  12. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association. [Medicago sativa; Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after /sup 3/H/sub 2/O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots.

  13. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: in vitro gas and volatile fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa silages from two similar trials, 15 treatments with an untreated control and 14 lactic acid bacterial inoculants, were analyzed for in vitro ruminal gas production. First cut (477 g DM/kg) and second cut (393 g DM/kg) alfalfa had been ensiled in glass jars for a minimum of 30 days at room te...

  14. Alfalfa root health and disease management: a foundation for maximizing production potential and stand life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneath the lush green leaves of an alfalfa plant is a surprisingly large root system. It is this large root system that is at the heart of the valuable traits of the crop. Many factors influence root growth and root health of alfalfa, but diseases can be especially important. Several different dise...

  15. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions...

  16. Optimizing Sativa and Falcata Alfalfa Subspecies Ratios for Leafcutter Bee Pollination to Maximize Hybrid Seed Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing seed production schemes which capture and maintain desired alfalfa (Medicago sativa) heterosis for utilization by growers has been problematic. The semi-hybrid seed production scheme is one proposed means of capturing heterosis in alfalfa cultivars. This scheme proposes mixing equal qua...

  17. Should Yield or Quality be the 'Rule' at Alfalfa Harvest Time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  18. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  19. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  20. Prolonged field exposure after cut alfalfa receives rain reduces ensilability and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving high-quality alfalfa silage during unstable, inclement weather is a challenge. Within a series of experiments, rainfall events were applied to wilting alfalfa by both simulated (using a rainfall simulator) and natural methods across four different harvests. Based on our studies, the ensi...

  1. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  2. Potato Leafhopper Injury and Fusarium Crown Rot Effects on Three Alfalfa Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests homopterous insects and crown-rotting Fusarium species interact to impose stresses affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence. Our objective was to investigate interactions of Fusarium crown rot and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) in three alfalfa populations dif...

  3. A comparative study of alfalfa and Medicago truncatula stem traits: morphology, chemical composition, and ruminal digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an agronomically important forage, but digestibility of stem cell wall material is low. Because the tetraploid genome of alfalfa complicates genetic dissection of complex pathways, Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) could serve as a model for stem cell wall development in ...

  4. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labeled total miRNA purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of alfalfa clone 252 to a miRNA-macroarray that contained a total of 70 reference anti-...

  5. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labled total microRNAs purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of the alfalfa Clone 252 to a microRNA dot blot that contains a total of 70 reference anti-mi...

  6. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery in the Transcriptome of Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa ) has economic importance as a forage crop for livestock and potential for development as a biofuel feedstock. Advances in alfalfa breeding, genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex p...

  7. Fluctuating thermal regimes improve survival of the alfalfa leafcutting bee during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is commonly held at low temperatures for overwintering the prepupae or for interrupting spring incubation to synchronize adult emergence with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, static low temperature exposures can be stressful depending on the temperatu...

  8. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common alfalfa pollinator in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus ...

  9. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  10. 34 CFR 663.20 - How is a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellow selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellow selected? 663.20 Section 663.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS FACULTY RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Selection of...

  11. Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of adult stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), emergence from six sites where large round baled hay had been provided to pastured cattle as winter feed were studied using emergence traps. The substrate at these sites, consisting of waste hay mixed with bovine manure...

  12. Field drying rate differences amoung cool-season grasses harvested for hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making high-quality, cool-season grass hay is a challenge, due to the field drying time needed to reach the appropriate moisture content and the high probability of rain in the spring when hay is typically produced. This study was conducted to determine if cool-season grasses with different yield po...

  13. 34 CFR 664.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Group Projects Abroad Program is designed to contribute to the development and improvement of the study... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS...

  14. The effect of soaking hay on dry matter loss and fructan removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of fructans has been shown to induce laminitis in horses. To manage laminitic horses, owners have resorted to hay soaking to reduce the amounts of these carbohydrates in harvested forage. The objective of this research was to determine the loss of dry matter and fructans from baled hay after ...

  15. 34 CFR 663.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellowship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellowship Program? 663.1 Section 663.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS FACULTY RESEARCH ABROAD FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM General §...

  16. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  17. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  18. Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center Library and Archives: Patron Use of Collections and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Myrna J.

    The Rutherford B. Hayes Library opened in 1916, when the building in Fremont, Ohio was dedicated as the first presidential library and museum. The library's original purpose was to preserve the 12,000 volume personal library of President Hayes along with archival material from his careers in law, the military, and politics. This was a radical idea…

  19. Similarity, Induction, Naming, and Categorization (SINC): Generalization or Inductive Reasoning? Reply to Heit and Hayes (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to E. Heit and B. K. Hayes's comment on the target article "Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model" (V. M. Sloutsky & A. V. Fisher, 2004a). The response discusses points of agreement and disagreement with Heit and Hayes; phenomena predicted by similarity, induction, naming, and…

  20. Book Review of the PHYSIOLOGY OF CROP YIELD by R. Hay and J. Porter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Physiology of Crop Yield by R. Hay and J. Porter (2006; Blackwell Publishing) represents a complete rewrite of An Introduction to the Physiology of Crop Yield, by R. Hay and A.J. Walker (1989). The new text emphasizes quantitative description of plant development and growth, working from a simpl...

  1. 34 CFR 664.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program? 664.1 Section 664.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM General § 664.1 What is the...

  2. 34 CFR 664.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program? 664.1 Section 664.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM General § 664.1 What is the...

  3. 34 CFR 664.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program? 664.1 Section 664.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM General § 664.1 What is the...

  4. 34 CFR 664.1 - What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program? 664.1 Section 664.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM General § 664.1 What is the...

  5. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  6. Short-Term responses of breeding birds of grassland and early successional habitat to timing of haying in Northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luscier, J.D.; Thompson, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, we evaluated nest survival and density of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) in four unhayed, two early-hayed (26-31 May) and three late-hayed (17-25 June) fields in northwestern Arkansas. Rope dragging and observations revealed 89 nests. Daily nest-survival rates (SE) prior to haying ranged from 0.94 (0.03) to 0.97 (0.02). Early haying affected both nest-survival rates and bird densities negatively, whereas late haying had minimal effects. Fifteen nests in hayed portions of early-hayed fields were destroyed, whereas only 2 of 52 nests were affected by late haying. Density was at least 0.98 birds ha-1 higher in unhayed than in early-hayed fields and 1.03 birds ha-1 higher in late-hayed than in early-hayed fields. In northwestern Arkansas, postponing haying until mid- to late June would allow time for nestlings to fledge, would have little effect on bird densities, and would affect hay nutrition and regrowth minimally. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society, 2009.

  7. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  8. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  9. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  10. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  11. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  12. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  13. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  14. Intake estimation of horses grazing tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) or fed tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Chavez, S J; Siciliano, P D; Huntington, G B

    2014-05-01

    Six mature geldings of light horse breeds (557 ± 37 kg) were randomly assigned to a nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue hay (n = 3) or pasture treatment (n = 3) in a crossover design with 14-d periods to estimate DMI with alkane markers and to compare DMI of hay and pasture. When fed pasture, horses were housed in stalls from 0700 to 1300 h daily with access to water and then grazed pasture as a group in a single 0.4 ha pasture from 1300 to 0700 h. When fed hay, horses were maintained individually in stalls and given access to hay ad libitum from 1300 to 0700 h. All horses were individually fed 225 g oats twice daily treated with hexatriacontane (C36; external marker) and fecal samples were collected at 0700 and 1900 h on d 10 to 14. Fecal samples were mixed, dried, subsampled, and analyzed for tritriacontane (C33) and hentriacontane (C31) as internal markers and C36 as the external marker using gas chromatography. Estimated hay DMI using either C33 (1.75 kg/100 kg BW) or C31 (1.74 kg/100 kg BW) as internal alkane marker did not differ (P = 0.55) from measured hay DMI (1.70 kg/100 kg BW). Pasture DMI and DM digestibility (DMD) estimated with C31 (2.24 kg/100 kg BW and 53.1 g/100 g DMI) or with C33 (2.34 kg/100 kg BW and 56.2 g/100 g DMI) was greater (P = 0.05) than hay DMI and DMD (1.74 kg/100 kg BW and 44.5 g/100 g DMI). Intake estimated with C33 or C31 did not differ (P = 0.35) during hay or pasture. In conclusion, alkanes can be used to estimate pasture or hay DMI and DMD, and pasture intake exceeded hay intake when offered ad libitum. PMID:24663171

  15. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  16. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by... dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis, corn syrup may contain,...

  18. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  19. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  20. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.