Science.gov

Sample records for alfalfa reed canarygrass

  1. Comparative growth and development of hexaploid and tetraploid reed canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a globally distributed forage species, a potential biofuel, and an important invasive weed. At more northern latitudes in exists as a tetraploid and at equatorial to mid-latitudes as a hexaploid, especially in Mediterranean climates. Growth and developme...

  2. Has selection for improved agronomic traits made reed canarygrass invasive?

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Andrew R; Casler, Michael D; Jackson, Randall D

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeders have played an essential role in improving agricultural crops, and their efforts will be critical to meet the increasing demand for cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. However, a major concern is the potential development of novel invasive species that result from breeders' efforts to improve agronomic traits in a crop. We use reed canarygrass as a case study to evaluate the potential of plant breeding to give rise to invasive species. Reed canarygrass has been improved by breeders for use as a forage crop, but it is unclear whether breeding efforts have given rise to more vigorous populations of the species. We evaluated cultivars, European wild, and North American invader populations in upland and wetland environments to identify differences in vigor between the groups of populations. While cultivars were among the most vigorous populations in an agricultural environment (upland soils with nitrogen addition), there were no differences in above- or below-ground production between any populations in wetland environments. These results suggest that breeding has only marginally increased vigor in upland environments and that these gains are not maintained in wetland environments. Breeding focuses on selection for improvements of a specific target population of environments, and stability across a wide range of environments has proved elusive for even the most intensively bred crops. We conclude that breeding efforts are not responsible for wetland invasion by reed canarygrass and offer guidelines that will help reduce the possibility of breeding programs releasing cultivars that will become invasive. PMID:21991347

  3. Ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on two different growth stages of reed canarygrass.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Tamika C; Alizadeh, Hasan; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2007-04-01

    Plant materials from the vegetative growth stage of reed canarygrass and the seed stage of reed canarygrass are pretreated by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed using 15 filter paper units (FPU) cellulase/g glucan to evaluate glucose and xylose yields. Percent conversions of glucose and xylose, effects of temperature and ammonia loading, and hydrolysis profiles are analyzed to determine the most effective AFEX treatment condition for each of the selected materials. The controls used in this study were untreated samples of each biomass material. All pretreatment conditions tested enhanced enzyme digestibility and improved sugar conversions for reed canarygrass compared with their untreated counterparts. Based on 168 h hydrolysis results using 15 FPU Spezyme CP cellulase/g glucan the most effective AFEX treatment conditions were determined as: vegetative growth stage of reed canarygrass--100 degrees C, 60% moisture content, 1.2:1 kg ammonia/kg of dry matter (86% glucose and 78% xylose) and seed stage of reed canarygrass--100 degrees C, 60% moisture content, 0.8:1 kg ammonia/kg of dry matter (89% glucose and 81% xylose). Supplementation by commercial Multifect 720 xylanase along with cellulase further increased both glucose and xylose yields by 10-12% at the most effective AFEX conditions. PMID:18478404

  4. Estimation of evapotranspiration by reed canarygrass using field observations and model simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Kiniry, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) commonly invades meadow wetlands, effectively dominating water use and outcompeting native plants. Objectives of this study were to (i) estimate daily, seasonal and annual water use by reed canarygrass using shallow water table fluctuations; and (ii) calibrate the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternative with Numerical Assessment Criteria) model to accurately simulate water uptake by this grass. Using a groundwater well, the water table under an area in Iowa dominated by reed canarygrass was monitored hourly. Differences between water level measurements taken each hour were averaged to determine the hourly water table change in each month. Using these estimates of water use, the ALMANAC model was then calibrated to simulate plant transpiration values close to these water table use rates. Average monthly calculated daily plant water use rates were 3.3 mm d-1 in July and 2.3-2.8 mm d-1 in May, June, August, and September. Simulated bimonthly values for measured water use and plant transpiration simulated by the ALMANAC model differed by 14% or less. From May to October the mean ratio of measured to simulated values was 94%. Thus, the similarity between simulated plant transpiration and water use from the water table showed promise that this process-based model can realistically simulate water use under such grassland systems. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

  6. Content of Heavy Metals in the Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.) in the First Year of Harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs; Platace, Rasma

    2010-01-01

    One of the major factors in achieving more biofuel is the amount of crop yield, but that is not synonymous with the yield quality. Plants are contaminated by heavy metals not only through the soil, but also from atmospheric pollution. The aim of this research was to establish the amount of heavy metals in the dry matter of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). The Marathon variety of reed canarygrass was studied with two sowing periods and four N-fertilizer rate applications. The concentration level of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) in the samples of reed canarygrass were analysed with the coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Perkin Elmer 2100 DV. The samples of reed canarygrass taken in April had a greater concentration of As, Cd, Pb, which means that the plants absorb the heavy metals also from the snow covering. The first year yield of reed canarygrass established a fundamental negative correlation between the amount of As, Cd, Pb and the ash content. The samples taken in April have a greater heavy metal contamination, than the samples taken in October. The sowing period fundamentally affected the concentration of lead in reed canarygrass samples, but the level of N-fertilizer rate application affected the amount of cadmium and arsenic.

  7. Nutrient removal by grasses irrigated with wastewater and nitrogen balance for reed canarygrass

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, U.

    2000-04-01

    To develop complementary wastewater treatment systems that increase nutrient reduction and recycling, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three grass species as catch crops for N, P, and K at Aurahammar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the southern part of Sweden. Another objective was also to assess soil accumulation of N, P, and K and the risk of N leaching by drainage. Three grasses--reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.), and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.)--were irrigated with a mixture of treated effluent and supernatant at two levels of intensity [optimum level (equal to evapotranspiration) and over-optimal level] and at two nutrient levels, approximately 150 and 300 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}. There were small differences in dry matter (DM) yield between grass species and no difference in N removal among species. The amount of N removed in harvested biomass to N applied was 0.58 in 1995 and 0.63 in 1996. The amount of N removed increased with increased nutrient load. Applied amounts of P were the same as P in harvested biomass. All species removed K amounts several times greater than applied amounts. Increased nutrient load increased overall K removal. The low amount of mineral N and especially NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in the soil profile in autumn samplings indicate the risk for leaching is small. Soil water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} contents were also low, <2.5 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N L{sup {minus}1} during the growing season, with a mean value of <1 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N L{sup {minus}1}.

  8. Genome-wide association study based on multiple imputation with low-depth sequencing data: application to biofuel traits in reed canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping by sequencing allows for large-scale genetic analyses in plant species with no reference genome, but sets the challenge of sound inference in presence of uncertain genotypes. We report an imputation-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) in reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., P...

  9. Genome-wide association analysis based on multiple imputation with low-depth GBS data: application to biofuel traits in reed canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping-by-sequencing allows for large-scale genetic analyses in plant species with no reference genome, creating the challenge of sound inference in the presence of uncertain genotypes. Here we report an imputation-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) in reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundina...

  10. Genome-wide association study based on multiple imputation with low-depth sequencing data: application to biofuel traits in reed canarygrass.

    PubMed

    Ramstein, Guillaume P; Lipka, Alexander E; Lu, Fei; Costich, Denise E; Cherney, Jerome H; Buckler, Edward S; Casler, Michael D

    2015-03-12

    Genotyping by sequencing allows for large-scale genetic analyses in plant species with no reference genome, but sets the challenge of sound inference in presence of uncertain genotypes. We report an imputation-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) in reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., Phalaris caesia Nees), a cool-season grass species with potential as a biofuel crop. Our study involved two linkage populations and an association panel of 590 reed canarygrass genotypes. Plants were assayed for up to 5228 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 35 traits. The genotypic markers were derived from low-depth sequencing with 78% missing data on average. To soundly infer marker-trait associations, multiple imputation (MI) was used: several imputes of the marker data were generated to reflect imputation uncertainty and association tests were performed on marker effects across imputes. A total of nine significant markers were identified, three of which showed significant homology with the Brachypodium dystachion genome. Because no physical map of the reed canarygrass genome was available, imputation was conducted using classification trees. In general, MI showed good consistency with the complete-case analysis and adequate control over imputation uncertainty. A gain in significance of marker effects was achieved through MI, but only for rare cases when missing data were <45%. In addition to providing insight into the genetic basis of important traits in reed canarygrass, this study presents one of the first applications of MI to genome-wide analyses and provides useful guidelines for conducting GWAS based on genotyping-by-sequencing data.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study Based on Multiple Imputation with Low-Depth Sequencing Data: Application to Biofuel Traits in Reed Canarygrass

    PubMed Central

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Lu, Fei; Costich, Denise E.; Cherney, Jerome H.; Buckler, Edward S.; Casler, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing allows for large-scale genetic analyses in plant species with no reference genome, but sets the challenge of sound inference in presence of uncertain genotypes. We report an imputation-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) in reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., Phalaris caesia Nees), a cool-season grass species with potential as a biofuel crop. Our study involved two linkage populations and an association panel of 590 reed canarygrass genotypes. Plants were assayed for up to 5228 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 35 traits. The genotypic markers were derived from low-depth sequencing with 78% missing data on average. To soundly infer marker-trait associations, multiple imputation (MI) was used: several imputes of the marker data were generated to reflect imputation uncertainty and association tests were performed on marker effects across imputes. A total of nine significant markers were identified, three of which showed significant homology with the Brachypodium dystachion genome. Because no physical map of the reed canarygrass genome was available, imputation was conducted using classification trees. In general, MI showed good consistency with the complete-case analysis and adequate control over imputation uncertainty. A gain in significance of marker effects was achieved through MI, but only for rare cases when missing data were <45%. In addition to providing insight into the genetic basis of important traits in reed canarygrass, this study presents one of the first applications of MI to genome-wide analyses and provides useful guidelines for conducting GWAS based on genotyping-by-sequencing data. PMID:25770100

  12. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarAlfalfa might lower blood sugar. Using alfalfa along with other ...

  13. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  14. Reed Hundt's Friendly Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educom Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents an interview with Reed Hundt, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), who implemented the Education Task Force to coordinate the FCC's role in educational provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. He asserts that writing clear rules for the communications sector will promote competition and ensure educational…

  15. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  16. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  17. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  18. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  19. Safety Training in Reed International

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, J.

    1974-01-01

    The safety training provided within Reed International Limited and its relationship to production operations are outlined, demonstrating that safety works when management is committed to it on both humanitarian and economic grounds. (MW)

  20. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team is a consortium of 16 institutions engaged in an NSF-sponsored program to promote undergraduate research within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project. In the first two years of the program, more than three dozen undergraduate students have been closely involved in ALFALFA science, observing, and data analysis. A total of 34 students have attended the annual undergraduate workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, their peers, ALFALFA experts, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 26 summer research projects and 14 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. Students and faculty have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and to national meetings to present their results. Eight Team schools have joined to work collaboratively to analyze HI properties of galaxy groups within the ALFALFA volume. (See O'Brien et al., O'Malley et al., and Odekon et al. posters, this meeting.) Students involved in this program are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267, and AST-0725380.

  1. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  2. Estimation of saxophone reed parameters during playing.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Arancón, Alberto; Gazengel, Bruno; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Conan, Ewen

    2016-05-01

    An approach for the estimation of single reed parameters during playing, using an instrumented mouthpiece and an iterative method, is presented. Different physical models describing the reed tip movement are tested in the estimation method. The uncertainties of the sensors installed on the mouthpiece and the limits of the estimation method are studied. A tenor saxophone reed is mounted on this mouthpiece connected to a cylinder, played by a musician, and characterized at different dynamic levels. Results show that the method can be used to estimate the reed parameters with a small error for low and medium sound levels (piano and mezzoforte dynamic levels). The analysis reveals that the complexity of the physical model describing the reed behavior must increase with dynamic levels. For medium level dynamics, the most relevant physical model assumes that the reed is an oscillator with non-linear stiffness and damping, the effect of mass (inertia) being very small. PMID:27250168

  3. Increasing Alfalfa Rumen Bypass Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has one of the highest crude protein contents among forage crops, but is is rapidly and extensively degraded by rumen microorganisms. To examine differential protein digestion, three distinct varieties of alfalfa, grown from single plants, were subjected to fermentation in the rumen of a ca...

  4. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  5. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  6. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt. Final report Part 1: Agronomic aspects, March 1, 1988--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    The relative high cost of energy derived from biomass is a major deterrent to greater use of biomass for energy production One of the most important methods of lowering the cost of dedicated biomass production is to increase the yield per unit of land area so that fixed costs can be applied to more tons of forage. For this study, the authors selected grass and legume crops with potential for high biomass yields and those that offer protection from soil erosion. The research reported here was conducted to identify those species and cultural practices that would result in high biomass yields for various land capabilities with acceptable and soil erosion potential. They also conducted research to determine if intercropping sorghum into alfalfa or reed canarygrass could increase biomass yields over alfalfa or reed canarygrass grown alone and still have the advantage for limiting soil erosion.

  7. Double-reed exhaust valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-06-30

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a double reed outlet valve for controlling the flow of low-pressure working fluid out of the engine. The double reed provides a stronger force resisting closure of the outlet valve than the force tending to open the outlet valve. The double reed valve enables engine operation at relatively higher torque and lower efficiency at low speed, with lower torque, but higher efficiency at high speed.

  8. Spacecraft Reed-Solomon downlink module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus and method for providing downlink frames to be transmitted from a spacecraft to a ground station. Each downlink frame includes a synchronization pattern and a transfer frame. The apparatus may comprise a monolithic Reed-Solomon downlink (RSDL) encoding chip coupled to data buffers for storing transfer frames. The RSKL chip includes a timing device, a bus interface, a timing and control unit, a synchronization pattern unit, and a Reed-Solomon encoding unit, and a bus arbiter.

  9. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  10. 77 FR 26321 - Reed College, Reed Research Nuclear Reactor, Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-112

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Reed College, Reed Research Nuclear Reactor, Renewed Facility Operating License No. R-112 AGENCY..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone..., Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear...

  11. Does the European free reed really originate from Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas; Ahrens, Christian

    2002-05-01

    Free reeds can be found in European instruments like the accordion and reed organ. Christian Gottlob [Theophil] Kratzenstein was the first scientist in Europe to use a free reed when he built his speech-imitating machine, and it is believed throughout literature that he copied the mechanism of a free reed from the Asian mouth organ. However, after analyzing Kratzenstein's original work (Tentamen Resolvendi Problema ab Akademia Scientiarum Imperiali Petropolitana ad Annum 1780 Publicae Propositum) it was rather concluded that his free-reed design was modified from a striking reed pipe of an organ because he recorded that he wanted to reduce the rattle of his speech-imitating machine by modifying the reed. Furthermore, he did not mention the mouth organ at all in his work. An additional evidence for this hypothesis is his detailed figures of his speech imitating machine. They show clearly that the only difference between his free reed and the striking reed pipe of an organ is the smaller size of the reed in order to fit through the shallot. In contrast, Asian free reeds are flat, have no tuning wire, and the reed and reed opening are made from the same piece of metal.

  12. The impacts of Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) invasion on wetland plant richness in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, depend on beavers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, T.; Wilson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants can threaten diversity and ecosystem function. We examined the relationship between the invasive Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) and species richness in beaver wetlands in Oregon, USA. Four basins (drainages) were chosen and three sites each of beaver impoundments, unimpounded areas and areas upstream of debris jams were randomly chosen in each basin for further study (n = 36). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the relationship between Phalaris and species richness differed significantly (p = 0.01) by site type. Dam sites (beaver impoundments) exhibited a strong inverse relationship between Phalaris and species richness (bD = a??0.15), with one species lost for each 7% increase in Phalaris cover. In contrast, there was essentially no relationship between Phalaris cover and species richness in jam sites (debris jam impoundments formed by flooding; bJ = +0.01) and unimpounded sites (bU = a??0.03). The cycle of beaver impoundment and abandonment both disrupts the native community and provides an ideal environment for Phalaris, which once established tends to exclude development of herbaceous communities and limits species richness. Because beaver wetlands are a dominant wetland type in the Coast Range, Phalaris invasion presents a real threat to landscape heterogeneity and ecosystem function in the region.

  13. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization.

  14. Regeneration in Alfalfa Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Skokut, Thomas A.; Manchester, Jill; Schaefer, Jacob

    1985-01-01

    The production of somatic embryos in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., cv Regen S) is increased 5- to 10-fold by alanine and proline. However, utilization of nitrogen for synthesis of protein from alanine, proline, glutamate, and glycine is not qualitatively different, even though the latter two amino acids do not increase somatic embryo formation. These determinations were made by 15N labeling with detection by nuclear magnetic resonance. Overall metabolism of the nitrogen of proline, alanine, glutamate, and glycine is also similar in two regenerating and nonregenerating genotypes with similar germplasm, except that the levels of free amino acids are consistently higher in the nonregenerating line. In addition, when regeneration is suppressed in either of the two regenerating lines, the level of intracellular free amino acids increases. This increased level of metabolites is the only direct evidence provided by analysis of nitrogen metabolism of differences between the regenerating and nonregenerating states in alfalfa. PMID:16664455

  15. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  16. Making a Joyful Noise: Teresa L. Reed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    Teresa L. Reed knew as far back as she can remember that she'd be doing something in music. This document briefly describes her early years with music and her involvement with music today. She is a member of Higher Dimensions Choir, a teacher, and a writer of the book The Holy Profane: Religion in Black Popular Music. This document gives a brief…

  17. Quality indicators for woodwind reed material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glave, Stefan; Pallon, Jan; Bornman, Chris; Björn, Lars Olof; Wallén, Rita; Råstam, Jacob; Kristiansson, Per; Elfman, Mikael; Malmqvist, Klas

    1999-04-01

    For the generation of sound, some woodwind musical instruments, e.g. oboe, bassoon, clarinet and saxophone, are provided with mouthpieces made from reeds. These reeds are the culms of Arundo donax, a tall, cane-like perennial grass. A general problem is that the material is of varying quality, yet externally differences cannot be observed. Hence, large proportions of the prepared reeds are unusable. One hypothesis is that the changes in quality are correlated with differences in the chemical and anatomical structure of the tissue. Therefore, a comparison of superior and inferior mouthpieces, used by professional musicians, was undertaken to determinate potential indicators of quality. Nuclear microprobe analysis of reeds was carried out and complemented by scanning electron and light microscopy. The elemental levels of Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were compared between good and poor mouthpieces using appropriate statistical tests. No statistically significant differences could be identified. Microscopical observations showed that partial occlusion of vessels by tylose formation was associated with material deemed unusable.

  18. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  19. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  20. Systolic VLSI Reed-Solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, H. M.; Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Yuen, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Decoder for digital communications provides high-speed, pipelined ReedSolomon (RS) error-correction decoding of data streams. Principal new feature of proposed decoder is modification of Euclid greatest-common-divisor algorithm to avoid need for time-consuming computations of inverse of certain Galois-field quantities. Decoder architecture suitable for implementation on very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) chips with negative-channel metaloxide/silicon circuitry.

  1. Variable-Aperture Reciprocating Reed Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Yang, Hong Q. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A variable-aperture reciprocating reed valve includes a valve body defining a through hole region having a contoured-profile portion. A semi-rigid plate is affixed on one side thereof to the valve body to define a cantilever extending across the through hole region. At least one free edge of the cantilever opposes the contoured-profile portion of the through hole region in a non-contact relationship.

  2. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  3. The influence of pipe organ reed curvature on tone quality.

    PubMed

    Plitnik, George R; Angster, Judit

    2012-11-01

    Although organ flue pipes have been widely studied, the same claim cannot be made for pipe organ reed stops. Given certain design constraints, such as the type of reed stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, the reed voicer must use consummate skill to curve the reed tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone as well as to guarantee that each pipe blends with its neighbors. The amount and type of curve given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound but also the attack. There are two fundamentally different types of curvature that can be given to a reed tongue, the trompette (chorus reed) curve (which gives a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for clarinet pipes. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone (as assessed by professionals) on reed tongues of both types. Two F2 (8'F, 87.3 Hz) pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with differently curved tongues to produce a variety of tones. The vibration of the reed tongue was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-quarter inch microphones, and the pipe's sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined, the extreme sensitivity of tone to reed curvature was demonstrated, and a recently proposed theory of reed vibration was shown to be more accurate than the standard model. PMID:23145630

  4. 77 FR 43369 - Lexisnexis, a Subsidiary of Reed Elsevier Customer Service Department and Fulfillment Department...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Lexisnexis, a Subsidiary of Reed Elsevier Customer Service Department...; Lexisnexis, a Subsidiary of Reed Elsevier Customer Service Department and Fulfillment Department, Including..., 2012, applicable to workers of Lexisnexis, a subsidiary of Reed Elsevier, Inc., Customer...

  5. "ON ALGEBRAIC DECODING OF Q-ARY REED-MULLER AND PRODUCT REED-SOLOMON CODES"

    SciTech Connect

    SANTHI, NANDAKISHORE

    2007-01-22

    We consider a list decoding algorithm recently proposed by Pellikaan-Wu for q-ary Reed-Muller codes RM{sub q}({ell}, m, n) of length n {le} q{sup m} when {ell} {le} q. A simple and easily accessible correctness proof is given which shows that this algorithm achieves a relative error-correction radius of {tau} {le} (1-{radical}{ell}q{sup m-1}/n). This is an improvement over the proof using one-point Algebraic-Geometric decoding method given in. The described algorithm can be adapted to decode product Reed-Solomon codes. We then propose a new low complexity recursive aJgebraic decoding algorithm for product Reed-Solomon codes and Reed-Muller codes. This algorithm achieves a relative error correction radius of {tau} {le} {Pi}{sub i=1}{sup m} (1 - {radical}k{sub i}/q). This algorithm is then proved to outperform the Pellikaan-Wu algorithm in both complexity and error correction radius over a wide range of code rates.

  6. Real-Time Reed-Solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.; Cameron, Kelly B.; Owsley, Patrick A.

    1994-01-01

    Generic Reed-Solomon decoder fast enough to correct errors in real time in practical applications designed to be implemented in fewer and smaller very-large-scale integrated, VLSI, circuit chips. Configured to operate in pipelined manner. One outstanding aspect of decoder design is that Euclid multiplier and divider modules contain Galoisfield multipliers configured as combinational-logic cells. Operates at speeds greater than older multipliers. Cellular configuration highly regular and requires little interconnection area, making it ideal for implementation in extraordinarily dense VLSI circuitry. Flight electronics single chip version of this technology implemented and available.

  7. Reed vibration in lingual organ pipes without the resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, András; Angster, Judit; Pitsch, Stephan; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-02-01

    Vibrations of plucked and blown reeds of lingual organ pipes without the resonators have been investigated. Three rather surprising phenomena are observed: the frequency of the reed plucked by hand is shifted upwards for large-amplitude plucking, the blown frequency is significantly higher than the plucked one, and peaks halfway between the harmonics of the fundamental frequency appear in the spectrum of the reed velocity. The dependence of the plucked frequency on the length of the reed reveals that the vibrating length at small vibrations is 3 mm shorter than the apparent free length. The frequency shift for large-amplitude plucking is explained by the periodic change of the vibrating length during the oscillation. Reed vibrations of the blown pipe can be described by a physical model based on the assumption of air flow between the reed and the shallot. Aerodynamic effects may generate and sustain the oscillation of the reed without acoustic feedback. The appearance of subharmonics is explained by taking into account the periodic modulation of the stress in the reed material by the sound field. Therefore, a parametric instability appears in the differential equation of vibration, leading to the appearance of subharmonics.

  8. Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.

    PubMed

    James, R R

    2011-08-01

    Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

  9. Prohexadione-calcium responsive alfalfa varieties ensure success of corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent USDA-NASS data indicate alfalfa and corn were planted on about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively, in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Upper Midwest, and Northern Mountain regions the USA. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn plantin...

  10. The decoding of Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Reed-Solomon (RS) codes form an important part of the high-rate downlink telemetry system for the Magellan mission, and the RS decoding function for this project will be done by DSN. Although the basic idea behind all Reed-Solomon decoding algorithms was developed by Berlekamp in 1968, there are dozens of variants of Berlekamp's algorithm in current use. An attempt to restore order is made by presenting a mathematical theory which explains the working of almost all known RS decoding algorithms. The key innovation that makes this possible is the unified approach to the solution of the key equation, which simultaneously describes the Berlekamp, Berlekamp-Massey, Euclid, and continued fractions approaches. Additionally, a detailed analysis is made of what can happen to a generic RS decoding algorithm when the number of errors and erasures exceeds the code's designed correction capability, and it is shown that while most published algorithms do not detect as many of these error-erasure patterns as possible, by making a small change in the algorithms, this problem can be overcome.

  11. Feathering collisions in beating reed simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Tamara; Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.

    2003-10-01

    Pressure controlled valves are the primary sound production mechanisms for woodwind and brass musical instruments, as well as for many bioacoustic vocal systems such as the larynx and syrinx (the vocal organ in birds). During sound production, air flow sets a reed or membrane into motion creating a variable height in the valve channel and, potentially, periodically closing the channel completely. Depending on how this event is handled, an abrupt termination of air flow between open and closed states can cause undesirable discontinuities and inaccuracies in a discrete-time simulation-particularly at relatively low audio sampling rates. A solution was developed by re-examining the behavior of the differential equation governing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve, paying particular attention to this rather troublesome transition. A closed-form solution for the time evolution of volume flow is given and used to derive an update for volume flow. The result is a smoother, more accurate, and nearly alias-free transition from open to closed. ``Feathered collisions'' of this nature can refine the sound quality produced by the numerical simulation of beating reeds, such as in clarinets, at typical audio sampling rates.

  12. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  13. Musical quality assessment of clarinet reeds using optical holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinard, Fabrice; Laine, Benoit; Vach, Holger

    2003-03-01

    Vibrational modes of 24 clarinet reeds have been observed in both dry and wet conditions using holographic interferometry. Results have been compared with the ``musical quality'' of the reeds as judged by two professional clarinet players. An excellent correspondence has been demonstrated between specific vibrational behavior and musical quality. The results suggest that the presence and symmetry of a strong first torsional mode are indicative of good or very good musical quality. A second, but less stringent quality criterion is the proximity of frequencies corresponding to the second torsional and the second flexural mode. This proximity leads to the creation of mixed vibrational modes for the very best of the investigated clarinet reeds.

  14. Aerodynamic excitation and sound production of blown-closed free reeds without acoustic coupling: the example of the accordion reed.

    PubMed

    Ricot, Denis; Caussé, René; Misdariis, Nicolas

    2005-04-01

    The accordion reed is an example of a blown-closed free reed. Unlike most oscillating valves in wind musical instruments, self-sustained oscillations occur without acoustic coupling. Flow visualizations and measurements in water show that the flow can be supposed incompressible and potential. A model is developed and the solution is calculated in the time domain. The excitation force is found to be associated with the inertial load of the unsteady flow through the reed gaps. Inertial effect leads to velocity fluctuations in the reed opening and then to an unsteady Bernoulli force. A pressure component generated by the local reciprocal air movement around the reed is added to the modeled aerodynamic excitation pressure. Since the model is two-dimensional, only qualitative comparisons with air flow measurements are possible. The agreement between the simulated pressure waveforms and measured pressure in the very near-field of the reed is reasonable. In addition, an aeroacoustic model using the permeable Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings integral method is presented. The integral expressions of the far-field acoustic pressure are also computed in the time domain. In agreement with experimental data, the sound is found to be dominated by the dipolar source associated by the strong momentum fluctuations of the flow through the reed gaps. PMID:15898668

  15. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  16. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  17. Vibration characteristics of pipe organ reed tongues and the effect of the shallot, resonator, and reed curvature.

    PubMed

    Plitnik, G R

    2000-06-01

    Pipe organ reed pipes sound when a fixed-free curved brass reed mounted on a shallot connected to a resonator is forced to vibrate by an impressed static air pressure. Five sets of experiments were performed in order to investigate the influence of the most important parameters which could affect the tone of a reed pipe. First, the phase difference between the pressure variation in the shallot and the boot, and its relationship to the motion of the reed tongue were analyzed to compare their phases and their spectra. Next, the frequency dependence of the reed on three basic parameters (reed thickness, its vibrating length, and the imposed static air pressure) was investigated in an attempt to determine an empirical equation for the frequency. For each trial, two of the variables were kept constant while the third was altered in order to construct an equation giving frequency as a function of the three variables. Third, experiments were conducted using three different types of shallots: the American (or English) style, the French style, and the German style. The results show that for each shallot, the frequency increases linearly with thickness and linearly with air pressure (over the normal operating range of the reed). For each of the shallots, frequency varies inversely with length when the other variables are held constant. The effect on the reed spectrum of using the three different types of shallot was also investigated, as was the effect of reducing the interior volume of each type. Progressively filling the shallot interior generally decreases the frequency of the vibrating reed. The effect of the resonators on frequency and spectrum was studied because the resonator is an integral part of the resulting tone; virtually every reed stop has some type of resonator. The resonator tends to raise the Q of the impedance peaks and reduce the fundamental frequency. Finally, the influence of the type and degree of curvature on reed vibration was briefly examined

  18. Direct measurements of flow and deformation of a free reed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchak, Peter; Bush, John

    2012-02-01

    The free reed, responsible for producing sound in a family of air-driven musical instruments, is an example of a coupled fluid-structure system engineered to vibrate efficiently at a controllable frequency. In Western free reed instruments, a flexible metal plate is clamped at one end above a slot cut into a rigid support plate. This geometry allows a constant driving pressure to produce and sustain large-amplitude vibrations. The mechanism behind this has been discussed by several investigators. However, it has yet to be verified experimentally with direct measurements of the flow speed. We present simultaneous measurements of the reed motion and the flow speed in the downstream jet, which enable characterization of the relationship between the finite-amplitude deformation of the reed and the flow.

  19. Quasistatic nonlinear characteristics of double-reed instruments.

    PubMed

    Almeida, André; Vergez, Christophe; Caussé, René

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a characterization of the double reed in quasistatic regimes. The nonlinear relation between the pressure drop, deltap, in the double reed and the volume flow crossing it, q, is measured for slow variations of these variables. The volume flow is determined from the pressure drop in a diaphragm replacing the instrument's bore. Measurements are compared to other experimental results on reed instrument exciters and to physical models, revealing that clarinet, oboe, and bassoon quasistatic behavior relies on similar working principles. Differences in the experimental results are interpreted in terms of pressure recovery due to the conical diffuser role of the downstream part of double-reed mouthpieces (the staple). PMID:17297807

  20. Conceptual design for a universal Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm which enables one Reed-Solomon decoder to process other Reed-Solomon encoded data from a different code is presented. The sole requirement is that both codes have the same length, the same rate, and the same field of coefficients. It is pointed out that only very simple pre- and post-processing hardware is needed to resolve an encoder/decoder incompatibility and that no encoder modification is needed.

  1. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  2. N fixation versus N uptake in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer N is the single most expensive input in nearly all crop-production systems and has been implicated in declining groundwater quality due to nitrate contamination. Commercial alfalfas are highly productive in the absence of nitrogen inputs because of the symbiotic association with soil bact...

  3. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  4. Automatic Visual Inspection Of Reed Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, J.; Oosterlinck, A.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1980-04-01

    In many production chains visual inspection of products is an important manufacturing consideration with respect to quality control. Recent progress in image processing and pattern recognition led the way to economically justified applications; modern technology enables the construction of such auto mata featuring high reliability and constancy. This paper describes an automatic visual inspection machine performing intelligent control tasks in a very short time. The possible applications include dimension control of products; inspection of objects on shape, greyness, or texture; sorting of objects; positioning; etc. The design is based on a fast synthesis procedure of a TV image by profile extraction. The features to be controlled are extracted from these profiles and compared with upper/lower limits obtained from a learning process. The system performances are expressed by the elaboration of an industrial case, the real-time visual inspection of reed switches. More than 35 features are detected and controlled for each switch within 1 second. Several experiments with a prototype version have proven the feasible use as an industrial on-line controller.

  5. [Soil dryness characteristics of alfalfa cropland and optimal growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-zhu; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Yi-ning; Cai, Li-qun; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Xie, Jun-hong

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated soil moisture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropland with different growth years (1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years) and discussed the optimum growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu. The results showed that the soil moisture along 0-300 cm soil profile of alfalfa croplands with different growth years was obviously lower than that of the local soil stable moisture. The soil water contents in croplands with alfalfa that had grown for 12 and 14 years were only 9.2% and 7.1% of local soil stable moisture, respectively, which were even lower than the lower limit of alfalfa growth. The average soil dryness indexes along 0-300 cm soil profile in 1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years alfalfa croplands were 125.4%, 30.5%, 18.4%, -34.2% and -83.3% respectively. The results indicated that soil dryness occurred to varying degrees with different growth years except croplands with alfalfa grown for 1 year. With the increase of growth years of alfalfa, the soil dryness intensity increased and the soil dryness rate decreased. According to the soil moisture and alfalfa productivity results in this study, it could be concluded that the optimum growth years of alfalfa are 8-10 years in semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau.

  6. [Absorption characteristics of molybdenum by reed and cattail].

    PubMed

    Lian, Jian-Jun; Xu, Shi-Guo; Han, Cheng-Wei

    2011-11-01

    The adsorption characteristics of reed and cattail to molybdenum were studied. The toxicity, removal rate, adsorption process and accumulation of Mo were investigated in the short-term indoor-culture experiment. The effects of Mo adsorbed by two plants in nutrition solution with different concentrations were also studied. Due to the Mo toxicity, the color of stems and leaves of two plants had become scorch and the transpiration was declined. The cattail illustrated higher tolerance to Mo than reed when Mo concentration was in the range of 2-20 mg x L(-1). The removal rate of Mo by cattail was 87%, which was higher than reed (62%) with Mo concentration of 2 mg x L(-1). The absorption process of Mo by two plants was homeostasis, and the passivity absorption was the main absorption mechanism. Mo enrichment amount in cattail was higher than that in reed, and Mo concentration in shoot were higher than that in roots. The results displayed that cattail was Mo hyper accumulator. The absorption of Mo was not enhanced with the increase of nutrition solution concentration, due to the competition of other ions. The study suggested that the absorption capacity of Mo was significant by the two plants, and cattail was better for Mo removal than reed.

  7. Exploiting the cannibalistic traits of Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.

    1993-01-01

    In Reed-Solomon codes and all other maximum distance separable codes, there is an intrinsic relationship between the size of the symbols in a codeword and the length of the codeword. Increasing the number of symbols in a codeword to improve the efficiency of the coding system thus requires using a larger set of symbols. However, long Reed-Solomon codes are difficult to implement and many communications or storage systems cannot easily accommodate an increased symbol size, e.g., M-ary frequency shift keying (FSK) and photon-counting pulse-position modulation demand a fixed symbol size. A technique for sharing redundancy among many different Reed-Solomon codewords to achieve the efficiency attainable in long Reed-Solomon codes without increasing the symbol size is described. Techniques both for calculating the performance of these new codes and for determining their encoder and decoder complexities is presented. These complexities are usually found to be substantially lower than conventional Reed-Solomon codes of similar performance.

  8. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  9. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area. PMID:24128927

  10. From time domain simulation of diatonic harmonica, proposal of a minimal free reed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Millot; Daniel, Ambroise

    2002-05-01

    Chromatical playing on diatonic harmonica can be explained and reproduced using a temporal model. This model features a nonlinear vocal track, two free reeds and interaction of these three elements. The agreement between numerical simulations and experiment will be illustrated. From these results, and considering the sinusoidal reed motion during normal playing, a minimal description of free reed will be proposed. The equivalent reed oscillator will be derived from comparisons between quasistatic and modal description of the reed displacement; it will be shown that the modal description is a good choice. Then, a sufficient description of the flow through each reed will be built. Waveforms and related sounds will be presented for each tested assumption and will illustrate the fact that this flow must rely on the local reed displacement. Application of this model will be discussed in the case of other free reed instruments.

  11. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  12. The Clarinet Reed: AN Introduction to its Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadonte, Donald Jay

    Although clarinet reeds have been used for over two-hundred years, there has been little scientific study of the reed, either from a material science or engineering perspective. This document is intended to be the first large-scale study of the clarinet reed covering its biology, chemistry and physics. The reed is made, most often, from cane--Arundo donax. We present a complete atlas of the anatomy of Arundo donax, and examine the role of each of the cellular components in the clarinet reed performance. We examine the three principal chemical components of the processed clarinet reed: cellulose, xylan, and lignin through the use of instrumental analysis. We examine the breakdown pathways of the clarinet reed, and isolate five: (1) decrystallization of the cellulose microstructure, (2) removal of xylan by saliva, (3) plasticization of the reed material due to alkalai attack in saliva, (4) the culturing of a bacterium, Staph Epidermitis, in the cell wall matrix, (5) density changes due to salival coating of the reed. The physics of the reed is examined, and a finite element model of the modal shapes is presented. We present a theoretical treatment of the two modes of excitation of the reed, a low frequency mode (normal playing mode) due to vortex shedding, and a high frequency mode which is associated with reed squeak.

  13. Residues of five pesticides in field-treated alfalfa seeds and alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed

    Archer, T E; Gauer, W O

    1985-08-01

    Residues of five different pesticides applied to alfalfa seed crops were determined in the harvested seeds and in sprouts grown from these seeds. Although seeds are usually used for future production of alfalfa plants, some of these seeds may be sprouted for human food consumption. The pesticides studied--aldicarb (Temik), chlorothalonil (Bravo), chlorpyrifos (Lorsban), methamidophos (Monitor) and propargite (Comite)--were applied at a normal usage rate and at two to three times that rate. Residues on the seeds and sprouts, if any, were insignificant at rates of application.

  14. Shoot transcriptome of the Giant Reed, Arundo donax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The giant reed, Arundo donax, is a perennial grass species that has become an invasive plant in many countries. Expansive stands of A. donax have significant negative impacts on available water resources and efforts are underway to identify biological control agents against this species. The giant r...

  15. Fast transform decoding of nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Cheung, K.-M.; Reed, I. S.; Shiozaki, A.

    1989-01-01

    A Reed-Solomon (RS) code is considered to be a special case of a redundant residue polynomial (RRP) code, and a fast transform decoding algorithm to correct both errors and erasures is presented. This decoding scheme is an improvement of the decoding algorithm for the RRP code suggested by Shiozaki and Nishida, and can be realized readily on very large scale integration chips.

  16. Linear and nonlinear behavior of human and artificial lip reeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray; Richards, Orlando

    2003-10-01

    In a musical instrument of the lip reed aerophone class, the flow of air from the player's lungs into the resonating air column is modulated by the periodic opening and closing of the pressure-controlled valve formed by the player's lips. The nature of the operation of this valve has been the subject of considerable study in recent years. Since the pressure-flow relationship is strongly nonlinear, the behavior of the coupled system of lips and air column can only be modeled using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. Extensive studies of artificial lip reeds, in which the lips are simulated by water-filled latex tubes, have shown them to be capable of reproducing musically important features of human playing, including the lipping of notes both below and above an acoustic resonance of the air column. Measurements of the linear response of artificial reeds have guided the development of more realistic models of the lip reed, while studies of both real and artificial lips using a high-speed digital camera have shed fresh light on the nature of the lip motion at the large amplitudes typical of loud playing. [Work supported by EPSRC.

  17. Disrupting the Education Monopoly: A Conversation with Reed Hastings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This article features an interview with Netflix CEO, Reed Hastings. In this interview, Hastings relates that he told the "Wall Street Journal" in 2008 that he started looking at education--trying to figure out why our education is lagging when our technology is increasing at great rates and there's great innovation in so many other…

  18. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  19. Persistence and diversity of rhizobial bacteria nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with an inoculant consisting of several strains of the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti to enhance nodulation of seedlings. One strategy for increasing alfalfa forage yields, particularly in less fertile sites, is selection and use of highly competitive a...

  20. Drying and Quality Characteristics of Different Components of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of air temperature (100' 200 ' ) and velocity (0. 15' 0. 45 m/s) on drying characteristics and quality of different alfalfa components. The chopped alfalfa components, including stems, crushed stems, crushed stems with attached leaves, and leaves were used for the ...

  1. Improvements in alfalfa subspecies falcata germplasms and their hybrid performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autotetraploid yellowed flowered alfalfa (falcata) is distinct from purple flowered alfalfa. Collected wild falcata germplasm has poor agronomic performance. Pre-breeding efforts to improve falcata germplasm have occurred over the years, resulting in varieties or germplasms such as: WISFAL, AC Yell...

  2. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  3. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  4. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  5. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  6. Alfalfa leafcutting bee population dynamics, flower availability, and pollination rates in two Oregon alfalfa fields.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P

    2005-08-01

    Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern Oregon. Despite marked differences in bee management, establishment was very similar in the two fields (approximately 0.5 females per nesting cavity) and lagged peak bloom by approximately 2 wk. Pollination rates increased from 0-10% in the first 3 wk to 80-90% in week 4-5. By then, M. rotundata females had difficulty finding untripped (nonpollinated) flowers and visited large numbers of already tripped or not fully matured flowers. M. rotundata progeny mortality was very high (54-78%). Estimated seed yields were similar in both fields. We contend similar seed yields, and improved bee production, could be accomplished with smaller bee populations, better timed with alfalfa bloom. PMID:16156556

  7. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  8. Evaluation of stem injection for managing giant reed (Arundo donax).

    PubMed

    Spencer, David F

    2014-01-01

    Giant reed is an emergent aquatic plant that may be weedy in riparian habitats. Two herbicides approved for controlling giant reed in the US are glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and imazapyr (2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid). Foliar applications of these herbicides may be restricted in some areas, such as those, which are within the range of threatened or endangered species. We conducted two field experiments at sites in northern and central California. The first experiment evaluated the effects of three aquatic herbicides (glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid) injected into all of the stems within a giant reed (5 mL stem(-1)). In this experiment, leaf chlorophyll content, the proportion of living stems, and the number of new stems produced during the year after treatment declined (>80%) following injection of either full strength glyphosate or imazapyr. The effects of injecting full strength triclopyr were considerably less. In a second experiment, different proportions (0, 10%, 25%, or 100%) of the stems within a plant were injected with full strength glyphosate. Results indicated that it was necessary to inject all of the stems within a clump to achieve the greatest reduction in the plant growth characteristics measured. These results imply that giant reed may be successfully controlled by injecting full strength glyphosate (5 mL stem(-1)) into all of the stems within a clump. While labor intensive and thus potentially more costly this method, offers a new method for managing giant reed in sensitive sites where foliar spray applications may be restricted. PMID:25035911

  9. Evaluation of stem injection for managing giant reed (Arundo donax).

    PubMed

    Spencer, David F

    2014-01-01

    Giant reed is an emergent aquatic plant that may be weedy in riparian habitats. Two herbicides approved for controlling giant reed in the US are glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and imazapyr (2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid). Foliar applications of these herbicides may be restricted in some areas, such as those, which are within the range of threatened or endangered species. We conducted two field experiments at sites in northern and central California. The first experiment evaluated the effects of three aquatic herbicides (glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid) injected into all of the stems within a giant reed (5 mL stem(-1)). In this experiment, leaf chlorophyll content, the proportion of living stems, and the number of new stems produced during the year after treatment declined (>80%) following injection of either full strength glyphosate or imazapyr. The effects of injecting full strength triclopyr were considerably less. In a second experiment, different proportions (0, 10%, 25%, or 100%) of the stems within a plant were injected with full strength glyphosate. Results indicated that it was necessary to inject all of the stems within a clump to achieve the greatest reduction in the plant growth characteristics measured. These results imply that giant reed may be successfully controlled by injecting full strength glyphosate (5 mL stem(-1)) into all of the stems within a clump. While labor intensive and thus potentially more costly this method, offers a new method for managing giant reed in sensitive sites where foliar spray applications may be restricted.

  10. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  11. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  12. Evaluation of reed resources in Latvia and analysis of its use for energy production.

    PubMed

    Cubars, Edgars; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for energy, limited resources of fossil fuel, as well as pollution of the environment and changes in the global climate have raised more interest about the renewable resources. The use of renewable resources has become a very important partof European Union policy. The aim of the paper was to analyse reed resources in Latvia, its dynamics, volume and quality to produce clean energy. The use of reeds as a renewable energy resource contributes in minimizing fossil fuel consumption. The paper presents the results of a research of reed resources in lakes of Latgale (a region in Latvia). The investigation of reed resources showed that in the region they are scattered and rational usage of them is connected with environmental aspects. The greatest amounts of reed resources are concentrated in the biggest lake in Latvia- Lubana Lake and near to it. Studies showed thatthe reed areas in Lubana Lake and Kvapanu ponds have doubled since 1997 and as a result these water reservoirs are becoming overgrown. Using direct measurement methods and metering from distance, it was stated that the total reed resources of greatest Lake - Lubanas are about 6830 tons year(-1) in area of 734 hectares and are situated in 701 reed blocks. The aggregated reed resources of Latgale region are 18 000 tons year(-1) of dry biomass. The investigation proved that reed resources of the region are sufficient to replace up to 21 thousand tons of different fossil fuels. The physical properties of the reed were measured. Carbon quantity, ash content and structure, moisture content proved that reeds are a profitable fuel for heat energy production. Balanced harvesting of reed gives a positive influence on environment.

  13. Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types

  14. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  15. Regimes of oscillation and reed vibrations in lingual organ pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Eric; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    We compare the sound generation in six lingual organ pipes including two trompette pipes, two oboes pipes, a krummhorn, and a rankett, the latter two of which were described in a previous paper [Cox and Rossing, paper 2aMU8, 142nd ASA meeting]. With the resonator attached, each pipe sounds in distinct regimes of oscillation, separated by discontinuities. The nominal frequencies of the pipes are generally slightly lower than the resonance frequency of the resonator but slightly higher than the natural frequency of the reed. The air mass loading of both the resonator and shallot lowers the reed frequency. Changing the blowing pressure has little effect on the sounding frequency but a modest effect on sound level.

  16. Tutorial on Reed-Solomon error correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisel, William A.

    1990-01-01

    This tutorial attempts to provide a frank, step-by-step approach to Reed-Solomon (RS) error correction coding. RS encoding and RS decoding both with and without erasing code symbols are emphasized. There is no need to present rigorous proofs and extreme mathematical detail. Rather, the simple concepts of groups and fields, specifically Galois fields, are presented with a minimum of complexity. Before RS codes are presented, other block codes are presented as a technical introduction into coding. A primitive (15, 9) RS coding example is then completely developed from start to finish, demonstrating the encoding and decoding calculations and a derivation of the famous error-locator polynomial. The objective is to present practical information about Reed-Solomon coding in a manner such that it can be easily understood.

  17. A Digital Synthesis Model of Double-Reed Wind Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemain, Ph.

    2004-12-01

    We present a real-time synthesis model for double-reed wind instruments based on a nonlinear physical model. One specificity of double-reed instruments, namely, the presence of a confined air jet in the embouchure, for which a physical model has been proposed recently, is included in the synthesis model. The synthesis procedure involves the use of the physical variables via a digital scheme giving the impedance relationship between pressure and flow in the time domain. Comparisons are made between the behavior of the model with and without the confined air jet in the case of a simple cylindrical bore and that of a more realistic bore, the geometry of which is an approximation of an oboe bore.

  18. A burst-correcting algorithm for Reed Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Owsley, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquenghem (BCH) codes form a large class of powerful error-correcting cyclic codes. Among the non-binary BCH codes, the most important subclass is the Reed Solomon (RS) codes. Reed Solomon codes have the ability to correct random and burst errors. It is well known that an (n,k) RS code can correct up to (n-k)/2 random errors. When burst errors are involved, the error correcting ability of the RS code can be increased beyond (n-k)/2. It has previously been show that RS codes can reliably correct burst errors of length greater than (n-k)/2. In this paper, a new decoding algorithm is given which can also correct a burst error of length greater than (n-k)/2.

  19. A VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, H. M.; Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Yuen, J. H.; Reed, I. S.

    1985-01-01

    A pipeline structure of a transform decoder similar to a systolic array was developed to decode Reed-Solomon (RS) codes. An important ingredient of this design is a modified Euclidean algorithm for computing the error locator polynomial. The computation of inverse field elements is completely avoided in this modification of Euclid's algorithm. The new decoder is regular and simple, and naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  20. Study of Reed-Solomon correction for mass memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, B.; Hutton, S. J.

    1992-03-01

    Logica has performed a study of Reed-Solomon coding in the context of protecting a mass memory in the harsh space environment, e.g., against galactic cosmic rays and heavy ion rich solar flares. The study examined the relation between the final bit error rate, the rate at which the code is used to scrub errors from the memory, and the rate at which errors occur. The RS(255,252) code was considered.

  1. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  2. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    PubMed Central

    AL-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  3. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-09-01

    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage.

  4. From Kratzenstein to Wheatstone: Episodes in the early history of free reed acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, James P.

    2002-05-01

    In 1780 C. G. Kratzenstein published a paper in St. Petersburg describing a machine which produced vowel sounds using free reeds with resonators of various shapes. This marks a convenient, if arbitrary, starting point for the history of the free reed musical instruments of European origin. These instruments developed rapidly, and by 1850 the accordion, concertina, harmonica, reed organ, and harmonium all had been invented and developed into more or less final form. A key figure in this period is Charles Wheatstone, who not only published papers on acoustical research but was also an inventor and commercially successful manufacturer of musical instruments, most notably the Wheatstone English concertina. Much of Wheatstone's research in acoustics and almost all of his work as an inventor of musical instruments involved free reeds. This paper presents some episodes in the development of the free reed instruments and some examples of acoustical research involving free reeds during the 18th and 19th centuries.

  5. Spectral discrimination of giant reed (Arundo donax L.): A seasonal study in riparian areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2013-06-01

    The giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is amongst the one hundred worst invasive alien species of the world, and it is responsible for biodiversity loss and failure of ecosystem functions in riparian habitats. In this work, field spectroradiometry was used to assess the spectral separability of the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation and from the common reed, a native similar species. The study was conducted at different phenological periods and also for the giant reed stands regenerated after mechanical cutting (giant reed_RAC). A hierarchical procedure using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Classification and Regression Trees (CART) was used to select the minimum number of optimal bands that discriminate the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation. A new approach was used to identify sets of wavelengths - wavezones - that maximize the spectral separability beyond the minimum number of optimal bands. Jeffries Matusita and Bhattacharya distance were used to evaluate the spectral separability using the minimum optimal bands and in three simulated satellite images, namely Landsat, IKONOS and SPOT. Giant reed was spectrally separable from the adjacent vegetation, both at the vegetative and the senescent period, exception made to the common reed at the vegetative period. The red edge region was repeatedly selected, although the visible region was also important to separate the giant reed from the herbaceous vegetation and the mid infrared region to the discrimination from the woody vegetation. The highest separability was obtained for the giant reed_RAC stands, due to its highly homogeneous, dense and dark-green stands. Results are discussed by relating the phenological, morphological and structural features of the giant reed stands and the adjacent vegetation with their optical traits. Weaknesses and strengths of the giant reed spectral discrimination are highlighted and implications of imagery selection for mapping purposes are argued based on present results.

  6. Hybridization but No Evidence for Backcrossing and Introgression in a Sympatric Population of Great Reed Warblers and Clamorous Reed Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Tarka, Maja; Dawson, Deborah A.; Horsburgh, Gavin J.

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization is observed frequently in birds, but often it is not known whether the hybrids are fertile and if backcrossing occurs. The breeding ranges of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and the clamorous reed warbler (A. stentoreus) overlap in southern Kazakhstan and a previous study has documented hybridization in a sympatric population. In the present study, we first present a large set of novel microsatellite loci isolated and characterised in great reed warblers. Secondly, we evaluate whether hybridization in the sympatric breeding population has been followed by backcrossing and introgression. We isolated 181 unique microsatellite loci in great reed warblers. Of 41 loci evaluated, 40 amplified and 30 were polymorphic. Bayesian clustering analyses based on genotype data from 23 autosomal loci recognised two well-defined genetic clusters corresponding to the two species. Individuals clustered to a very high extent to either of these clusters (admixture proportions ≥0.984) with the exception of four previously suggested arundinaceus–stentoreus hybrid birds that showed mixed ancestry (admixture proportions 0.495–0.619). Analyses of simulated hybrids and backcrossed individuals showed that the sampled birds do not correspond to first–fourth-generation backcrosses, and that fifth or higher generation backcrosses to a high extent resemble ‘pure’ birds at this set of markers. We conclude that these novel microsatellite loci provide a useful molecular resource for Acrocephalus warblers. The time to reach reproductive isolation is believed to be very long in birds, approximately 5 Myrs, and with an estimated divergence time of 2 Myrs between these warblers, some backcrossing and introgression could have been expected. However, there was no evidence for backcrossing and introgression suggesting that hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. Very low levels of introgression cannot be excluded, which still may be an important

  7. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  8. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.

  9. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  10. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  11. Alfalfa Root Flavonoid Production Is Nitrogen Regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, C.; Zuanazzi, JAS.; Sallaud, C.; Quirion, J. C.; Esnault, R.; Husson, H. P.; Kondorosi, A.; Ratet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids produced by legume roots are signal molecules acting both as chemoattractants and nod gene inducers for the symbiotic Rhizobium partner. Combined nitrogen inhibits the establishment of the symbiosis. To know whether nitrogen nutrition could act at the level of signal production, we have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes as well as the production of flavonoids in the roots of plants grown under nitrogen-limiting or nonlimiting conditions. We show here that growth of the plant under nitrogen-limiting conditions results in the enhancement of expression of the flavonoid biosynthesis genes chalcone synthase and isoflavone reductase and in an increase of root flavonoid and isoflavonoid production as well as in the Rhizobium meliloti nod gene-inducing activity of the root extract. These results indicate that in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots, the production of flavonoids can be influenced by the nitrogen nutrition of the plant. PMID:12228491

  12. 21 Cm Tomography With the Alfalfa Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Alexander B.; Boutan, C.; Carroll, P. A.; Hazelton, B.; Morales, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) 21cm intensity mapping, or HI tomography is a promising technique being utilized by several upcoming experiments (LOFAR, MWA, SKA). The measurement of volume averaged neutral hydrogen mass density in synoptic sky surveys can be applied to the study of the HI mass function, the distribution of large scale structure, the reionization of the universe, and the expansion history of the universe through such standard rulers as baryonic acoustic oscillations. In order to prepare for future experiments, in particular the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), we analyze the Arecbo Legacy Fast ALFA (Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey data to probe the spatial density variations of HI in our local universe (z <0.06) where data is currently available. We address challenges unique to data of this kind, such as identifying and subtracting out signal from RFI and local galactic sources, and characterizing the ALFA array beam pattern which dictates sensitivity and resolution.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of musical reed and brass wind instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. M.

    1999-06-01

    A musical wind instrument transforms a constant pressure input from the player's mouth into a fluctuating pressure output in the form of a radiating sound wave. In reed woodwind and brass instruments, this transformation is achieved through a nonlinear coupling between two vibrating systems: the flow control valve formed by the mechanical reed or the lips of the player, and the air column contained by the pipe. Although the basic physics of reed wind instruments was developed by Helmholtz in the nineteenth century, the application of ideas from the modern theory of nonlinear dynamics has led to recent advances in our understanding of some musically important features of wind instrument behaviour. As a first step, the nonlinear aspects of the musical oscillator can be considered to be concentrated in the flow control valve; the air column can be treated as a linear vibrating system, with a set of natural modes of vibration corresponding to the standing waves in the pipe. Recent models based on these assumptions have had reasonable success in predicting the threshold blowing pressure and sounding frequency of a clarinet, as well as explaining at least qualitatively the way in which the timbre of the sound varies with blowing pressure. The situation is more complicated for brass instruments, in which the player's lips provide the flow valve. Experiments using artificial lips have been important in permitting systematic studies of the coupling between lips and air column; the detailed nature of this coupling is still not fully understood. In addition, the assumption of linearity in the air column vibratory system sometimes breaks down for brass instruments. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of high amplitude sound waves can lead to the development of shock waves in trumpets and trombones, with important musical consequences.

  14. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  15. Binary weight distributions of some Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Arnold, S.

    1992-01-01

    The binary weight distributions of the (7,5) and (15,9) Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and their duals are computed using the MacWilliams identities. Several mappings of symbols to bits are considered and those offering the largest binary minimum distance are found. These results are then used to compute bounds on the soft-decoding performance of these codes in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. These bounds are useful for finding large binary block codes with good performance and for verifying the performance obtained by specific soft-coding algorithms presently under development.

  16. A single chip VLSI Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, H. M.; Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    A new VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The transform decoding technique used in a previous design is replaced by a time domain algorithm. A new architecture that implements such an algorithm permits efficient pipeline processing with minimum circuitry. A systolic array is also developed to perform erasure corrections in the new design. A modified form of Euclid's algorithm is implemented by a new architecture that maintains the throughput rate with less circuitry. Such improvements result in both enhanced capability and a significant reduction in silicon area, therefore making it possible to build a pipeline (31,15)RS decoder on a single VLSI chip.

  17. Architecture for VLSI design of Reed-Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the logic structure of the universal VLSI symbol-slice Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder chip, from a group of which an RS encoder may be constructed through cascading and proper interconnection. As a design example, it is shown that an RS encoder presently requiring approximately 40 discrete CMOS ICs may be replaced by an RS encoder consisting of four identical, interconnected VLSI RS encoder chips, offering in addition to greater compactness both a lower power requirement and greater reliability.

  18. Architecture for VLSI design of Reed-Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The logic structure of a universal VLSI chip called the symbol-slice Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder chip is discussed. An RS encoder can be constructed by cascading and properly interconnecting a group of such VLSI chips. As a design example, it is shown that a (255,223) RD encoder requiring around 40 discrete CMOS ICs may be replaced by an RS encoder consisting of four identical interconnected VLSI RS encoder chips. Besides the size advantage, the VLSI RS encoder also has the potential advantages of requiring less power and having a higher reliability.

  19. Structure and biomechanics of culms of Phragmites australis used for reeds of Japanese wind instrument "hichiriki".

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nobuchi, Tadashi; Nakafushi, Yuta; Nose, Masateru; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Hichiriki is a traditional Japanese double-reed wind instrument used in Japanese ancient imperial court music, gagaku, which has been performed since the 7th century. The best reeds for hichiriki have been made of culms or stems of Phragmites australis (P. australis) that are harvested from only a limited reed bed at Udono near Kyoto. The aim of this study is to elucidate why the stems from Udono are the best materials for hichiriki reeds. Plant anatomy was examined for choice stems of P. australis grown in different reed beds in Japan as well as morphology, and the local indentation hardness and Young's modulus of tissues on the cross-sections of some representatives of hichiriki reeds were measured. It is concluded that the good stems for hichiriki reeds have an outer diameter of about 11 mm, a wall thickness of about 1 mm and comparatively homogeneous structure where harder materials, such as epidermis, hypodermis, sclerenchymatous cells, and vascular bundle sheaths with hard walls, are orderly deployed with softer materials such as parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. This structure has smaller differences of hardness and Young's modulus between the hard and soft materials in the reed, providing the best music performance.

  20. Structure and biomechanics of culms of Phragmites australis used for reeds of Japanese wind instrument "hichiriki".

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nobuchi, Tadashi; Nakafushi, Yuta; Nose, Masateru; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Hichiriki is a traditional Japanese double-reed wind instrument used in Japanese ancient imperial court music, gagaku, which has been performed since the 7th century. The best reeds for hichiriki have been made of culms or stems of Phragmites australis (P. australis) that are harvested from only a limited reed bed at Udono near Kyoto. The aim of this study is to elucidate why the stems from Udono are the best materials for hichiriki reeds. Plant anatomy was examined for choice stems of P. australis grown in different reed beds in Japan as well as morphology, and the local indentation hardness and Young's modulus of tissues on the cross-sections of some representatives of hichiriki reeds were measured. It is concluded that the good stems for hichiriki reeds have an outer diameter of about 11 mm, a wall thickness of about 1 mm and comparatively homogeneous structure where harder materials, such as epidermis, hypodermis, sclerenchymatous cells, and vascular bundle sheaths with hard walls, are orderly deployed with softer materials such as parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. This structure has smaller differences of hardness and Young's modulus between the hard and soft materials in the reed, providing the best music performance. PMID:25626987

  1. Comparison between ensilage and fungal pretreatment for storage of giant reed and subsequent methane production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Xu, Fuqing; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    Ensilage and fungal pretreatment of giant reed harvested from August through December were compared based on their effects on feedstock preservation, glucose yield, and subsequent methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD). Compared to fungal pretreatment, ensilage obtained lower total solids (<1.2%) and cellulose (<3.5%) losses, and comparable hemicellulose degradation, except for giant reed harvested in August. Ensilage increased glucose and methane yields by 7-15% and 4-14%, respectively, for giant reed harvested from August through December. Fungal pretreatment failed for giant reed harvested in August and October with reduced glucose yields, and was effective for that harvested in November and December, with about 20% increases in glucose yield. However, hydrocarbon losses during fungal pretreatment offset the increased glucose yield, resulting in decreased methane yields by AD. In summary, ensilage was found to be more suitable than fungal pretreatment for giant reed storage and its methane production via AD. PMID:26974356

  2. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional β-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency.

  3. Comparison between ensilage and fungal pretreatment for storage of giant reed and subsequent methane production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Xu, Fuqing; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    Ensilage and fungal pretreatment of giant reed harvested from August through December were compared based on their effects on feedstock preservation, glucose yield, and subsequent methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD). Compared to fungal pretreatment, ensilage obtained lower total solids (<1.2%) and cellulose (<3.5%) losses, and comparable hemicellulose degradation, except for giant reed harvested in August. Ensilage increased glucose and methane yields by 7-15% and 4-14%, respectively, for giant reed harvested from August through December. Fungal pretreatment failed for giant reed harvested in August and October with reduced glucose yields, and was effective for that harvested in November and December, with about 20% increases in glucose yield. However, hydrocarbon losses during fungal pretreatment offset the increased glucose yield, resulting in decreased methane yields by AD. In summary, ensilage was found to be more suitable than fungal pretreatment for giant reed storage and its methane production via AD.

  4. Flow-Induced Vibration of a Reed in a Channel: Effect of Reed Shape on Convective Heat Transfer with Application to Electronic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rips, Aaron; Shoele, Kourosh; Glezer, Ari; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a reed (a thin plate or flag) in a channel can improve heat transfer efficiency in forced convection applications, allowing for more heat transfer for the same fan power. Such systems have wide ranging applications in electronic and power cooling. We investigate the effect of 3D reed shape on heat transfer enhancement. To study 3D effects, we first use 2D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of an optimized reed (in terms of mass and stiffness) to generate a prescribed reed motion. We then apply that motion to a pseudo 3D reed (i.e. infinitely stiff in the spanwise direction) and study the heat transfer enhancement in a 3D channel. This method allows us to explore a large parameter space exhaustively, and using this method, we examine the effect of several parameters, such as reed planform and spanwise gap, on the heat transfer enhancements for forced convection in a channel. Simulations indicate that these geometrical feature have a significant effect on the vortex dynamics in the wake as well as the heat transfer efficiency. This work was supported by grants from AFOSR, EPRI and NSF.

  5. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  6. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L.; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe3O4-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe3O4. CNTs bearing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up. PMID:22977097

  7. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  8. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  9. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: Widespread distribution of race 2 in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strong seedling establishment in alfalfa is important to achieve the plant density needed to out-compete weeds and produce high biomass yields. Establishing alfalfa can be challenging because alfalfa seeds and seedlings are vulnerable to several pathogens present in soil. Wet soil conditions favor t...

  10. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  11. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  12. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  13. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  14. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  15. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  16. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  17. A comparison of the functional traits of common reed (Phragmites australis) in northern China: aquatic vs. terrestrial ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions).

  18. A Comparison of the Functional Traits of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in Northern China: Aquatic vs. Terrestrial Ecotypes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Han, Wenxuan; Thevs, Niels; Jia, Xiuhong; Ji, Chengjun; Jin, Dongmei; He, Ping; Schmitt, Armin O.; Cirella, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zerbe, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) is distributed widely throughout the world with various ecotypes. This research compares the functional traits and biomass allocation patterns of two contrasting reed ecotypes. Twelve pairs of aquatic and terrestrial reed samples were collected in northern China. Significant differences in functional traits between the two reed ecotypes were observed, while biomass allocation patterns of reed organs did not differ significantly except for at the root. The dry matter content (DMC) in the whole of the reed plant, leaf, root, and rhizome was higher; while the specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) were lower in terrestrial versus aquatic reed. The biomass allocation in organs of the two forms of reed was isometric, only root in the terrestrial habitat increased faster with an increase in the whole plant biomass. It can be affirmed that aquatic and terrestrial reed that adapt to different environments generally has distinct leaf and root functional traits but isometric biomass allocation patterns. This suggests different resource acquisition strategies: (1) aquatic reed grows faster with high SLA and SRL and is more responsive to the environment, while (2) terrestrial reed with high DMC grows slower and is less responsive to the adverse environment (e.g. dry soil conditions). PMID:24586505

  19. The influence of reed curvature on the tone quality of lingual organ pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitnik, G. R.; Angster, J.

    2002-11-01

    Given certain design constraints, such as the type of stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, reed voicers must use consummate skill to curve each tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone, as well as maintaining a consistent tone quality across an entire rank of pipes. The curvature given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound, but also the attack. Two fundamentally different types of curvature are typically employed, the chorus reed (trompette) curve (which yields a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for solo reeds such as the clarinet. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone of reed tongues of both types. Two F2 pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with 6 different tongues each to produce a variety of tones. The reed's vibration was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-eighth inch microphones and the emitted sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined.

  20. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  1. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  2. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  3. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Space communication system for compressed data with a concatenated Reed-Solomon-Viterbi coding channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.

  5. Classification and monitoring of reed belts using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Iris; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2016-04-01

    The shorelines of lakes in northeastern Germany are often covered by reed. These reed belts fulfill an important function as erosion protection, biotope for animals, carbon storage, and as cleaning filter for lake water. However, despite their importance for the limnic ecosystem, reed vegetation in northeastern Germany is not regularly monitored. In this research study we investigate the potential of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) for seasonal monitoring of reed vegetation. SAR imagery enables sunlight- and (almost) weather-independent monitoring. Polarimetric decomposition techniques allow the physical characterization of the scattering scenario and the involved scatterers. Our study is based on 19 dual-polarimetric (HH/VV) TerraSAR-X images acquired between August 2014 and May 2015. We calculated different polarimetric indices comprising the HH and VV intensities, the dual-polarimetric coherency matrix with dominant and mean alpha scattering angles, entropy and anisotropy (normalized eigen-value difference) as well as combinations of entropy and anisotropy for the analysis of the scattering scenarios. The reed areas in the TerraSAR-X images were classified using a random forest algorithm and validated with high-resolution digital orthophotos. The time series analysis of the reed belts revealed significant seasonal changes in the double bounce sensitive parameters (intensity ratio HH/VV and intensity difference HH-VV, the co-polarimetric coherence phase and the dominant and mean alpha scattering angles). Additionally, the dual-polarimetric coherence (amplitude), anisotropy, entropy, and anisotropy-entropy-combinations showed seasonal changes of reed. In summer, the reed areas are characterized within the X-band SAR data by volume scattering, whereas in winter double-bounce scattering dominates. The volume scattering in summer is caused predominantly by reed leaves. In autumn, the leaves start to wither and fall off, so that in winter predominately

  6. Reed Solomon error correction for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Canaris, J.; Vincent, P.; Liu, N.; Owsley, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a single 8.2mm by 8.4mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed Solomon code required by the Space Telescope. The chip features a 10 MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6 micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes as well as shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections as well as random error corrections are supported with programmable corrections of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors.

  7. A decoding procedure for the Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A decoding procedure is described for the (n,k) t-error-correcting Reed-Solomon (RS) code, and an implementation of the (31,15) RS code for the I4-TENEX central system. This code can be used for error correction in large archival memory systems. The principal features of the decoder are a Galois field arithmetic unit implemented by microprogramming a microprocessor, and syndrome calculation by using the g(x) encoding shift register. Complete decoding of the (31,15) code is expected to take less than 500 microsecs. The syndrome calculation is performed by hardware using the encoding shift register and a modified Chien search. The error location polynomial is computed by using Lin's table, which is an interpretation of Berlekamp's iterative algorithm. The error location numbers are calculated by using the Chien search. Finally, the error values are computed by using Forney's method.

  8. Shoot transcriptome of the giant reed, Arundo donax.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Roberto A; Guerrero, Felix D; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Goolsby, John A; Tidwell, Jason; Bellgard, Stanley E; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2015-06-01

    The giant reed, Arundo donax, is a perennial grass species that has become an invasive plant in many countries. Expansive stands of A. donax have significant negative impacts on available water resources and efforts are underway to identify biological control agents against this species. The giant reed grows under adverse environmental conditions, displaying insensitivity to drought stress, flooding, heavy metals, salinity and herbaceous competition, thus hampering control programs. To establish a foundational molecular dataset, we used an llumina Hi-Seq protocol to sequence the transcriptome of actively growing shoots from an invasive genotype collected along the Rio Grande River, bordering Texas and Mexico. We report the assembly of 27,491 high confidence transcripts (≥200 bp) with at least 70% coverage of known genes in other Poaceae species. Of these 13,080 (47.58%), 6165 (22.43%) and 8246 (30.0%) transcripts have sequence similarity to known, domain-containing and conserved hypothetical proteins, respectively. We also report 75,590 low confidence transcripts supported by both trans-ABBySS and Velvet-Oases de novo assembly pipelines. Within the low confidence subset of transcripts we identified partial hits to known (19,021; 25.16%), domain-containing (7093; 9.38%) and conserved hypothetical (16,647; 22.02%) proteins. Additionally 32,829 (43.43%) transcripts encode putative hypothetical proteins unique to A. donax. Functional annotation resulted in 5,550 and 6,070 transcripts with assigned Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway information, respectively. The most abundant KEGG pathways are spliceosome, ribosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, plant-pathogen interaction, RNA degradation and oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we also found 12, 9, and 4 transcripts annotated as stress-related, heat stress, and water stress proteins, respectively. We envisage that these resources will promote and facilitate studies of the abiotic stress

  9. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  10. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  12. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  13. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  14. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  15. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  16. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  17. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  18. The VLSI design of a single chip Reed-Solomon encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.

    1982-01-01

    A design for a single chip implementation of a Reed-Solomon encoder is presented. The architecture that leads to this single VLSI chip design makes use of a bit serial finite field multiplication algorithm.

  19. Applying six classifiers to airborne hyperspectral imagery for detecting giant reed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated and compared six different image classifiers, including minimum distance (MD), Mahalanobis distance (MAHD), maximum likelihood (ML), spectral angle mapper (SAM), mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF) and support vector machine (SVM), for detecting and mapping giant reed (Arundo...

  20. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  1. Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.; Gray, B.R.; Fox, T.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated

  2. Reed-Solomon error-correction as a software patch mechanism.

    SciTech Connect

    Pendley, Kevin D.

    2013-11-01

    This report explores how error-correction data generated by a Reed-Solomon code may be used as a mechanism to apply changes to an existing installed codebase. Using the Reed-Solomon code to generate error-correction data for a changed or updated codebase will allow the error-correction data to be applied to an existing codebase to both validate and introduce changes or updates from some upstream source to the existing installed codebase.

  3. Engine Cycle Analysis of Air Breathing Microwave Rocket with Reed Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Komatsu, Reiji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Katsurayama, Hiroshi

    2011-11-10

    The Microwave Rocket is a candidate for a low cost launcher system. Pulsed plasma generated by a high power millimeter wave beam drives a blast wave, and a vehicle acquires impulsive thrust by exhausting the blast wave. The thrust generation process of the Microwave Rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine. In order to enhance the performance of its air refreshment, the air-breathing mechanism using reed valves is under development. Ambient air is taken to the thruster through reed valves. Reed valves are closed while the inside pressure is high enough. After the time when the shock wave exhausts at the open end, an expansion wave is driven and propagates to the thrust-wall. The reed valve is opened by the negative gauge pressure induced by the expansion wave and its reflection wave. In these processes, the pressure oscillation is important parameter. In this paper, the pressure oscillation in the thruster was calculated by CFD combined with the flux through from reed valves, which is estimated analytically. As a result, the air-breathing performance is evaluated using Partial Filling Rate (PFR), the ratio of thruster length to diameter L/D, and ratio of opening area of reed valves to superficial area {alpha}. An engine cycle and predicted thrust was explained.

  4. New occurrence of reed bed decline in southern Europe: do permanent flooding and chemical parameters play a role?

    PubMed

    Gigante, Daniela; Angiolini, Claudia; Landucci, Flavia; Maneli, Fabio; Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Venanzoni, Roberto; Lastrucci, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experimental design proposed in similar studies, macromorphological and ecological traits of common reed beds were analysed at Lake Chiusi (Central Italy), together with selected chemical parameters in sediments and interstitial waters and aerial images of the site, in order to investigate reed decline and search for possible correlations among data. Typical symptoms of the reed dieback syndrome were detected, thus enlarging the occurrence of this phenomenon in southern Europe. Permanently dry, permanently flooded and partially flooded stands show different levels of decline, with the permanent flooding always co-occurring with reed dieback. Only few of the considered chemical parameters seem to play a role in reed decline (nitrates, rubidium, nickel, barium, manganese), although no clear pattern was identified. Data suggest that the co-occurrence of some chemicals with stressing conditions might affect the growth even of an efficient metal accumulator, as reed is generally considered. PMID:25103835

  5. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  6. Reed bed systems for sludge treatment: case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Masciandaro, G; Iannelli, R; Chiarugi, M; Peruzzi, E

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, reed bed systems (RBSs) have been widely considered as a valid technology for sludge treatment. In this study are presented results about sludge stabilization occurring within beds in four RBSs, situated in Tuscany (Italy). The results showed that stabilization of the sludge over time occurred in all RBSs, as shown by the low content of water-soluble carbon and dehydrogenase activity, which measures indirectly the overall microbial metabolism, and by the re-synthesis of humic-like matter highlighted by the pyrolytic indices of mineralization and humification. Results about heavy metal fractionation, an appropriate technique to estimate the heavy metal bioavailability and sludge biotoxicity, showed that the process of sludge stabilization occurring in RBSs retains metals in fractions related to the stabilized organic matter, making metals less bioavailable. Moreover, the concentrations of various toxic organic compounds were below the limit of concentration suggested by the European Union's Working Document on Sludge, for land application. The effectiveness of the stabilization processes in RBs was hence clearly proven by the results that measured mineralization and humification processes, and by the low levels of bioavailable heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in stabilized sludges.

  7. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  8. Implementation of Bin Packing Model for Reed Switch Production Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Rainier Romero

    2010-06-17

    This paper presents a form to resolve a real problem of efficient material election in reed switch manufacturing. The carrying out of the consumer demands depends on the stochastic results of the classification process where each lot of switches is distributed into bins according to an electric measure value. Various glass types are employed for the switch manufacturing. The effect caused by the glass type variation on the switch classification results was investigated. Based on real data statistic analysis, the problem is reduced to the lot number minimizing taking into consideration the glass type, and interpreted as a bin packing problem generalization. On difference to the classic bin packing problem, in the considered case, an item represents a set of pieces; a container is divided into a number of bins (sub-containers); the bin capacity is variable; there are the assignment restrictions between bins and sets of pieces; the items are allowed to be fragmented into bins and containers. The problem has a high complexity. A heuristic offline algorithm is proposed to find the quantity, types and packing sequence of containers, the item fragments associated with containers and bins. The bin capacities do not affect the algorithm.

  9. Vibrating Reed Study of CeRu_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, A., Jr.; Childers, J. G.; Zhang, Junqing; Metlushko, V.; Delong, L. E.

    1996-03-01

    DC magnetization, AC magnetic susceptibility, vibrating reed (VR) and magnetoresistance measurements were performed on CeRux (x 2.0) samples. CeRu2 has been proposed as an unconventional superconductor based on heat capacity data (Sereni et al., 1989). A small interval of reversible, positive DC magnetization just below the upper critical field H_c2 followed by a region of giant magnetic hysteresis (GMH) at lower temperature (Roy, 1992; Yagasaki et al., 1993) suggest the existence of a "Fulde-Farrell" state (Huxley et al., 1993). We find a dip in the VR dissipation 1/Q that implies a peak effect in the critical current density exists at the lower boundary of the GMH region. VR hysteresis extends from this boundary to well below the GMH region, within which a large 1/Q peak is found to exhibit no hysteresis. We infer the magnetic response is drive and frequency dependent nearly everywhere below H_c2. The field dependence of 1/Q implies that a plastically deformed vortex lattice or glass phase exists well below the GMH region. * Funded by NSF Grant #EHR-9108764

  10. Anaerobic digestion of giant reed for methane production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liangcheng; Li, Yebo

    2014-11-01

    As a fast growing plant, giant reed has good potential to be used as a feedstock for methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD). The effect of total solids (TS) content, an AD operating parameter, was studied. Results showed that increasing TS from 8% to 38% decreased methane yield, due to the inhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN); while the maximum volumetric methane production was obtained at 20-23% TS. Comparison of solid-state AD (SS-AD) at 20% TS and liquid AD (L-AD) at 8% TS was conducted at feedstock to effluent (F/E) ratios of 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0. The best performance was achieved at an F/E of 2.0, with methane yields of 129.7 and 150.8L-CH4/kg-VS for SS-AD and L-AD, respectively. Overall organic components were degraded by 17.7-28.5% and 24.0-26.6% in SS-AD and L-AD, respectively; among which cellulose showed the highest degradation rate and the highest contribution to methane production.

  11. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  12. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  13. Numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions in single-reed mouthpieces.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andrey Ricardo; Scavone, Gary P; van Walstijn, Maarten

    2007-09-01

    Most single-reed woodwind instrument models rely on a quasistationary approximation to describe the relationship between the volume flow and the pressure difference across the reed channel. Semiempirical models based on the quasistationary approximation are very useful in explaining the fundamental characteristics of this family of instruments such as self-sustained oscillations and threshold of blowing pressure. However, they fail at explaining more complex phenomena associated with the fluid-structure interaction during dynamic flow regimes, such as the transient and steady-state behavior of the system as a function of the mouthpiece geometry. Previous studies have discussed the accuracy of the quasistationary approximation but the amount of literature on the subject is sparse, mainly due to the difficulties involved in the measurement of dynamic flows in channels with an oscillating reed. In this paper, a numerical technique based on the lattice Boltzmann method and a finite difference scheme is proposed in order to investigate the characteristics of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction in single-reed mouthpieces with different channel configurations. Results obtained for a stationary simulation with a static reed agree very well with those predicted by the literature based on the quasistationary approximation. However, simulations carried out for a dynamic regime with an oscillating reed show that the phenomenon associated with flow detachment and reattachment diverges considerably from the theoretical assumptions. Furthermore, in the case of long reed channels, the results obtained for the vena contracta factor are in significant disagreement with those predicted by theory. For short channels, the assumption of constant vena contracta was found to be valid for only 40% of the duty cycle. PMID:17927439

  14. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  15. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  16. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control.

  17. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  18. Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus: an Aphid-Transmitted Geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Granier, Martine; Bernardo, Pauline; Deshoux, Maëlle; Ferdinand, Romain; Galzi, Serge; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Julian, Charlotte; Abt, Isabelle; Filloux, Denis; Mesléard, François; Varsani, Arvind; Blanc, Stéphane; Martin, Darren P; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises seven genera differentiated by genome organization, sequence similarity, and insect vector. Capulavirus, an eighth genus, has been proposed to accommodate two newly discovered highly divergent geminiviruses that presently have no known vector. Alfalfa leaf curl virus, identified here as a third capulavirus, is shown to be transmitted by Aphis craccivora. This is the first report of an aphid-transmitted geminivirus. PMID:26109720

  19. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  20. Temperate Perennial Grass Response to Defoliation Height and Interval

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency and extent to which temperate perennial grasses are defoliated influences their productivity and persistence. Field-grown tillers of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), common quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould], and reed canarygrass (Phala...

  1. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-01-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960

  2. Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Tipprasertsin, Kannika; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye solutions showed that the volume treated (until the breakthrough occurred) increased with decreasing particle size, influent reactive dye concentration and flow rate, and increasing bed depth. The bed depth service time model was suitable for describing the experimental data. The treated flute reed was able to reduce color efficiently, 99% for dyeing textile wastewater with ten adsorption columns in series and 78% for printing textile wastewater with a single adsorption column. The difference in the numbers of columns used for the two types of actual textile wastewater led to a substantial discrepancy in suspended solids removal, 99% for dyeing wastewater and 12% for printing wastewater. Similar pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) results were obtained for the two types of textile wastewater. The acid pretreatment of flute reed resulted in dramatic decreases in pH after the adsorption and very acidic effluents (pH 3). Increases of COD after the adsorption due to organic leaching from the treated flute reed were observed. A different pretreatment method to solve these pH and COD problems is needed before flute reed can be used in practice. PMID:20390911

  3. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is not locally adapted to its reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus host.

    PubMed

    Avilés, J M; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Antonov, A; Moksnes, A; Røskaft, E; Shykoff, J A; Møller, A P; Jensen, H; Procházka, P; Stokke, B G

    2011-02-01

    The obligate avian brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus comprises different strains of females that specialize on particular host species by laying eggs of a constant type that often mimics those of the host. Whether cuckoos are locally adapted for mimicking populations of the hosts on which they are specialized has never been investigated. In this study, we first explored the possibility of local adaptation in cuckoo egg mimicry over a geographical mosaic of selection exerted by one of its main European hosts, the reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Secondly, we investigated whether cuckoos inhabiting reed warbler populations with a broad number of alternative suitable hosts at hand were less locally adapted. Cuckoo eggs showed different degrees of mimicry to different reed warbler populations. However, cuckoo eggs did not match the egg phenotypes of their local host population better than eggs of other host populations, indicating that cuckoos were not locally adapted for mimicry on reed warblers. Interestingly, cuckoos exploiting reed warblers in populations with a relatively larger number of co-occurring cuckoo gentes showed lower than average levels of local adaptation in egg volume. Our results suggest that cuckoo local adaptation might be prevented when different cuckoo populations exploit more or fewer different host species, with gene flow or frequent host switches breaking down local adaptation where many host races co-occur.

  4. Spitz/Reed nevi: a review of clinical-dermatoscopic and histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Azevedo, Filomena; Mota, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spitz/Reed nevi are melanocytic lesions that may mimic melanoma at clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological levels. Management strategies of these lesions remain controversial. Objectives: We aim a correlation among clinical-dermatoscopic and histological features of a series of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed during 7 years at the Department of Dermatology. Methods: Clinical, dermatoscopic and histological features of Spitz/Reed nevi diagnosed at our tertiary hospital from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed in order to seek correlation. Results: All described dermatoscopic patterns for Spitz/Reed nevi were found among the 47 enrolled patients; starburst and atypical/multicomponent patterns prevailed (57.4%). Reticular pattern predominated among children younger than 12 years, whereas homogeneous pattern was more frequent in patients older than 12 years, although these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.785). Among histological atypical lesions, all dermatoscopic patterns were represented, but the atypical/multicomponent predominated (56.3%). Two out of 11 dermatoscopically atypical lesions did not show histopathological counterpart. Conclusions: The excision of Spitz/Reed nevi in adults is supported, given the inability to accurately predict those with histopathological atypia, based on clinical and dermatoscopic features, which may raise concern about malignancy. PMID:27222770

  5. Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Tipprasertsin, Kannika; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye solutions showed that the volume treated (until the breakthrough occurred) increased with decreasing particle size, influent reactive dye concentration and flow rate, and increasing bed depth. The bed depth service time model was suitable for describing the experimental data. The treated flute reed was able to reduce color efficiently, 99% for dyeing textile wastewater with ten adsorption columns in series and 78% for printing textile wastewater with a single adsorption column. The difference in the numbers of columns used for the two types of actual textile wastewater led to a substantial discrepancy in suspended solids removal, 99% for dyeing wastewater and 12% for printing wastewater. Similar pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) results were obtained for the two types of textile wastewater. The acid pretreatment of flute reed resulted in dramatic decreases in pH after the adsorption and very acidic effluents (pH 3). Increases of COD after the adsorption due to organic leaching from the treated flute reed were observed. A different pretreatment method to solve these pH and COD problems is needed before flute reed can be used in practice.

  6. Effects of the introduction of pre-treated wastewater in a shallow lake reed stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinka, Mária; Kiss, Anita; Magyar, Norbert; Ágoston-Szabó, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Reed stands may be employed in the amelioration of water quality or even in the treatment of wastewater. In this study, the nutrient concentrations of (i) the above- and below-ground Common Reed (Phragmites australis) biomass, and (ii) surface and interstitial water were analyzed in a natural stand used in wastewater treatment. The reed stand was located in Hungarian part of Lake Fertő/Neusiedler See, by the shore near Fertőrákos Bay. The nitrate, phosphate and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations of surface water were found to be higher on the inlet side of the reed stand compared to the outlet. The N and P concentrations in the above-ground biomass and P concentrations in the below-ground biomass increased after the introduction of pre-treated wastewater. The inter-annual differences in the characteristics of sediment interstitial water and in the nutrient content of reed tissues were assessed using statistical methods. The samples taken before and after the introduction of the pre-treated wastewater in the parcel formed different clusters. The results of the study provide further evidence that the nutrient retention capacity of natural stands of P. australis may be employed in the treatment of wastewater while protecting and preserving the valuable natural assets of the lake.

  7. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) staff evaluation of the General Electric Company Nuclear Reactor Study (''Reed Report'')

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-01

    In 1975, the General Electric Company (GE) published a Nuclear Reactor Study, also referred to as ''the Reed Report,'' an internal product-improvement study. GE considered the document ''proprietary'' and thus, under the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), exempt from mandatory public disclosure. Nonetheless, members of the NRC staff reviewed the document in 1976 and determined that it did not raise any significant new safety issues. The staff also reached the same conclusion in subsequent reviews. However, in response to recent inquiries about the report, the staff reevaluated the Reed Report from a 1987 perspective. This re-evaluation, documented in this staff report, concluded that: (1) there are no issues raised in the Reed Report that support a need to curtail the operation of any GE boiling water reactor (BWR); (2) there are no new safety issues raised in the Reed Report of which the staff was unaware; and (3) although certain issues addressed by the Reed Report are still being studied by the NRC and the industry, there is no basis for suspending licensing and operation of GE BWR plants while these issues are being resolved.

  8. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <107.7 M ⊙ and H I line widths <80 km s-1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * <~ 108 M ⊙ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and

  9. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA HI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release [1] detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function [2]. Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey [3], this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation.[1] Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142[2] Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810[3] Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment reed beds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubo; Zhang, Shunli; Chen, Zhaobo; Chen, Rui; Deng, Xinnan

    2015-01-01

    Sludge treatment reed bed systems (STRBs) are considered as an alternative technology for surplus sludge treatment. Organic matter is decomposed by various microbial reactions, resulting in gases such as CO₂and CH₄emitting into the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to investigate gas emission from STRBs. The static transparent chamber was adopted to measure gas emission; it allows sunlight to enter and plants to photosynthesise. The comparison of total solids and volatile solids showed STRBs have a higher efficiency in dewatering and mineralization than a conventional unplanted sludge drying bed (USDB). The CO₂emission ranged from 28.68 to 100.42 g CO₂m⁻² d(-1) in USDB, from 16.48 to 65.18 g CO₂m⁻² d⁻¹ in STRBs; CH₄emission ranged from 0.26 to 0.99 g CH₄ m⁻² d⁻¹ in USDB, from 0.43 to 1.95 g CH₄m⁻² d⁻¹ in STRBs. Both gas fluxes decreased towards the end of vegetation and reached the highest rates during the hot and dry summer. After the system was loaded by sludge, the fluxes of CO₂and CH₄significantly decreased in the USDB, whereas they increased in STRBs. In terms of CO₂equivalent, the global warming potential of CH₄was 13.13 g CO₂eq m⁻² d⁻¹ and 15.02 g CO₂eq m⁻² d⁻¹ in USDB and STRBs, respectively.

  11. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). The Shannon-Weiner index of the microbiota from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the caecal and faecal DNA extracts showed that the alfalfa meal diet promotes the intestinal microbial diversity, as indicated by their higher species richness and Shannon-Weiner index. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio (p > 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the groups supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of alfalfa meal than the unsupplemented control group, and alfalfa meal promoted the lymphocytes proliferation of the growing egg-type ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  12. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). The Shannon-Weiner index of the microbiota from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the caecal and faecal DNA extracts showed that the alfalfa meal diet promotes the intestinal microbial diversity, as indicated by their higher species richness and Shannon-Weiner index. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio (p > 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the groups supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of alfalfa meal than the unsupplemented control group, and alfalfa meal promoted the lymphocytes proliferation of the growing egg-type ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. PMID:24460922

  13. Sweet sorghum cropping systems for on-farm ethanol or lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hunter, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    Thirteen cropping systems using biomass crops in monoculture, double cropping, and intercropping were conducted with four rates of N for five years at two sites. Total above ground biomass was harvested and removed. Alfalfa and sweet sorghum removed the greatest amounts of K and had the lowest soil test K values after 5 years. Switchgrass removed the least K; about one-half as much as sweet sorghum. Reed canarygrass required the greatest rates of N and monocropped sweet sorghum the least (70 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Sweet sorghum yielded up to 26 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} and contained 11 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} of cellulosic fibers and 7 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} of soluble sugars. Methods of fermenting sugars and fibers are discussed.

  14. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  15. Reed's Law and How Multiple Identities Make the Long Tail Just That Little Bit Longer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, David

    Reed's Law or "Group Forming Network Theory" (as Dr. David P Reed originally and modestly called it) is the mathematical explanation for the power of the network. As with many great ideas, it is quite simple, easy to understand and enlightening. This paper sets out to explain what Reed's Law describes and includes more recent understandings of the collaborative power of networks which should help to make sense of and gives context to the exponential. It also suggests that the multiple complex identities we are adopting in multiple communities are not necessarily a "bad thing". The contention of this paper is that the different modes of thought these actively encourage are to be welcomed when viewed in the context of unleashing the power of self-forming collaborative communities of interest and purpose.

  16. A new VLSI architecture for a single-chip-type Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, I. S.; Truong, T. K.

    1989-01-01

    A new very large scale integration (VLSI) architecture for implementing Reed-Solomon (RS) decoders that can correct both errors and erasures is described. This new architecture implements a Reed-Solomon decoder by using replication of a single VLSI chip. It is anticipated that this single chip type RS decoder approach will save substantial development and production costs. It is estimated that reduction in cost by a factor of four is possible with this new architecture. Furthermore, this Reed-Solomon decoder is programmable between 8 bit and 10 bit symbol sizes. Therefore, both an 8 bit Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) RS decoder and a 10 bit decoder are obtained at the same time, and when concatenated with a (15,1/6) Viterbi decoder, provide an additional 2.1-dB coding gain.

  17. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  18. Identification of molecular markers associated with verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) using high-resolution melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to VW, an association study was conducted using autotetraploid alfalfa populations composed of 352...

  19. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  20. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  1. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  2. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  3. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  5. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  6. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  7. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  8. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  9. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  10. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  11. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  12. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  13. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  14. Piezoelectric Wind-Energy-Harvesting Device with Reed and Resonant Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jun; Kong, Fanrang; He, Liangguo; Guan, Qingchun; Feng, Zhihua

    2010-05-01

    A wind-energy-harvesting device utilizing the principle of a harmonica was created. A reed in a resonant cavity vibrated efficiently with the blowing wind, and a piezoelectric element stuck on the reed generated electricity. The dimensions of the wind inlet were approximately 30×20 mm2. The device was investigated with a wind speed ranging from 2.8 to 10 m/s. An output power of 0.5-4.5 mW was obtained with a matching load of 0.46 MΩ. The energy conversion efficiency of the device could reach up to 2.4%.

  15. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  16. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  17. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  18. Beta-Amylases from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Doehlert, Douglas C.; Duke, Stanley H.; Anderson, Laurens

    1982-01-01

    Amylase was found in high activity (193 international units per milligram protein) in the tap root of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Sonora). The activity was separated by gel filtration chromatography into two fractions with molecular weights of 65,700 (heavy amylase) and 41,700 (light amylase). Activity staining of electrophoretic gels indicated the presence of one isozyme in the heavy amylase fraction and two in the light amylase fraction. Three amylase isozymes with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those in the heavy and the light amylase fractions were the only amylases identified in crude root preparations. Both heavy and light amylases hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch, and amylose but did not hydrolyze pullulan or β-limit dextrin. The ratio of viscosity change to reducing power production during starch hydrolysis was identical for both alfalfa amylase fractions and sweet potato β-amylase, while that of bacterial α-amylase was considerably higher. The identification of maltose and β-limit dextrin as hydrolytic end-products confirmed that these alfalfa root amylases are all β-amylases. The pH optimum for both β-amylase fractions was 6.0. Both light and heavy β-amylases showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with soluble starch as substrate, and had respectively Km values of 5.9 and 6.8 milligrams starch per milliliter and Vmax of 640 and 130 international units per milligram protein. Arrhenius plots indicated that the energy of activation for the heavy β-amylase remained relatively unchanged (12.7 to 13.0 kilocalories per mole) from 0 to 30°C, whereas the energy of activation for the light amylase increased from 12.0 to about 28.0 kilocalories per mole at 8.7°C as temperature was lowered. The light amylase was shown to be inhibited by maltose. Images PMID:16662350

  19. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  20. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  1. Evapotranspiration crop coefficients for mixed riparian plant community and transpiration crop coefficients for Common reed, Cottonwood and Peach-leaf willow in the Platte River Basin, Nebraska-USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, S.; Kabenge, I.; Rudnick, D.; Knezevic, S.; Woodward, D.; Moravek, M.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryApplication of two-step approach of evapotranspiration (ET) crop coefficients (Kc) to "approximate" a very complex process of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) for field crops has been practiced by water management community. However, the use of Kc, and in particular the concept of growing degree days (GDD) to estimate Kc, have not been sufficiently studied for estimation of evaporative losses from riparian vegetation. Our study is one of the first to develop evapotranspiration crop coefficient (KcET) curves for mixed riparian vegetation and transpiration (TRP) crop coefficients (KcTRP) for individual riparian species as a function GDD through extensive field campaigns conducted in 2009 and 2010 in the Platte River Basin in central Nebraska, USA. KcTRP values for individual riparian vegetation species [Common reed (Phragmites australis), Cottonwood (Populus deltoids) and Peach-leaf willow (Salix amygdaloides)] were quantified from the TRP rates obtained using scaled-up canopy resistance from measured leaf-level stomatal resistance and reference evapotranspiration. The KcET and KcTRP curves were developed for alfalfa-reference (KcrET and KcrTRP) surface. The seasonal average mixed riparian plant community KcrET was 0.89 in 2009 and 1.27 in 2010. In 2009, the seasonal average KcrTRP values for Common reed, Cottonwood and Peach-leaf willow were 0.57, 0.51 and 0.62, respectively. In 2010, the seasonal average KcrTRP were 0.69, 0.62 and 0.83 for the same species, respectively. In general, TRP crop coefficients had less interannual variability than the KcrET. Response of the vegetation to flooding in 2010 played an important role on the interannual variability of KcrET values. We demonstrated good performance and reliability of developed GDD-based KcrTRP curves by using the curves developed for 2009 to predict TRP rates of individual species in 2010. Using the KcrTRP curves developed during the 2009 season, we were able to predict the TRP rates for Common reed

  2. Monitored landscape change of Lake Baiyangdian wetland with dynamic reed area based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; He, Lei; Zhang, Shengwei; Lei, Yuping

    2009-09-01

    Lake Baiyangdian, a largest wetland ecosystem in North China Plain, has dried up on seven occasions since the 1960s. In recent years, more than one billion of cubic meters of water from upstream reservoirs and Yellow river have been transported to the lake to rescue the shrinking wetlands. Since the Lake Baiyangdian was actually composed of 143 small lakes and more than 70 villages with large or small area of cropland, dynamic distribution of aquatic plants in wetland such as reed and associated growth condition of these allowed to monitor the changes of wetland landscape and water quality to support the policy applications of water conveyance and wetland environmental treatment and control. Assisted with ground survey analyses and Landsat TM image, the MODIS 250 m time series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), given its combination of medium spatial and high temporal resolution, were applied to detect the unique rapid growth stage of reed in the spring from adjacent crops such as winter wheat, cotton, and spring maize, of which has a similar phenology in development of leaf area index, and dynamic reed areas were mapped in recent decade. Landscape changes of the wetland were analyzed using maps of reed area and hydrological data.

  3. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  4. Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline.

    PubMed

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host's egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses. PMID:24299407

  5. PROJECT RE-ED, A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Mental Health, Raleigh.

    THE PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN (PROJECT RE-ED), A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT (1961-1968) TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS (SUNDAY THROUGH FRIDAY) FOR DISTURBED CHILDREN, IS DESCRIBED. THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE, TENNESSEE, AND USE OF CAREFULLY SELECTED…

  6. Parallel Subspace Subcodes of Reed-Solomon Codes for Magnetic Recording Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Han

    2010-01-01

    Read channel architectures based on a single low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are being considered for the next generation of hard disk drives. However, LDPC-only solutions suffer from the error floor problem, which may compromise reliability, if not handled properly. Concatenated architectures using an LDPC code plus a Reed-Solomon (RS) code…

  7. A single VLSI chip for computing syndromes in the (225, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a single VLSI chip for computing syndromes in the (255, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The architecture that leads to this single VLSI chip design makes use of the dual basis multiplication algorithm. The same architecture can be applied to design VLSI chips to compute various kinds of number theoretic transforms.

  8. Rapid increase in cuckoo egg matching in a recently parasitized reed warbler population.

    PubMed

    Avilés, J M; Stokke, B G; Moksnes, A; Røskaft, E; Asmul, M; Møller, A P

    2006-11-01

    Parasitic cuckoos lay eggs that mimic those of their hosts, and such close phenotypic matching may arise from coevolutionary interactions between parasite and host. However, cuckoos may also explicitly choose hosts in a way that increases degree of matching between eggs of cuckoos and parasites, with female preference for specific host phenotypes increasing the degree of matching. We tested for temporal change in degree of matching between eggs of the parasitic European cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and its reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) host during 24 consecutive years in a recently parasitized reed warbler population. Cuckoo-host egg matching in an ultraviolet-brownness component yielding most of the chromatic variance of eggs improved during the study period. Improved matching was not due to changes in cuckoo egg phenotype. Cuckoo eggs matched host eggs for ultraviolet-brownness within nests irrespective of duration of sympatry. Ultraviolet-brownness of cuckoo eggs was similar to that of reed warbler eggs at parasitized nests, but differed from that of reed warbler eggs at unparasitized nests. These findings provide tentative support for the cuckoo preference hypothesis suggesting that cuckoo-host egg matching could partially be due to cuckoo females selecting host nests based on the appearance of their eggs.

  9. Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline.

    PubMed

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the past three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and egg rejection defenses have tracked this decline in local parasitism risk: the proportion of reed warbler pairs mobbing adult cuckoos (assessed by responses to cuckoo mounts and models) has declined from 90% to 38%, and the proportion rejecting nonmimetic cuckoo eggs (assessed by responses to model eggs) has declined from 61% to 11%. This is despite no change in response to other nest enemies or mimetic model eggs. Individual variation in both defenses is predicted by parasitism risk during the host's egg-laying period. Furthermore, the response of our study population to temporal variation in parasitism risk can also explain spatial variation in egg rejection behavior in other populations across Europe. We suggest that spatial and temporal variation in parasitism risk has led to the evolution of plasticity in reed warbler defenses.

  10. Characteristics and nutrient values of biochars produced from giant reed at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of biochars to soils is suggested as an effective way for improving soil quality. To investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on properties and nutrients value, biochars were produced from giant reed [Arundo donax L.] at 300-600 degrees Celsius and characterized for their physical...

  11. "Young Poets Write What They Know": William Reed Dunroy, Poet of the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipers, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    In a column for the "Lincoln" [Nebraska] "Courier", a newspaper that actively covered the city's political and artistic scenes in the mid-1890s, William Reed Dunroy writes, "Young poets write what they know; what life has taught them." If his own poetry and imaginative prose are any indication, what Dunroy himself knew best, and cared about most…

  12. Rapid assessment of above-ground biomass of Giant Reed using visibility estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the rapid estimation of biomass and density of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) was developed using estimates of visibility as a predictive tool. Visibility estimates were derived by capturing digital images of a 0.25 m2 polystyrene whiteboard placed a set distance (1m) from the edge of gia...

  13. Effects of two citrus-based commercial herbicides on giant reed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The giant reed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae), is an invasive weed pest in the United States and other parts of the world, particularly in riparian habitats where it can hinder the flow of water and choke out indigenous vegetation. Conventional approaches to controlling A. donax have not been particular...

  14. Applying spectral unmixing and support vector machine to airborne hyperspectral imagery for detecting giant reed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated linear spectral unmixing (LSU), mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF) and support vector machine (SVM) techniques for detecting and mapping giant reed (Arundo donax L.), an invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas throughout the southern ...

  15. The Reed & Kellogg System of Sentence Diagramming and Its Implementation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Judith Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to research whether or not the intervention of the Reed & Kellogg System of sentence diagramming would make a significant difference in the acquisition, retention, and comprehension of the basic grammatical skills, including parts of speech, complements, phrases, clauses, and sentence structures, on the higher…

  16. Biomass yield comparisons of giant miscanthus, giant reed, and miscane grown under irrigated and rainfed conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated efforts to decrease the nation’s dependence on imported oil by developing domestic renewable sources of cellulosic-derived bioenergy. In this study, giant miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.), and giant reed (Ar...

  17. Infanticide in great reed warblers: secondary females destroy eggs of primary females

    PubMed

    Hansson; Bensch; Hasselquist

    1997-08-01

    In 1994-1995 artificial nests with attached model eggs were put into territories that were known to have been occupied by male great reed warblers, Acrocephalus arundinaceusin previous years. Because the eggs were made of soft plasticine, predators left peckmarks in them and this enabled us to identify predators by comparing peckmarks with reference marks made by various species. Previous field data had suggested that infanticidal behaviour existed in our study population, as nests of primary females suffered a three times higher rate of nest loss during the egg-laying period than nests of secondary and monogamous females. The presence of infanticide was supported by the experiment. Small peckmarks resembling those of a great reed warbler occurred almost exclusively in territories occupied by great reed warblers, in particular when a new female settled in the territory. The newly settled females built nests closer to depredated than non-depredated nests. That small peckmarks occurred when new females settled strongly suggests that it is secondary female great reed warblers that commit infanticide on eggs of primary females. Females of low harem rank are expected to gain from infanticidal behaviour because a low ranked female gets a higher proportion of male parental investment when the nest of the primary female fails. PMID:9268460

  18. Experimental Investigation of a Reed Valve on the Performance of a Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hu; Wu, Xiao-song; Wang, Dong; Cai, Wen-xiang; Chen, Jie; Diao, Ji-yang; Chen-xi, Pei

    2013-12-01

    Valve system is an important part of pulse detonation engine (PDE). The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing a reed valve to inject fuel/air mixture into the combustion chamber of a Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE). Using air as oxidizer and liquid C8H18 as fuel, a series of multi-cycle detonation experiments were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the reed valve was able to realize supply control of single-tube PDE effectively, and achieved stable operation about 3 minutes at 12.5 Hz for 0.15 mm valve sheet and 30° limit baffle plate. The response time and total pressure recovery coefficient of the reed valve were influenced by valve sheet thickness and air mass flow rate. For 0.1 mm valve sheet and 45° limit baffle plate, the service life of valve sheet strikingly shortened. Some factors such as the valve sheet thickness, air mass flow rate and the limit baffle plate's angle, should be comprehensively considered to design a reed valve.

  19. [Effect of reed rhizosphere on nitrogen and COD removal efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xin-ping; Zhou, Li-xiang

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen removal efficiency was investigated in three subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with and without reed. Root bag made of nylon sieve with 300 mesh was used to enwrap the reed root in one of reed CWs to distinguish reed rhizosphere from non-rhizosphere. The CWs with root bag enwrapped reed root (hereinafter called as mesh CWs) and other CWs were fed with artificial ammonium-rich wastewater. The results indicated that the COD and N removal occurred mainly in the front of CWs, and C and nitrogen removal occurred concurrently along the stream way. When C/N ratio of influent was 5, the removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N in control CWs, reed CWs and mesh CWs were 66.2%, 94.2% and 82.2%, respectively. TN removal efficiencies were 67.2%, 90.7% and 76.1% respectively. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phenomenon in this study was also observed. The removal efficiency of organic carbon was different from nitrogen removal efficiency, mesh CWs showed the highest COD removal efficiency with 80.9%, while control CWs and reed CWs were 72.2% and 56.2%, respectively. C/N ratio of wastewater throughout the bed was more than 5 in three CWs, which indicated carbon source supply was enough for denitrification. The oxidation-reduction position (ORP) and concentration of total organic carbon in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere were detected. The ORP in the front of mesh CWs's rhizosphere was much higher than that in control CWs and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, which were 11-311 mV and 62-261 mV, respectively. Root exudates also showed the difference between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in mesh CWs, the TOC of them were 21.3-54.6 mg x L(-1) and 6.65-12.0 mg x L(-1). Due to the higher ORP and concentration of TOC, the nitrogen removal efficiency in plant CWs was much higher than that in control CWs.

  20. Small-Scale Vortical Motions induced by Aeroelastically Fluttering Reed for Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Sourabh; Hidalgo, Pablo; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale vortical motions effected by an aeroelastically fluttering thin reed cantilevered across the span of a rectangular channel are exploited for heat transfer enhancement at transitional Reynolds numbers. The reed's concave/convex surface undulations lead to the time-periodic formation, advection, and shedding of vorticity concentrations that scale with the motion amplitude. The reed motion is captured using phase-locked imaging and its interactions with the core flow and surface boundary layers are investigated using high-resolution PIV. Phase-averaged distributions of the reed's mechanical energy demonstrate variations of the vibration modes across the channel. The reed's impact on the surface is accompanied by transitory vorticity shedding coupled with a local increase in the turbulent kinetic energy that results in a strong increase in heat transfer. The reciprocal interactions between the reed dynamics and the channel flow are captured using cross stream velocity distributions along the channel (L/ W = 50) that link the kinetic energy shape factor to the rise in heat transfer (e.g., Nu) relative to the base flow. It is shown that the reed-induced heat transfer increases with Re and results in significant improvement in the global coefficient of performance. Supported by AFOSR.

  1. Fungicide tests on adult alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, C I; James, R R; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2008-08-01

    Chalkbrood is a serious disease of alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) larvae, causing upward of 20% infection in the field. The causative agent is the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. This bee is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the United States. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fungicides can reduce chalkbrood levels in the larvae. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of four fungicides, Benlate, Captan, Orbit, and Rovral, to adult bees by using three different bioassays. In the first test, fungicides were applied to bees' thoraces. In the second test, mimicking foliage residue, a piece of filter paper soaked in fungicide was placed on the bottom of a container of bees. The third test evaluated oral toxicity by incorporating fungicides into a sugar-water solution that was fed to the bees. The filter paper test did not discriminate among the fungicides well, and the oral test resulted in the greatest mortality. Toxicity to males was greater than to females. The use of fungicides for chalkbrood control is a logical choice, but caution should be used in how they are applied in the presence of bees. PMID:18767714

  2. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  3. Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Lower in Double Reed Wind Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.; McCoy, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by a collapse of the upper airway. Respiratory muscle training with a wind instrument (didgeridoo) in patients with moderate OSA has been previously shown to improve OSA symptomology. However, a survey of orchestra members did not indicate a difference in OSA risk between wind and non-wind instrumentalist. The present study examines whether playing of different wind instrument types may affect the risk of OSA. Methods: A national sample of active musicians (n = 906) was surveyed through the internet. Participants' risk for OSA was determined by the Berlin Questionnaire. Additional survey items included questions about general health and musical experience. Results: A binary logistic regression was conducted to determine if OSA risk was predicted by gender, age, number of years playing instrument, number of hours per week playing instrument, and instrument type. Musicians who played a double reed instrument had a lower risk of OSA (p = 0.047) than non-wind instrumentalists. Additionally, in double reed instrumentalists, the number of hours spent playing the instrument predicted lower OSA risk (p = 0.020). The risk for OSA in other wind instruments (i.e., single reed, high brass, and low brass) was not significantly different from non-wind musicians. Conclusions: Playing a double reed musical instrument was associated with a lower risk of OSA. Citation: Ward CP; York KM; McCoy JG. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea lower in double reed wind musicians. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):251-255. PMID:22701381

  4. The vibrating reed frequency meter: digital investigation of an early cochlear model.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Wit, Hero P

    2015-01-01

    The vibrating reed frequency meter, originally employed by Békésy and later by Wilson as a cochlear model, uses a set of tuned reeds to represent the cochlea's graded bank of resonant elements and an elastic band threaded between them to provide nearest-neighbour coupling. Here the system, constructed of 21 reeds progressively tuned from 45 to 55 Hz, is simulated numerically as an elastically coupled bank of passive harmonic oscillators driven simultaneously by an external sinusoidal force. To uncover more detail, simulations were extended to 201 oscillators covering the range 1-2 kHz. Calculations mirror the results reported by Wilson and show expected characteristics such as traveling waves, phase plateaus, and a response with a broad peak at a forcing frequency just above the natural frequency. The system also displays additional fine-grain features that resemble those which have only recently been recognised in the cochlea. Thus, detailed analysis brings to light a secondary peak beyond the main peak, a set of closely spaced low-amplitude ripples, rapid rotation of phase as the driving frequency is swept, frequency plateaus, clustering, and waxing and waning of impulse responses. Further investigation shows that each reed's vibrations are strongly localised, with small energy flow along the chain. The distinctive set of equally spaced ripples is an inherent feature which is found to be largely independent of boundary conditions. Although the vibrating reed model is functionally different to the standard transmission line, its cochlea-like properties make it an intriguing local oscillator model whose relevance to cochlear mechanics needs further investigation. PMID:26623180

  5. Modelling the Dynamics of Feral Alfalfa Populations and Its Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Begg, Graham S.; Gulden, Robert H.; Van Acker, Rene C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba), one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. Conclusions/Significance Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production systems for specific

  6. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang

    2015-05-20

    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio.

  7. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang

    2015-05-20

    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio. PMID:25817637

  8. Biotransformation of benzimidazole anthelmintics in reed (Phragmites australis) as a potential tool for their detoxification in environment.

    PubMed

    Podlipná, Radka; Skálová, Lenka; Seidlová, Helena; Szotáková, Barbora; Kubíček, Vladimír; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Jirásko, Robert; Vaněk, Tomáš; Vokřál, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Benzimidazole anthelmintics, the drugs against parasitic worms, are widely used in human as well as veterinary medicine. Following excretion, these substances may persist in the environment and impact non-target organisms. In order to test phytoremediation as a possible tool for detoxification of anthelmintics in environment, the biotransformation pathways of albendazole (ABZ) and flubendazole (FLU) were studied in reed (Phragmites australis) in vitro. Reed cells were able to uptake and biotransform both anthelmintics. Ten ABZ metabolites and five FLU metabolites were found. Some atypical biotransformation reactions (formation of glucosylglucosides, acetylglucosides and xylosylglucosides), which have not been described previously, were identified. Based on the obtained results, the schemes of metabolic pathways of ABZ and FLU in reed were proposed. Most of ABZ and FLU metabolites can be considered as anthelmintically less active; therefore uptake and biotransformation of these anthelmintics by reed could be useful for decrease of their toxicity in environment.

  9. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems.

  10. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-15

    On February 24, 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified six isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul with collection dates from February 7--14. Salmonella Saintpaul is not a commonly detected serotype; during 2008, only three Salmonella Saintpaul isolates were identified in Nebraska. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which has identified 228 cases in 13 states and implicated the source as alfalfa sprouts produced at multiple facilities using seeds that likely originated from a common grower. On April 26, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice. On May 1, FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that a seed supplier was withdrawing voluntarily from the market all lots of alfalfa seeds with a specific three-digit prefix. PMID:19444155

  11. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata: the world's most intensively managed solitary bee.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H

    2011-01-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata F. (Megachildae), was accidentally introduced into the United States by the 1940s. Nest management of this Eurasian nonsocial pollinator transformed the alfalfa seed industry in North America, tripling seed production. The most common ALCB management practice is the loose cell system, in which cocooned bees are removed from nesting cavities for cleaning and storage. Traits of ALCBs that favored their commercialization include gregarious nesting; use of leaves for lining nests; ready acceptance of affordable, mass-produced nesting materials; alfalfa pollination efficacy; and emergence synchrony with alfalfa bloom. The ALCB became a commercial success because much of its natural history was understood, targeted research was pursued, and producer ingenuity was encouraged. The ALCB presents a model system for commercializing other solitary bees and for advancing new testable hypotheses in diverse biological disciplines. PMID:20809804

  12. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  13. Effect of feeding macerated alfalfa silage on nutrient digestibility and milk yield in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Mauries, M J; Schneeberger, E; Kraus, T J

    1999-11-01

    Five feeding studies were conducted with 141 lactating Holstein cows comparing macerated and control alfalfa silage harvested at two cuttings in each of 2 yr. Overall, silage made from macerated alfalfa contained more ash (suggesting improved soil contamination); greater fiber and lower nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content suggested greater fermentation in the silo. In a digestion study, two diets were fed containing [dry matter (DM) basis] 72% of either control or macerated second-cutting alfalfa. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was increased by maceration, and similar changes in digestibility were observed with Yb or indigestible ADF as marker; indigestible ADF was used as a marker in later studies. Lactation trials were conducted with first- and second-cutting alfalfa from each year. In each study, diets were formulated from alfalfa silage plus concentrate based on processed high moisture ear corn; mean compositions were (DM basis): negative control (61% control alfalfa silage), macerated (61% macerated alfalfa silage), and positive control (50% control alfalfa silage). All diets contained 2% crude protein from either roasted soybeans or low-solubles fish meal; soybean meal was added to make the positive control isonitrogenous (but not equal in ruminal undergraded protein). Milk yield was greater on macerated than negative control in two of four trials but not different in the other two trials. Yields of milk and milk components were not different between macerated and positive control in one of four trials. Versus the negative control, milk fat synthesis was depressed on macerated alfalfa in one trial. Overall performance on macerated versus negative control indicated greater apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM), greater yield of milk, protein, and solids not fat, but lower milk fat content. Yields of milk and milk components were greater overall on positive control versus macerated. Estimation of net

  14. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  15. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  16. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  17. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  18. Local production of agricultural fuel: conversion of alfalfa to ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Tjostem, J.; Koeltzow, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    Initial project goals were to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol from the sugars contained in alfalfa and other legumes using a small-scale, single-farm production facility. These data indicate that alfalfa from the field does have reducing sugar present before any breakdown due to the presence of the mold. There is also plenty of natural bacterial contamination which quickly depletes the sugar supply. However, if the alfalfa is autoclaved prior to incubation, the number of bacteria present in the samples is greatly reduced. There was no difference between the flasks which contained an inoculum of Tricoderma reesei and those that did not. Analysis of these solutions failed to show any trace of cellulase activity even after 288 hours (12 days). Therefore, one can also conclude that the Tricoderma reesei strain QM9414 does not grow on alfalfa under these conditions. Future experiments will involve different conditions of temperature and pH. Acid insoluble lignin levels in our 3rd cutting alfalfa samples range from 16.8% to 19.77% with an average of 18.3%. This agrees well with the levels of 13.8% and 15.9% reported by Linder, et al. Results of lipid, water, protein, lignin and cellulose analysis of alfalfa are given. Over 80% of the cellulose in alfalfa can be converted into glucose. Subsequent fermentation by S. carlisbergenois produced near theoretical yields of ethanol. However, the cost of the hay was $440.00; the market value of the ethanol was $120.00. The poor economics results since only 13.1% of the alfalfa contains cellulose. Results show that while production of ethanol from legume-type plants is technically possible, it is not economically feasible.

  19. Effects of Temperature on the Pathogenicity of Tylenchorhynchus clarus to Alfalfa and Observations on Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Gregory R.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    The involvement of Tylenchorhynchus clarus in plant disease is reported. Addition of a suspension of surface-axenized nematodes reduced top and root growth of alfalfa. Reproduction of T. clarus was greater at 24 and 27 than at 21 C. The interaction of nematodes with temperature did not produce significant effects on alfalfa growth in the 4.5-mo experimental period. T. clarus fed endo- and ectoparasitically. PMID:19305838

  20. [A contribution to an evalution of general combining ability of alfalfa clones].

    PubMed

    Crod, J

    1969-01-01

    Recombinational performance of different clones of alfalfa was compared in two types of seed : (a) produced by systematic mating of the clones and (b) produced by the polycross procedure. No basic differences between the two types of progeny were found for the characteristics investigated. Thus neither greater objectivity nor greater test efficiency of the polycross technique was demonstrated.Factors determining objective evaluation of general combining ability of alfalfa by means of the polycross test technique are discyssed.

  1. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  2. Unsteady Heat Transfer in Channel Flow using Small-Scale Vorticity Concentrations Effected by a Vibrating Reed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Pablo; Glezer, Ari

    2011-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement by small-scale vorticity concentrations that are induced within the core flow of a mm-scale heated channel are investigated experimentally. These small-scale motions are engendered by the cross stream vibrations of a streamwise cantilevered reed that spans most of the channel's width. The interactions between the reed the core flow over a range of flow rates lead to the formation, shedding, and advection of time-periodic vorticity concentrations that interact with the wall boundary layers, and increase cross stream mixing of the core flow. Heating of the channel walls is controlled using microfabricated serpentine resistive heaters embedded with streamwise arrays of temperature sensors. It is shown that the actuation disrupts the thermal boundary layers and result in significant enhancement of the local and global heat transfer along the channel compared to the baseline flow in the absence of the reed. The effect of the reed on the cross flow is measured using high resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the reed motion is characterized using a laser-based position sensor. The blockage induced by the presence of the reed and its cross stream motion is characterized using detailed streamwise pressure distributions. Supported by DARPA and UTRC.

  3. Computational study of flow-induced vibration of a reed in a channel and effect on convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-12-01

    The flow-induced fluttering motion of a flexible reed inside a heated channel is modeled numerically and used to investigate the relationship between the aeroelastic vibration of the reed and heat-transfer enhancement. An immersed boundary method is developed to solve the coupled flow-structure-thermal problem, and the simulations show that the vibrating reed significantly increases the mean heat flux through the channel, as well as the thermal performance, quantified in terms of the thermal enhancement factor. The effect of reed material properties on vibratory dynamics and heat transfer is studied. Changes in material properties produce a rich variety of vibratory behavior, and the thermal performance is found to depend more strongly on the reed inertia than its bending stiffness. The effects of both the Reynolds number and channel confinement are examined and it is found that the thermal performance is maximized when the reed creates large modulations in the boundary layer of the channel, while at the same time avoiding the creation of strong vortices.

  4. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies--effects of macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauly, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan; Bester, Kai

    2009-10-15

    Sludge reed beds have been used for dewatering (draining and evapotranspiration) and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. Although reed beds are considered as a low cost and low contamination method in reducing volume, breaking down organic matter and increasing the density of sludge, it is not yet clear whether this enhanced biological treatment is suitable for degradation of organic micro-pollutants such as personal care products. Within this project the effect of biological sludge treatment in a reed bed on reducing the concentrations of the fragrances HHCB, AHTN, OTNE was studied as on the bactericide Triclosan. Additionally, the capacity of different macrophytes species to affect the treatment process was examined. Three different macrophyte species were compared: bulrush (Typha latifolia), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). They were planted into containers (lysimeters) with a size of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m which were filled with 20 cm gravel at the bottom and 50 cm sludge on top, into which the macrophytes were planted. During the twelve months experiment reduction of 20-30% for HHCB and AHTN, 70% for Triclosan and 70% for OTNE were determined under environmental conditions. The reduction is most likely due to degradation, since volatilization, uptake into plants and leaching are insignificant. No difference between the containers with different macrophyte species or the unplanted containers was observed. Considering the usual operation time of 10 years for reed beds, an assessment was made for the whole life time.

  5. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies--effects of macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauly, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan; Bester, Kai

    2009-10-15

    Sludge reed beds have been used for dewatering (draining and evapotranspiration) and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. Although reed beds are considered as a low cost and low contamination method in reducing volume, breaking down organic matter and increasing the density of sludge, it is not yet clear whether this enhanced biological treatment is suitable for degradation of organic micro-pollutants such as personal care products. Within this project the effect of biological sludge treatment in a reed bed on reducing the concentrations of the fragrances HHCB, AHTN, OTNE was studied as on the bactericide Triclosan. Additionally, the capacity of different macrophytes species to affect the treatment process was examined. Three different macrophyte species were compared: bulrush (Typha latifolia), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). They were planted into containers (lysimeters) with a size of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m which were filled with 20 cm gravel at the bottom and 50 cm sludge on top, into which the macrophytes were planted. During the twelve months experiment reduction of 20-30% for HHCB and AHTN, 70% for Triclosan and 70% for OTNE were determined under environmental conditions. The reduction is most likely due to degradation, since volatilization, uptake into plants and leaching are insignificant. No difference between the containers with different macrophyte species or the unplanted containers was observed. Considering the usual operation time of 10 years for reed beds, an assessment was made for the whole life time. PMID:19682727

  6. Pythium phragmitis sp. nov., a new species close to P. arrhenomanes as a pathogen of common reed (Phragmites australis).

    PubMed

    Nechwatal, Jan; Wielgoss, Anna; Mendgen, Kurt

    2005-12-01

    During a study on the occurrence and pathogenicity of oomycetes in the reed-belt (Phragmites australis) of Lake Constance (Germany), a new Pythium resembling the important cereal pathogen species complex P. arrhenomanes/P. graminicola was consistently isolated from necrotic mature reed leaves and reed rhizosphere samples. The new species proved to be significantly more aggressive towards reed leaves and seedlings in vitro than related species. It is characterised by filamentous, inflated sporangia and plerotic oospores with usually more than one antheridium. ITS and cox II sequence data indicate this new species shares a common ancestor with P. arrhenomanes, but the sequence differences are clearly consistent with a divergence of the two taxa and with P. phragmitis being a distinct species. ITS 1 and 2 of 15 isolates of the taxon consistently differed from P. arrhenomanes by 13 positions. Sequence analyses of the cox II gene confirmed the new species' phylogenetic position. This paper gives a formal description of the taxon as P. phragmitis sp. nov., providing information on morphology, ecology and pathogenicity in comparison to related species. As indicated by the close association to Phragmites australis, the high aggressiveness towards reed leaves and seedlings, and the abundance in the investigated stands, Pythium phragmitis might act as a reed pathogen of considerable importance, in particular under flooding situations. PMID:16353634

  7. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  8. Effects of engineered Sinorhizobium meliloti on cytokinin synthesis and tolerance of alfalfa to extreme drought stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Li, Xiao-Lin; Luo, Li

    2012-11-01

    Cytokinin is required for the initiation of leguminous nitrogen fixation nodules elicited by rhizobia and the delay of the leaf senescence induced by drought stress. A few free-living rhizobia have been found to produce cytokinin. However, the effects of engineered rhizobia capable of synthesizing cytokinin on host tolerance to abiotic stresses have not yet been described. In this study, two engineered Sinorhizobium strains overproducing cytokinin were constructed. The tolerance of inoculated alfalfa plants to severe drought stress was assessed. The engineered strains, which expressed the Agrobacterium ipt gene under the control of different promoters, synthesized more zeatins than the control strain under free-living conditions, but their own growth was not affected. After a 4-week inoculation period, the effects of engineered strains on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation were similar to those of the control strain under nondrought conditions. After being subjected to severe drought stress, most of the alfalfa plants inoculated with engineered strains survived, and the nitrogenase activity in their root nodules showed no apparent change. A small elevation in zeatin concentration was observed in the leaves of these plants. The expression of antioxidant enzymes increased, and the level of reactive oxygen species decreased correspondingly. Although the ipt gene was transcribed in the bacteroids of engineered strains, the level of cytokinin in alfalfa nodules was identical to that of the control. These findings suggest that engineered Sinorhizobium strains synthesizing more cytokinin could improve the tolerance of alfalfa to severe drought stress without affecting alfalfa nodulation or nitrogen fixation.

  9. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  10. Alfalfa varieties for biomass production. Task IId. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.; Lamb, J.

    1997-10-30

    The use of alfalfa for biomass production may require harvest schedules and alfalfa varieties with different traits than currently marketed varieties. A late flower (2-cut) system may have several advantages compared to more frequent cutting systems because it can result in high stem yield, result in less trips over the field, allow more schedule flexibility, provide greater wildlife habitat, and allow greater alfalfa persistence. However, modem alfalfa varieties have been developed for a frequent harvest system with 3-4 cuttings per season. The objectives of this study were to determine the total biomass yield; leaf and stem biomass yield; and leaf and stem composition of alfalfa varieties subject to diverse harvest regimes. Alfalfa varieties included those currently marketed in the biomass region as well as experimental entries developed for lodging resistance and leaf retention. Harvest regimes included conventional strategies based on harvests at bud or first flower and a non-conventional strategy with harvests at late flower. Harvest regime had the most consistent and greatest effect on the variables studied. Forage yields were greater for the early flower regime. Harvests at earlier maturity frequently result in leafier, higher quality forage than harvest at late flower. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (P<0.05) on the yield of polysaccharides from alfalfa. The optimum conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  12. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

    SciTech Connect

    Loughry, Thomas A.

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  13. Reed's Syndrome: A Case of Multiple Cutaneous Leiomyomas Treated with Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Basendwh, Mohammad A.; Fatani, Mohammad; Baltow, Badee

    2016-01-01

    Reed's syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing benign smooth muscle tumors in the skin and uterus. In this article, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented to our dermatology clinic complaining of painful skin lesions on her right arm, left forearm and trunk. The patient had a past medical history of uterine leiomyomatosis for which she underwent hysterectomy 17 years ago. The patient's family history revealed that her mother, 2 sisters and 2 maternal aunts also had uterine leiomyomas. The diagnosis of Reed's syndrome was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the patient's dermal lesion in conjunction with her surgical and family histories. Five years after the initial presentation, the patient underwent treatment with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the dermal leiomyomas. After the treatment, marked improvement was noticed with regard to the pain and size of the skin lesions. PMID:27064320

  14. On the binary weight distribution of some Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup M). If each code symbol is represented by a m-tuple over GF(2) using certain basis for GF(2 sup M), a binary (nm,km) linear code is obtained. The weight distribution of a binary linear code obtained in this manner is investigated. Weight enumerators for binary linear codes obtained from Reed-Solomon codes over GF(2 sup M) generated by polynomials, (X-alpha), (X-l)(X-alpha), (X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and (X-l)(X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and their extended codes are presented, where alpha is a primitive element of GF(2 sup M). Binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes are often used for correcting multiple bursts of errors.

  15. Reed warblers migrating through Portugal: climatic influence on stopover ecology over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pedro M; da Silva, Luís P; Paiva, Vitor H; Ramos, Jaime A

    2016-06-01

    The arrival and breeding dates of small migrant birds have advanced throughout Europe. This study evaluates the hypothesis of a faster migration along the migratory route, which should lead to a decrease in stopover duration in staging areas over the last decades. Several climatic predictors were analysed as proxies to understand the stopover ecology of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus migrating through Central Portugal. The minimum stopover duration of migratory reed warblers decreased significantly over the last decade during both the spring and autumn migrations. Warmer conditions en route should increase food availability, increasing the body condition of departing birds and the quality of departing sites en route to Portugal, such that migrants will reduce the stopover duration at Portuguese reedbeds. PMID:26948014

  16. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in sediment, common reed, algae, and blood worm from the Shoor river, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hamidian, Amir Hossein; Zareh, Maryam; Poorbagher, Hadi; Vaziri, Leila; Ashrafi, Sohrab

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of 11 metals (cadmium, zinc, copper (Cu), vanadium (V), lead, magnesium (Mg), manganese, aluminum, iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and nickel), and one metalloid (arsenic (As)) were measured in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis), algae (Spirogyra sp.), and blood worm (Chironomus sp.) tissues of samples collected from the Shoor river. Samples were dried, acid digested, and the concentrations of metals were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. A higher concentration of heavy metals was accumulated in Spirogyra and Chironomids than sediment and common reed. The highest rate of accumulation was found for Mg, V, Fe, As, Cu, and Cr. Spirogyra and Chironomids are capable of accumulating and thereby removing metals from polluted water bodies and are suitable for biomonitoring purposes.

  17. Reed's Syndrome: A Case of Multiple Cutaneous Leiomyomas Treated with Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Basendwh, Mohammad A; Fatani, Mohammad; Baltow, Badee

    2016-01-01

    Reed's syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing benign smooth muscle tumors in the skin and uterus. In this article, we report a case of a 52-year-old female who presented to our dermatology clinic complaining of painful skin lesions on her right arm, left forearm and trunk. The patient had a past medical history of uterine leiomyomatosis for which she underwent hysterectomy 17 years ago. The patient's family history revealed that her mother, 2 sisters and 2 maternal aunts also had uterine leiomyomas. The diagnosis of Reed's syndrome was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the patient's dermal lesion in conjunction with her surgical and family histories. Five years after the initial presentation, the patient underwent treatment with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the dermal leiomyomas. After the treatment, marked improvement was noticed with regard to the pain and size of the skin lesions. PMID:27064320

  18. SEU hardened memory cells for a CCSDS Reed-Solomon encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling; Canaris, John; Liu, Kathy

    1991-01-01

    A design technique to harden CMOS memory circuits against single event upset (SEU) in the space environment is reported. The design technique provides a recovery mechanism which is independent of the shape of the upsetting event. A RAM cell and flip-flop design are presented to demonstrate the method. The flip-flop was used in the control circuitry for a Reed-Solomon encoder designed for the Space Station and Explorer platforms.

  19. A Systolic VLSI Design of a Pipeline Reed-solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, H. M.; Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Yuen, J. H.; Reed, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    A pipeline structure of a transform decoder similar to a systolic array was developed to decode Reed-Solomon (RS) codes. An important ingredient of this design is a modified Euclidean algorithm for computing the error locator polynomial. The computation of inverse field elements is completely avoided in this modification of Euclid's algorithm. The new decoder is regular and simple, and naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  20. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  1. ReEDS Modeling of the President's 2020 U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation Goal (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinaman, O.; Mai, T.; Lantz, E.; Gelman, R.; Porro, G.

    2014-05-01

    President Obama announced in 2012 an Administration Goal for the United States to double aggregate renewable electricity generation from wind, solar, and geothermal sources by 2020. This analysis, using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, explores a full range of future renewable deployment scenarios out to 2020 to assess progress and outlook toward this goal. Under all modeled conditions, consisting of 21 scenarios, the Administration Goal is met before 2020, and as early as 2015.

  2. The use of reed plants for wastewater treatment: the Iraq experience.

    PubMed

    al-Samawi, A A

    2000-01-01

    The use of plants, especially of species that grow naturally and under harsh environmental conditions, offers a simple and economic method of wastewater treatment. This method has been gaining wide popularity throughout the world over the last decades. Iraq is considered to be a country with environmental conditions favourable for the natural growth of many aquatic plants such as reed (Qassab). The root-zone method of treating wastewater is suitable for Iraq, e.g. because of its economy and the fact that such treatment does not need sophisticated mechanical or electrical equipment, or chemical materials. The most important aspect is that this method makes use of a weed, namely the reed. A mobile test tank for root-zone treatment stationed in the Rustamya sewage treatment plant and run for nearly 34 weeks. A total of 768 samples of the influent and effluent sewage were analysed. Average removal efficiencies for biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, chloride, phosphate and ammonia ranged from 92 to 82%, and chloride was removed with 13% efficiency. These results indicate that the root-zone method is adequate for the treatment of domestic sewage and can compete with conventional treatment methods whose average effluent concentrations for BOD5 and suspended solids are similar. A survey of water quality was conducted on a drainage ditch north-west of Baghdad to assess its natural purification process. The ditch that was chosen was infested with reed plants and other aquatic weeds. The role of the macrophytes was found to be essential in the process of self-purification of the water body. Results of the survey indicate that such ditches and streams could be used as disposal points for domestic sewage and industrial wastes. However, further assessment of their performance particularly for removal of suspended solids, pathogens, phosphate and nitrogen is necessary. The results indicate that reed beds may be suitable particularly for treatment of wastewater from small

  3. The vibrating reed frequency meter: digital investigation of an early cochlear model

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Hero P.

    2015-01-01

    The vibrating reed frequency meter, originally employed by Békésy and later by Wilson as a cochlear model, uses a set of tuned reeds to represent the cochlea’s graded bank of resonant elements and an elastic band threaded between them to provide nearest-neighbour coupling. Here the system, constructed of 21 reeds progressively tuned from 45 to 55 Hz, is simulated numerically as an elastically coupled bank of passive harmonic oscillators driven simultaneously by an external sinusoidal force. To uncover more detail, simulations were extended to 201 oscillators covering the range 1–2 kHz. Calculations mirror the results reported by Wilson and show expected characteristics such as traveling waves, phase plateaus, and a response with a broad peak at a forcing frequency just above the natural frequency. The system also displays additional fine-grain features that resemble those which have only recently been recognised in the cochlea. Thus, detailed analysis brings to light a secondary peak beyond the main peak, a set of closely spaced low-amplitude ripples, rapid rotation of phase as the driving frequency is swept, frequency plateaus, clustering, and waxing and waning of impulse responses. Further investigation shows that each reed’s vibrations are strongly localised, with small energy flow along the chain. The distinctive set of equally spaced ripples is an inherent feature which is found to be largely independent of boundary conditions. Although the vibrating reed model is functionally different to the standard transmission line, its cochlea-like properties make it an intriguing local oscillator model whose relevance to cochlear mechanics needs further investigation. PMID:26623180

  4. Simplified algorithm for correcting both errors and erasures of Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Using a finite-field transform, a simplified algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes is developed to correct erasures as well as errors over the finite-field GF(q to the m power), where q is a prime and m is an integer. If the finite-field transform is a fast transform, this decoder can be faster and simpler than a decoder that uses more conventional methods.

  5. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  6. The use of reed plants for wastewater treatment: the Iraq experience.

    PubMed

    al-Samawi, A A

    2000-01-01

    The use of plants, especially of species that grow naturally and under harsh environmental conditions, offers a simple and economic method of wastewater treatment. This method has been gaining wide popularity throughout the world over the last decades. Iraq is considered to be a country with environmental conditions favourable for the natural growth of many aquatic plants such as reed (Qassab). The root-zone method of treating wastewater is suitable for Iraq, e.g. because of its economy and the fact that such treatment does not need sophisticated mechanical or electrical equipment, or chemical materials. The most important aspect is that this method makes use of a weed, namely the reed. A mobile test tank for root-zone treatment stationed in the Rustamya sewage treatment plant and run for nearly 34 weeks. A total of 768 samples of the influent and effluent sewage were analysed. Average removal efficiencies for biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, chloride, phosphate and ammonia ranged from 92 to 82%, and chloride was removed with 13% efficiency. These results indicate that the root-zone method is adequate for the treatment of domestic sewage and can compete with conventional treatment methods whose average effluent concentrations for BOD5 and suspended solids are similar. A survey of water quality was conducted on a drainage ditch north-west of Baghdad to assess its natural purification process. The ditch that was chosen was infested with reed plants and other aquatic weeds. The role of the macrophytes was found to be essential in the process of self-purification of the water body. Results of the survey indicate that such ditches and streams could be used as disposal points for domestic sewage and industrial wastes. However, further assessment of their performance particularly for removal of suspended solids, pathogens, phosphate and nitrogen is necessary. The results indicate that reed beds may be suitable particularly for treatment of wastewater from small

  7. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards.

  8. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  9. [Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochars Derived from Reed Straw and Municipal Sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-yu; Wang, Zhao-wei; Gao, Jun-hong; Zhu, Jun-min; Xie, Chao-ran; Xie, Xiao-yun

    2016-02-15

    Two types of biochars were prepared by pyrolyzing reed straw and municipal sludge at the temperature of 500 degrees C. The structure and properties of biochars were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ). The effects of pH value, adsorption time, temperature and initial concentration of norfloxacin (NOR) on the adsorption behaviors were determined by single factor experiments, which were used to preliminarily discuss adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of NOR onto biochars derived from reed straw and municipal sludge could reach 70% and 60% of the total adsorption within 12 h, respectively; the maximum adsorption capacities of the two biochars were 2.13 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from reed straw) and 2.09 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from municipal sludge). The quantities of both absorptions increased with the decreasing solution pH. The two adsorption kinetics of NOR onto biochars followed the pseudo second order kinetic equations, and adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir equations. Adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as Gibbs free energy (AG), enthalpy (AH) and entropy (AS) indicated that the two adsorptions were endothermic reactions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars provided NOR molecules with adsorptive sites, which facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds between NOR and the biochars.

  10. More on the decoder error probability for Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming

    1989-01-01

    The decoder error probability for Reed-Solomon codes (more generally, linear maximum distance separable codes) is examined. McEliece and Swanson offered an upper bound on P sub E (u), the decoder error probability given that u symbol errors occur. This upper bound is slightly greater than Q, the probability that a completely random error pattern will cause decoder error. By using a combinatoric technique, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, an exact formula for P sub E (u) is derived. The P sub E (u) for the (255,223) Reed-Solomon Code used by NASA, and for the (31,15) Reed-Solomon code (JTIDS code), are calculated using the exact formula, and the P sub E (u)'s are observed to approach the Q's of the codes rapidly as u gets larger. An upper bound for the expression is derived, and is shown to decrease nearly exponentially as u increases. This proves analytically that P sub E (u) indeed approaches Q as u becomes large, and some laws of large numbers come into play.

  11. More on the decoder error probability for Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1987-01-01

    The decoder error probability for Reed-Solomon codes (more generally, linear maximum distance separable codes) is examined. McEliece and Swanson offered an upper bound on P sub E (u), the decoder error probability given that u symbol errors occurs. This upper bound is slightly greater than Q, the probability that a completely random error pattern will cause decoder error. By using a combinatoric technique, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, an exact formula for P sub E (u) is derived. The P sub e (u) for the (255, 223) Reed-Solomon Code used by NASA, and for the (31,15) Reed-Solomon code (JTIDS code), are calculated using the exact formula, and the P sub E (u)'s are observed to approach the Q's of the codes rapidly as u gets larger. An upper bound for the expression is derived, and is shown to decrease nearly exponentially as u increases. This proves analytically that P sub E (u) indeed approaches Q as u becomes large, and some laws of large numbers come into play.

  12. Description of nests, eggs, and nestlings of the endangered nightingale reed-warbler on Saipan, Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, S.M.; Fancy, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first verified nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Nightingale Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), an endangered species endemic to the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Nest composition, nest dimensions, and eggs were studied on the island of Saipan. Nests were located within three habitat types: upland introduced tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) forest, a native mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) wetland, and a native reed (Phragmites karka) wetland. Nesting substrates included five native and two introduced tree species and one native reed species. Nests were composed primarily of dry vine stems, needle-like branchlets of ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), and tangantangan petioles. Nests were compact to bulky in construction and were secured to a forked arrangement of branches or stems. The background color of eggs ranged from white to cream to ivory-buff. Eggs were spotted, speckled, and blotched with gray, brown, black, and rust colored markings. Clutch size was 2-4, with a mode of two. Hatchlings were altricial with closed eyelids and devoid of natal down with dark gray to black skin. Nestlings examined prior to fledging resembled the adult plumage, except for the lack of the yellow supercilium found in adults. The nests and eggs have some characteristics similar to those of other Acrocephaline warblers found throughout Micronesia and Polynesia.

  13. Idealized digital models for conical reed instruments, with focus on the internal pressure waveform.

    PubMed

    Kergomard, J; Guillemain, P; Silva, F; Karkar, S

    2016-02-01

    Two models for the generation of self-oscillations of reed conical woodwinds are presented. The models use the fewest parameters (of either the resonator or the exciter), whose influence can be quickly explored. The formulation extends iterated maps obtained for lossless cylindrical pipes without reed dynamics. It uses spherical wave variables in idealized resonators, with one parameter more than for cylinders: the missing length of the cone. The mouthpiece volume equals that of the missing part of the cone, and is implemented as either a cylindrical pipe (first model) or a lumped element (second model). Only the first model adds a length parameter for the mouthpiece and leads to the solving of an implicit equation. For the second model, any shape of nonlinear characteristic can be directly considered. The complex characteristic impedance for spherical waves requires sampling times smaller than a round trip in the resonator. The convergence of the two models is shown when the length of the cylindrical mouthpiece tends to zero. The waveform is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. It is concluded that the oscillations of the positive episode of the mouthpiece pressure are related to the length of the missing part, not to the reed dynamics. PMID:26936573

  14. Molecular detection of catabolic genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the reed rhizosphere of Sunchon Bay.

    PubMed

    Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Oh, Kye-Heon

    2005-12-01

    This study focused on detecting catabolic genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) distributed in the reed rhizosphere of Sunchon Bay, Korea. These marsh and mud environments were severely affected by human activities, including agriculture and fisheries. Our previous study on microbial roles in natural decontamination displayed the possibility that PAH-degrading bacteria, such as Achromobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Burkholderia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. play an important decontamination role in a reed rhizosphere. In order to gain further fundamental knowledge on the natural decontamination process, catabolic genes for PAH metabolism were investigated through PCR amplification of dioxygenase genes using soil genomic DNA and sequencing. Comparative analysis of predicted amino acid sequences from 50 randomly selected dioxygenase clones capable of hydroxylating inactivated aromatic nuclei indicated that these were divided into three groups, two of which might be originated from PAH-degrading bacteria. Amino acid sequences of each dioxygenase clone were a part of the genes encoding enzymes for initial catabolism of naphthalene, phenanthrene, or pyrene that might be originated from bacteria in the reed rhizosphere of Sunchon Bay.

  15. On the development of German beating-reed organ pipes during the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas

    2001-05-01

    In the 19th century organ literature, it is often claimed that German organ builders generally adapted the way of building their beating-reed pipes after being influenced by new developments from England and France. To investigate whether this hypothesis is true or false, the reed-pipe sounds of several German historic organs and an English organ by Henry Willis were measured and analyzed. The outcome of the analysis, however, cannot confirm the given hypothesis. Organ builders of the 18th century, such as Gottfried Silbermann for example, were already able to build beating-reed pipes similar in sound to the pipes that are used nowadays in Germany. It is noteworthy that Silbermann used closed shallots in some of his stops, although they are thought to be one of the main inventions in the English and French organ reforms. The use of higher wind pressures, which is also a main part of this reform, on the other hand, never became a common standard in Germany, as was the case for France and Great Britain.

  16. Reed Reactor Facility final report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the period from September 1, 1995 to August 31, 1996. This report is intended to fulfill several purposes including the reporting requirements of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Department of Energy, and the Oregon Department of Energy. Highlights of the last year include: student participation in the program is very high; the facility continues its success in obtaining donated equipment from the Portland General Electric, US Department of Energy, and other sources; the facility is developing more paid work; progress is being made in a collaborative project with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on isotope production for medical purposes. There were over 1,500 individual visits to the Reactor Facility during the year. Most were students in classes at Reed College or area universities, colleges, and high schools. Including tours and research conducted at the facility, the Reed Reactor Facility contributed to the educational programs of six colleges and universities in addition to eighteen pre-college groups. During the year, the reactor was operated almost three hundred separate times. The total energy production was over 23 MW-hours. The reactor staff consists of a Director, an Associated Director, a contract Health Physicist, and approximately twenty Reed College undergraduate students as hourly employees. All radiation exposures to individuals during this year were well below 5% of the federal limits.

  17. Archaeal communities associated with roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis) in Beijing Cuihu Wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Li, Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Li, Yan Hong

    2015-05-01

    The richness, phylogeny and composition of archaeal community associated with the roots of common reed (Phragmites australis) growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China was investigated using a 16S rDNA library. In total, 235 individual sequences were collected, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that 69.4 and 11.5 % of clones were affiliated with the Euryarchaeota and the Crenarchaeota, respectively. In Euryarchaeota, the archaeal community was dominated by species in following genera: Methanobacterium in the order Methanobacteriales (60.7 %); Methanoregula and Methanospirillum in the order Methanomicrobiales (20.2 %), and Methanomethylovorans, Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales (17.2 %). Of 27 sequences assigned to uncultured Crenarchaeota, 22 were grouped into Group 1.3, and five grouped into Group 1.1b. Hence, the archaeal communities associated with reed roots are largely involved in methane production, and, to a lesser extent, in ammonia oxidization. Quantification of the archaeal amoA gene indicated that ammonia oxidizing archaea were more numerous in the rhizosphere soil than in the root tissue or surrounding water. A total of 19.1 % of the sequences were unclassified, suggesting that many unidentified archaea are probably involved in the reed wetland ecosystem.

  18. [Adsorption Characteristics of Norfloxacin by Biochars Derived from Reed Straw and Municipal Sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-yu; Wang, Zhao-wei; Gao, Jun-hong; Zhu, Jun-min; Xie, Chao-ran; Xie, Xiao-yun

    2016-02-15

    Two types of biochars were prepared by pyrolyzing reed straw and municipal sludge at the temperature of 500 degrees C. The structure and properties of biochars were characterized by BET, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ). The effects of pH value, adsorption time, temperature and initial concentration of norfloxacin (NOR) on the adsorption behaviors were determined by single factor experiments, which were used to preliminarily discuss adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption of NOR onto biochars derived from reed straw and municipal sludge could reach 70% and 60% of the total adsorption within 12 h, respectively; the maximum adsorption capacities of the two biochars were 2.13 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from reed straw) and 2.09 mg x g(-1) (biochar derived from municipal sludge). The quantities of both absorptions increased with the decreasing solution pH. The two adsorption kinetics of NOR onto biochars followed the pseudo second order kinetic equations, and adsorption isotherms fitted well with the Langmuir equations. Adsorption thermodynamics parameters such as Gibbs free energy (AG), enthalpy (AH) and entropy (AS) indicated that the two adsorptions were endothermic reactions. Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that oxygen-containing functional groups on biochars provided NOR molecules with adsorptive sites, which facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds between NOR and the biochars. PMID:27363161

  19. [Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on the Growth of Reeds in Wetland Soils with Different Salt Content].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang-yuan; Guo, Wei; Bi, Na; Fu, Rui-ying; Zhao, Wen-jing; Zhao, Ren-xin; Wang, Li-xin

    2015-04-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Claroideoglomus etunicatum (CE), Rhizophagus intraradices (RI), Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and Glomus versiforme (GV) on AM colonization rate, biomass, mineral nutrient uptake, C: N: P ratios and Na and Cl- concentrations of reeds (Phragmites australis) grown in saline and non-saline wetland soils. The aim was to provide a technical basis for the ecological revegetation and salinity restoration of wetland ecosystem. The results indicated that symbiotic associations were successfully established between the four isolates and reeds grown in the two types of wetland soils. The average AM colonization rates ranged from 2.5% to 38%. The mean root colonization rate of CE was significantly higher than those of the other three isolates. There were no significant differences in root colonization rates between saline and non-saline wetland soils. The biomass and nutrient contents of reeds grown in non-saline wetland soils were significantly higher than those grown in saline wetland soils. However, Na+ and Cl- concentrations of reeds grown in non-saline wetland soils were significantly lower than those grown in saline wetland soils. In non-saline wetland soils, inoculation with GV significantly increased the shoot dry weight and the shoot N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents of reeds. Inoculation with GV and RI significantly improved the root P and K contents of reeds. Inoculation with the four AM fungi significantly reduced the shoot N: P ratios. Inoculation with FM and GV significantly reduced the root C : N and C : P ratios. Inoculation with the four AM fungi significantly reduced the shoot Cl- concentrations. Inoculation with RI significantly reduced the shoot Na+ concentrations. In saline wetland soils, inoculation with AM fungi had no significant effect on the biomass, mineral nutrient uptake and Na+ and Cl- concentrations of reeds. The results demonstrated that the four AM

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  1. Alfalfa rapidly remediates excess inorganic nitrogen at a fertilizer spill site.

    PubMed

    Russelle, M P; Lamb, J F; Montgomery, B R; Elsenheimer, D W; Miller, B S; Vance, C P

    2001-01-01

    By 19%, standard remediation techniques had significantly reduced the concentration of nitrate nitrogen (NO3- -N) in local ground water at the site of a 1989 anhydrous ammonia spill, but NO3- -N concentrations in portions of the site still exceeded the public drinking water standard. Our objective was to determine whether local soil and ground water quality could be improved with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A 3-yr study was conducted in replicated plots (24 by 30 m) located hydrologically upgradient of the ground water under the spill site. Three alfalfa entries ['Agate', Ineffective Agate (a non-N2-fixing elite germplasm similar to Agate), and MWNC-4 (an experimental germplasm)] were seeded in the spring of 1996. Corn (Zea mays L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was seeded adjacent to the alfalfa each year. Crops were irrigated with N-containing ground water to meet water demand. During the 3-yr period, about 540 kg of inorganic N was removed from the aquifer through irrigation of 4.9 million L water. Cumulative N removal from the site over 3 yr was 972 kg N ha(-1) in Ineffective Agate alfalfa hay, compared with 287 kg N ha(-1) for the annual cereal grain. Soil solution NO3- concentrations were reduced to low and stable levels by alfalfa, but were more variable under the annual crops. Ground water quality improved, as evidenced by irrigation water N concentration. We do not know how much N was removed by the N2-fixing alfalfas, but it appears that either fixing or non-N2-fixing alfalfa will effectively remove inorganic N from N-affected sites.

  2. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  3. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul R; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2007-04-01

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset carbon dioxide emissions by converting atmospheric CO2 to organic C in crop biomass and soil, but they also emit nitrous oxide and vary in their effects on soil oxidation of methane. Growing the crops requires energy (e.g., to operate farm machinery, produce inputs such as fertilizer) and so does converting the harvested product to usable fuels (feedstock conversion efficiency). The objective of this study was to quantify all these factors to determine the net effect of several bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. We used the DAYCENT biogeochemistry model to assess soil GHG fluxes and biomass yields for corn, soybean, alfalfa, hybrid poplar, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass as bioenergy crops in Pennsylvania, USA. DAYCENT results were combined with estimates of fossil fuels used to provide farm inputs and operate agricultural machinery and fossil-fuel offsets from biomass yields to calculate net GHG fluxes for each cropping system considered. Displaced fossil fuel was the largest GHG sink, followed by soil carbon sequestration. N20 emissions were the largest GHG source. All cropping systems considered provided net GHG sinks, even when soil C was assumed to reach a new steady state and C sequestration in soil was not counted. Hybrid poplar and switchgrass provided the largest net GHG sinks, >200 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass conversion to ethanol, and >400 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass gasification for electricity generation. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethanol and biodiesel from corn rotations reduced GHG emissions by approximately 40%, reed canarygrass by approximately 85%, and switchgrass and hybrid poplar by approximately 115%.

  4. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  5. Characterization of peptides in ensiled alfalfa treated with different chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wurong; Guo, Xusheng; Ataku, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Effects of different chemical additives on peptide composition in ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated by using gel filtration and determination of N characteristics. The alfalfa silages were prepared untreated (control) or with formic acid, formaldehyde or tannic acid as additives at ensiling. All additives reduced non-protein N (NPN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) and amino acid N (AA-N) in the ensiled forage, and the most effective reduction of NPN and AA-N was observed in the formaldehyde-treated silages. Peptides in the control silage were mainly dipeptides to peptides with five amino acid residues. Most peptides in the formic acid-treated silage contained 4-12 amino acid residues. Although most peptides in the formaldehyde-treated silages contained 4-6 amino acid residues, there was a considerable proportion of peptides with 7-11 amino acid residues. Tannic acid had little effect on peptide size of ensiled alfalfa extract in which most peptides contained 5-6 amino acid residues. Peptide size in formic acid-treated alfalfa silage was greater than that in the other treatments. Addition of formic acid and formaldehyde not only increased the peptide concentration in alfalfa silage, but enlarged the peptide size.

  6. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  7. Analysis of antioxidant enzyme activity during germination of alfalfa under salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Bin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kim, Ki-Yong; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-07-01

    To understand the adaptability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to environmental stresses, we analyzed the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), in alfalfa shoots and roots subjected to salt and drought stresses during germination. The germination rate of six alfalfa cultivars was comparatively studied under 200 mM NaCl or 35% PEG treatment. Alfalfa Xinmu No. 1 and Northstar varieties were selected as stress-tolerant and -sensitive cultivars, respectively, and were used for further characterization. After NaCl or PEG treatment, Xinmu No. 1 showed enhanced seedling growth, compared with Northstar. Xinmu No. 1 also exhibited low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and lipid peroxidation, compared with Northstar. In addition, Xinmu No. 1 showed higher enzymatic activity of SOD, APX, CAT, and POD in its shoots and roots than Northstar. These results seem to indicate that Xinmu No. 1 cultivar's tolerance to salt or drought stresses during germination is associated with enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes. This study highlights the importance of antioxidant enzymes in the establishment of alfalfa seedlings under drought and salinity conditions typical of desertification.

  8. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  9. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  10. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  11. Effect of citric acid and bacteria on metal uptake in reeds grown in a synthetic acid mine drainage solution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

    2015-03-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA), rhizosphere acidophilic heterotrophs and/or Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria (Fe(II)OB) on plaque formation and metal accumulation in Phragmites australis L. (common reed) from acid mine drainage (AMD) solution were investigated. Reeds were grown in different hydroponic solutions that contained AMD, CA and/or rhizosphere bacteria for three months. Triplicate experiments were conducted for each experimental condition. Fe(II)OB enhanced the formation of Fe plaque which decreased Fe and Mn uptake in reeds, while it had no significant influence on Al accumulation. CA inhibited the growth of Fe(II)OB, decreased the formation of metal plaque and increased Fe and Mn accumulation in reeds. Acidophilic heterotrophs consumed CA and made the environment more suitable for the growth of Fe(II)OB. Reeds are a good candidate for phytoextraction while CA is a useful chelator to enhance metal uptake in plants. More research may be needed to investigate the influence of CA on microbial community. Further investigations are required to study the effect of CA on phytoremediation of AMD contaminated fields.

  12. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  13. Laboratory Bioassays to Evaluate Fungicides for Chalkbrood Control in Larvae of the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood, a fungal disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, is a major mortality factor in populations of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) used in commercial alfalfa seed production. Four formulated fungicides, Benlate®, Captan®, Orbit™, and Rovral®, were tested in the laboratory...

  14. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  15. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  16. Alfalfa varieties differ markedly in seedling survival when interseeded into corn and treated with prohexadione-calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa. R...

  17. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  18. Effects of dairy slurry application and bale moisture concentration on voluntary intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage by sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...

  19. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  20. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  1. Evaporative losses from a common reed-dominated peachleaf willow and cottonwood riparian plant community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabenge, Isa; Irmak, Suat

    2012-09-01

    Our study is one of the first to integrate and apply within-canopy radiation physics parameters and scaling-up leaf-level stomatal resistace (rL) to canopy resistance (rc) approach to quantify hourly transpiration (TRP) rates of individual riparian plant species—common reed (Phragmites australis), peachleaf willow (Salix amygdaloides), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides)— in a mixed riparian plant community in the Platte River Basin in central Nebraska. Two experimental years (2009 and 2010) were contrasted by warmer air temperature and presence of flood water in 2010. The seasonal average rc values for common reed, peachleaf willow, and cottonwood in 2009 were 76, 70, and 107 s m-1, respectively. The corresponding rc values in the flood year (2010) were 70, 66, and 105 s m-1 for the same species, respectively. In 2009, the seasonal total TRP for common reed, peachleaf willow, and cottonwood were 483, 522, and 431 mm, respectively. Corresponding TRP values in 2010 were greater as 550, 655, and 496 mm, respectively. In 2009, TRP accounted for 64% of ETa during June-September, and the proportion varied between 41% and 69% for most of the season. In 2010, TRP accounted for 61% of ETa during June-September, and the proportion varied between 41% and 65% for most of the season. The average surface evaporation rate of the riparian zone was 0.81 mm d-1 in 2009 and 1.70 mm d-1 in 2010. Seasonal evaporation was 160 mm in 2009 and 312 mm in 2010. The study provides a basis for understanding the dynamics of transpiration for riparian vegetation in response to the environmental conditions and provides valuable water use data for more complete water balance analyses by accounting for the water use of riparian vegetation species.

  2. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility.

  3. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  4. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility. PMID:25898616

  5. A software simulation study of a (255,223) Reed-Solomon encoder-decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.

    1985-01-01

    A set of software programs which simulates a (255,223) Reed-Solomon encoder/decoder pair is described. The transform decoder algorithm uses a modified Euclid algorithm, and closely follows the pipeline architecture proposed for the hardware decoder. Uncorrectable error patterns are detected by a simple test, and the inverse transform is computed by a finite field FFT. Numerical examples of the decoder operation are given for some test codewords, with and without errors. The use of the software package is briefly described.

  6. On the VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder using systolic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Howard M.; Reed, Irving S.

    1988-01-01

    A new very large scale integration (VLSI) design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The transform decoding technique used in a previous article is replaced by a time domain algorithm through a detailed comparison of their VLSI implementations. A new architecture that implements the time domain algorithm permits efficient pipeline processing with reduced circuitry. Erasure correction capability is also incorporated with little additional complexity. By using multiplexing technique, a new implementation of Euclid's algorithm maintains the throughput rate with less circuitry. Such improvements result in both enhanced capability and significant reduction in silicon area.

  7. On the VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder using systolic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    A new very large scale integration (VLSI) design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder is presented. The transform decoding technique used in a previous article is replaced by a time domain algorithm through a detailed comparison of their VLSI implementations. A new architecture that implements the time domain algorithm permits efficient pipeline processing with reduced circuitry. Erasure correction capability is also incorporated with little additional complexity. By using a multiplexing technique, a new implementation of Euclid's algorithm maintains the throughput rate with less circuitry. Such improvements result in both enhanced capability and significant reduction in silicon area.

  8. Effects of a steam explosion pretreatment on sugar production by enzymatic hydrolysis and structural properties of reed straw.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiulong; Su, Xiaojun; Tan, Lin; Liu, Xianghua; Wu, Anjun; Su, Dingding; Tian, Kaizhong; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    Reed lignocellulose was subjected to a steam explosion pretreatment to obtain a high conversion rate of sugar after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial cellulase mixture. Under conditions of differing temperature (200 °C, 220 °C and 240 °C) and residence time (2, 5, and 8 min), the effect of the pretreatment on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis was studied. The highest respective reducing sugar and glucose yields were 36.14% and 15.35% after 60-h enzymatic hydrolysis of reed straw that had been pretreated with a steam explosion at 220 °C for 5 min. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study to comprehensively investigate the steam explosion-induced changes in the organizational structure and morphological properties of reed straw to analyze the reason for the increased sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis after the steam explosion.

  9. Determination of seven bisphenol analogues in reed and Callitrichaceae by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Libin; Yang, Yunjia; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2014-03-15

    An analytical procedure was developed to simultaneously determine bisphenol S, bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol A, bisphenol AF, tetrachlorobisphenol A, and tetrabromobisphenol A in reed and Callitrichaceae. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified using an ENVI™-Carb cartridge followed by an NH2 cartridge. The analytes were separated and quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries at three fortified levels in reed and Callitrichaceae were 57-108% and 68-106%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of no more than 15% (n=6). The method limits of quantification and detection for the seven bisphenol analogues were 0.005-0.500μg/kg and 0.002-0.150μg/kg, respectively. This method was used to analyze the seven compounds in ten reed and Callitrichaceae samples collected from Zhejiang, China.

  10. PCR analysis of the presence and location of Mycobacterium avium in a constructed reed bed, with implications for avian tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Drewe, Julian A; Mwangi, David; Donoghue, Helen D; Cromie, Ruth L

    2009-02-01

    The potential of reed beds to act as biofilters of pathogenic and environmental mycobacteria was investigated through examination of the fate of mycobacteria in a constructed reed bed filtering effluent from a large captive wildfowl collection. Particular emphasis was placed on the presence and location of Mycobacterium avium--the causal agent of avian tuberculosis (ATB)--in an effort to clarify the potential role of reed beds in the control of this disease. Water, sediment, and stems and roots of common reed (Phragmites australis) and greater reedmace (Typha latifolia) were taken from 15 locations within the reed bed plus sites upstream and downstream. Samples were analysed for mycobacteria using PCR and specifically for M. avium using nested PCR. Environmental mycobacteria were found throughout the entire reed bed but M. avium was not found downstream of the first vegetation growth. The reed bed was found to effectively remove M. avium from the water through a combination of sedimentation and adsorption onto vegetation stems. The results of this study show that constructed reed beds composed of a settlement lagoon and one or more vegetation beds can act as valuable and ecologically friendly tools in the environmental control of ATB.

  11. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively.

  12. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  13. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  14. [Cation exchanges during the process of Cd(2+) absorption by Alfalfa in aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Peng; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jin-Shao; Peng, Hua; Qin, Hua-Ming; Long, Yan; He, Bao-Yan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Yao; Peng, Su-Fen

    2011-11-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the cation exchanges during the process of Cd2+ absorption by Alfalfa in aqueous solution. The absorption efficiency of Alfalfa plants with 0-10 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ treatments, changes of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and NH4(+) concentration, and the variation of pH values at different absorption time (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 72 h) were studied separately. The multiple linear regressions between Cd2+ absorption and cation variation were analyzed. The results indicated that when Cd2+ concentrations were 0.1, 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1), the absorption efficiencies of Cd2+ by Alfalfa after 72 h were 85.86%, 52.14%, 15.97% and 7.81%. Cation exchange was involved in the removal of Cd2+ by Alfalfa in aqueous solution. Except for NH4(+), the concentrations of cationic metals Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in aqueous solution increased over time, which increased 11.30% - 61.72%, 21.44% - 98.73%, 24.09% - 8.90% and 37.04% - 191.96%, respectively. Kinetic studies illuminated that the release of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ by Alfalfa in Cd2+ solution with initial concentrations of 0, 0. 1, 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1) best fitted pseudo-second-order equation,while the NH4(+) release fitted this model when Cd2+ concentrations were 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1). The gradual decrease of pH during adsorption of Cd2+ by Alfalfa was observed. As the competition ion of Cd2+, H+ might affect the capacity of Alfalfa root system to absorb Cd2+. The ternary linear equation results demonstrated that the content of Cd2+ absorption by Alfalfa strongly related with the release of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+. And this exchange mainly occurred among Cd2+ and divalent cations. PMID:22295633

  15. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism. PMID:26385932

  16. Labors of love: the transformation of care in the Non-Medical Attendant program at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Wool, Zoë H; Messinger, Seth D

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the Non-Medical Attendant program at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC, which subsidizes the presence of war-injured soldiers' family members as they live for months or even years at Walter Reed during treatment and rehabilitation. We elaborate the ambiguities of the program and draw on ethnographic research to demonstrate how the program's vagaries combine with the context of an overburdened military medical system and the more familiar strains of family caregiving to place family members in a gray zone of care where the line between labors of love and institutionally compensated work is blurred. PMID:22574390

  17. Coping with shifting nest predation refuges by European reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    PubMed

    Halupka, Lucyna; Halupka, Konrad; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable.

  18. Simultaneous enhancement of organics and nitrogen removal in drinking water biofilm pretreatment system with reed addition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Juan; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Guang-Feng; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2013-02-01

    A novel drinking water biofilm pretreatment process with reed addition was established for enhancement of simultaneously organics and nitrogen removal. Results showed that nitrate removal efficiency was positively related with the influent C/N ratio, reaching to 87.8±2.8% at the C/N ratio of 4.7. However, the predicted trichloromethane (THM) levels based on total organic carbon (TOC) and UV254 were high with the increase of influent C/N ratio. Combined with the pollutants removal performance and microbial community variation, an appropriate C/N ratio via reed addition was determined at 2.2 for the continuous biofilm reactor. With adjustment of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the highest of nitrate removal efficiency (74.2±1.4%) and organics utilization efficiency (0.63 mg NO3--N mg(-1)TOC) were achieved at an optimum HRT of 18 h, with both low effluent NO3--N (0.88±0.03 mg l(-1)) and TOC (2.86±0.67 mg l(-1)).

  19. The design, operation and performance of a municipal hybrid reed bed treatment system.

    PubMed

    O'Hogain, S

    2003-01-01

    The first Irish municipal application of a hybrid reed bed treatment system (RBTS) was designed and constructed at Colecott, County Dublin. The hybrid design for Colecott RBTS was based on modifications to the Max Planck Institute:Process (MPIP). The constituent parts of the design were a septic tank, a pump sump, two stage vertical flow beds, a secondary settlement tank, a horizontal reed bed, an outlet chamber and outfall pipe. The population at the time of design was 48, but with future development in mind 60 was used as the population equivalent (pe). Construction and operational characteristics are outlined. Results of a two year monitoring study are presented, showing good performance and producing a final effluent with 88% BOD removal, 89% COD removal and 99% SS removal. Percentile compliance with EU discharge standards were BOD 60%, COD 100%, SS 100% with 50% for nitrogen and 0% for PO4. Surface water input increased flows to twice the average, resulting in increased maintenance visits without affecting results. The ability to deal with the excess inflow is demonstrated by the system. The method of distribution to the primary vertical beds was satisfactory while that on the secondary vertical beds was not.

  20. Potential fertilizing properties of sewage sludge treated in the sludge treatment reed beds (STRB).

    PubMed

    Kołecka, Katarzyna; Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    In previous research the fertilizer value of sludge from reed beds was evaluated based on the sampling sludge on different depths from four Danish sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) after long periods of stabilization. The dewatering efficiency of sewage sludge in the STRB is comparable to mechanical dewatering. The long-term stabilization of sewage sludge progressively decreases the concentration of organic matter due to the process of humification. The aim of the work was to determine the changes of organic matter concentration, nutrients concentrations as well as speciation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn) in vertical profile of the sewage sludge stabilized in the STRB for 7-15 years. The analyzed sewage sludge was collected from the STRB treating sludge from four municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Denmark serving from 9,000 to 40,000 person equivalent. Analyzed heavy metals (except for Zn) were mostly bound with the most stable - residual - fraction. The most stable metals were Pb and Cr, where the share of the residual fraction exceeded 80.0%. The most mobile metal was Zn, where the share of the mobile fractions (calculated as the sum of I, II and III fractions) exceeded 85.0%. The high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is the decisive factor in the high valuation of sludge stabilized in the STRB as fertilizer.

  1. Reed Reactor Facility final report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the period from September 1, 1994 to August 31, 1995. Information contained in this report is intended to fulfill several purposes including the reporting requirements of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the US Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE). Highlights of the last year include: student participation in the program is very high; the facility has been extraordinarily successful in obtaining donated equipment from Portland General Electric, US Department of Energy, Precision Castparts, Tektronix, and other sources; the facility is developing more paid work. There were 1,115 visits of the Reactor Facility by individuals during the year. Most of these visitors were students in classes at Reed College or area universities, colleges, and high schools. During the year, the reactor was operated 225 separate times on 116 days. The total energy production was 24.6 MW-hours. The reactor staff consists of a Director, an Associate Director, a contract Health Physicist, and approximately fifteen Reed College undergraduate students as hourly employees. All radiation exposures to individuals during this year were well below 1% of the federal limits. There were no releases of liquid radioactive material from the facility and airborne releases (primarily {sup 41}Ar) were well within regulatory limits.

  2. The design plan of a VLSI single chip (255, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, I. S.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The very large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture of a single chip (255, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder for decoding both errors and erasures is described. A decoding failure detection capability is also included in this system so that the decoder will recognize a failure to decode instead of introducing additional errors. This could happen whenever the received word contains too many errors and erasures for the code to correct. The number of transistors needed to implement this decoder is estimated at about 75,000 if the delay for received message is not included. This is in contrast to the older transform decoding algorithm which needs about 100,000 transistors. However, the transform decoder is simpler in architecture than the time decoder. It is therefore possible to implement a single chip (255, 223) Reed-Solomon decoder with today's VLSI technology. An implementation strategy for the decoder system is presented. This represents the first step in a plan to take advantage of advanced coding techniques to realize a 2.0 dB coding gain for future space missions.

  3. Coping with Shifting Nest Predation Refuges by European Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    PubMed Central

    Halupka, Lucyna; Halupka, Konrad; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Predation, the most important source of nest mortality in altricial birds, has been a subject of numerous studies during past decades. However, the temporal dynamics between changing predation pressures and parental responses remain poorly understood. We analysed characteristics of 524 nests of European reed warblers monitored during six consecutive breeding seasons in the same area, and found some support for the shifting nest predation refuge hypothesis. Nest site characteristics were correlated with nest fate, but a nest with the same nest-site attributes could be relatively safe in one season and vulnerable to predation in another. Thus nest predation refuges were ephemeral and there was no between-season consistency in nest predation patterns. Reed warblers that lost their first nests in a given season did not disperse farther for the subsequent reproductive attempt, compared to successful individuals, but they introduced more changes to their second nest sites. In subsequent nests, predation risk remained constant for birds that changed nest-site characteristics, but increased for those that did not. At the between-season temporal scale, individual birds did not perform better with age in terms of reducing nest predation risk. We conclude that the experience acquired in previous years may not be useful, given that nest predation refuges are not stable. PMID:25522327

  4. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  5. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  6. Fixed-precision sequential sampling plans for estimating alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia, egg density in alfalfa, Medicago sativa, fields in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Serra, Gerardo V; Porta, Norma C La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies.

  7. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  8. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  9. Effects of alfalfa hay inclusion rate on productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed wet corn gluten feed-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying the alfalfa inclusion rate in diets containing 31% (dry matter basis) wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.). Eighty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows averaging 178 +/- 90 d in milk (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 7, 14, or 21% alfalfa on a dry matter basis, with corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varying across diets to maintain uniform nutrient densities. Diets were formulated for similar crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing the alfalfa inclusion rate were assessed using mixed model analysis. As the alfalfa inclusion rate increased, dry matter intake tended to increase linearly (26.7, 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5 kg/d for 0, 7, 14, and 21% alfalfa, respectively), and solids-corrected milk (29.9, 30.2, 30.8, and 30.5 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk production (32.9, 33.3, 33.8, and 33.6 kg/d) tended to increase linearly. Body weight gain decreased linearly (22.9, 18.0, 11.2, and 9.5 kg/28 d) with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate. Although increasing the inclusion rate of alfalfa increased the proportion of large particles in the diets, treatments had no effect on milk fat yield or concentration. Feeding more alfalfa (up to 21% of dry matter) tended to increase milk yield while decreasing body weight gain, suggesting that metabolizable energy utilization shifted from body weight gain to milk production in these treatments. However, adding alfalfa to the diet had only minor effects on productivity.

  10. Canopy visible and near-infrared reflectance data to estimate alfalfa nutritive attributes before harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal sensing could help improve profit margins by timing the cutting or harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), in rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) as well as nutritive quality indicators such as r...

  11. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  12. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  13. Environmental variability and/or stability of stem fiber content and digestibility in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration and low digestibility of stem fiber constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L, herbage can limit dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems. Stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and stem neutral detergent fiber digest...

  14. Transcriptome responses in alfalfa associated with tolerance to intensive animal grazing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Zhao, Yan; Ray, Ian; Song, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to animal grazing varies widely within the species. However, the molecular mechanisms influencing the grazing tolerant phenotype remain uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to identify genes and pathways that control grazing response in alfalfa. We analyzed whole-plant de novo transcriptomes from grazing tolerant and intolerant populations of M. sativa ssp. falcata subjected to grazing by sheep. Among the Gene Ontology terms which were identified as grazing responsive in the tolerant plants and differentially enriched between the tolerant and intolerant populations (both grazed), most were associated with the ribosome and translation-related activities, cell wall processes, and response to oxygen levels. Twenty-one grazing responsive pathways were identified that also exhibited differential expression between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These pathways were associated with secondary metabolite production, primary carbohydrate metabolic pathways, shikimate derivative dependent pathways, ribosomal subunit composition, hormone signaling, wound response, cell wall formation, and anti-oxidant defense. Sequence polymorphisms were detected among several differentially expressed homologous transcripts between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These differentially responsive genes and pathways constitute potential response mechanisms for grazing tolerance in alfalfa. They also provide potential targets for molecular breeding efforts to develop grazing-tolerant cultivars of alfalfa. PMID:26763747

  15. Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-02-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 μg/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 μg of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection. PMID:23291101

  16. [Symbiosis between the nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under salinization conditions].

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, M V; Rumiantseva, M L; Onishchuk, O P; Belova, V S; Kurchak, O N; Andronov, E E; Dziubenko, N I; Simarov, B V

    2006-01-01

    Two hundred forty-three isolates of alfalfa nodule bacteria (Sinorhizobium meliloti) were obtained from legume nodules and soils sampled in the northern Aral region, experiencing secondary salinization. Isolates obtained from nodules (N isolates) were significantly more salt-tolerant than those from soils (S isolates) when grown in a liquid medium with 3.5% NaCl. It was found that wild species of alfalfa, melilot, and trigonella preferably formed symbioses with salt-tolerant nodule bacteria in both salinized and nonsalinized soils. Only two alfalfa species, Medicago falcata and M. trautvetteri, formed efficient symbioses in soils contrasting in salinity. The formation of efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in the presence of 0.6% NaCl was studied in 36 isolates (N and S) differing in salt tolerance and symbiotic efficiency. Fifteen isolates formed efficient symbioses in the presence of salt. The increase in the dry weight of the plants was 25-68% higher than in the control group. The efficiency of symbiotic interaction under salinization conditions depended on the efficiency of the isolates under standard conditions but did not correlate with the source of nodule bacteria (soil or nodule) or their salt tolerance. The results indicate that nodule bacterium strains forming efficient symbioses under salinization conditions can be found.

  17. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is affected by a fungal disease called chalkbrood. In several species of bees, chalkbrood is more likely to occur in larvae kept at 25-30 C than at 35 C. We found that both high and low temperature stress increased the expression of immune response g...

  18. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  19. Correlation of fermentation characteristics with intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage in gestating ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...

  20. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  1. Role of a putative amino acid transporter in fungal disease resistance in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, were identified that are resistant to several foliar pathogens, and microarray technology was used to identify genes specifically expressed in the resistance response. A large proportion of the up-regulated genes had on...

  2. Infection and development of Phoma medicaginis on moderately resistant and susceptible alfalfa genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In temperate regions of North America, spring black stem and leaf spot, caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum., is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The symptoms of the leaf phase of the disease appear initially as small dark brown to black spots, called tarspot...

  3. Flight metabolic rate as an expression of quality in temperature stressed alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee,Megachile rotundata F.(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)is a solitary species that develops inside a maternally constructed brood cell. Pre-pupal M. rotundata diapause over winter and resume development as ambient temperatures increase. Environmental cues are known to initiate b...

  4. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  5. Quantifying the area-wide dispersal patterns of honeybees in commercial alfalfa fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the foraging range of honey bees in an agroecosystem dominated by a glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® (RR) alfalfa seed production field and several non-RR fields. Honey bee self-marking devices were attached to colonies originating from nine different apiary locat...

  6. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  7. Foliar fungicides on alfalfa: 2012 University extension field trial results from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To answer the increasing number of questions received regarding the use of foliar fungicide on alfalfa, a group of Extension and USDA Agricultural Research Station staff in southeastern Minnesota and Wisconsin worked together to conduct field research trials to examine the benefit of using a foliar ...

  8. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  9. Enhancing forage yields and soil conservation by interseeding alfalfa into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...

  10. Flavonoids Released Naturally from Alfalfa Seeds Enhance Growth Rate of Rhizobium meliloti1

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Ueli A.; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) releases different flavonoids from seeds and roots. Imbibing seeds discharge 3′,4′,5,7-substituted flavonoids; roots exude 5-deoxy molecules. Many, but not all, of these flavonoids induce nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The dominant flavonoid released from alfalfa seeds is identified here as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, a molecule that does not induce nod genes. Low concentrations (1-10 micromolar) of this compound, as well as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, another major flavonoid released from germinating seeds, and the aglycones, quercetin and luteolin, increase growth rate of R. meliloti in a defined minimal medium. Tests show that the 5,7-dihydroxyl substitution pattern on those molecules was primarily responsible for the growth effect, thus explaining how 5-deoxy flavonoids in root exudates fail to enhance growth of R. meliloti. Luteolin increases growth by a mechanism separate from its capacity to induce rhizobial nod genes, because it still enhanced growth rate of R. meliloti lacking functional copies of the three known nodD genes. Quercetin and luteolin also increased growth rate of Pseudomonas putida. They had no effect on growth rate of Bacillus subtilis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens, but they slowed growth of two fungal pathogens of alfalfa. These results suggest that alfalfa can create ecochemical zones for controlling soil microbes by releasing structurally different flavonoids from seeds and roots. PMID:16668056

  11. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... included in the petition. In a notice published in the Federal Register on June 27, 2005 (70 FR 36917-36919..., 2009 (74 FR 67206-67207, Docket No. ER-FRL-8986-6). Public Meetings We are advising the public that we... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines...

  12. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... INFORMATION: On January 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (APHIS-2007-0044, 75 FR 1585-1586) a... Agency in the Federal Register on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 6026-6027; Docket No. ER-FRL-8987- 9... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as...

  13. Evaluating Headline fungicide on alfalfa production and sensitivity of pathogens to pyraclostrobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headline fungicide was recently registered for management of foliar diseases on alfalfa. The effect of disease control on yield, forage quality, and potential return on investment for fungicide application was determined for field experiments conducted at five locations in 2012, three in Wisconsin a...

  14. Alfalfa and weed response to alternatives to burning and new herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of crop residues is a common practice in alfalfa seed production to reduce insect, disease and weed pests. A field trial was conducted to evaluate alternative crop residue management practices including mowing and shallow tillage. Field buring reduce seed viability prickly lettuce, m...

  15. Emergence, forage production, and ion relations of alfalfa in response to saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is an important crop utilized in regions under irrigation commonly impacted by salinity. In this study we evaluate the effect of salinity, as a continual process, from emergence to mature plant growth in successive harvests. We studied emergence, biomass production, salt ...

  16. Transcriptional regulation of temperature stress response during development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects can be significantly affected by temperature induced stress. While evidence of the physiological consequences of temperature stress is growing, very little is known about how insects respond at the genetic level to these stressors. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, an emergin...

  17. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  18. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Undergraduate Participation and Outreach in Large Research Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Koopmann, R.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Adams, E. A. K.; Kent, B. R.; Stierwalt, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind neutral hydrogen survey is an ongoing project that includes an innovative undergraduate outreach component promoting the participation of students and faculty at undergraduate-focused institutions in a large, multi-year research collaboration. The survey, which will ultimately detect ˜30,000 gas-rich galaxies, provides resources and authentic opportunities for undergraduates and faculty, including a high fraction of women and minorities, through the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), an NSF-sponsored consortium of 18 participating institutions. The UAT experience features annual workshops at the Arecibo Observatory with hands-on experience for undergrad participants and their faculty mentors. Graduate students on the Cornell ALFALFA Team help plan and facilitate UAT activities and benefit by developing their own skills as mentors, project supervisors, and science communicators. The UAT is developing online lesson plans and activity guides that make use of the ALFALFA online data archive and of innovative learning techniques supported by the findings of astronomy education research.

  19. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    PubMed

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  20. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  1. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  2. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity.

  3. Critical PO2 of developing Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee. Juvenile bees develop inside brood cells constructed out of leaf pieces. During development inside the brood cell, pre-pupae may experience hypoxic conditions from both the cavity nesting behavior and brood cell ...

  4. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material.

  5. Crop mergers: Management of soil contamination and leaf loss in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximizing the capacity and subsequent efficiency of the forage harvester necessitates consolidation (raking or merging) of alfalfa cuttings. Although rotary rakes are in wide use, the use of continuous pickup belt mergers is increasing in the Midwestern U.S. Previous work on crop consolidation is l...

  6. Reducing water inputs with subsurface drip irrigation may improve alfalfa nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop for western Kansas dairy producers. Concerns over decreasing groundwater supplies have prompted the need to develop more efficient methods of irrigation. We investigated the effects of a subsurface drip irrigation system at three lev...

  7. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  8. Use of Alfalfa for Soil Phosphorus Removal Following Long-Term Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to examine alfalfa remediation effects on a cornfield treated during a 10-yr period with manure at rates matching either the N (MN) or P (MP) requirements of silage corn (Zea mays L.). A commercial fertilizer (NCK) was used as a control. The site was removed from corn prod...

  9. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  10. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  11. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  12. Alfalfa stand length and subsequent crop patterns in the upper Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain perspective on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), annual crop rotations in the upper midwestern United States, USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) cropland data layers (CDLs) and USDA-NRCS soil survey layers were combined for six states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minn...

  13. Synthesis of superhydrophobic ultralight aerogels from nanofibrillated cellulose isolated from natural reed for high-performance adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yue; Wan, Caichao; Qiang, Tiangang; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Reed is one of the widely available aquatic plant resources, and its applications are generally limited to some traditional areas like papermaking and animals' fodder. Besides, most of reed is wasted or directly burned every year causing serious air pollution (like atmospheric haze). Therefore, it is worth to further develop new forms of high-value applications of reed. Herein, natural reed was collected to fabricate ultralight adsorbents namely nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) aerogels via an easily operated method, which includes chemical purification, ultrasonication, and freeze drying. The NFC aerogels with an ultra-low density of 4.9 mg cm-3 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. For acquiring good hydrophobicity, the NFC aerogels were subjected to a hydrophobic treatment by methyltrichlorosilane. The superhydrophobic NFC aerogels with contact angles of as high as 151°-155° have excellent adsorption efficiency (53-93 g g-1) for various organic solvents and waste oil. More importantly, the aerogels also exhibit favorable adsorption recyclability, which can maintain more than 80 % of the initial adsorption efficiency after the five cycles.

  14. Study of the Reed Dolomite Aided by Remotely Sensed Imagery, Central White-Inyo Range, Easternmost California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W. G.; Paylor, Earnest D., II

    1996-01-01

    Remote-sensing methods are of great value in assessing the stratigraphy and geologic structure of inaccessible terrains, especially where lithologic contrasts are marked. In this report, we show that such techniques can be successfully applied to a massive carbonate unit, the Reed Dolomite, exposed in the Wacuoba Mountain, Blanco Mountain, and Mount Barcroft quadrangles of east-central California.

  15. The founding of Walter Reed General Hospital and the beginning of modern institutional army medical care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jessica L

    2014-10-01

    When Walter Reed United States Army General Hospital opened its doors in 1909, the Spanish-American War had been over for a decade, World War I was in the unforeseeable future, and army hospital admission rates were steadily decreasing. The story of the founding of Walter Reed, which remained one of the flagship military health institutions in the United States until its 2011 closure, is a story about the complexities of the turn of the twentieth century. Broad historical factors-heightened imperial ambitions, a drive to modernize the army and its medical services, and a growing acceptance of hospitals as ideal places for treatment-explain why the institution was so urgently fought for and ultimately won funding at the particular moment it did. The justifications put forth for the establishment of Walter Reed indicate that the provision of publicly funded medical care for soldiers has been predicated not only on a sense of humanitarian commitment to those who serve, but on principles of military efficiency, thrift, pragmatism, and international competition. On a more general level, the story of Walter Reed's founding demonstrates a Progressive Era shift in health services for U.S. soldiers-from temporary, makeshift hospitals to permanent institutions with expansive goals.

  16. Effects of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate amendments on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Z; Hu, Z Y; Zhou, X Q; An, Z Z; Gao, J F; Liu, X N; Jiang, L L; Lu, J; Kang, X M; Li, M; Hao, Y B; Kardol, P

    2012-01-01

    Stored poultry manure can be a significant source of ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gases (GHGs), including nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions. Amendments can be used to modify physiochemical properties of manure, thus having the potential to reduce gas emissions. Here, we lab-tested the single and combined effects of addition of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate on gas emissions from stored duck manure. We showed that, over a period of 46 d, cumulative NH emissions were reduced by 61 to 70% with superphosphate additions, whereas cumulative NO emissions were increased by up to 23% compared with the control treatment. Reed straw addition reduced cumulative NH, NO, and CH emissions relative to the control by 12, 27, and 47%, respectively, and zeolite addition reduced cumulative NH and NO emissions by 36 and 20%, respectively. Total GHG emissions (as CO-equivalents) were reduced by up to 27% with the additions of reed straw and/or zeolite. Our results indicate that reed straw or zeolite can be recommended as amendments to reduce GHG emissions from duck manure; however, superphosphate is more effective in reducing NH emissions. PMID:22751065

  17. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Eurek, K.; Mai, T.; Perry, A.

    2013-02-01

    The electric power system in North America is linked between the United States and Canada. Canada has historically been a net exporter of electricity to the United States. The extent to which this remains true will depend on the future evolution of power markets, technology deployment, and policies. To evaluate these and related questions, we modify the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to include an explicit representation of the grid-connected power system in Canada to the continental United States. ReEDS is unique among long-term capacity expansion models for its high spatial resolution and statistical treatment of the impact of variable renewable generation on capacity planning and dispatch. These unique traits are extended to new Canadian regions. We present example scenario results using the fully integrated Canada-U.S. version of ReEDS to demonstrate model capabilities. The newly developed, integrated Canada-U.S. ReEDS model can be used to analyze the dynamics of electricity transfers and other grid services between the two countries under different scenarios.

  18. The Archives of the Holland Land Company in Reed Library and Related New York State Collections. Research Guide No. 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Franciska

    The Holland Land Company Manuscript Preservation Project in Reed Library, State University of New York, College at Fredonia is a grant-supported project concentrating on locating, assessing, and reproducing primary source material that relate to the activities of the Holland Land Company in the United States. The Holland Land Company collections…

  19. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa.

  20. Effect of alkaline-stabilized biosolids on alfalfa molybdenum and copper content.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Richard C; Macneal, Kirsten E

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural utilization of biosolids poses a potential risk to ruminant animals due to transfer of Mo from biosolids to forage to the animal in amounts large enough to suppress Cu uptake by the animal. Alkaline-stabilized biosolids (ASB) must be given particular consideration in assessment of Mo risk because the high pH of these biosolids could increase Mo and decrease Cu uptake by forage legumes. In this 3-yr field experiment, ASB and ground agricultural limestone (AL) were applied based on their alkalinity at rates equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soil and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was grown. Alfalfa yield was similar with AL and ASB except in the second year when ASB produced larger yields, apparently due to increased B availability with ASB. Application of ASB did not detectably increase extractable soil Mo (0- to 15-cm depth), but increased alfalfa Mo uptake in all cuttings with yield-weighted uptake coefficients (UCs) of 8.07 and 7.11 following the first and second ASB applications, respectively. Although ASB increased extractable soil Cu, and alfalfa Cu content was greater with ASB than with AL, yield-weighted alfalfa Cu to Mo ratio was decreased by ASB to levels near 3. These results suggest that ASB may have a greater effect on Mo uptake and Cu to Mo ratio of forage legumes than do other biosolids. Additional research is needed to determine implications of larger Mo cumulative loading with ASB for Mo risk, particularly in the soil pH range of 7 to 8. PMID:14964367

  1. The production of herbaceous feedstocks for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This document describes the use of a selected group of herbaceous plants as energy feedstocks. Twelve herbaceous crops were selected for study based on their above average yields; their composition, which can increase their value for fuel and other applications; and their ability to produce in a variety of soils and climates. Six of the twelve are carbohydrate crops (sugarcane, sweet sorghum, sweet-stemmed grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, and fodder beet), and six are lignocellulosic crops (kenaf, napiergrass, alfalfa, reed canarygrass, common reed, and water hyacinth). The contribution that herbaceous crops can make to the total US energy supply is discussed. Each candidate crop is characterized in terms of chemical composition, storage, processing, products, and uses. Growth characteristics and production practices in terms of geographic range, yield potential, and cultural requirements are described. Barriers to private sector development of herbaceous energy crops are listed and how R and D programs could be directed to overcome these roadblocks. The areas considered are feedstock selection and production, harvesting and transport, and processing and conversion.

  2. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in constructed wetlands with reed and willow: redox potential in the root zone.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej; Davies, Laura; Albuquerque, Antonio; Randerson, Peter F

    2012-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of reed and willow on bioremediation of landfill leachate in comparison with an unplanted control by measuring redox potential levels in the rhizosphere of microcosm systems in a greenhouse. Plants had a significant influence on redox potential relative to the plant-less system. Redox potential in the reed rhizosphere was anoxic (mean -102±85 mV), but it was the least negative, being significantly higher than in the willow (mean -286±118 mV), which had the lowest Eh. Redox potential fluctuated significantly in the willow rhizosphere during daylight hours, with large decreases in the morning. Levels of NH(4)(+) decreased significantly in the first day of the experiment and remained at similar low levels in all three variants for the next four weeks of the experiment. Following this removal of ammonia significant peaks in NO(2)(-) occurred in the control and reed tanks on the 1st day, and again on 14th day in the control tank up to 13 mg/dm(3). In the willow tank there was also one significant peak of NO(2)(-) in the first week, but only up to 0.5 mg/dm(3). Significant accumulation, within 21 days of NO(3)(-) in all variants was observed, but in tanks with reed and willow the concentration of NO(3)(-) remained significantly lower (<4 mg/dm(3)) than in the unplanted tank (∼35 mg/dm(3)). Final levels of total-nitrogen, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand were considerably lower in the reed and willow tank than in the unplanted tank.

  3. Comparison of biogas production from wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass.

    PubMed

    Oleszek, Marta; Król, Aleksandra; Tys, Jerzy; Matyka, Mariusz; Kulik, Mariusz

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition and efficiency of biogas production in the methane fermentation process of silages of wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass were compared. An attempt was made to answer the question on how the habitat and the way of utilization of plants affect chemical composition and biogas yield. Physicochemical properties such as dry matter, organic dry matter, protein, fat, crude fiber fraction, macro- and microelements content were considered. The anaerobic digestion process and FTIR analysis were also carried out. The results showed that the two varieties differ essentially in their physical and chemical properties. The cultivated variety was characterized by higher biogas yield (406Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS) than the wild one (120Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS). This was probably related to the chemical composition of plants, especially the high content of indigestible crude fiber fractions and ash. These components could reduce biogas quantity and quality.

  4. Magic-State Distillation in All Prime Dimensions Using Quantum Reed-Muller Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E.

    2012-10-01

    We propose families of protocols for magic-state distillation—important components of fault-tolerance schemes—for systems of odd prime dimension. Our protocols utilize quantum Reed-Muller codes with transversal non-Clifford gates. We find that, in higher dimensions, small and effective codes can be used that have no direct analogue in qubit (two-dimensional) systems. We present several concrete protocols, including schemes for three-dimensional (qutrit) and five-dimensional (ququint) systems. The five-dimensional protocol is, by many measures, the best magic-state-distillation scheme yet discovered. It excels both in terms of error threshold with respect to depolarizing noise (36.3%) and the efficiency measure known as yield, where, for a large region of parameters, it outperforms its qubit counterpart by many orders of magnitude.

  5. Evaluation of an Ultra-Low Power Reed Solomon Encoder for NASA's Space Technology 5 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, K. E.; Xapsos, M. A.; Poivey, C.; LaBel, K. A.; Stone, R. F.; Yeh, P-S.; Gambles, J.; Hass, J.; Maki, G.; Murguia, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation test results and analyses are presented for ultra-low power Reed Solomon encoder circuits that are being considered for use on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission. The total ionizing dose tolerance is in excess of 100 krad(Si) and is due to the low supply voltage and the use of back-bias, which suppresses radiation-induced leakage currents in the n-channel devices. The circuits do not latch-up for ion LET values of at least 90 MeV-sq cm/mg. A hardened-by-design approach to SEU has achieved an upset threshold of about 20 MeV-sq cm/mg. The SEU rate expected for these circuits in the geosynchronous transfer orbit of ST5 is low.

  6. Comparison of biogas production from wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass.

    PubMed

    Oleszek, Marta; Król, Aleksandra; Tys, Jerzy; Matyka, Mariusz; Kulik, Mariusz

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition and efficiency of biogas production in the methane fermentation process of silages of wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass were compared. An attempt was made to answer the question on how the habitat and the way of utilization of plants affect chemical composition and biogas yield. Physicochemical properties such as dry matter, organic dry matter, protein, fat, crude fiber fraction, macro- and microelements content were considered. The anaerobic digestion process and FTIR analysis were also carried out. The results showed that the two varieties differ essentially in their physical and chemical properties. The cultivated variety was characterized by higher biogas yield (406Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS) than the wild one (120Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS). This was probably related to the chemical composition of plants, especially the high content of indigestible crude fiber fractions and ash. These components could reduce biogas quantity and quality. PMID:24518439

  7. Vibrating-reed studies of flux pinning in the superconducting metallic glass Zr70Cu30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquinazi, P.; Luzuriaga, J.; Duran, C.

    1988-03-01

    With the vibrating-reed technique we have measured the resonance frequency and damping of superconducting ribbons of a Zr70Cu30 amorphous alloy as a function of magnetic field and temperature for different heat treatments of the same sample. Through these measurements we obtain the Labusch parameter α in the reduced-field (b) range 5×10-4

  8. A low-complexity Reed-Solomon decoder using new key equation solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jun; Yuan, Songxin; Tu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Chongfu

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents a low-complexity parallel Reed-Solomon (RS) (255,239) decoder architecture using a novel pipelined variable stages recursive Modified Euclidean (ME) algorithm for optical communication. The pipelined four-parallel syndrome generator is proposed. The time multiplexing and resource sharing schemes are used in the novel recursive ME algorithm to reduce the logic gate count. The new key equation solver can be shared by two decoder macro. A new Chien search cell which doesn't need initialization is proposed in the paper. The proposed decoder can be used for 2.5Gb/s data rates device. The decoder is implemented in Altera' Stratixll device. The resource utilization is reduced about 40% comparing to the conventional method.

  9. Use of a helical resonator as a capacitive transducer in vibrating reed measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, X.-D.; Brill, J. W.; Fuqua, W. L.

    1989-09-01

    A new design of vibrating reed apparatus for studying high-resonant overtones of very small samples is described. Using the high Q (about 1000) helical RF resonator as a capacitive transducer, great sensitivity has been obtained. The theoretical sensitivity of the detector is investigated with transmission-line theory, and the result shows that the Johnson-noise-limited sensitivity is proportional to the Q of the resonator instead of Q exp 1/2, as is the case of lumped LC-tuned circuit analyses. For a nonsuperconducting resonator, the Johnson-noise-limited minimum detectable displacement at room temperature, with bandwidth B, is about 10 to the -7th A sq rt B/Hz, if the RF electrical field level is only limited by vacuum breakdown. An application of the apparatus in studying the temperature-dependent changes in the Young's modulus of single crystals of TaS3 is shown.

  10. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge. PMID:26841773

  11. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge.

  12. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal.

  13. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal. PMID:22608611

  14. Reed Reactor Facility annual report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report covers the period from September 1, 1994 to August 31, 1995. Information contained in this report is intended to fulfill several purposes including the reporting requirements of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the US Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE). Highlights of the last year include: (1) The number of new licensed student operators more than replaced the number of graduating seniors. Seven Reed College seniors used the reactor as part of their thesis projects. (2) The facility has been extraordinarily successful in obtaining donated equipment from Portland General Electric, US Department of Energy, Precision Castparts, Tektronix, and other sources. Battelle (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) has been generous in lending valuable equipment to the college. (3) The facility is developing more paid work. Income in the past academic year was much greater than the previous year, and next year should increase by even more. Additionally, the US Department of Energy`s Reactor-Use Sharing grant increased significantly this year. During the year, the reactor was operated 225 separate times on 116 days. The total energy production was 24.6 MW-hours. The reactor staff consists of a Director, an Assistant Director, a contract Health Physicist, and approximately fifteen Reed College undergraduate students as hourly employees. All radiation exposures to individuals during this year were well below one percent of the federal limits. There were no releases of liquid radioactive material from the facility and airborne releases (primarily {sup 41}Ar) were well within regulatory limits. No radioactive waste was shipped from the facility during this period.

  15. Harvest impacts on alfalfa stem neutral detergent fiber concentration and digestibility and cell wall concentration and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem fiber concentration and digestibility, lignin, and polysaccharide composition impact energy availability for livestock and biofuel conversion efficiency and are affected by maturity stage and environmental influences. We evaluated stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  16. Evaluation of alfalfa inter-seeding effect on bahiagrass baleage fermentation and lactating Holstein performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research indicates that bahiagrass may be successfully conserved as baleage, but nutritive value is typically low for lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding modest amounts of alfalfa forage (22%), achieved by inter-seeding alfalfa into an existing bahiagrass pasture, on baleage nutritive value and lactation performance of Holstein cows. Forage treatments employed were monoculture bahiagrass baleage (MBB; negative control), bahiagrass-alfalfa mixture baleage (BAB) and conventional corn silage (CCS; positive control). Thirty six mid lactation Holstein cows [34.8 ± 5.8 kg 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 112 ± 19 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 forage treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common CCS-based TMR in a 10-d covariance period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Results The BAB contained more protein and less NDF than MBB (12.6 vs 10.3% CP and 71.8 vs 76.6% NDF). Diet DMI was similar for MBB and BAB (19.5 vs 21.6 kg/hd/d), but cows consumed more of the CCS diet (25.5 kg/hd/d) than either baleage-based diet. Cows offered BAB tended to produce more milk than cows offered MBB based TMR (28.4 vs 26.1 kg/hd/d), but both baleage diets generated less milk than CCS-based diets (33.1 kg/hd/d). Milk composition was similar across diets except for milk protein concentrations which were higher for CCS than either MBB or BAB diets; however, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest for cows fed CCS diets. Cow BW gain was higher for BAB than MBB implying that a portion of the higher energy contributed by the alfalfa was being used to replenish weight on these mid lactation cows. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that alfalfa inter-seeded in bahiagrass sod that produces BAB with as little as 22% alfalfa may improve nutritive value compared to monoculture bahiagrass baleage and marginally

  17. Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in Populations of Alfalfa Selected for Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum.

    PubMed

    Pratt, R G; Rowe, D E

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii are pathogens for which similar mechanisms of parasitism have been proposed. This suggested that resistance to these pathogens may be related in a common host plant. This study was undertaken to determine whether selection for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum in alfalfa also increases resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii as expressed in excised leaf tissues and whole plants. Resistance in excised leaf tissues was evaluated according to the rate of necrosis induced by Sclerotium rolfsii following inoculation with mycelium. Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in whole plants was evaluated according to their survival following crown inoculations. Three alfalfa populations previously selected from cv. Delta for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum exhibited enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii, in comparison with Delta or with susceptible populations, in excised leaf tissues. When whole plants of Delta and two of these populations, Sclerotinia trifoliorum resistant (STR) and Mississippi Sclerotinia resistant (MSR), were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii at 3 to 8 weeks of age, significant (P = 0.01) differences in survival were attributed to plant age at inoculation and alfalfa populations. Survival of both MSR and STR was significantly (P = 0.05) greater than for Delta; the best differential results were obtained by inoculating plants 5 to 7 weeks old. To evaluate relationships of resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii over a broader genetic background, additional populations were selected for resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum from four other alfalfa cultivars by leaf-inoculation techniques, and this resistance was confirmed by whole-plant inoculations. In excised leaf tissues, all four of these populations also expressed enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in comparison with either parent cultivars or populations of comparable size selected at random

  18. Effect of maturity on digestion kinetics of water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions of alfalfa and brome hay.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, B; Pell, A N; Schofield, P

    1996-05-01

    Alfalfa and bromegrass, each harvested at five different stages of maturity, were separated into water-insoluble and -soluble fractions. The NDF concentrations ranged from 19 to 43% for alfalfa and from 42 to 58% for brome. The rates of digestion, by mixed ruminal microflora, of the unfractionated forage and of the water-insoluble and -soluble fractions were measured in vitro using pressure sensors to monitor gas production. Both forages showed the expected decline in fiber digestibility with increasing maturity. A dual-pool logistic model gave pool sizes, specific rates, and a single lag time for both the faster- and slower-digesting fractions. The main difference between alfalfa and brome was in the soluble pool. This pool produced approximately 40% of the total gas in alfalfa, 25% in brome. The specific digestion rates of the brome soluble pool were approximately 50% higher than those for alfalfa. Net VFA production showed a somewhat higher acetate: propionate ratio for brome (3.2) compared with alfalfa (2.2), but there was little change with increasing maturity within a given forage. Gas production curves for the unfractionated forage showed a 0 to 10% positive deviation from curves created by adding data from separate digestion of the insoluble and soluble forage fractions. Gas measurements offer a promising approach to the study of the water-soluble extracts of forages and the interaction of the soluble- and insoluble-fractions during fermentation.

  19. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  20. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  1. Variation of directional reflectance factors with structural changes of a developing alfalfa canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, J. A.; Kimes, D. S.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors of an alfalfa canopy were determined and related to canopy structure, agronomic variables, and irradiance conditions at four periods during a cutting cycle. Nadir and off-nadir reflectance factors decreased with increasing biomass in Thematic Mapper band 3(0.63-0.69 micrometer) and increased with increasing biomass in band 4(0.76-0.90 micrometer). The sensor view angle had less impact on perceived reflectance as the alfalfa progressed from an erectophile canopy of stems after harvest to a near planophile canopy of leaves at maturity. Studies of directional reflectance are needed for testing and upgrading vegetation canopy models and to aid in the complex interpretation problems presented by aircraft scanners and pointable satellites where illumination and viewing geometries may vary widely. Distinct changes in the patterns of radiance observed by a sensor as structural and biomass changes occur are keys to monitoring the growth and condition of crops.

  2. Cofolding Organizes Alfalfa Mosaic Virus RNA and Coat Protein for Replication

    PubMed Central

    Guogas, Laura M.; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.; Gehrke, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus genomic RNAs are infectious only when the viral coat protein binds to the RNA 3´ termini. The crystal structure of an alfalfa mosaic virus RNA-peptide complex reveals that conserved AUGC repeats and Pro-Thr-x-Arg-Ser-x-x-Tyr coat protein amino acids cofold upon interacting. Alternating AUGC residues have opposite orientation, and they base pair in different adjacent duplexes. Localized RNA backbone reversals stabilized by arginine-guanine interactions place the adenosines and guanines in reverse order in the duplex. The results suggest that a uniform, organized 3´ conformation, similar to that found on viral RNAs with transfer RNA-like ends, may be essential for replication. PMID:15604410

  3. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z < 0.05, using both a friends-of-friends algorithm and a more refined approach similar to that used for the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, where a minimal spanning tree is constructed from group centers, and galaxies near branches are associated with filaments. We compare the HI content in these environments using statistics that include both HI detections and the upper limits on detections from ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  4. Best Phd thesis Prize: Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-09-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("velocity width function"), and we characterize their clustering properties ("two-point correlation function"). These statistical distributions are determined by both the properties of dark matter on small scales, as well as by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. We interpret the ALFALFA measurements with the aid of publicly available cosmological N-body simulations and we present some key results related to galaxy formation and small-scale cosmology.

  5. Release and Modification of nod-Gene-Inducing Flavonoids from Alfalfa Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Ueli A.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Traces of luteolin, an important rhizobial nod gene inducer in Rhizobium meliloti, are released by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds, but most luteolin in the seed exudate is conjugated as luteolin-7-O-glucoside (L7G). Processes affecting the production of luteolin from L7G in seed exudate are poorly understood. Results from this study establish that (a) seed coats are the primary source of flavonoids, including L7G, in seed exudate; (b) these flavonoids exist in seeds before imbibition; and (c) both the host plant and the symbiotic R. meliloti probably can hydrolyze L7G to luteolin. Glycolytic cleavage of L7G is promoted by glucosidase activity released from sterile seeds during the first 4 hours of imbibition. Thus, L7G from imbibing alfalfa seeds may serve as a source of the nod-gene-inducing luteolin and thereby facilitate root nodulation by R. meliloti. PMID:16668057

  6. Effect of oil refinery sludges on the growth and antioxidant system of alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Martí, M Carmen; Camejo, Daymi; Fernández-García, Nieves; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Marques, Silvia; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2009-11-15

    The refining process in the petrochemical industry generates oil refinery sludges, a potentially contaminating waste product, with a high content of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Faster degradation of hydrocarbons has been reported in vegetated soils than in non-vegetated soils, but the impact of these contaminants on the plants physiology and on their antioxidant system is not well known. In this study, the effect of the addition of petroleum sludge to soil on the physiological parameters, nutrient contents, and oxidative and antioxidant status in alfalfa was investigated. An inhibition of alfalfa growth and an induction of oxidative stress, as indicated by an increase in protein oxidation, were found. Also, the superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxidase, and those enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle showed significant activity increases, parallel to an enhancement of total homoglutathione, allowing plants being tolerant to this situation. This information is necessary to establish successful and sustainable plant-based remediation strategies.

  7. Alterations in membrane protein-profile during cold treatment of alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S.S.; Poole, R.J.; Dhindsa, R.S. )

    1988-04-01

    Changes in pattern of membrane proteins during cold acclimation of alfalfa have been examined. Cold acclimation for 2 to 3 days increases membrane protein content. Labeling of membrane proteins in vivo with ({sup 35}S)methionine indicates increases in the rate of incorporation as acclimation progresses. Cold acclimation induces the synthesis of about 10 new polypeptides as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography of membrane proteins labeled in vivo.

  8. Soil sulfur amendments suppress selenium uptake by alfalfa and Western wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Amacher, M C

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a potential soil contaminant in many parts of the world where it can pose a health risk to livestock and wildlife. Phosphate ore mining in Southeast Idaho has resulted in numerous waste rock dumps revegetated with forages to stabilize the dumps and support grazing. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), and western wheat grass [Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Löve] are the dominant forage species on these lands. To demonstrate the feasibility of using sulfur (S) as a soil amendment to restrict plant Se uptake, 3 kg pots containing 50:50 w/w soil and waste shale were uniformly mixed with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 Mg ha(-1) S as either elemental S or gypsum. Pots were seeded with alfalfa or western wheat grass. Dry mass and tissue Se were monitored over several clippings. Soils were sampled at the conclusion of the study and analyzed for water-soluble, oxalate-extractable, and total Se. Sulfur amendments as either elemental S or gypsum at 1.0 Mg ha(-1) or greater equally suppressed Se uptake over 60% in both forage species. Alfalfa accumulated more Se than western wheat grass. Plant removal via successive clippings resulted in lower tissue Se accumulation over time than the use of S soil amendments alone. Alfalfa-planted soils contained lower water-soluble and oxalate-extractable Se than did the non-planted controls while western wheat grass-planted soils contained lower water-soluble Se. Applying S to these shale-based soils may be an economically viable option for treating Se-impacted, revegetated lands.

  9. A CLIPS expert system for maximizing alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, B. A.; Jones, D. D.; Rhykerd, R. L.; Rhykerd, L. M.; Rhykerd, C. L., Jr.; Rhykerd, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    An alfalfa management expert system originally developed by Purdue University agricultural scientists on the PC Plus expert system shell from Texas Instrument has been updated and successfully converted to CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System). This reduces the cost and legal restrictions associated with making the expert system available to agribusiness industries, extension personnel and farm managers and operators. The expert system includes recommendations concerning soil drainage, liming, P and K fertilization, weed control, variety selection and seeding rate including pure live seeds.

  10. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Asgary, Sedigheh; Najafi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein), red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa) and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively) and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028) significantly inhibited (P < 0.050) this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes. PMID:26405442

  11. Effect of Feeding Selenium-Fertilized Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Weaned Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Bobe, Gerd; Hunter, Janice K.; Vorachek, William R.; Stewart, Whitney C.; Vanegas, Jorge A.; Estill, Charles T.; Mosher, Wayne D.; Pirelli, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (PLinear<0.001) and body weights (PLinear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations. PMID:23536788

  12. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  13. A degree-day model of sheep grazing influence on alfalfa weevil and crop characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, Hayes B

    2012-02-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis spp.) grazing is emerging as an integrated pest management tactic for alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), management and a degree-day model is needed as a decision and support tool. In response to this need, grazing exclosures with unique degree-days and stocking rates were established at weekly intervals in a central Montana alfalfa field during 2008 and 2009. Analyses indicate that increased stocking rates and grazing degree-days were associated with decreased crop levels of weevil larvae. Larval data collected from grazing treatments were regressed against on-site and near-site temperatures that produced the same accuracy. The near-site model was chosen to encourage producer acceptance. The regression slope differed from zero, had an r2 of 0.83, and a root mean square error of 0.2. Crop data were collected to achieve optimal weevil management with forage quality and yield. Differences were recorded in crude protein, acid and neutral detergent fibers, total digestible nutrients, and mean stage by weight. Stem heights differed with higher stocking rates and degree-days recording the shortest alfalfa canopy height at harvest. The degree-day model was validated at four sites during 2010 with a mean square prediction error of 0.74. The recommendation from this research is to stock alfalfa fields in the spring before 63 DD with rates between 251 and 583 sheep days per hectare (d/ha). Sheep should be allowed to graze to a minimum of 106 and maximum of 150 DD before removal. This model gives field entomologists a new method for implementing grazing in an integrated pest management program.

  14. Estimation of the Genetic Diversity in Tetraploid Alfalfa Populations Based on RAPD Markers for Breeding Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Nagl, Nevena; Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Barac, Goran; Baburski, Aleksandar; Seccareccia, Ivana; Milic, Dragan; Katic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm. PMID:21954370

  15. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Nabipour, A; van den Borne, J J G C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors supplementation level (low, 8%; or high, 16% on DM basis) and PS (medium, 2.92 mm; or long, 5.04 mm as geometrical means) of alfalfa hay. In addition, a control group without alfalfa hay was used. Hence, treatments were: control (C); low level with medium PS (LM); low level with long PS (LL); high level with medium PS (HM) or high level with long PS (HL). Growth performance of alfalfa-fed calves did not differ from control calves, but alfalfa supplementation decreased corneum thickness of the rumen wall. In alfalfa-fed calves, post-weaning starter intake was greater for LL calves than for LM calves. During the entire rearing period, starter intake was 26-32% higher for LL and HM calves than for LM calves. Pre-weaning average daily gain was higher for LL and HM calves than for HL calves, but this effect was not persistent over the entire rearing period. Final body weight decreased from 86 to 79 kg when the level of long PS alfalfa hay increased from 8 to 16%, but increased from 78 to 87 kg when the level of medium PS alfalfa increased from 8 to 16%. Regardless of PS and level, morphometric characteristics of rumen wall were generally similar among alfalfa feeding groups, but corneum thickness decreased from 8.7 to 6.1 μm with greater PS at the low level. These results indicate that adequate, but not excessive, physical stimulation is required for appropriate rumen development and growth performance of dairy calves.

  16. Architecture and implementation considerations of a high-speed Viterbi decoder for a Reed-Muller subcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu (Principal Investigator); Uehara, Gregory T.; Nakamura, Eric; Chu, Cecilia W. P.

    1996-01-01

    The (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code for high-speed satellite communications is proposed. The RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. The progress made toward achieving the goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code is summarized. The development of the integrated circuit prototype sub-trellis IC, particularly focusing on the design methodology, is addressed.

  17. Contribution to harmonic balance calculations of self-sustained periodic oscillations with focus on single-reed instruments.

    PubMed

    Farner, Snorre; Vergez, Christophe; Kergomard, Jean; Lizée, Aude

    2006-03-01

    The harmonic balance method (HBM) was originally developed for finding periodic solutions of electronical and mechanical systems under a periodic force, but has been adapted to self-sustained musical instruments. Unlike time-domain methods, this frequency-domain method does not capture transients and so is not adapted for sound synthesis. However, its independence of time makes it very useful for studying any periodic solution, whether stable or unstable, without care of particular initial conditions in time. A computer program for solving general problems involving nonlinearly coupled exciter and resonator, HARMBAL, has been developed based on the HBM. The method as well as convergence improvements and continuation facilities are thoroughly presented and discussed in the present paper. Applications of the method are demonstrated, especially on problems with severe difficulties of convergence: the Helmholtz motion (square signals) of single-reed instruments when no losses are taken into account, the reed being modeled as a simple spring. PMID:16583920

  18. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  19. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; Barbour, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st–2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  20. Selecting Rhizobium meliloti for inoculation of alfalfa planted in acid soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lowendorf, H.S.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    The study was conducted to obtain Rhizobium meliloti strains suitable for use with alfalfa grown in acid soils. Thirteen strains of R. meliloti were examined for their ability to grow in acidified culture media and seven of these were characterized for the ability to surive in acid and limed nonsterile soils or grow in the presence of the host legume, Medicago sativa L. The pH values of the most acid, defined medium that permitted growth of the bacteria from a small inoculum ranged from pH 5.3 to 6.0. For R. meliloti 411SE1 and GH1-1SE1, the minimum pH that allowed for growth, the critical pH, was not a dependable indicator of survival in a more acid medium. Strains of R. meliloti with relatively low critical pH values survived better in a limed soil but not in acid soils than strains with higher critical pH values. Three strains of R. meliloti previously identified as good inoculants for alfalfa in acid soils did not consistently survive beter than other strains in a planted or unplanted acid soil of pH 5.3. However, the plants increase the population densities of these three strains more than other strains. These results suggest that R. meliloti strains suitable for inoculation of alfalfa in acid soils may be selected not by simple saprophytic properties but by their stimulation by the host legume in acid soils.

  1. Characterization of Feeding Injuries Caused by Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Membracidae) on Alfalfa Stems.

    PubMed

    Grosso, T P; Mercado, M I; Ponessa, G I; Conci, L R; Virla, E G

    2016-04-01

    Piercing-sucking insects cause mechanical and physiological injury to plants. Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov is a pest of alfalfa in subtropical regions of South America and a carrier of the ArAWB phytoplasma. The aim of this study was to determine the feeding habits of this treehopper and to describe the effects of the feeding injuries on stem vascular tissues in alfalfa. Adults and nymphs of C. nigripectus inserted their stylets repeatedly girdling the stem. One week after feeding, alfalfa stems exhibited numerous feeding canals with salivary deposits, most of which reached the phloem. Two weeks after feeding, cortex and phloem cells next to the salivary sheath collapsed, mature tracheal elements became sparse and appeared with an increased cross-section area, and phenolic compounds increased in cells and cell walls compared to undamaged plants. Three weeks after feeding, an annular callus, formed by abnormal cell division and hypertrophy of preexisting cortex and vascular cambium cells, appeared immediately above the stem girdle. Parenchyma cells from the outer layers of the callus differentiated to form secondary anomalous amphicribal bundles in the wound. The aerial parts above the stem girdle eventually withered and died.

  2. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa.

  3. The Effects of Heavy Metals and Root Immersion on Isoflavonoid Metabolism in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed Central

    Parry, A. D.; Tiller, S. A.; Edwards, R.

    1994-01-01

    Modest increases in the concentration of medicarpin, 6-fold in leaves and 4-fold in roots, were observed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings treated with 1 mM metal salts for 72 h. However, medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonate (MGM) and formononetin-7-O-glucoside-6"-O-malonate (FGM) levels were up to 50-fold lower in metal-treated compared to control roots. Approximately 10% of the "missing" conjugates could be accounted for in the root treatment solution, where FGM and MGM transiently accumulated prior to their hydrolysis. Time-course studies revealed that total isoflavonoid content (roots plus solution) increased slightly after CuCl2 treatment, whereas the levels of FGM and MGM increased rapidly in alfalfa roots immersed in water. This increase was reduced by aeration. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-[alpha]-aminooxy-[beta]-phenylpropionic acid was used to show that immersion of the roots reduced conjugate rates of degradation, which explains their accumulation. In contrast, conjugate rates of degradation were elevated in CuCl2-treated roots, with 50% of the increase being due to hydrolysis. Up to 90% of formononetin and medicarpin produced in response to CuCl2 treatment arose via conjugate hydrolysis. Our results demonstrate that both immersion/anaerobiosis and abiotic elicitation modify isoflavonoid metabolism in alfalfa, and that metal-stimulated accumulation of phytoalexins may arise through the release from preformed stores rather than de novo synthesis. PMID:12232319

  4. Association Mapping for Fiber-Related Traits and Digestibility in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zan; Qiang, Haiping; Zhao, Haiming; Xu, Ruixuan; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin; Liu, Guibo; Zhang, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular genetic basis of complex quantitative traits. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa) association panel comprised of 336 genotypes from 75 alfalfa accessions represented by four to eight genotypes for each accession. Each genotype was genotyped using 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotyped for five fiber-related traits in four different environments. A model-based structure analysis was used to group all genotypes into two groups. Most of the genotypes have a low relative kinship (<0.3), suggesting population stratification not be an issue for association analysis. Generally, the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives. In total, 124 marker-trait associations were predicted (p < 0.005). Among these, eight associations were predicted in two environments repeatedly and 20 markers were predicted to be associated with multiple traits. These trait-associated markers will greatly help marker-assisted breeding programs to improve fiber-related quality traits in alfalfa. PMID:27047512

  5. [Diurnal dynamics of photosynthetic characteristics of alfalfa on Kerqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Sun, Qi-Zhong

    2008-10-01

    By using a Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system, the diurnal dynamics of the photosynthetic characteristics of three alfalfa varieties Medicago sativa L. cv. Aohan, M. sativa L. cv. Rangelander, and M. sativa L. cv. Algonquin were studied. The results showed that for the test alfalfa varieties, the diurnal variation curves of their P(n), T(r), and WUE were not all presented double-peak. For Aohan and Algonquin, the maximum P(n) and T(r) occurred at 9:00-11:00; while for Rangelander, they appeared at 11:00. The minimum P(n) and T(r) of the three varieties all appeared at 7:00 and 19:00. The maximum WUE of Rangelander and Algonquin appeared at 7:00 and that of Aohan was at 9:00, and the minimum WUE of the three varieties all appeared at 15:00-17:00. Comprehensive analysis on the photosynthetic performance indices P(n), T(r), and WUE indicated that 2 years old alfalfa was in the best state, followed by 1 year old, and 4 years old. Correlation analysis showed that air temperature (T(a)) was the main environmental factor affecting P(n) and T(r), followed by water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH).

  6. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production. PMID:19825303

  7. Emergence success and sex ratio of commercial alfalfa leafcutting bees from the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2005-12-01

    Samples of overwintering alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), cells were sent to the laboratory as loose cells or in nesting boards from bee managers in the United States and in Canada. X-radiographs of cells were used for determining cell contents. Cells containing live prepupae were incubated, and the sex of emerging adults was recorded daily. Cells from which no adult emerged were dissected to determine the developmental stage of dead bees and sex of dead pupae or adults. Bee cells incubated in commercial settings and placed in alfalfa fields by the same bee managers described above also were evaluated to determine adult emergence success. The proportion of live bees in wood nesting boards from the United States was much lower than the live proportion in polystyrene nesting boards from Canada and loose cells overwintered in the United States. For laboratory-incubated loose cells, survival and sex ratios of bees from Canadian sources were statistically higher than those of U.S. bees, but the onset and duration of emergence times were similar. Fewer bees survived in the commercial setting than in the laboratory. Prepupal mortality was significantly higher than pupal or adult mortality, but there was no significant difference between the sexes in the likelihood of survival during incubation. This study supports the commonly held belief that alfalfa leafcutting bees raised in Canada and then sold to the United States represent a more viable source of bees than most bees produced in the United States. PMID:16539094

  8. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Erin W; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Barbour, James D

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st-2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  9. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Igual, José M.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-01-01

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed. PMID:25227415

  10. Evaluation of some weed extracts against field dodder on alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed

    Habib, S A; Rahman, A A

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of some weed extracts against field dodderCuscuta campestris Yunck. on alfalfa (Medicago stiva L.) and to identify and quantify the phytotoxic agents of these extracts. All concentrations of aqueous extract of every weed showed significant effectiveness on dodder when compared to the untreated plant under lath house and field conditions. Control percentages of the (0.5 g) of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and wall goosefoot (Chenopodium murale) ranged between 83 and 96, and the same concentration caused injury to alfalfa foliage up to 43% when applied in the field. Phytotoxic agents were identified as phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic, isochlorogenic,p-coumaric acids, and scopoletin. Their quantities varied with species; Bermuda grass had the highest content (32.2 μg/g dry weight) followed by Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), well goosefoot, and tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus). These results might aid in screening for effective alternate approaches for controlling dodder on alfalfa planted for seeds.

  11. Sustainable domestic effluent reuse via Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI): alfalfa as a perennial model crop.

    PubMed

    Kazumba, Shija; Gillerman, Leonid; DeMalach, Yoel; Oron, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Scarcity of fresh high-quality water has heightened the importance of wastewater reuse primarily in dry regions together with improving its efficient use by implementing the Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) method. Sustainable effluent reuse combines soil and plant aspects, along with the maintainability of the application system. In this study, field experiments were conducted for two years on the commercial farm of Revivim and Mashabay-Sade farm (RMF) southeast of the City of Beer-Sheva, Israel. The purpose was to examine the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a perennial model crop to secondary domestic effluent application by means of a SDI system as compared with conventional overhead sprinkler irrigation. Emitters were installed at different depths and spacing. Similar amounts of effluent were applied to all plots during the experimental period. The results indicated that in all SDI treatments, the alfalfa yields were 11% to 25% higher than the ones obtained under sprinkler irrigated plots, besides the one in which the drip laterals were 200 cm apart. The average Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was better in all SDI treatments in comparison with the sprinkler irrigated plots. An economic assessment reveals the dependence of the net profit on the emitters' installation geometry, combined with the return for alfalfa in the market. PMID:20150698

  12. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Collaboration for Undergraduate Research Opportunities and Faculty Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Legacy astronomy surveys involve large collaborations over long time periods, making it challenging to involve undergraduates in meaningful projects. Collaborating with faculty at 19 undergraduate-focused institutions across the US and Puerto Rico and with US-NSF funding, the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team has developed the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, an effective model to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. This talk will summarize the main components of the program, which include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Cannon et al., Collins, Elliott et al, Craig et al., Hansen et al., Johnson et al., Morrison et al., O'Donoghue et al., Smith et al., Sylvia et al., Troischt et al., this meeting). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  13. Continuous variation rather than specialization in the egg phenotypes of cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) parasitizing two sympatric reed warbler species.

    PubMed

    Drobniak, Szymon M; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Sudyka, Joanna; Cichoń, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of brood parasitism has long attracted considerable attention among behavioural ecologists, especially in the common cuckoo system. Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are obligatory brood parasites, laying eggs in nests of passerines and specializing on specific host species. Specialized races of cuckoos are genetically distinct. Often in a given area, cuckoos encounter multiple hosts showing substantial variation in egg morphology. Exploiting different hosts should lead to egg-phenotype specialization in cuckoos to match egg phenotypes of the hosts. Here we test this assumption using a wild population of two sympatrically occurring host species: the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and reed warbler (A. scirpaceus). Using colour spectrophotometry, egg shell dynamometry and egg size measurements, we studied egg morphologies of cuckoos parasitizing these two hosts. In spite of observing clear differences between host egg phenotypes, we found no clear differences in cuckoo egg morphologies. Interestingly, although chromatically cuckoo eggs were more similar to reed warbler eggs, after taking into account achromatic differences, cuckoo eggs seemed to be equally similar to both host species. We hypothesize that such pattern may represent an initial stage of an averaging strategy of cuckoos, that--instead of specializing for specific hosts or exploiting only one host--adapt to multiple hosts. PMID:25180796

  14. Effect of reeds and feeding operations on hydraulic behaviour of vertical flow constructed wetlands under hydraulic overloads.

    PubMed

    Molle, P; Liénard, A; Grasmick, A; Iwema, A

    2006-02-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) have been very successful in France over the last 5 years. The sizing of VFCWs is still roughly based on organic load acceptance with slight clear water intrusion into the sewerage system which is often wrong in the context of small communities. To specify the hydraulic limits would be of great help to Water Authorities in deciding at what point is it preferable to build separate sewers rather than adapt the wastewater treatment plant. The study of the hydraulic limits of reed beds, based on the knowledge of hydrodynamics in unsaturated porous media, shows the ability of the system to accept flow overloads. Measuring different parameters (flow, pollutant removal, infiltration rate (IR), pressure head profiles) in pilot and full-scale studies, we explain the hydraulic behaviour of the filter, and the role of reeds and batch frequency on the IRs. Consequently, new hydraulic limits with accompanying sizing rules and operational recommendations according to the level of deposit on the filter surface are suggested. The study shows the robustness of reed beds systems as designed in France to accept hydraulic overloads. Overloads up to ten times the dry weather flow are possible whilst still complying with the European standards.

  15. Adopting Bacteria in Order to Adapt to Water-How Reed Beetles Colonized the Wetlands (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae).

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Birgit; Kölsch, Gregor

    2011-12-09

    The present paper reviews the biology of reed beetles (Donaciinae), presents experimental data on the role of specific symbiotic bacteria, and describes a molecular method for the detection of those bacteria. Reed beetles are herbivores living on wetland plants, each species being mono- or oligo-phagous. They lay their eggs on the host plant and the larvae live underwater in the sediment attached to its roots. The larvae pupate there in a water-tight cocoon, which they build using a secretion that is produced by symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria are located in four blind sacs at the foregut of the larvae; in (female) adults they colonize two out of the six Malpighian tubules. Tetracycline treatment of larvae reduced their pupation rate, although the bacteria could not be fully eliminated. When the small amount of bacterial mass attached to eggs was experimentally removed before hatching, symbiont free larvae resulted, showing the external transmission of the bacteria to the offspring. Specific primers were designed to detect the bacteria, and to confirm their absence in manipulated larvae. The pupation underwater enabled the reed beetles to permanently colonize the wetlands and to diversify in this habitat underexploited by herbivorous insects (adaptive radiation).

  16. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) increased cumulative methane yield (by 63%) over that of untreated biomass (217L/kgVS). LHW pretreatment obtained negative net electrical energy production due to high energy input. Alkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit. PMID:27233098

  17. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) increased cumulative methane yield (by 63%) over that of untreated biomass (217L/kgVS). LHW pretreatment obtained negative net electrical energy production due to high energy input. Alkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit.

  18. Seasonal variations in heat and carbon dioxide fluxes observed over a reed wetland in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jia, Qingyu; Liu, Jingmiao

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season.

  19. High-Speed Soft-Decision Decoding of Two Reed-Muller Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1996-01-01

    In this research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing, a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RM subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second (Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a high data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study, which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high-speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating, and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to

  20. High-Speed Soft-Decision Decoding of Two Reed-Muller Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1996-01-01

    In his research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RNI subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second (Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a hi ch data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high-speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to

  1. Circuit Design Approaches for Implementation of a Subtrellis IC for a Reed-Muller Subcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.; Nakamura, Eric B.; Chu, Cecilia W. P.

    1996-01-01

    In his research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RM subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second(Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a high data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high- speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to implement

  2. Circuit Design Approaches for Implementation of a Subtrellis IC for a Reed-Muller Subcode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.; Nakamura, Eric B.; Chu, Cecilia W. P.

    1996-01-01

    In this research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RM subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second (Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a high data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high-speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to implement

  3. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  4. Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil.

    PubMed

    Evanylo, G K; Abaye, A O; Dundas, C; Zipper, C E; Lemus, R; Sukkariyah, B; Rockett, J

    2005-01-01

    The selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. A study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed Appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. The 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden materials with a mixture of composted and dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids at a rate of 368 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasia L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), common sericea lespedeza and AULotan sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), tall fescue-ladino clover, tall fescue-alfalfa, orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil, switchgrass-AULotan, and an herbaceous species mix intended for planting on reforested sites consisting of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), kobe lespedeza (Kummerowia striata L.), appalow lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata L.), and birdsfoot trefoil were established between spring 1990 and 1991. Vegetative biomass and/or persistence were assessed in 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2002. The high rate of biosolids applied provided favorable soil chemical properties but could not overcome physical property limitations due to shallow undeveloped soil perched atop a compacted soil layer at 25 cm depth. The plant species whose persistence and biomass production were the greatest after a decade or more of establishment (i.e., switchgrass, sericea lespedeza, reed canarygrass, tall

  5. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  6. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Muck, R E; Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K; Jokela, W E; Bertram, M G; Coffey, K P

    2014-11-01

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy slurry was applied to 0.17-ha plots of alfalfa; applications were made to the second (HARV1) and third (HARV2) cuttings during June and July of 2012, respectively, at mean rates of 42,400 ± 5271 and 41,700 ± 2397 L/ha, respectively. Application strategies included (1) no slurry, (2) slurry applied directly to stubble immediately after the preceding harvest, (3) slurry applied after 1 wk of post-ensiled regrowth, or (4) slurry applied after 2 wk of regrowth. All harvested forage was packaged in large, rectangular bales that were ensiled as wrapped balage. Yields of DM harvested from HARV1 (2,477 kg/ha) and HARV2 (781 kg/ha) were not affected by slurry application treatment. By May 2013, all silages appeared to be well preserved, with no indication of undesirable odors characteristic of clostridial fermentations. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, which is known to negatively affect cheese production, was not detected in any forage on either a pre- or post-ensiled basis. On a pre-ensiled basis, counts for Clostridium cluster 1 were greater for slurry-applied plots than for those receiving no slurry, and this response was consistent for HARV1 (4.44 vs. 3.29 log10 genomic copies/g) and HARV2 (4.99 vs. 3.88 log10 genomic copies/g). Similar responses were observed on a post-ensiled basis; however, post-ensiled counts also were greater for HARV1 (5.51 vs. 5.17 log10 genomic copies/g) and HARV2 (5.84 vs. 5.28 log10 genomic copies/g) when slurry was applied to regrowth compared with stubble. For HARV2, counts also were greater following a 2-wk application delay compared with a 1-wk delay (6.23 vs. 5.45 log10 genomic copies/g). These results suggest that the risk of clostridial

  7. Chrysoeriol and Luteolin Released from Alfalfa Seeds Induce nod Genes in Rhizobium meliloti1

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Ueli A.; Maxwell, Carl A.; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1990-01-01

    Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed and root exudates induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The flavone luteolin previously was isolated from alfalfa seeds by other workers and identified as the first nod gene inducer for R. meliloti. Our recent study of `Moapa 69' alfalfa root exudates found no luteolin but did identify three other nod gene inducers: 4,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxychalcone, 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4′,7-dihydroxyflavanone. The goal of the current study was to identify and quantify nod gene-inducing flavonoids that may influence Rhizobium populations around a germinating alfalfa seed. Aqueous rinses of Moapa 69 alfalfa seeds were collected and assayed for induction of a nodABC-lacZ fusion in R. meliloti. During the first 4 hours of imbibition, total nod gene-inducing activity was released from seeds at 100-fold higher rates than from roots of 72-hour-old seedlings. Five flavonoids were purified and identified by spectroscopic analyses (ultraviolet/visible absorbance, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy) and comparison with authentic standards. Two very active nod gene-inducing flavonoids, chrysoeriol (3′-methoxyluteolin) and luteolin, were identified in seed rinses. Luteolin required a higher concentration (18 nanomolar) than chrysoeriol (5 nanomolar) for half-maximum induction of nodABC-lacZ in R. meliloti, and both were less active than 4,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxychalcone (2 nanomolar) from root exudates. Seeds exuded three other luteolin derivatives: luteolin-7-O-glucoside, 5-methoxyluteolin, and 3′,5-dimethoxyluteolin. Their combined quantities were 24-fold greater than that of luteolin plus chrysoeriol. Most nod gene-inducing activity of these luteolin derivatives apparently is associated with degradation to luteolin and chrysoeriol. However, their presence in large quantities suggests that they may contribute significantly to nod gene-inducing activity in the

  8. Economic assessment of sludge handling and environmental impact of sludge treatment in a reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The effect on the environment of the establishment and operation of a sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is quite limited compared to mechanical sludge dewatering, with its accompanying use of energy and chemicals. The assessment presented here of the investment, operation and maintenance costs of a typical STRB, and of the related environmental impact, is based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRB in Denmark. There are differences in the environmental perspectives and costs involved in mechanical sludge dewatering and disposal on agricultural land compared to STRB. The two treatment methods were considered for comparison based on a treatment capacity of 550 tons of dry solids per year and with land application of the biosolids in Denmark. The initial capital cost for STRB is higher than a conventional mechanical system; however, an STRB would provide significant power and operating-cost savings, with a significant saving in the overall cost of the plant over 20-30 years. The assessment focuses on the use of chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions and includes emptying, sludge residue quality and recycling. STRB with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario and has the lowest environmental impact. A sludge strategy consisting of an STRB will be approximately DKK 536,894-647,636 cheaper per year than the option consisting of a new screw press or decanter.

  9. Phosphate removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on modified giant reed.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Wen-Yi; Gao, Bao-Yu; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qian

    2010-04-01

    The use of modified giant reed (MGR) as an adsorbent to remove phosphate from an aqueous solution was investigated. The dosage of MGR, pH of the phosphate solution, thermodynamics, and the effects of several factors on kinetics (concentration of phosphate solution, solution temperature, and shaking speed) were studied in batch experiments. The results showed that MGR was particularly effective to remove phosphate and that the effective pH range for the phosphate removal was between 4 and 9. The adsorption process could reach equilibrium in 25 minutes. Three kinetic models have been evaluated to fit the experimental data. It was shown that the pseudo-second-order model best described the adsorption kinetics of phosphate on MGR. The low activation energy of the adsorption suggested a physisorption process for phosphate adsorption. The equilibrium isotherm showed that the adsorption system was consistent with the Langmuir equation. The negative values of standard free energy (AG) and enthalpy (AH) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate onto MGR was a spontaneous and exothermic process.

  10. Exceeding tertiary standards with a pond/reed bed system in Norway.

    PubMed

    Browne, W; Jenssen, P D

    2005-01-01

    At Vidaråsen in Norway sewage from a community consisting of 160 people, including a dairy, a food processing workshop, a bakery and a laundry is treated using a pond/reed bed system. The system consists of sludge settlement, pre-treatment surface/vertical-flow constructed wetlands, a 5 m deep enhanced facultative pond, three stabilization ponds, a planted sand filter and finally two horizontal-flow constructed wetlands filled with lightweight aggregate (Filtralite-P). The enhanced facultative pond and the primary stabilization pond are equipped with Flowform-cascades, which provide year-round aeration, rhythmical treatment and mixing of wastewater in the ponds. Treatment performance during the first five years has been high and unaffected by harsh winter conditions. Average phosphorus discharge from the system is 0.25 mg/l with total nitrogen 4 mg/l, total organic carbon (TOC) 5 mg/l and thermo-tolerant coliforms < 100/100 ml. The system is ecologically diverse and supports abundant populations of higher aquatic life such as ducks, amphibians and carp.

  11. Effects of hydrothermal pre-treatments on Giant reed (Arundo donax) methane yield.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Giuseppe; Grigatti, Marco; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-11-01

    Twelve hydrothermal pre-treatment combinations of temperature (150 and 180 °C), time (10 and 20 min) and acid catalyst (no catalyst; H2SO4 at 2% w/w immediately before steam cooking or in 24-h pre-soaking) were tested to assess their effects on methane yield of Giant reed biomass vs. untreated control. A batch anaerobic digestion was conducted with 4 g VS l(-1) at 53 °C for 39 days. Untreated biomass exhibited a potential CH4 yield of 273 ml g(-1) VS; the four pre-treatments without acid catalyst achieved a 10%, 7%, 23% and 4% yield gain in the respective temperature/time combinations 150 °C/10 min, 150 °C/20 min, 180 °C/10 min and 180 °C/20 min. Conversely, the eight pre-treatments with H2SO4 catalyst incurred a methanogenic inhibition in association with high SO4(2-) concentration in the hydrolysate, known to enhance sulphate reducing bacteria. Furfurals were also detected in the hydrolysate of five strong pre-treatments with H2SO4 catalyst.

  12. Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael I.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Moskát, Csaba

    2007-06-01

    Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of intra-clutch variation in the host eggs, suggesting that higher rather than lower levels of intra-clutch variation can facilitate the discrimination of cuckoo eggs by hosts. We suggest that the importance of intra-clutch variation is context dependent, with intra-clutch variation being important when there is good matching between the host and the cuckoo eggs. Our results also suggest that both spectrometric and human visual assessments of egg matching and intra-clutch variation are prudent: the former provide the best method of estimating reflectance variation, whereas the latter include some assessment of patterns of maculation.

  13. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  14. The fast decoding of Reed-Solomon codes using number theoretic transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Welch, L. R.; Truong, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that Reed-Solomon (RS) codes can be encoded and decoded by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over finite fields. The arithmetic utilized to perform these transforms requires only integer additions, circular shifts and a minimum number of integer multiplications. The computing time of this transform encoder-decoder for RS codes is less than the time of the standard method for RS codes. More generally, the field GF(q) is also considered, where q is a prime of the form K x 2 to the nth power + 1 and K and n are integers. GF(q) can be used to decode very long RS codes by an efficient FFT algorithm with an improvement in the number of symbols. It is shown that a radix-8 FFT algorithm over GF(q squared) can be utilized to encode and decode very long RS codes with a large number of symbols. For eight symbols in GF(q squared), this transform over GF(q squared) can be made simpler than any other known number theoretic transform with a similar capability. Of special interest is the decoding of a 16-tuple RS code with four errors.

  15. Reed B. Bontecou, M.D.--his role in Civil War surgery and medical photography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, B O

    2000-01-01

    This third article on the subject of Civil War injuries and their surgical repair is devoted to Reed B. Bontecou, M.D., a New York surgeon who contributed greatly to the use of photography to document the casualties of the battlefield as seen in the Northern as well as the Southern states. Photographs of the wounded soldiers helped to verify the severity of their injuries, and helped to determine the degree and amount of the post-war pension payments. These photographs were one of the largest sources which were used in the creation of the Otis Archives of the present-day National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, D.C. Some of the wounded soldiers' photographs in the Otis Archives demonstrate the use of plastic surgery techniques to repair the wounded face, head and neck, torso, and the extremities by only a handful of Northern and Confederate surgeons including Gurdon Buck, J.S. Gouley and Henry B. Sands of New York City; H. Culbertson, U.S.V. of Madison, Wisconsin; J. Cooper McKee of Washington, D.C., W.W. Keen, Jr. of Philadelphia; and C.B. Gibson, P.A.C.S. of Richmond; S.H. Stout of Tennessee; and J.B. Bean, a dentist of Chattanooga.

  16. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a Reed-Frost stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-04-01

    The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or 'recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

  17. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Wild Reed Over Nanoporous SBA-15 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Yoo, Myung Lang; Park, Sung Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Wild reed was pyrolyzed over two nanoporous SBA-15 catalysts with different acid characteristics: Si-SBA-15 and Al-SBA-15. Al was grafted on Si-SBA-15 to increase the acidity and enhance the catalytic activity. Fast pyrolysis was carried out using a pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system at 550 degrees C for real-time analysis of the products. Significant improvement of the product bio-oil quality was attained by catalytic reforming over nanoporous Al-SBA-15. The fraction of total oxygenates was reduced because of the decrease in. the fraction of ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylates, which deteriorate the fuel quality of bio-oil. On the other hand, the fractions of furans and aromatics, which are the chemicals with high value-added, were increased by the catalytic reforming. The catalytic activity of Al-SBA-15 was considerably higher than that of Si-SBA-15 because the incorporation of Al increased the catalyst acidity. PMID:27483790

  18. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  19. Viterbi decoder node synchronization losses in the Reed-Solomon/Veterbi concatenated channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Miller, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Viterbi decoders currently used by the Deep Space Network (DSN) employ an algorithm for maintaining node synchronization that significantly degrades at bit signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of below 2.0 dB. In a recent report by the authors, it was shown that the telemetry receiving system, which uses a convolutionally encoded downlink, will suffer losses of 0.85 dB and 1.25 dB respectively at Voyager 2 Uranus and Neptune encounters. This report extends the results of that study to a concatenated (255,223) Reed-Solomon/(7, 1/2) convolutionally coded channel, by developing a new radio loss model for the concatenated channel. It is shown here that losses due to improper node synchronization of 0.57 dB at Uranus and 1.0 dB at Neptune can be expected if concatenated coding is used along with an array of one 64-meter and three 34-meter antennas.

  20. Exceeding tertiary standards with a pond/reed bed system in Norway.

    PubMed

    Browne, W; Jenssen, P D

    2005-01-01

    At Vidaråsen in Norway sewage from a community consisting of 160 people, including a dairy, a food processing workshop, a bakery and a laundry is treated using a pond/reed bed system. The system consists of sludge settlement, pre-treatment surface/vertical-flow constructed wetlands, a 5 m deep enhanced facultative pond, three stabilization ponds, a planted sand filter and finally two horizontal-flow constructed wetlands filled with lightweight aggregate (Filtralite-P). The enhanced facultative pond and the primary stabilization pond are equipped with Flowform-cascades, which provide year-round aeration, rhythmical treatment and mixing of wastewater in the ponds. Treatment performance during the first five years has been high and unaffected by harsh winter conditions. Average phosphorus discharge from the system is 0.25 mg/l with total nitrogen 4 mg/l, total organic carbon (TOC) 5 mg/l and thermo-tolerant coliforms < 100/100 ml. The system is ecologically diverse and supports abundant populations of higher aquatic life such as ducks, amphibians and carp. PMID:16042271

  1. Copper Uptake Efficiency and Its Distribution Within Bioenergy Grass Giant Reed.

    PubMed

    Elhawat, N; Alshaal, T; Domokos-Szabolcsy, É; El-Ramady, H; Antal, G; Márton, L; Czakó, M; Balogh, P; Fári, M

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate copper uptake and its toxicity on bioenergy grass giant reed (Arundo donax L.), experiments were carried out using two epigenetic clonal lines - American (BL) and Hungarian (20SZ) ecotypes - grown on elevated Cu concentrations up to 26.8 mg L(-1). Neither ecotype showed any noticeable foliar symptoms of Cu toxicity at concentrations tested up to 10 mg L(-1). Dry mass of plants of both ecotypes significantly increased at the highest Cu treatment compared to control. Although the BL ecotype had greater capacity to uptake Cu than 20SZ, the dry mass and shoot length of BL was higher than that of 20SZ. Values of bioconcentration and transportation factors were higher in the BL than in the 20SZ ecotype. Almost 45 % of total Cu content within the whole plant was found in the plant root of both ecotypes. This demonstrated both ecotypes can be utilized for Cu phytoremediation alongside with significant biomass production.

  2. Organic matter stabilization in reed bed systems: Danish and Italian examples.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Eleonora; Nielsen, Steen; Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Chiarugi, Mario; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, results about sludge stabilization in reed bed systems (RBSs) after the entire period of operation in two different systems situated in Denmark (Helsinge 42,000 population equivalent (p.e.) - 10 years) and in Italy (La Fontina, 30,000 p.e. - 6 years) were presented. In order to evaluate the process of sludge stabilization, parameters that highlighted the biochemical and chemico-structural properties of organic sludge matter have been determined. The level of total and soluble nutrients, and enzyme activities, parameters related to overall microbial activity, showed that stabilization of the sludge similarly occurred in both RBSs, even though in different landscape ecosystems. The chemical-structural characterization of sludge organic matter highlighted how the processes of stabilization have occurred satisfactorily in both RBSs; in fact, significant levels of pyrolytic indices for mineralization and humification were reached. The successful stabilization of organic matter occurred in both RBSs and was confirmed by the absence of Escherichia coli, and also by the results of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkyl benzene sulfonates, nonylphenol ethoxylates, di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate) and heavy metals.

  3. Application of Reed-Vibration Mechanical Spectroscopy for Liquids in Studying Liquid Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Heng-Wei; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Li-Li; Huang, Yi-Neng

    2013-08-01

    By using the reed-vibration mechanical spectroscopy for liquids (RMS-L), we measured the complex Young's modulus of dimethyl phthalate (DP) during a cooling and heating circulation starting from room temperature at about 2 KHz. The results show that there is no crystallization in the cooling supercooled liquid (CSL) of DP, but a crystallization process in the heating supercooled liquid (HSL) after the reverse glass transition. Based on the measured modulus, crystal volume fraction (v) during the HSL crystallization was calculated. Moreover, the Avrami exponent (n) was obtained according to the JJMA equation and v data. In view of n versus temperature and v, the nucleation dynamics was analyzed, and especially, there has already existed saturate nuclei in DP HSL before the crystallization. Furthermore, the authors inferred that the nuclei are induced by the random frozen stress in the glass, but there is no nucleus in CSL. The above results indicated that RMS-L might provide a new way to measure and analyze the crystallization of liquids.

  4. Flow sorting and exome sequencing reveal the oncogenome of primary Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Jonathan; Chadburn, Amy; Rubinstein, Paul G; Giulino-Roth, Lisa; Tam, Wayne; Liu, Yifang; Gaiolla, Rafael; Eng, Kenneth; Brody, Joshua; Inghirami, Giorgio; Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Santoro, Armando; Rahal, Daoud; Totonchy, Jennifer; Elemento, Olivier; Cesarman, Ethel; Roshal, Mikhail

    2015-02-12

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is characterized by sparsely distributed Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells amid reactive host background, complicating the acquisition of neoplastic DNA without extensive background contamination. We overcame this limitation by using flow-sorted HRS and intratumor T cells and optimized low-input exome sequencing of 10 patient samples to reveal alterations in genes involved in antigen presentation, chromosome integrity, transcriptional regulation, and ubiquitination. β-2-microglobulin (B2M) is the most commonly altered gene in HRS cells, with 7 of 10 cases having inactivating mutations that lead to loss of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression. Enforced wild-type B2M expression in a cHL cell line restored MHC-I expression. In an extended cohort of 145 patients, the absence of B2M protein in the HRS cells was associated with lower stage of disease, younger age at diagnosis, and better overall and progression-free survival. B2M-deficient cases encompassed most of the nodular sclerosis subtype cases and only a minority of mixed cellularity cases, suggesting that B2M deficiency determines the tumor microenvironment and may define a major subset of cHL that has more uniform clinical and morphologic features. In addition, we report previously unknown genetic alterations that may render selected patients sensitive to specific targeted therapies. PMID:25488972

  5. Radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park site, West Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, L.F.; McDowell, G.S.; Peck, S.I.; Karchner, L.E.; Groff, D.W.; Bronson, F.L.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a radiological survey of the Reed-Keppler Park, West Chicago, Illinois, performed by Radiation Management Corporation during the fall of 1981 and the spring of 1982. Measurements were made to determine external radiation levels, concentrations of water and airborne contaminants and the identity and concentrations of subsurface deposits. Results show that the materials containing /sup 232/Th and daughters are present in surface and subsurface locations, comprising a total volume of about 15,000 cubic yards, with concentrations as high as 11,000 pCi/g. These contaminants are a source of radon and daughter radionuclides which may produce slightly elevated airborne radioactivity levels off-site. There is no evidence that materials are moving off-site through ground water, although small subsurface deposits exceeding 5 pCi/g exist north of the fenced site in a landfill area, and to the southeast of the site near the tennis courts. These off-site deposits do not present a significant radiological hazard to the public at this time.

  6. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts.

  7. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts. PMID

  8. Preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue grown adjacent to or at a distance from alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Friend, M A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue growing in monoculture at least 5 m away from alfalfa (fescue-middle (FM)) over endophyte-infected tall fescue growing adjacent (0.2 to 1 m; fescue-alfalfa (FA)) to alfalfa (FA), and the effect of legume scent on preference for endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Experiment 1, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered for 12 days a choice of freshly harvested FA and FM. On days 13 and 14, lambs were offered the same choice, except cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa were put in the feeders containing FA, whereas cages containing freshly harvested FM were included with the feeders containing FM. Forage intake was measured 1 h after feeding and at three consecutive 2-h intervals thereafter. FA contained greater (P<0.002) concentrations of the alkaloid ergovaline (360 ± 27 ppm) and CP (8 ± 0.4%) than FM (219 ± 27 ppm and 6 ± 0.4%, respectively). Lambs preferred (P<0.05) FA to FM during the 1st hour of feeding, but the differences became smaller and disappeared in later feeding periods (P<0.005). Lambs offered FA with alfalfa scent or FM with FM scent preferred (P<0.05) FA but only on the 2nd day. In Experiment 2, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered a choice of FM with cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa or FM for 8 days. During the following 4 days, FM in the cages was replaced with freshly harvested sainfoin. Preference was greater (P<0.05) for FM offered with alfalfa scent than for FM offered with FM scent only on days 4 and 8. When lambs were offered FM with alfalfa or sainfoin in cages, they preferred (P<0.05) tall fescue with sainfoin scent over fescue with alfalfa scent, but intake was variable across hours and days (P<0.001). It is concluded that (1) lambs adjusted their intake of and preference for FA and FM over successive feeding bouts within each day, likely owing to an attempt to balance

  9. Spatial density and movement of the Lygus spp. parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in organic strawberries with alfalfa trap crops.

    PubMed

    Swezey, Sean L; Nieto, Diego J; Pickett, Charles H; Hagler, James R; Bryer, Janet A; Machtley, Scott A

    2014-04-01

    Alfalfa trap crops are currently used to manage Lygus spp. in organic strawberry fields on the California Central Coast. The retention of Lygus spp. in alfalfa creates aggregated distributions that provide improved opportunities for biological control by the introduced parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). The abundance and distribution of P. relictus between two trap crops separated by 50 strawberry rows were analyzed in 2008 and 2010. Parasitism of Lygus spp. nymphs by P. relictus (measured by larval abundance and % parasitism) was greatest in alfalfa trap crops compared with strawberry rows. A significantly positive correlation between host nymphs and P. relictus larvae in and between trap crops was found. Movement of P. relictus adults from a marked alfalfa trap crop into adjacent strawberry rows or trap crops was also studied in 2008 and 2009 using a chicken egg-albumin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay mark-capture technique. In 2008 and 2009, 85 and 49% of protein-marked wasps were captured from central trap crops, respectively, indicating that alfalfa trap crops act as a concentrated "host-density anchor" in organic strawberry fields. PMID:24763093

  10. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using high-resolution melting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; McCord, Per; Miller, David; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Johnson, David; Monteros, Maria J; Ho, Julie; Reisen, Peter; Samac, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  11. Identification of Molecular Markers Associated with Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) Using High-Resolution Melting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; McCord, Per; Miller, David; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Johnson, David; Monteros, Maria J.; Ho, Julie; Reisen, Peter; Samac, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs. PMID:25536106

  12. Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage, has potential for development as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. Identifying key genes regulating lignin and cellulose biosynthesis in alfalfa would advance its development as a cellulosic feedstock. However, the ...

  13. Two- and one-layer implicit energy balance solutions compared with the one-layer explicit Penman-Monteith solution for evapotranspiration of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of two crops commonly used to establish reference evapotranspiration (ET) for use in water use estimation for other crops. The other is grass. In the modern paradigm for estimating crop water use, both alfalfa (~0.5-m tall) and grass (cool-season variety, mowed, ~0.1...

  14. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  15. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  16. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  17. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  18. Influence of fresh alfalfa supplementation on fat skatole and indole concentration and chop odour and flavour in lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture.

    PubMed

    Devincenzi, T; Prunier, A; Meteau, K; Nabinger, C; Prache, S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of fresh alfalfa supplementation on fat skatole and indole concentration and chop sensory attributes in grazing lambs. Four groups of nine male Romane lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture were supplemented with various levels of alfalfa for at least 60days before slaughter. Perirenal fat skatole concentration was higher for lambs that consumed alfalfa than for those that consumed only cocksfoot. The intensity of 'animal' odour in the lean part of the chop and of 'animal' flavour in both the lean and fat parts of the chop, evaluated by a trained sensory panel, increased from the lowest level of alfalfa supplementation onwards and did not increase further with increasing levels of alfalfa supplementation. The outcome of this study therefore suggests that these sensory attributes may reach a plateau when perirenal fat skatole concentration is in the range 0.16-0.24μg/g of liquid fat. PMID:25089784

  19. Optimal attributes for the object based detection of giant reed in riparian habitats: A comparative study between Airborne High Spatial Resolution and WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric

  20. Reed-induced seasonal and diurnal patterns of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a fen in South-West Germany: A multi-method analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Merit; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    About one third of all the soil carbon is stored in peatlands, even though they cover only 3% of earth's land surface. Therefore, peatland conservation or restoration as a climate mitigation option has gained much attention. Apart from the positive effect of carbon storage in peatlands, there is also the effect of the natural production of CH4, which is a 28 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2 over a 100 year time period. Therefore the question is how much peatlands can contribute to climate change mitigation. To gain more knowledge about this subject, a measurement campaign was set up in the reed (Phragmites australis) area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha). It was suspected that this reed area could release high quantities of CH4 due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. Against this background, CO2 and CH4 fluxes have been measured by means of the eddy covariance method since March 2013. From these data it became clear that a strong diurnal pattern of CO2 and CH4 fluxes starts when reed vegetation starts to grow. The pattern disappears after the growth season. The highest emissions of CH4 are measured during the day, around noon. This seems to be linked to humidity-induced pressure flow, caused by the ability of reed plants to exchange gases between the soil and atmosphere during the day. Therefore, our findings suggest that the fluctuation in CH4 fluxes during the growth season largely depends on the reed vegetation. To investigate how much the gas transport mechanism of reed contributes to the total CH4 flux, a field experiment was set up in October 2014. Plots were made with cut reed and cut + sealed reed to exclude gas transport through the plants. Gas fluxes from these and control plots were measured with chambers. Additionally, pore water samples from the plots were analyzed for possible changes in soil chemistry due to the