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Sample records for alfalfa sprouts grown

  1. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, T.; Benkel, D. H.; Shapiro, R. L.; Hall, W. N.; Winnett, M. M.; Linn, M. J.; Neimann, J.; Barrett, T. J.; Dietrich, S.; Downes, F. P.; Toney, D. M.; Pearson, J. L.; Rolka, H.; Slutsker, L.; Griffin, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred in the United States in June and July 1997. Two concurrent outbreaks were investigated through independent case-control studies in Michigan and Virginia and by subtyping isolates with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from 85 persons were indistinguishable by PFGE. Alfalfa sprouts were the only exposure associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection in both Michigan and Virginia. Seeds used for sprouting were traced back to one common lot harvested in Idaho. New subtyping tools such as PFGE used in this investigation are essential to link isolated infections to a single outbreak. PMID:11747724

  2. Residues of five pesticides in field-treated alfalfa seeds and alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed

    Archer, T E; Gauer, W O

    1985-08-01

    Residues of five different pesticides applied to alfalfa seed crops were determined in the harvested seeds and in sprouts grown from these seeds. Although seeds are usually used for future production of alfalfa plants, some of these seeds may be sprouted for human food consumption. The pesticides studied--aldicarb (Temik), chlorothalonil (Bravo), chlorpyrifos (Lorsban), methamidophos (Monitor) and propargite (Comite)--were applied at a normal usage rate and at two to three times that rate. Residues on the seeds and sprouts, if any, were insignificant at rates of application.

  3. Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2014-01-01

    Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S. Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

  4. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  5. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarAlfalfa might lower blood sugar. Using alfalfa along with other ...

  6. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-15

    On February 24, 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified six isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul with collection dates from February 7--14. Salmonella Saintpaul is not a commonly detected serotype; during 2008, only three Salmonella Saintpaul isolates were identified in Nebraska. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which has identified 228 cases in 13 states and implicated the source as alfalfa sprouts produced at multiple facilities using seeds that likely originated from a common grower. On April 26, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice. On May 1, FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that a seed supplier was withdrawing voluntarily from the market all lots of alfalfa seeds with a specific three-digit prefix. PMID:19444155

  7. High incidence of extra-intestinal infections in a Salmonella Havana outbreak associated with alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H D; Mohle-Boetani, J C; Werner, S B; Abbott, S L; Farrar, J; Vugia, D J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine a vehicle and point source for an outbreak of Salmonella Havana. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study and traceback investigation of 14 residents of California and four from Arizona with onsets of illness from Apr 15, 1998, to June 15, 1998, and Salmonella Havana infections with identical PFGE patterns. RESULTS: Seventeen of 18 patients were women. Seventeen were adults 20-89 years of age. Nine (50%) had diarrheal illness, 6 (33%) had urinary tract infections, 2 (11%) had sepsis, and one had an infected surgical wound after appendectomy. Four patients were hospitalized, and one died. Eating alfalfa sprouts was associated with S. Havana infection (OR = 10.0; 95% confidence interval 1.2, 83.1; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak resulted in a high incidence of extra-intestinal infections, especially urinary tract infections, and high morbidity. Raw alfalfa sprouts, often considered a safe "heath food," can be a source of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:11059427

  8. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  9. Temporally distinct Escherichia coli 0157 outbreaks associated with alfalfa sprouts linked to a common seed source--Colorado and Minnesota, 2003.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. D.; Scheftel, J.; Cronquist, A.; Smith, K.; Woo-Ming, A.; Anderson, E.; Knutsen, J.; De, A. K.; Gershman, K.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks were identified in Minnesota in February 2003 involving seven persons and in Colorado in July 2003 involving 13 persons. Case isolates from the two states had matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Independent case-control studies linked infections in each outbreak with eating alfalfa sprouts that were traced to the same seed distributor. The Colorado sprouter reportedly complied with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sprout guidance, whereas the Minnesota sprouter did not. These investigations revealed that increased compliance with existing FDA guidance is needed and that additional research is needed to improve the alfalfa seed decontamination process. This reaffirms the FDA recommendation that raw alfalfa sprouts should be considered potentially contaminated and avoided by persons at high-risk such as the elderly, young children, and immunocompromised persons. PFGE played an essential role in linking these two temporally and geographically distinct E. coli O157 outbreaks. PMID:15962550

  10. Presence and correlation of some enteric indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes, and Salmonella serotypes in alfalfa sprouts from local retail markets in Pachuca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Data on the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) in alfalfa sprouts and correlations between the presence of coliform bacteria (CB), fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts are not available. The presence of and correlations between CB, FC, E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts were determined. One hundred sprout samples were collected from retail markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo State, Mexico. The presence of indicator bacteria and Salmonella was determined using conventional culture procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex PCR procedures. One hundred percent of samples were positive for CB, 90% for FC, 84% for E. coli, 10% for DEPs, and 4% for Salmonella. The populations of CB ranged from 6.2 up to 8.6 log CFU/g. The FC and E. coli concentrations were between , 3 and 1,100 most probable number (MPN)/g. The DEPs identified included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC; 2%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; 3%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC; 5%). No E. coli O157:H7 strains were detected in any STEC-positive samples. In samples positive for DEPs, the concentrations ranged from 210 to 240 MPN/g for ETEC, 28 to 1,100 MPN/g for EPEC, and 3.6 to 460 MPN/g for STEC. The Salmonella isolates identified included Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in three samples and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in one. STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were identified together in one sample. Positive correlations were observed between FC and E. coli, between FC and DEPs, and between E. coli and DEPs. Negative correlations occurred between CB and DEPs and between CB and Salmonella. Neither FC nor E. coli correlated with Salmonella in the sprout samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ETEC, EPEC, and STEC isolated from alfalfa sprouts and the first report of correlations between different indicator groups versus DEPs and Salmonella.

  11. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1beta production and the NF-kappaB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 microl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 microl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. PMID:19594948

  12. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  13. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  14. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure.

  15. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure. PMID:27155479

  16. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  17. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  18. Nitrogen Reserves, Spring Regrowth and Winter Survival of Field-grown Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Defoliated in the Autumn

    PubMed Central

    DHONT, CATHERINE; CASTONGUAY, YVES; NADEAU, PAUL; BÉLANGER, GILLES; DRAPEAU, RAYNALD; LABERGE, SERGE; AVICE, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; CHALIFOUR, FRANÇOIS-P.

    2006-01-01

    • Aims The objective of the study was to characterize variations in proline, arginine, histidine, vegetative storage proteins, and cold-inducible gene expression in overwintering roots of field-grown alfalfa, in response to autumn defoliation, and in relation to spring regrowth and winter survival. • Methods Field trials, established in 1996 in eastern Canada, consisted of two alfalfa cultivars (‘AC Caribou’ and ‘WL 225’) defoliated in 1997 and 1998 either only twice during the summer or three times with the third defoliation taken 400, 500 or 600 growing degree days (basis 5 °C) after the second summer defoliation. • Key Results The root accumulation of proline, arginine, histidine and soluble proteins of 32, 19 and 15 kDa, characterized as alfalfa vegetative storage proteins, was reduced the following spring by an early autumn defoliation at 400 or 500 growing degree days in both cultivars; the 600-growing-degree-days defoliation treatment had less or no effect. Transcript levels of the cold-inducible gene msaCIA, encoding a glycine-rich protein, were markedly reduced by autumn defoliation in ‘WL 225’, but remained unaffected in the more winter-hardy cultivar ‘AC Caribou’. The expression of another cold-inducible gene, the dehydrin homologue msaCIG, was not consistently affected by autumn defoliation. Principal component analyses, including components of root organic reserves at the onset of winter, along with yield and plant density in the following spring, revealed that (a) amino acids and soluble proteins are positively related to the vigour of spring regrowth but poorly related to winter survival and (b) winter survival, as indicated by plant density in the spring, is associated with higher concentrations of cryoprotective sugars in alfalfa roots the previous autumn. • Conclusions An untimely autumn defoliation of alfalfa reduces root accumulation of specific N reserves such as proline, arginine, histidine and vegetative storage

  19. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  20. Reduction of Salmonella spp. and strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by gamma radiation of inoculated sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2000-07-01

    There have been several recent outbreaks of salmonellosis and infections with Escherichia coli O157:H7 linked to the consumption of raw sprouts. Use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means to reduce or to totally inactivate these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. The radiation D value, which is the amount of irradiation in kilograys for a 1-log reduction in cell numbers, for these pathogens was established using a minimum of five doses at 19 +/- 1 degrees C. Before inoculation, the sprouts were irradiated to 6 kGy to remove the background microflora. The sprouts were inoculated either with Salmonella spp. cocktails made with either meat or vegetable isolates or with E. coli O157:H7 cocktails made with either meat or vegetable isolates. The radiation D values for the Salmonella spp. cocktails on sprouts were 0.54 and 0.46 kGy, respectively, for the meat and vegetable isolates. The radiation D values for the E. coli O157:H7 cocktails on sprouts were 0.34 and 0.30 kGy, respectively, for the meat and vegetable isolates. Salmonella was not detected by enrichment culture on sprouts grown from alfalfa seeds naturally contaminated with Salmonella after the sprouts were irradiated to a dose of 0.5 kGy or greater. Ionizing radiation is a process that can be used to reduce the population of pathogens on sprouts.

  1. Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phage resistant and susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA)and protein encoding (atpD and recA) g...

  2. Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, E S P; Tambong, J T; Cloutier, S; Prévost, D; Laguerre, G; van Berkum, P; Thi, T V Tran; Assabgui, R; Barran, L R

    2010-02-01

    Phage-resistant and -susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover, grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as diverse genotypes of Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA) and protein-encoding (atpD and recA) genes, Southern hybridization/RFLP and a range of phenotypic characteristics. Among phage-resistant bacteria, one genotype of Rhizobium sp. predominated on alfalfa (frequency approximately 68 %) but was recovered infrequently ( approximately 1 %) from sweet clover. A second genotype was isolated infrequently only from alfalfa. These genotypes fixed nitrogen poorly in association with sweet clover and Phaseolus vulgaris, but were moderately effective with alfalfa. They produced a near-neutral reaction on mineral salts agar containing mannitol, which is atypical of the genus Rhizobium. A single isolate of Ensifer sp. and two of Phyllobacterium sp. were recovered only from sweet clover. All were highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ensifer sp. strain T173 is closely related to, but separate from, the non-symbiotic species 'Sinorhizobium morelense'. Strain T173 is unique in that it possesses a 175 kb symbiotic plasmid and elicits ineffective nodules on alfalfa, sweet clover, Medicago lupulina and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The two Phyllobacterium spp. were non-symbiotic and probably represent bacterial opportunists. Three genotypes of E. meliloti that were symbiotically effective with alfalfa and sweet clover were encountered infrequently. Among phage-susceptible isolates, two genotypes of E. medicae were encountered infrequently and were highly effective with alfalfa, sweet clover and Medicago polymorpha. The ecological and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds. PMID:20591568

  4. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

  5. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices.

  6. Preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue grown adjacent to or at a distance from alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Friend, M A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue growing in monoculture at least 5 m away from alfalfa (fescue-middle (FM)) over endophyte-infected tall fescue growing adjacent (0.2 to 1 m; fescue-alfalfa (FA)) to alfalfa (FA), and the effect of legume scent on preference for endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Experiment 1, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered for 12 days a choice of freshly harvested FA and FM. On days 13 and 14, lambs were offered the same choice, except cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa were put in the feeders containing FA, whereas cages containing freshly harvested FM were included with the feeders containing FM. Forage intake was measured 1 h after feeding and at three consecutive 2-h intervals thereafter. FA contained greater (P<0.002) concentrations of the alkaloid ergovaline (360 ± 27 ppm) and CP (8 ± 0.4%) than FM (219 ± 27 ppm and 6 ± 0.4%, respectively). Lambs preferred (P<0.05) FA to FM during the 1st hour of feeding, but the differences became smaller and disappeared in later feeding periods (P<0.005). Lambs offered FA with alfalfa scent or FM with FM scent preferred (P<0.05) FA but only on the 2nd day. In Experiment 2, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered a choice of FM with cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa or FM for 8 days. During the following 4 days, FM in the cages was replaced with freshly harvested sainfoin. Preference was greater (P<0.05) for FM offered with alfalfa scent than for FM offered with FM scent only on days 4 and 8. When lambs were offered FM with alfalfa or sainfoin in cages, they preferred (P<0.05) tall fescue with sainfoin scent over fescue with alfalfa scent, but intake was variable across hours and days (P<0.001). It is concluded that (1) lambs adjusted their intake of and preference for FA and FM over successive feeding bouts within each day, likely owing to an attempt to balance

  7. Power sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. M. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper explains how a large number of sprouts were used as a battery of cells and connected together to power a set of LED Christmas lights. All relevant calculations to find the number of sprouts needed, their arrangement in series and parallel, the charge stored on the required capacitor and the capacitor charging time are illustrated.

  8. Increasing Alfalfa Rumen Bypass Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has one of the highest crude protein contents among forage crops, but is is rapidly and extensively degraded by rumen microorganisms. To examine differential protein digestion, three distinct varieties of alfalfa, grown from single plants, were subjected to fermentation in the rumen of a ca...

  9. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  10. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium.

  11. Hatching of Meloidogyne incognita Eggs in the Neutral Carbohydrate Fraction of Root Exudates of Gnotobiotically Grown Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, R. A.; Bloom, J. R.; Lukezic, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita eggs were hatched in soil sterilized by gamma kradiation and wetted with root exudates from alfalfa plants in different stages of development and subjected to various levels of clipping. Carbohydrate components of the exudates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although significant stimulation of hatch was detected in exudates of seedling and flowering plants, the practical importance of the increase is doubtful as hatch in distilled water was always greater than 50%. Hatch did not differ among exudate samples from clipped plants. Incubation of eggs in soil moistened with 10⁻⁷ to 10⁻³ M solutions of glucose did not result in increased hatching over that in distilled water. PMID:19319320

  12. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  13. Prohexadione-calcium responsive alfalfa varieties ensure success of corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent USDA-NASS data indicate alfalfa and corn were planted on about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively, in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Upper Midwest, and Northern Mountain regions the USA. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn plantin...

  14. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied.

  15. A Winter Sprout Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    Illustrates a method by which individual students or small groups can make a compact, self-sufficient system supplying all the growth needs for bean sprouts. Outlines several activities that can be completed while the bean sprouts are growing. (DH)

  16. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization.

  17. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W; Ourisson, Philippe J; Degnan, Frederick H

    2006-01-01

    Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75%) of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing) was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply. PMID:16630354

  18. [Soil dryness characteristics of alfalfa cropland and optimal growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-zhu; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Yi-ning; Cai, Li-qun; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Xie, Jun-hong

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated soil moisture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropland with different growth years (1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years) and discussed the optimum growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu. The results showed that the soil moisture along 0-300 cm soil profile of alfalfa croplands with different growth years was obviously lower than that of the local soil stable moisture. The soil water contents in croplands with alfalfa that had grown for 12 and 14 years were only 9.2% and 7.1% of local soil stable moisture, respectively, which were even lower than the lower limit of alfalfa growth. The average soil dryness indexes along 0-300 cm soil profile in 1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years alfalfa croplands were 125.4%, 30.5%, 18.4%, -34.2% and -83.3% respectively. The results indicated that soil dryness occurred to varying degrees with different growth years except croplands with alfalfa grown for 1 year. With the increase of growth years of alfalfa, the soil dryness intensity increased and the soil dryness rate decreased. According to the soil moisture and alfalfa productivity results in this study, it could be concluded that the optimum growth years of alfalfa are 8-10 years in semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau.

  19. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  20. Sprouting Interest in Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to the familiar paper cup and seed project in which students make grass heads out of nylon mesh stockings, sawdust, wire, rubber bands, plastic eyes, and grass seed. Students can observe the effects of light, sprouting rates, and the height and color of the sprouts on these grass heads. This creative activity is…

  1. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  2. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  3. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  4. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  5. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  6. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  7. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  8. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  9. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  10. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-01-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits. PMID:25351040

  11. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (@ L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m{sup 2}. We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team is a consortium of 16 institutions engaged in an NSF-sponsored program to promote undergraduate research within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project. In the first two years of the program, more than three dozen undergraduate students have been closely involved in ALFALFA science, observing, and data analysis. A total of 34 students have attended the annual undergraduate workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, their peers, ALFALFA experts, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 26 summer research projects and 14 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. Students and faculty have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and to national meetings to present their results. Eight Team schools have joined to work collaboratively to analyze HI properties of galaxy groups within the ALFALFA volume. (See O'Brien et al., O'Malley et al., and Odekon et al. posters, this meeting.) Students involved in this program are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267, and AST-0725380.

  13. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption. PMID:24425891

  14. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  15. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  16. Healthy food trends -- Brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... belong to the cabbage family, which also includes kale, broccoli, collard greens, and cauliflower. In fact, Brussels ... Brussels sprouts rank high in antioxidants, just after kale and spinach. Antioxidants are substances that can help ...

  17. Regulation of potato tuber sprouting.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Following tuber induction, potato tubers undergo a period of dormancy during which visible bud growth is inhibited. The length of the dormancy period is under environmental, physiological and hormonal control. Sucrose availability is one prerequisite for bud break. In the absence of sucrose, no bud break occurs. Thus, sucrose is likely to serve as nutrient and signal molecule at the same time. The mode of sucrose sensing is only vaguely understood, but most likely involves trehalose-6-phosphate and SnRK1 signalling networks. This conclusion is supported by the observation that ectopically manipulation of trehalose-6-phosphate levels influences the length of the dormancy period. Once physiological competence is achieved, sprouting is controlled by the level of phytohormones. Two phytohormones, ABA and ethylene, are supposed to suppress tuber sprouting; however, the exact role of ethylene remains to be elucidated. Cytokinins and gibberellins are required for bud break and sprout growth, respectively. The fifth classical phytohormone, auxin, seems to play a role in vascular development. During the dormancy period, buds are symplastically isolated, which changes during bud break. In parallel to the establishment of symplastic connectivity, vascular tissue develops below the growing bud most likely to support the outgrowing sprout with assimilates mobilised in parenchyma cells. Sprouting leads to major quality losses of stored potato tubers. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is a major objective in potato breeding. Although comparative transcriptome analysis revealed a large number of genes differentially expressed in growing versus dormant buds, no master-regulator of potato tuber sprouting has been identified so far.

  18. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  19. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  20. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the ... green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ...

  1. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  2. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-02-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition.

  3. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  4. Effects of light-emitting diodes on expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and accumulation of phenylpropanoids in Fagopyrum tataricum sprouts.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2014-05-28

    Buckwheat sprouts are a popular food item in many countries. The effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on sprout growth and development, changes in mRNA transcription, and accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds were studied in tartary buckwheat 'Hokkai T8' sprouts. The highest transcript levels were observed after 2 days of LED exposure for all genes, especially FtPAL and FtF3'H, which showed higher expression in sprouts grown under blue and white light than in those grown under red light. Catechin content in sprouts grown under red light increased dramatically throughout the 10 day time course. Maximum rutin content (43.37 mg/g dry weight (DW)) was observed in sprouts at 4 days after exposure (DAE) to blue light. Similarly, the highest cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside content (0.85 mg/g DW) was detected at 10 DAE to blue light. On the basis of these results, blue LED light is recommended as a light source for enhancing the content of phenolic compounds in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  5. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts.

  6. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts. PMID

  7. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-11-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E  coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits.

  8. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed.

  9. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  10. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous...

  11. Three Dimensional 10% Cyclic Strain Reduces Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cell Angiogenic Sprout Length and Augments Tubulogenesis in Tubular Fibrin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Andrew A.; Kuprys, Tomas; Ucuzian, Areck A.; Brey, Eric; Matsumura, Akie; Pang, Yonggang; Larson, Jef; Greisler, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a functional microvasculature is critical to the long-term survival of implanted tissue-engineered constructs. Dynamic culture conditions have shown to significantly modulate phenotypic characteristics and stimulate proliferation of cells within hydrogel-based tissue engineered blood vessels. Although prior work has described the effects uniaxial or equibiaxial mechanical stimulation has on endothelial cells, no work has outlined effects of three-dimensional mechanical stimulation on endothelial cells within tubular vessel analogs. We demonstrate here that 7 days of 10% cyclic volumetric distension has a deleterious effect on the average length and density of angiogenic sprouts derived from pellets of bovine aortic endothelial cells. Although both groups demonstrated lumen formation, the sprouts grown under dynamic culture conditions typically had wider, less-branching sprout patterns. These results suggest that prolonged mechanical stimulation could represent a cue for angiogenic sprouts to preferentially develop larger lumens over cellular migration and subsequent sprout length. PMID:20718050

  12. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  13. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts.

  14. Effects of light quality on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hongmei; Liu, Tianyu; Deng, Mingdan; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Shen, Wangshu; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of different light qualities, including white, red and blue lights, on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source. Our results showed that blue light treatment significantly decreased the content of gluconapin, the primary compound for bitter flavor in shoots, while increased the glucoraphanin content in roots. Moreover, the maximum content of vitamin C was detected in the white-light grown sprouts and the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanins, as well as the strongest antioxidant capacity were observed in blue-light grown sprouts. Taken together, the application of a colorful light source is a good practice for improvement of the consumers' acceptance and the nutritional phtyochemicals of Chinese kale sprouts. PMID:26593611

  15. Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage, has potential for development as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. Identifying key genes regulating lignin and cellulose biosynthesis in alfalfa would advance its development as a cellulosic feedstock. However, the ...

  16. Alfalfa Root Flavonoid Production Is Nitrogen Regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, C.; Zuanazzi, JAS.; Sallaud, C.; Quirion, J. C.; Esnault, R.; Husson, H. P.; Kondorosi, A.; Ratet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids produced by legume roots are signal molecules acting both as chemoattractants and nod gene inducers for the symbiotic Rhizobium partner. Combined nitrogen inhibits the establishment of the symbiosis. To know whether nitrogen nutrition could act at the level of signal production, we have studied the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes as well as the production of flavonoids in the roots of plants grown under nitrogen-limiting or nonlimiting conditions. We show here that growth of the plant under nitrogen-limiting conditions results in the enhancement of expression of the flavonoid biosynthesis genes chalcone synthase and isoflavone reductase and in an increase of root flavonoid and isoflavonoid production as well as in the Rhizobium meliloti nod gene-inducing activity of the root extract. These results indicate that in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots, the production of flavonoids can be influenced by the nitrogen nutrition of the plant. PMID:12228491

  17. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  18. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  19. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  20. Update: intervention strategies for producing safe sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are still foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls due to pathogen contaminated sprouts. Contaminated seeds, used for sprouting, are considered the main source of the problem. A review of seed contamination strategies, both chemical and non-thermal, will be presented. The chemical in...

  1. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  2. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  3. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  4. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Yanaka, Akinori; Fahey, Jed W; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Nakayama, Mari; Inoue, Souta; Zhang, Songhua; Tauchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hideo; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2009-04-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4(R)-methylsulfinylbutane] is abundant in broccoli sprouts in the form of its glucosinolate precursor (glucoraphanin). SF is powerfully bactericidal against Helicobacter pylori infections, which are strongly associated with the worldwide pandemic of gastric cancer. Oral treatment with SF-rich broccoli sprouts of C57BL/6 female mice infected with H. pylori Sydney strain 1 and maintained on a high-salt (7.5% NaCl) diet reduced gastric bacterial colonization, attenuated mucosal expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta, mitigated corpus inflammation, and prevented expression of high salt-induced gastric corpus atrophy. This therapeutic effect was not observed in mice in which the nrf2 gene was deleted, strongly implicating the important role of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins in SF-dependent protection. Forty-eight H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to feeding of broccoli sprouts (70 g/d; containing 420 micromol of SF precursor) for 8 weeks or to consumption of an equal weight of alfalfa sprouts (not containing SF) as placebo. Intervention with broccoli sprouts, but not with placebo, decreased the levels of urease measured by the urea breath test and H. pylori stool antigen (both biomarkers of H. pylori colonization) and serum pepsinogens I and II (biomarkers of gastric inflammation). Values recovered to their original levels 2 months after treatment was discontinued. Daily intake of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts for 2 months reduces H. pylori colonization in mice and improves the sequelae of infection in infected mice and in humans. This treatment seems to enhance chemoprotection of the gastric mucosa against H. pylori-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  6. Disinfection of radish and alfalfa seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by a gaseous acetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Latiful, Bari M; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2011-10-01

    Abstract The majority of seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on seeds before sprouting. Treatment with 8.7% (v/v) acetic acid at 55°C for 2-3 h reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella inoculated on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) by more than 5.0 log CFU/g, and a longer treatment time completely eliminated the E. coli O157:H7 population. The E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced to an undetectable level with a gaseous acetic acid treatment for 48 h. After enrichment, no E. coli O157:H7 were found in the alfalfa and radish seeds (25 g). However, these treatments were unable to eliminate Salmonella in both seed types. No significant difference between the germination rates of treated alfalfa seeds and control seeds was found, and germination rates greater than 95% were obtained for the radish seeds. Although chlorine washing is commonly used for seed decontamination, chlorine washing at 200 and 20,000 ppm resulted in a reduction of pathogens by less than or equal to 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, these results suggested that gaseous acetic acid is more effective than chlorine washing in controlling pathogenic bacteria on sprout seeds.

  7. Regeneration in Alfalfa Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Skokut, Thomas A.; Manchester, Jill; Schaefer, Jacob

    1985-01-01

    The production of somatic embryos in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., cv Regen S) is increased 5- to 10-fold by alanine and proline. However, utilization of nitrogen for synthesis of protein from alanine, proline, glutamate, and glycine is not qualitatively different, even though the latter two amino acids do not increase somatic embryo formation. These determinations were made by 15N labeling with detection by nuclear magnetic resonance. Overall metabolism of the nitrogen of proline, alanine, glutamate, and glycine is also similar in two regenerating and nonregenerating genotypes with similar germplasm, except that the levels of free amino acids are consistently higher in the nonregenerating line. In addition, when regeneration is suppressed in either of the two regenerating lines, the level of intracellular free amino acids increases. This increased level of metabolites is the only direct evidence provided by analysis of nitrogen metabolism of differences between the regenerating and nonregenerating states in alfalfa. PMID:16664455

  8. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  9. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  10. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  11. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  12. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  13. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  14. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  15. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  16. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  17. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  18. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  19. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light.

  20. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  1. [Symbiosis between the nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under salinization conditions].

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, M V; Rumiantseva, M L; Onishchuk, O P; Belova, V S; Kurchak, O N; Andronov, E E; Dziubenko, N I; Simarov, B V

    2006-01-01

    Two hundred forty-three isolates of alfalfa nodule bacteria (Sinorhizobium meliloti) were obtained from legume nodules and soils sampled in the northern Aral region, experiencing secondary salinization. Isolates obtained from nodules (N isolates) were significantly more salt-tolerant than those from soils (S isolates) when grown in a liquid medium with 3.5% NaCl. It was found that wild species of alfalfa, melilot, and trigonella preferably formed symbioses with salt-tolerant nodule bacteria in both salinized and nonsalinized soils. Only two alfalfa species, Medicago falcata and M. trautvetteri, formed efficient symbioses in soils contrasting in salinity. The formation of efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in the presence of 0.6% NaCl was studied in 36 isolates (N and S) differing in salt tolerance and symbiotic efficiency. Fifteen isolates formed efficient symbioses in the presence of salt. The increase in the dry weight of the plants was 25-68% higher than in the control group. The efficiency of symbiotic interaction under salinization conditions depended on the efficiency of the isolates under standard conditions but did not correlate with the source of nodule bacteria (soil or nodule) or their salt tolerance. The results indicate that nodule bacterium strains forming efficient symbioses under salinization conditions can be found.

  2. Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates on Alfalfa Seeds by Aqueous Ozone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-08-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of aqueous ozone on bacterially contaminated seeds, yet little is known about the response of human norovirus (huNoV). This study assessed aqueous ozone for the disinfection of alfalfa seeds contaminated with huNoV and its surrogates. The inactivation of viruses without a food matrix was also investigated. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with huNoV genogroup II, Tulane virus (TV), and murine norovirus (MNV); viruses alone or inoculated on seeds were treated in deionized water containing 6.25 ppm of aqueous ozone with agitation at 22°C for 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 min. The data showed that aqueous ozone resulted in reductions of MNV and TV infectivity from 1.66 ± 1.11 to 5.60 ± 1.11 log PFU/g seeds; for all treatment times, significantly higher reductions were observed for MNV (P < 0.05). Viral genomes were relatively resistant, with a reduction of 1.50 ± 0.14 to 3.00 ± 0.14 log genomic copies/g seeds; the reduction of TV inoculated in water was similar to that of huNoV, whereas MNV had significantly greater reductions in genomic copies (P < 0.05). Similar trends were observed in ozone-treated viruses alone, with significantly higher levels of inactivation (P < 0.05), especially with reduced levels of infectivity for MNV and TV. The significant inactivation by aqueous ozone indicates that ozone may be a plausible substitute for chlorine as an alternative treatment for seeds. The behavior of TV was similar to that of huNoV, which makes it a promising surrogate for these types of scenarios.

  3. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  4. Effect of alkaline-stabilized biosolids on alfalfa molybdenum and copper content.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Richard C; Macneal, Kirsten E

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural utilization of biosolids poses a potential risk to ruminant animals due to transfer of Mo from biosolids to forage to the animal in amounts large enough to suppress Cu uptake by the animal. Alkaline-stabilized biosolids (ASB) must be given particular consideration in assessment of Mo risk because the high pH of these biosolids could increase Mo and decrease Cu uptake by forage legumes. In this 3-yr field experiment, ASB and ground agricultural limestone (AL) were applied based on their alkalinity at rates equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soil and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was grown. Alfalfa yield was similar with AL and ASB except in the second year when ASB produced larger yields, apparently due to increased B availability with ASB. Application of ASB did not detectably increase extractable soil Mo (0- to 15-cm depth), but increased alfalfa Mo uptake in all cuttings with yield-weighted uptake coefficients (UCs) of 8.07 and 7.11 following the first and second ASB applications, respectively. Although ASB increased extractable soil Cu, and alfalfa Cu content was greater with ASB than with AL, yield-weighted alfalfa Cu to Mo ratio was decreased by ASB to levels near 3. These results suggest that ASB may have a greater effect on Mo uptake and Cu to Mo ratio of forage legumes than do other biosolids. Additional research is needed to determine implications of larger Mo cumulative loading with ASB for Mo risk, particularly in the soil pH range of 7 to 8. PMID:14964367

  5. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  6. Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Seven partial-length cDNAs and 1 full-length cDNA that were involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and 2 partial-length cDNAs that encoded carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases were first isolated and characterised in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), Hokkai T8 and Hokkai T10. They were constitutively expressed at high levels in the leaves and flowers, where carotenoids are mostly distributed. During the seed development of tartary buckwheat, an inverse correlation between transcription level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and carotenoid content was observed. The light-grown sprouts exhibited higher levels of expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in T10 and carotenoid content in both T8 and T10 compared to the dark-grown sprouts. The predominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat were lutein and β-carotene, and very abundant amounts of these carotenoids were found in light-grown sprouts. This study might broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and indicates targets for increasing the production of carotenoids in tartary buckwheat.

  7. Deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of field-grown Medicago sativa L. crown buds acclimated to freezing stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yue; Shu, Yongjun; Bai, Yan; Guo, Changhong

    2016-09-01

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) 'Zhaodong' is an important forage legume that can safely survive in northern China where winter temperatures reach as low as -30 °C. Survival of alfalfa following freezing stress depends on the amount and revival ability of crown buds. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of frost tolerance in alfalfa, we used transcriptome sequencing technology and bioinformatics strategies to analyze crown buds of field-grown alfalfa during winter. We statistically identified a total of 5605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in freezing stress including 1900 upregulated and 3705 downregulated DEGs. We validated 36 candidate DEGs using qPCR to confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Unlike other recent studies, this study employed alfalfa plants grown in the natural environment. Our results indicate that not only the CBF orthologs but also membrane proteins, hormone signal transduction pathways, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathways indicate the presence of a special freezing adaptation mechanism in alfalfa. The antioxidant defense system may rapidly confer freezing tolerance to alfalfa. Importantly, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and phenylalanine metabolism, which is of potential importance in coordinating freezing tolerance with growth and development, were downregulated in subzero temperatures. The adaptive mechanism for frost tolerance is a complex multigenic process that is not well understood. This systematic analysis provided an in-depth view of stress tolerance mechanisms in alfalfa. PMID:27272950

  8. Deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of field-grown Medicago sativa L. crown buds acclimated to freezing stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yue; Shu, Yongjun; Bai, Yan; Guo, Changhong

    2016-09-01

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) 'Zhaodong' is an important forage legume that can safely survive in northern China where winter temperatures reach as low as -30 °C. Survival of alfalfa following freezing stress depends on the amount and revival ability of crown buds. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of frost tolerance in alfalfa, we used transcriptome sequencing technology and bioinformatics strategies to analyze crown buds of field-grown alfalfa during winter. We statistically identified a total of 5605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in freezing stress including 1900 upregulated and 3705 downregulated DEGs. We validated 36 candidate DEGs using qPCR to confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Unlike other recent studies, this study employed alfalfa plants grown in the natural environment. Our results indicate that not only the CBF orthologs but also membrane proteins, hormone signal transduction pathways, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathways indicate the presence of a special freezing adaptation mechanism in alfalfa. The antioxidant defense system may rapidly confer freezing tolerance to alfalfa. Importantly, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and phenylalanine metabolism, which is of potential importance in coordinating freezing tolerance with growth and development, were downregulated in subzero temperatures. The adaptive mechanism for frost tolerance is a complex multigenic process that is not well understood. This systematic analysis provided an in-depth view of stress tolerance mechanisms in alfalfa.

  9. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  10. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikin, Adi Md; Zoellner, Claire; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts have gained popularity worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. The fact that their consumption has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness threatens the $250 million market that this industry has established in the United States. Therefore, sprout manufacturers have utilized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended application of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite solution to seeds before germination as a preventative method. Concentrations of up to 200 ppm of chlorine wash are also commonly used on sprouts. However, chlorine-based treatment achieves on average only 1- to 3-log reductions in bacteria and is associated with negative health and environmental issues. The search for alternative strategies has been widespread, involving chemical, biological, physical, and hurdle processes that can achieve up to 7-log reductions in bacteria in some cases. The compilation here of the current scientific data related to these techniques is used to compare their efficacy for ensuring the microbial safety of sprouts and their practicality for commercial producers. Of specific importance for alternative seed and sprout treatments is maintaining the industry-accepted germination rate of 95% and the sensorial attributes of the final product. This review provides an evaluation of suggested decontamination technologies for seeds and sprouts before, during, and after germination and concludes that thermal inactivation of seeds and irradiation of sprouts are the most practical stand-alone microbial safety interventions for sprout production.

  11. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  12. Biomimetic model to reconstitute angiogenic sprouting morphogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc-Huy T; Stapleton, Sarah C; Yang, Michael T; Cha, Susie S; Choi, Colin K; Galie, Peter A; Chen, Christopher S

    2013-04-23

    Angiogenesis is a complex morphogenetic process whereby endothelial cells from existing vessels invade as multicellular sprouts to form new vessels. Here, we have engineered a unique organotypic model of angiogenic sprouting and neovessel formation that originates from preformed artificial vessels fully encapsulated within a 3D extracellular matrix. Using this model, we screened the effects of angiogenic factors and identified two distinct cocktails that promoted robust multicellular endothelial sprouting. The angiogenic sprouts in our system exhibited hallmark structural features of in vivo angiogenesis, including directed invasion of leading cells that developed filopodia-like protrusions characteristic of tip cells, following stalk cells exhibiting apical-basal polarity, and lumens and branches connecting back to the parent vessels. Ultimately, sprouts bridged between preformed channels and formed perfusable neovessels. Using this model, we investigated the effects of angiogenic inhibitors on sprouting morphogenesis. Interestingly, the ability of VEGF receptor 2 inhibition to antagonize filopodia formation in tip cells was context-dependent, suggesting a mechanism by which vessels might be able to toggle between VEGF-dependent and VEGF-independent modes of angiogenesis. Like VEGF, sphingosine-1-phosphate also seemed to exert its proangiogenic effects by stimulating directional filopodial extension, whereas matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors prevented sprout extension but had no impact on filopodial formation. Together, these results demonstrate an in vitro 3D biomimetic model that reconstitutes the morphogenetic steps of angiogenic sprouting and highlight the potential utility of the model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the complex series of events involved in neovascularization. PMID:23569284

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  15. N fixation versus N uptake in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer N is the single most expensive input in nearly all crop-production systems and has been implicated in declining groundwater quality due to nitrate contamination. Commercial alfalfas are highly productive in the absence of nitrogen inputs because of the symbiotic association with soil bact...

  16. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  17. Increased photosynthetic acclimation in alfalfa associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and cultivated in greenhouse under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Baslam, Marouane; Erice, Gorka; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2014-11-15

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) can exhibit photosynthetic down-regulation when grown in greenhouse conditions under elevated atmospheric CO2. This forage legume can establish a double symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may increase the carbon sink effect of roots. Our aim was to assess whether the association of alfalfa with AMF can avoid, diminish or delay the photosynthetic acclimation observed in previous studies performed with nodulated plants. The results, however, showed that mycorrhizal (M) alfalfa at the end of their vegetative period had lower carbon (C) discrimination than non-mycorrhizal (NM) controls, indicating photosynthetic acclimation under ECO2 in plants associated with AMF. Decreased C discrimination was due to the acclimation of conductance, since the amount of Rubisco and the expression of genes codifying both large and small subunits of Rubisco were similar or slightly higher in M than in NM plants. Moreover, M alfalfa accumulated a greater amount of soluble sugars in leaves than NM plants, thus favoring a down-regulation effect on photosynthetic rates. The enhanced contents of sugars in leaves coincided with a reduced percentage of arbuscules in roots, suggesting decreased sink of carbohydrates from shoots to roots in M plants. The shorter life cycle of alfalfa associated with AMF in comparison with the NM controls may also be related to the accelerated photosynthetic acclimation in M plants. Further research is needed to clarify to what extent this behavior could be extrapolated to alfalfa cultivated in the field and subjected to periodic cutting of shoots under climatic change scenarios. PMID:25240322

  18. Increased photosynthetic acclimation in alfalfa associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and cultivated in greenhouse under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Baslam, Marouane; Erice, Gorka; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2014-11-15

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) can exhibit photosynthetic down-regulation when grown in greenhouse conditions under elevated atmospheric CO2. This forage legume can establish a double symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may increase the carbon sink effect of roots. Our aim was to assess whether the association of alfalfa with AMF can avoid, diminish or delay the photosynthetic acclimation observed in previous studies performed with nodulated plants. The results, however, showed that mycorrhizal (M) alfalfa at the end of their vegetative period had lower carbon (C) discrimination than non-mycorrhizal (NM) controls, indicating photosynthetic acclimation under ECO2 in plants associated with AMF. Decreased C discrimination was due to the acclimation of conductance, since the amount of Rubisco and the expression of genes codifying both large and small subunits of Rubisco were similar or slightly higher in M than in NM plants. Moreover, M alfalfa accumulated a greater amount of soluble sugars in leaves than NM plants, thus favoring a down-regulation effect on photosynthetic rates. The enhanced contents of sugars in leaves coincided with a reduced percentage of arbuscules in roots, suggesting decreased sink of carbohydrates from shoots to roots in M plants. The shorter life cycle of alfalfa associated with AMF in comparison with the NM controls may also be related to the accelerated photosynthetic acclimation in M plants. Further research is needed to clarify to what extent this behavior could be extrapolated to alfalfa cultivated in the field and subjected to periodic cutting of shoots under climatic change scenarios.

  19. Evaluation of Medicago sativa L. sprouts as antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.

    PubMed

    Seida, Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Hala; Abou-Hussein, Dina; Mokhtar, Fatma Alzahraa; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf

    2015-11-01

    Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) is traditionally used to treat diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the potential antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity of M. sativa sprouts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes via i.p. injection of 55 mg/kg of STZ. Experimental animals were divided into the following groups: GP1 (normal), GP2 (STZ-hyperlipidemic), GP3 (rouvastatin), GP4 (metformin), GP 5-9 (diabetic treated with methanolic, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts). The administration of the total methanolic extract (500 mg/kg), the petroleum ether (32.5mg) and butanol fractions (60 mg) for 4 weeks significantly decreased (p<0.05) triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in comparison to rouvastatin. Petroleum ether fraction proved to exhibit the best activity as antihyperlipidemic agent (12.23%). On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction retained the best activity (vs. metformin) as antihyperglycemic agent. Histopathological evidences on liver, pancreas and spleen were in agreement with the above mentioned results. Purification, characterization, and identification of isolated compounds from the active fractions afforded 9 compounds: β-sitosterol and stigmasterol from the petroleum ether fraction; 10-hydroxy-coumestrol, apigenin, genistein, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, 7, 4'- dihydroxyflavone, quercetin-3-glucoside and sissotrin from the ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:26639479

  20. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenlei; Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yanguang; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous national and international standards for their production and distribution, there is a lack of data pertaining to the microbiological safety of microgreens. In this study, sprouts and microgreens were produced from radish seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 or O104: H4 and E. coli populations on the harvested products compared to assess the potentials of product contamination from contaminated seeds during sprouting and microgreen production. Both E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 grew rapidly during sprouting, reaching levels of 5.8-8.1 log cfu/g and 5.2-7.3 log cfu/g, respectively, depending on the initial inoculation levels of the seeds (1.5-4.6 log cfu/g and 0.8-4.3 log cfu/g on radish seeds, respectively). In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 populations on harvested microgreens ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 log cfu/g and from 0.6 to 4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Although harvested microgreens carried significantly less (P < 0.001) E. coli than sprouts germinated from seeds inoculated at the same levels, proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 occurred during both sprouting and microgreen growth. PMID:25084646

  1. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenlei; Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yanguang; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous national and international standards for their production and distribution, there is a lack of data pertaining to the microbiological safety of microgreens. In this study, sprouts and microgreens were produced from radish seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 or O104: H4 and E. coli populations on the harvested products compared to assess the potentials of product contamination from contaminated seeds during sprouting and microgreen production. Both E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 grew rapidly during sprouting, reaching levels of 5.8-8.1 log cfu/g and 5.2-7.3 log cfu/g, respectively, depending on the initial inoculation levels of the seeds (1.5-4.6 log cfu/g and 0.8-4.3 log cfu/g on radish seeds, respectively). In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 populations on harvested microgreens ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 log cfu/g and from 0.6 to 4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Although harvested microgreens carried significantly less (P < 0.001) E. coli than sprouts germinated from seeds inoculated at the same levels, proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 occurred during both sprouting and microgreen growth.

  2. Elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Alfalfa seeds through a combination of high hydrostatic pressure and mild heat.

    PubMed

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Pizzolato, Thompson; Chen, Haiqiang

    2009-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been associated with contaminated seed sprout outbreaks. The majority of these outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of pathogens. Sanitizing sprout seeds presents a unique challenge in the arena of produce safety in that even a low residual pathogen population remaining on contaminated seed after treatments appears capable of growing to very high levels during sprouting. In this study, the effectiveness of high-pressure treatment in combination with low and elevated temperatures was assessed for its ability to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 on artificially contaminated alfalfa seeds. Inoculated seed samples were treated at 600 MPa for 2 min at 4, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 degrees C. The pressure sensitivity of the pathogenic bacteria was strongly dependent on the treatment temperature. At 40 degrees C, the process was adequate in eliminating a 5-log-unit population on the seeds with no adverse effect on seed viability. Three treatments carried out at reduced pressure levels and/or extended treatment time, 550 MPa for 2 min at 40 degrees C, 300 MPa for 2 min at 50 degrees C, and 400 MPa for 5 min at 45 degrees C, were equally lethal to the pathogen. When all three treatments were compared in terms of their impact on seed viability, the process of 550 MPa for 2 min at 40 degrees C was the most desirable, achieving final germination percentages and sprout sizes statistically similar to those of control untreated seeds (P > 0.05).

  3. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; Barbour, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st–2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  4. Selecting Rhizobium meliloti for inoculation of alfalfa planted in acid soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lowendorf, H.S.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    The study was conducted to obtain Rhizobium meliloti strains suitable for use with alfalfa grown in acid soils. Thirteen strains of R. meliloti were examined for their ability to grow in acidified culture media and seven of these were characterized for the ability to surive in acid and limed nonsterile soils or grow in the presence of the host legume, Medicago sativa L. The pH values of the most acid, defined medium that permitted growth of the bacteria from a small inoculum ranged from pH 5.3 to 6.0. For R. meliloti 411SE1 and GH1-1SE1, the minimum pH that allowed for growth, the critical pH, was not a dependable indicator of survival in a more acid medium. Strains of R. meliloti with relatively low critical pH values survived better in a limed soil but not in acid soils than strains with higher critical pH values. Three strains of R. meliloti previously identified as good inoculants for alfalfa in acid soils did not consistently survive beter than other strains in a planted or unplanted acid soil of pH 5.3. However, the plants increase the population densities of these three strains more than other strains. These results suggest that R. meliloti strains suitable for inoculation of alfalfa in acid soils may be selected not by simple saprophytic properties but by their stimulation by the host legume in acid soils.

  5. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Erin W; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Barbour, James D

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st-2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  6. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area.

  7. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area. PMID:24128927

  8. Bioavailability and inter-conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement in a cross-over study design

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John D.; Hsu, Anna; Riedl, Ken; Bella, Deborah; Schwartz, Steven J.; Stevens, Jan F.; Ho, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Broccoli consumption may reduce the risk of various cancers and many broccoli supplements are now available. The bioavailability and excretion of the mercapturic acid pathway metabolites isothiocyanates after human consumption of broccoli supplements has not been tested. Two important isothiocyanates from broccoli are sulforaphane and erucin. We employed a cross-over study design in which 12 subjects consumed 40 grams of fresh broccoli sprouts followed by a 1 month washout period and then the same 12 subjects consumed 6 pills of a broccoli supplement. As negative controls for isothiocyanate consumption four additional subjects consumed alfalfa sprouts during the first phase and placebo pills during the second. Blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours during each phase and analyzed for sulforaphane and erucin metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The bioavailability of sulforaphane and erucin is dramatically lower when subjects consume broccoli supplements compared to fresh broccoli sprouts. The peaks in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion were also delayed when subjects consumed the broccoli supplement. GSTP1 polymorphisms did not affect the metabolism or excretion of sulforaphane or erucin. Sulforaphane and erucin are able to interconvert in vivo and this interconversion is consistent within each subject but variable between subjects. This study confirms that consumption of broccoli supplements devoid of myrosinase activity does not produce equivalent plasma concentrations of the bioactive isothiocyanate metabolites compared to broccoli sprouts. This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates. PMID:21816223

  9. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  10. Effects of ozone and Fusarium root and crown rot on the growth and decline of Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Research examined the reaction of several major alfalfa cultivars to ozone fumigations in chambers using ozone concentrations simulating ambient levels observed in Massachusetts. These cultivars were all shown to be susceptible in varying degrees to such ozone stress. Further experiments showed that ozone at these concentrations not only reduced growth, but also altered photoassimilate partitioning. Greatest weight reductions occurred in roots, followed by leaves, and then stems. Ozone-stressed plants produced fewer leaves which weighed less per unit area than control leaves. Classic and functional growth analyses were used to examine such parameters as net assimilation rate and relative growth rate. Ozone-stressed plants fixed dry matter less efficiently than control plants, in terms of both leaf area and existing dry matter. In a final study, alfalfa was grown in the presence of isolates of pathogenic Fusarium, or to soil from a diseased alfalfa field, and concurrently fumigated with ozone. There was no significant interaction between pathogen and air pollutant, but each stress significantly reduced alfalfa growth independently.

  11. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    PubMed

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts. PMID:8332585

  12. Modeling the impact of the indigenous microbial population on the maximum population density of Salmonella on alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Rijgersberg, Hajo; Franz, Eelco; Nierop Groot, Masja; Tromp, Seth-Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count of the indigenous microbial population, the maximum pathogen growth rate and the maximum population density of the indigenous microbial population. The model is parameterized by experimental data describing growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds at inoculum size, native microbial load and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. The obtained model fits well to the experimental data, with standard errors less than ten percent of the fitted average values. The results show that the MPD of Salmonella is not only dictated by performance characteristics of Salmonella but depends on the characteristics of the indigenous microbial population like total number of cells and its growth rate. The model can improve the predictions of microbiological growth in quantitative microbial risk assessments. Using this model, the effects of preventive measures to reduce pathogenic load and a concurrent effect on the background population can be better evaluated. If competing microorganisms are more sensitive to a particular decontamination method, a pathogenic microorganism may grow faster and reach a higher level. More knowledge regarding the effect of the indigenous microbial population (size, diversity, composition) of food products on pathogen dynamics is needed in order to make adequate predictions of pathogen dynamics on various food products.

  13. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  14. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-06-15

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  15. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  16. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  17. Evaluation of aerated steam treatment of alfalfa and mung bean seeds to eliminate high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Drissner, David

    2013-08-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  18. Evaluation of Aerated Steam Treatment of Alfalfa and Mung Bean Seeds To Eliminate High Levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E.; Hummerjohann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:23709507

  19. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  20. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  1. Persistence and diversity of rhizobial bacteria nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with an inoculant consisting of several strains of the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti to enhance nodulation of seedlings. One strategy for increasing alfalfa forage yields, particularly in less fertile sites, is selection and use of highly competitive a...

  2. Drying and Quality Characteristics of Different Components of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of air temperature (100' 200 ' ) and velocity (0. 15' 0. 45 m/s) on drying characteristics and quality of different alfalfa components. The chopped alfalfa components, including stems, crushed stems, crushed stems with attached leaves, and leaves were used for the ...

  3. Improvements in alfalfa subspecies falcata germplasms and their hybrid performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autotetraploid yellowed flowered alfalfa (falcata) is distinct from purple flowered alfalfa. Collected wild falcata germplasm has poor agronomic performance. Pre-breeding efforts to improve falcata germplasm have occurred over the years, resulting in varieties or germplasms such as: WISFAL, AC Yell...

  4. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  5. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  6. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  7. Alfalfa leafcutting bee population dynamics, flower availability, and pollination rates in two Oregon alfalfa fields.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P

    2005-08-01

    Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern Oregon. Despite marked differences in bee management, establishment was very similar in the two fields (approximately 0.5 females per nesting cavity) and lagged peak bloom by approximately 2 wk. Pollination rates increased from 0-10% in the first 3 wk to 80-90% in week 4-5. By then, M. rotundata females had difficulty finding untripped (nonpollinated) flowers and visited large numbers of already tripped or not fully matured flowers. M. rotundata progeny mortality was very high (54-78%). Estimated seed yields were similar in both fields. We contend similar seed yields, and improved bee production, could be accomplished with smaller bee populations, better timed with alfalfa bloom. PMID:16156556

  8. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  9. Early recognition in the Rhizobium meliloti-alfalfa symbiosis: root exudate factor stimulates root adsorption of homologous rhizobia.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, L G; Favelukes, G

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of Rhizobium meliloti to alfalfa roots before their infection and nodule formation shows the specificity of the symbiotic association (G. Caetano-Anollés and G. Favelukes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:377-382, 1986). The time course of specific adsorption of R. meliloti (10(3) to 10(4) cells per ml) to roots shows an initial lag period of 3 h, suggesting that either or both symbionts must become conditioned for the adsorption process. Preincubation of R. meliloti L5-30 for 3 h with dialyzed alfalfa root exudate (RE) markedly increased early adsorption of rhizobia to alfalfa roots. The activity in RE was linked to a nondialyzable, thermolabile, trypsin-sensitive factor(s), very different from the root-exuded flavonoid compounds also involved in early Rhizobium-legume interactions. The lack of activity in the RE from plants grown in 5 mM NO3- suggested its negative regulation by the nitrogen nutritional status of the plant. Preincubation of R. meliloti with heterologous clover RE did not stimulate adsorption of rhizobial cells to roots. A short pretreatment of RE with homologous (but not heterologous) strains eliminated the stimulatory activity from solution. The stimulation of adsorption of R. meliloti to alfalfa roots was strongly dependent on the growth phase of the rhizobia, being greater at the late exponential stage. Nevertheless, the capacity of R. meliloti L5-30 to eliminate from solution the stimulatory activity in RE appeared to be constitutive in the rhizobia. The low concentration of rhizobial cells used in these experiments was critical to detect the stimulation of adsorption. The early interaction of spontaneously released alfalfa root macromolecular factor(s) and free-living R. meliloti, which shows the specificity and regulatory properties characteristic of infection and nodulation, would be an initial recognition event in the rhizosphere which triggers the process of symbiotic association. PMID:2045369

  10. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil.

  11. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  12. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage in rats by brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, X S; Tuo, J; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1998-03-01

    The alleged cancer preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables could be related to protection from mutagenic oxidative DNA damage. We have studied the effects of Brussels sprouts, some non-cruciferous vegetables and isolated glucosinolates on spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats. Excess oxidative DNA damage was induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP 100 mg/kg). Four days oral administration of 3 g of cooked Brussels sprouts homogenate reduced the spontaneous urinary 8-oxodG excretion by 31% (p<0.05) whereas raw sprouts, beans and endive (1:1), isolated indolyl glucosinolates and breakdown products had no significant effect. An aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts (corresponding to 6.7 g vegetable per day for 4 days) decreased the spontaneous 8-oxodG excretion from 92 +/- 12 to 52 +/- 15 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). After 2-NP administration the 8-oxodG excretion was increased to 132 +/- 26 pmol/24 h (p<0.05) whereas pretreatment with the sprouts extract reduced this to 102 +/- 30 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). The spontaneous level of 8-oxodG in nuclear DNA from liver and bone marrow was not significantly affected by the sprouts extract whereas the level decreased by 27% in the kidney (p<0.05). In the liver 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels in nuclear DNA 8.7 and 3.8 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. The sprouts extract reduced this increase by 57% (p<0.05) at 6 h whereas there was no significant effect at 24 h. In the kidneys 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels 2.2 and 1.2 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. Pretreatment with the sprouts extract abolished these increases (p<0.05). Similarly, in the bone marrow the extract protected completely (p<0.05) against a 4.9-fold 2-NP induced increase (p<0.05) in the 8-oxodG level. These findings demonstrate that cooked Brussels sprouts contain bioactive substance(s) with a potential for reducing the physiological

  13. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  14. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health. PMID:23061899

  15. Biotic elicitors effectively increase the glucosinolates content in Brassicaceae sprouts.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2014-02-26

    Several biotic elicitors have been used in Brassicaceae species to enhance their phytochemical quality. However, there is no comparison between elicitors under controlled growth conditions. In order to draw general conclusions about the use of elicitors to enrich ready-to-eat sprouts in health-promoting glucosinolates, the aim of this study was to unveil the effect of the phytohormones methyl jasmonate (25 μM), jasmonic acid (150 μM), and salicylic acid (100 μM), the oligosaccharides glucose (277 mM) and sucrose (146 mM), and the amino acid dl-methionine (5 mM) as elicitors over 8-day sprouting Brassica oleraceae (broccoli), Brassica napus (rutabaga cabbage), Brassica rapa (turnip), and Raphanus sativus (China rose radish and red radish), representative species high in glucosinolates previously studied. Results indicated that the phytohormones methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid and the sugars acted as effective elicitors, increasing the total glucosinolate contents of the sprouts, particularly, glucoraphanin (from 183 to 294 mg·100 g(-1) in MeJA-treated broccoli sprouts), glucoraphenin (from 33 to 124 mg·100 g(-1) and from 167 to 227 mg·100 g(-1) in MeJA-treated China rose radish and red radish, respectively), and glucobrassicin (from 23.4 to 91.0 mg·100 g(-1) and from 29.6 to 186 mg·100 g(-1) in MeJA-treated turnip and rutabaga sprouts, respectively).

  16. Mass-based metabolomic analysis of soybean sprouts during germination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Eun-Ji; Kim, Dong Wook; Jang, Gwang-Ju; Song, Seong Hwa; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Bo-Min; Cho, Yeongrae; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the metabolite profile of soybean sprouts at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4days after germination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) to understand the relationship between germination and nutritional quality. Data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and sprout samples were separated successfully using their PLS-DA scores. Fifty-eight metabolites, including macromolecular derivatives related to energy production, amino acids, myo-inositol metabolites, phytosterols, antioxidants, isoflavones, and soyasaponins, contributed to the separation. Amino acids, myo-inositol metabolites, isoflavone aglycones, B soyasaponins, antioxidants, and phytosterols, associated with health benefits and/or taste quality, increased with germination time while isoflavone glycosides and DDMP soyasaponins decreased. Based on these metabolites, the metabolomic pathway associated with energy production in soybean sprouts is suggested. Our data suggest that sprouting is a useful processing step to improve soybean nutritional quality, and metabolomic analysis is useful in understanding nutritional change during sprouting. PMID:27664639

  17. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health.

  18. Angiogenic sprouting is regulated by endothelial cell expression of Slug

    PubMed Central

    Welch-Reardon, Katrina M.; Ehsan, Seema M.; Wang, Kehui; Wu, Nan; Newman, Andrew C.; Romero-Lopez, Monica; Fong, Ashley H.; George, Steven C.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that control processes requiring cell movement. Specifically, they regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) where an epithelial cell severs intercellular junctions, degrades basement membrane and becomes a migratory, mesenchymal-like cell. Interestingly, Slug expression has been observed in angiogenic endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, suggesting that angiogenic sprouting may share common attributes with EMT. Here, we demonstrate that sprouting EC in vitro express both Slug and Snail, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of either inhibits sprouting and migration in multiple in vitro angiogenesis assays. We find that expression of MT1-MMP, but not of VE-Cadherin, is regulated by Slug and that loss of sprouting as a consequence of reduced Slug expression can be reversed by lentiviral-mediated re-expression of MT1-MMP. Activity of MMP2 and MMP9 are also affected by Slug expression, likely through MT1-MMP. Importantly, we find enhanced expression of Slug in EC in human colorectal cancer samples compared with normal colon tissue, suggesting a role for Slug in pathological angiogenesis. In summary, these data implicate Slug as an important regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, particularly in pathological settings. PMID:24554431

  19. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  20. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  1. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  2. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes.

  3. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yi; Hu, Xingyue; Cai, Huaying

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3–4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because functional recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3% acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprouting appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle fiber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in fiber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Additionally, the increase in tibial nerve fibers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A. PMID:25317170

  4. Effect of temperature on sorption isotherms of Brussels sprout.

    PubMed

    Irzyniec, Zbigniew; Klimczak, Jolanta

    2003-02-01

    The effect of temperature (0, 20 and 40 degrees C) on the sorptivity of freeze-dried Brussels sprout was studied. It was checked which of the sorption isotherm equations that included temperature was the best to estimate experimental data. The surface area of a monolayer and isosteric heat of sorption was calculated. From the tested equations the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Oswin equations appeared to be the best for describing sorption isotherms of freeze-dried Brussels sprout. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation was found suitable for the calculation of pure isosteric heat of sorption.

  5. A comparison of measured and modeled nitrous oxide emissions from flood irrigated alfalfa in California using the DNDC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haden, V. R.; Culman, S.; Burger, M.; Li, C.; Salas, W.; Horwath, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Field validation of biogeochemical models under various cropping systems is necessary to advance our understanding of nutrient cycling and to improve global estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. There are over 1 million acres of irrigated alfalfa grown in California, the largest producer in the United States, yet no published field studies have measured N2O emissions from irrigated alfalfa. Here we measured N2O flux, soil inorganic N (NO3, NH4), soil temperature, water-filled pore space and harvested yield in California during 2011 in adjacent fields containing alfalfa at two different stand ages (2nd and 5th yr stands). Both alfalfa fields were managed under identical flood irrigation and crop management regimes during the study period. The field measurements were then compared with modeled estimates of each parameter in order to validate the performance of the Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) model under these agronomic conditions. Large fluxes of N2O were measured immediately following each irrigation event but decreased rapidly as soils dried. Cumulative annual N2O emissions from the 5th yr alfalfa stand were more than twice as large (5.20 kg N2O-N ha-1) as those in the adjacent 2nd yr stand (2.30 kg N2O-N ha-1), and were due mainly to larger peaks after irrigation events. These annual emissions were notably larger than measurements reported for rain-fed alfalfa in other regions. The DNDC model slightly over-predicted cumulative annual N2O emissions relative to measured values for both the 5th yr (6.5 kg N2O-N ha-1) and 2nd yr (2.7 N2O-N ha-1) alfalfa stands. The model estimates for yield, soil NO3, soil NH4, and water-filled pore space were relatively consistent with field measurements. More precise field data on crop water requirements, soil temperature, N fixation capacity, and maximum yield have the potential to further improve the fit between DNDC model estimates and measured N2O emissions. Annual emission factors (EFs) were

  6. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  7. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High moisture before harvest can cause sprouting of the wheat kernel, which is termed as pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). The aim of this study was to examine the variation in physicochemical properties of proteins and free asparagine concentration in PHS damaged (sprouted) hard red and white spring whe...

  8. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  9. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  10. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    PubMed Central

    AL-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  11. Plant development controls leaf area expansion in alfalfa plants competing for light

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Tiago Celso; Frak, Ela; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar de Faccio; Louarn, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The growth of crops in a mixture is more variable and difficult to predict than that in pure stands. Light partitioning and crop leaf area expansion play prominent roles in explaining this variability. However, in many crops commonly grown in mixtures, including the forage species alfalfa, the sensitivity and relative importance of the physiological responses involved in the light modulation of leaf area expansion are still to be established. This study was designed to assess the relative sensitivity of primary shoot development, branching and individual leaf expansion in alfalfa in response to light availability. Methods Two experiments were carried out. The first studied isolated plants to assess the potential development of different shoot types and growth periods. The second consisted of manipulating the intensity of competition for light using a range of canopies in pure and mixed stands at two densities so as to evaluate the relative effects on shoot development, leaf growth, and plant and shoot demography. Key Results Shoot development in the absence of light competition was deterministic (constant phyllochrons of 32·5 °Cd and 48·2 °Cd for primary axes and branches, branching probability of 1, constant delay of 1·75 phyllochron before axillary bud burst) and identical irrespective of shoot type and growth/regrowth periods. During light competition experiments, changes in plant development explained most of the plant leaf area variations, with average leaf size contributing to a lesser extent. Branch development and the number of shoots per plant were the leaf area components most affected by light availability. Primary axis development and plant demography were only affected in situations of severe light competition. Conclusions Plant leaf area components differed with regard to their sensitivity to light competition. The potential shoot development model presented in this study could serve as a framework to integrate light responses

  12. Temperature variation effect on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, high-value vegetable production in the Southeast US used methyl bromide to control a multitude of pests, including weeds. In the absence of methyl bromide, control of nutsedges has become problematic. A greater understanding of the factors that regulate the sprouting of nutsedges fro...

  13. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion. PMID:22568492

  14. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  16. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... additive may be used as a flavor enhancer in food at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section...

  17. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  19. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.

  20. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  1. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  2. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  3. 21 Cm Tomography With the Alfalfa Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Alexander B.; Boutan, C.; Carroll, P. A.; Hazelton, B.; Morales, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen (HI) 21cm intensity mapping, or HI tomography is a promising technique being utilized by several upcoming experiments (LOFAR, MWA, SKA). The measurement of volume averaged neutral hydrogen mass density in synoptic sky surveys can be applied to the study of the HI mass function, the distribution of large scale structure, the reionization of the universe, and the expansion history of the universe through such standard rulers as baryonic acoustic oscillations. In order to prepare for future experiments, in particular the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), we analyze the Arecbo Legacy Fast ALFA (Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey data to probe the spatial density variations of HI in our local universe (z <0.06) where data is currently available. We address challenges unique to data of this kind, such as identifying and subtracting out signal from RFI and local galactic sources, and characterizing the ALFA array beam pattern which dictates sensitivity and resolution.

  4. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  5. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  6. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  7. Toxic Effects of Copper-based Nanoparticles or Compounds to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Keller, Arturo A.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2014-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 day-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L. At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species. PMID:25474419

  8. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6–48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  9. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6-48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  10. Toward characterizing seed vigor in alfalfa through proteomic analysis of germination and priming.

    PubMed

    Yacoubi, Rafika; Job, Claudette; Belghazi, Maya; Chaibi, Wided; Job, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    Alfalfa, the most widely grown leguminous crop in the world, is generally exposed to severe salinity stress in Tunisia, notably affecting its germination performance. Toward a better understanding of alfalfa seed vigor, we have used proteomics to characterize protein changes occurring during germination and osmopriming, a pretreatment that accelerates germination and improves seedling uniformity particularly under stress conditions. The data revealed that germination was accompanied by dynamic changes of 79 proteins, which are mainly involved in protein metabolism, cell structure, metabolism, and defense. Comparative proteomic analysis also revealed 63 proteins specific to osmopriming, 65 proteins preferentially varying during germination, and 14 proteins common to both conditions. Thus, the present study unveiled the unexpected finding that osmopriming cannot simply be considered as an advance of germination-related processes but involves other mechanisms improving germination such as the mounting of defense mechanisms enabling osmoprimed seeds to surmount environmental stresses potentially occurring during germination. The present results therefore provide novel avenues toward understanding the mechanisms of invigoration of low vigor seeds by priming treatments that are widely used both in commercial applications and in developing countries (on farm seed priming) to better control crop yields.

  11. Angiopoietins-1 and -2 play opposing roles in endothelial sprouting of embryoid bodies in 3D culture and their receptor Tie-2 associates with the cell-cell adhesion molecule PECAM1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Angel; Shively, John E

    2011-09-10

    Angiopoietins 1 and 2, ligands for the receptor kinase Tie-2, have been proposed to play critical but opposing roles in vascular development. Since signaling by Tie-2 is likely affected by other endothelial cell receptors such as Flk-1, the receptor for VEGF, and cell-cell adhesion receptors PECAM1 and VE-cad, we explored their interactions in a 3D model of vasculogenesis. When murine embryoid bodies (EBs) were treated with VEGF in Matrigel in the presence or absence of Ang-1 or Ang-2 for eight days, Ang-1 abrogated vascular sprouting for treatments started at days 0 or 3. In contrast, Ang-2 greatly accelerated vascular sprouting compared to untreated EBs. These results were confirmed in a second model system where VEGF treated HUVECs were grown in Matrigel in the presence or absence of Ang-1 or Ang-2. Since vascular sprouting must be precisely controlled in the developing embryo, it is likely that cell-cell adhesion molecules play a role in sensing the density of vascular sprouts. In this respect, we have shown that PECAM1 and CEACAM1 play essential roles in vascular sprouting. We now show that PECAM1 is associated with Tie-2, becomes phosphorylated on its ITIMs, and recruits the inhibitory phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. In addition, PECAM1 is associated with VE-cad and may similarly regulate its signaling via recruitment of SHP-1/2.

  12. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value

    PubMed Central

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000–2800 cm-1), proteins (1550–1530 cm-1), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  13. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  14. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  15. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  16. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  17. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Stanley F; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M; Fallavollita, James A

    2013-01-15

    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, markers of sympathetic nerve function and nerve sprouting were assessed in subendocardial tissue collected from chronically instrumented pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 18) as well as sham-instrumented controls (n = 7). Hibernating myocardium exhibited evidence of partial sympathetic denervation compared with the normally perfused region and sham controls, with corresponding regional reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase protein (-32%, P < 0.001), norepinephrine uptake transport protein (-25%, P = 0.01), and tissue norepinephrine content (-45%, P < 0.001). Partial denervation induced nerve sprouting with regional increases in nerve growth factor precursor protein (31%, P = 0.01) and growth associated protein-43 (38%, P < 0.05). All of the changes in sympathetic nerve markers were similar in animals that developed sudden death (n = 9) compared with electively terminated pigs with hibernating myocardium (n = 9). In conclusion, sympathetic nerve dysfunction in hibernating myocardium is most consistent with partial sympathetic denervation and is associated with regional nerve sprouting. The extent of sympathetic remodeling is similar in animals that develop sudden death compared with survivors; this suggests that sympathetic remodeling in hibernating myocardium is not an independent trigger for sudden death. Nevertheless, sympathetic remodeling likely contributes to electrical instability in combination with other factors.

  18. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L.; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe3O4-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe3O4. CNTs bearing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up. PMID:22977097

  20. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  1. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  2. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: Widespread distribution of race 2 in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strong seedling establishment in alfalfa is important to achieve the plant density needed to out-compete weeds and produce high biomass yields. Establishing alfalfa can be challenging because alfalfa seeds and seedlings are vulnerable to several pathogens present in soil. Wet soil conditions favor t...

  3. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  4. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  5. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  6. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  7. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  8. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  9. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-01

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  10. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  11. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  12. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Zaidul, I S M; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Mukasa, Yuji; Hashimoto, Naoto; Takigawa, Sigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2008-10-15

    The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.

  13. Terminal sprouting in partially denervated muscle of the mouse: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, K

    1988-08-01

    Terminal sprouting in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle was examined by scanning electron microscopy after partial denervation. After one of the two muscle nerves in the medial head was cut, terminal sprouts arose from the outer edge of the intact motor endplates and grew out onto a connective tissue layer on the muscle fibres. The sprouts were very slender along their length, although some had a varicose appearance. The terminal tip of the sprouts was swollen in an amoeba-shaped configuration, forming a growth cone. Several shorter projections surrounded the initial part of a long terminal sprout, whilst in the centre the varicosity had a spindle shape like a diamond: the former most likely indicated the processes of a Schwann cell, and the latter may be a Schwann cell soma. Such swelling patterns suggested that the sprout initially grew out from a growth cone and then the Schwann cells migrated into the growing sprout. The sprouts had no synaptic connections with their muscle fibres at least during the growth cone-forming stage. No structural changes to guide the growing terminal sprouts could be recognized on the flat surface of the muscle fibres. PMID:3193131

  14. Dissociation between mossy fiber sprouting and rapid kindling with low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Armitage, L L; Mohapel, P; Jenkins, E M; Hannesson, D K; Corcoran, M E

    1998-01-19

    In an attempt to determine whether sprouting of mossy fibers is invariably correlated with kindling of seizures, we subjected rats to rapid kindling with long trains of low-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of five stimulations. For comparison, we subjected other rats to conventional kindling with short trains of high-frequency stimulation of the amygdala that resulted in development of generalized seizures within a mean of 13 stimulations. We found no evidence of mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus of rats killed one day after completion of rapid kindling, as compared to yoked controls, although significant sprouting was seen in rats killed one day after completion of conventional kindling. When we examined tissue from rats killed 20 days after rapid kindling, however, we did find significant sprouting, suggesting that mossy fiber sprouting can be triggered by rapid kindling if sufficient survival time is allowed. The observed disparity between completion of rapid low-frequency kindling and detection of mossy fiber sprouting suggests that mossy fiber sprouting may be associated more with sustained survival time after neuronal activation than with kindling per se. Furthermore, the similar time course of conventional kindling and of mossy fiber sprouting obscures the determination of a causal role of mossy fiber sprouting in conventional kindling.

  15. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  16. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  17. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants.

  19. Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Sprout Plants: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmook; Sung, Hwa Kyung; Kim, Younghun

    2016-05-01

    A critical need in the field of nanotechnology is the development of a sustainable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs). To accomplish this, the use of live plants becomes essential for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic metallic NPs. In this study, we tried in-vivo synthesis (green synthesis) of silver and gold NPs using seeds of bean, radish, and alfalfa, which were grown hydroponically in aqueous solutions containing metal salts, 20-25 nm sized NPs were found on the inner surfaces of the plants' vascular cylinders and cortex. The amounts of NPs taken up by the intracellular systems were clearly dependent on the exposure time and concentration of the metal salts. Although these results regarding the green synthesis of NPs on the growth of plant species are somewhat interesting and effective, metal salts adversely affected the root growth of the plants. Silver ions in the growth media showed a more negative impact on root growth compared to gold ions. Therefore, even though biosynthesis of metal NPs using live plants is considered as green synthesis, we have to consider their phytotoxicity on plant growth. PMID:27483771

  20. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Loretta; Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Zhou, Haibo; Zhang, Hongtao; Jones, Shannon; Robinette, Carole; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13) or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16) on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1) and post (day2, day21) LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21) and T cell (day2) populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2). BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2) in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:26820305

  1. Dendrites of rod bipolar cells sprout in normal aging retina

    PubMed Central

    Liets, Lauren C.; Eliasieh, Kasra; van der List, Deborah A.; Chalupa, Leo M.

    2006-01-01

    The aging nervous system is known to manifest a variety of degenerative and regressive events. Here we report the unexpected growth of dendrites in the retinas of normal old mice. The dendrites of many rod bipolar cells in aging mice were observed to extend well beyond their normal strata within the outer plexiform layer to innervate the outer nuclear layer where they appeared to form contacts with the spherules of rod photoreceptors. Such dendritic sprouting increased with age and was evident at all retinal eccentricities. These results provide evidence of retinal plasticity associated with normal aging. PMID:16880381

  2. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m−2 s−1). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops. PMID:26504531

  3. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

  4. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Broccoli is a Brassica vegetable that is believed to possess chemopreventive properties. Selenium also shows promise as an anticancer agent. Thus, selenium enrichment of broccoli has the potential to enhance the anticancer properties of broccoli sprouts. Method Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were prepared using a sodium selenite solution. Their anticancer properties were evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and compared with those of a control broccoli sprout extract. Results Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts but, not normal broccoli sprouts, induced a downregulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts could potentially be used as an alternative selenium source for prostate cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:19943972

  5. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents.

  6. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  7. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  9. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  10. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  11. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  12. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  13. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  14. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  15. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids) were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64%) elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently identified S. meliloti s

  16. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  17. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  18. Properties of Field-Sprouted Sorghum and Its Performance in Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of field-sprouted grain sorghum and their fermentation performance in ethanol production. Five field-sprouted grain sorghum varieties, which received abnormally high rainfall during harvest, were used i...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders

    PubMed Central

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. PMID:27660774

  20. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-09-22

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak.

  2. Effects of yeast polysaccharide on growth and flavonoid accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum sprout cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Jingbo; Zhong, Lingyun; Xiang, Dabing

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders.

    PubMed

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Petronella, Nicholas; Tamber, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 foodborne salmonellosis outbreak in Canada and the United States implicated, for the first time, sprouted chia seed powder as the vehicle of transmission. Here, we report the draft whole genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica strains isolated from sprouted powders related to the aforementioned outbreak. PMID:27660774

  4. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  5. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  6. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  7. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  8. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  9. Sympathetic Fiber Sprouting in Chronically Compressed Dorsal Root Ganglia Without Peripheral Axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Shelby Q.; Li, Chunling; Li, Huiqing; Xie, Wenrui; Pablo, Carmelita S.; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Sympathetic axonal sprouting in axotomized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has been shown to be a major phenomenon implicated in neuropathic pain. However, it is not known whether sympathetic sprouting can occur in pathologic ganglia without peripheral axotomy. We thus examined presence and density of sympathetic axonal sprouting within DRG of rats subjected to a persistent compressive injury by inserting a stainless steel metal rod into L4 and L5 lumbar intervertebral foramen. Sympathetic axons were identified by immunohistochemical staining with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies. Results indicate that progressive increase in sympathetic axonal sprouting occurred in the bilateral DRGs between postoperative days 2 and 28. The sympathetic fiber density was greater on the lesion side than the contralateral side. In conclusion, chronic compressive injury of the DRG results in sympathetic sprouting in the non-axotomized ganglion and may partially contribute to the development and maintenance of certain pathological pain states. PMID:17387381

  10. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. PMID:26868554

  11. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  12. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1-42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  13. CIPC and 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene Inhibit Sprout Growth Through Different Mechanisms and Do Not Extend Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are sprout inhibitors used to control sprouting in commercial potato storages. CIPC interferes with microtubule function and is thought to suppress sprouting by inhibiting cell division. DMN is a natural product produced by potato tubers whose sp...

  14. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  15. Photosynthetic down-regulation under elevated CO₂ exposure can be prevented by nitrogen supply in nodulated alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Erice, Gorka; Aranjuelo, Iker; Nogués, Salvador; Irigoyen, Juan José; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-12-15

    Increasing atmospheric CO₂ concentrations are expected to enhance plant photosynthesis and yield. Nevertheless, after long-term exposure, plants acclimate and show a reduction in photosynthetic activity (called down-regulation), which may cause a reduction in potential yield. Some authors suggest that down-regulation is related to nutrient availability, and more specifically, to an insufficient plant C sink strength caused by limited N supply. In this paper, we tested whether or not N availability prevents down-regulation of photosynthesis in nodulated alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.). To do so, we examined the effect of the addition of different levels of NH₄NO₃ (0, 10, and 15 mM) to 30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants exposed to ambient (approximately 400 μmol mol⁻¹) or elevated CO₂ (700 μmol mol⁻¹) during a period of 1 month in growth chambers. After 2 weeks of exposure to elevated CO₂, no significant differences were observed in plant growth or photosynthesis rates. After 4 weeks of treatment, exclusively N₂ fixing alfalfa plants (0 mM NH₄NO₃) showed significant decreases in photosynthesis and Vc(max). Photosynthetic down-regulation of these plants was caused by the C/N imbalance as reflected by the carbohydrate and N data. On the other hand, plants supplied with 15 mM NH₄NO₃ grown under elevated CO₂ maintained high photosynthetic rates owing to their superior C/N adjustment. The intermediate N treatment, 10 mM NH₄NO₃, also showed photosynthetic down-regulation, but to a lesser degree than with 0 mM treatment. The present study clearly shows that external N supply can reduce or even avoid acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO₂ as a consequence of the increase in C sink strength associated with N availability.

  16. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  17. Total polyphenols and bioactivity of seeds and sprouts in several legumes.

    PubMed

    Chon, Sang-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Seeds and sprouts from legume crop plants have received attention as functional foods, because of their nutritive values including amino acid, fiber, trace elements, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Consumption of seeds and sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The seeds and sprouts are excellent examples of functional food defined as lowering the risk of various diseases and/or exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value. Phenolic compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants during normal development and in response to stress conditions, and the compounds occur ubiquitously in plants as the diversified group of phytochemicals derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavonoids, stilbenes, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, lignans, and lignins. In plant, phenolics may act as phytoalexins, antifeedants, attractants for pollinators, contributors to the plant pigmentation, antioxidants, and protective agents against UV light, among others. In food, phenolics may contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, odor, and oxidative stability of products. In addition, health-protecting capacity of some and antinutritional properties of other plant phenolics are of great importance to producers, processors and consumers. Several researches were conducted to compare the content of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzyme activity from seeds and sprouts of legume plants. Total phenolics (TP) content and total flavonoids (TF) level were highest in soybean sprout extracts, followed by cowpea and mungbean sprout extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was higher in cowpea or mungbean sprouts than in soybean sprouts. Among antioxidant enzymes

  18. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits.

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment.

  20. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits. PMID:26841704

  1. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  2. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    PJ, Noy; P, Lodhia; K, Khan; X, Zhuang; DG, Ward; AR, Verissimo; A, Bacon; R, Bicknell

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a HUVEC spheroid sprouting assay we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a+/+ and clec14a−/− mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a−/− mice. Pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4 but not C2 blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4 treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4 treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, that has the potential to be manipulated in future anti-angiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  3. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Noy, P J; Lodhia, P; Khan, K; Zhuang, X; Ward, D G; Verissimo, A R; Bacon, A; Bicknell, R

    2015-11-19

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show that CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell spheroid-sprouting assay, we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a(+/+) and clec14a(-/-) mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A-deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a(-/-) mice. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4, but not C2, blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4-treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4-treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, which has the potential to be manipulated in future antiangiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  4. Isoflavone content and composition in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2015-03-18

    The influence of different germination conditions on isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts was investigated in this study. Chickpea sprouts were germinated under different experimental conditions, including germination in the dark (GD), in the light (GL), under ethanol stress (GE), or under salt stress (GS) in the dark. The results demonstrated that the isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts germinated with these various conditions significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to those in untreated chickpea seeds. The maximum amount of total isoflavones was obtained from chickpea sprouts in the GL group on day 8. The contents of formononetin and biochanin A in this group were 154 and 130 times higher, respectively, than in untreated seeds and 1.2 times higher than in sprouts in the GD group. Moreover, the isoflavone contents of chickpea sprouts in the GE and GS groups were also higher (p<0.05) than those in the GD group. A solution of 3% ethanol and 0.03 mol/L salt seemed to be the most optimal for isoflavone production among the solutions selected for this study. Most of the isoflavone contents significantly increased (p<0.05), especially formononetin and biochanin A, while the genistein content decreased with germination. Ononin, pseudobaptigenin, and glycitein glucoside acetylated were only detected in germinated chickpeas. This finding could expand the potential for the development of chickpea sprouts as a functional food.

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment. PMID:27357030

  6. Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.

  7. Outbreaks caused by sprouts, United States, 1998-2010: lessons learned and solutions needed.

    PubMed

    Dechet, Amy M; Herman, Karen M; Chen Parker, Cary; Taormina, Peter; Johanson, Joy; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation. PMID:25076040

  8. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  9. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  10. Mercury localization and speciation in plants grown hydroponically or in a natural environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Siebner, Hagar; Leduc, Danika L; Webb, Samuel M; Millán, Rocío; Andrews, Joy C; Hernández, Luis E

    2013-04-01

    Better understanding of mercury (Hg) accumulation, distribution, and speciation in plants is required to evaluate potential risks for the environment and to optimize phytostabilization strategies for Hg-contaminated soils. The behavior of Hg in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants grown under controlled conditions in a hydroponic system (30 μM HgCl2) was compared with that of naturally occurring Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) plants collected from a mining soil polluted with Hg (Almadenejos, Spain) to characterize common mechanisms of tolerance. Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence microprobe (μ-SXRF) showed that Hg accumulated at the root apex of alfalfa and was distributed through the vascular system to the leaves. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) implied association of Hg with cell walls, accompanied by their structural changes, in alfalfa roots. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) determined that Hg was principally bound to biothiols and/or proteins in M. sativa roots, stems, and leaves. However, the major fraction of Hg detected in M. vulgare plants consisted of mineral species, possibly associated with soil components. Interestingly, the fraction of Hg bound to biothiols/proteins (i.e., metabolically processed Hg) in leaves of both plants (alfalfa and M. vulgare) was similar, in spite of the big difference in Hg accumulation in roots, suggesting that some tolerance mechanisms might be shared.

  11. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Flodgaard, Lars Ravn; Christensen, Henrik; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

    2005-06-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and strains that were both proteolytic and pectinolytic were capable of causing soft-rot spoilage in bean sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic activity, and the higher pH probably facilitated the activity of pectate lyase. The AHL synthetase gene (I gene) from a spoilage Pectobacterium was cloned, sequenced, and inactivated in the parent strain. The predicted amino acid sequence showed 97% homology to HslI and CarI in Erwinia carotovora. Spoilage of laboratory bean sprouts inoculated with the AHL-negative mutant was delayed compared to sprouts inoculated with the wild type, and the AHL-negative mutant did not cause the pH to rise. Compared to the wild-type strain, the AHL-negative mutant had significantly reduced protease and pectinase activities and was negative in an iron chelation (siderophore) assay. This is the first study demonstrating AHL regulation of iron chelation in Enterobacteriaceae. The present study clearly demonstrates that the bacterial spoilage of some food products is influenced by quorum-sensing-regulated phenotypes, and understanding these processes may be useful in the development of novel food preservation additives that specifically block the quorum-sensing systems.

  12. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  13. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  14. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  15. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control.

  16. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  17. Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus: an Aphid-Transmitted Geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Granier, Martine; Bernardo, Pauline; Deshoux, Maëlle; Ferdinand, Romain; Galzi, Serge; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Julian, Charlotte; Abt, Isabelle; Filloux, Denis; Mesléard, François; Varsani, Arvind; Blanc, Stéphane; Martin, Darren P; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises seven genera differentiated by genome organization, sequence similarity, and insect vector. Capulavirus, an eighth genus, has been proposed to accommodate two newly discovered highly divergent geminiviruses that presently have no known vector. Alfalfa leaf curl virus, identified here as a third capulavirus, is shown to be transmitted by Aphis craccivora. This is the first report of an aphid-transmitted geminivirus. PMID:26109720

  18. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-01-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960

  19. Cardiac Fibroblasts Support Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Sprout Formation but not the Development of Multicellular Sprouts in a Fibrin Gel Co-Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Twardowski, Rachel L.; Black, Lauren D.

    2014-01-01

    A primary impediment to cardiac tissue engineering lies in the inability to adequately vascularize the constructs to optimize survival upon implantation. During normal angiogenesis, endothelial cells (ECs) require a support cell to form mature patent lumens and it has been demonstrated that pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all able to support the formation of mature vessels. In the heart, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) provide important electrical and mechanical functions, but to date have not been sufficiently studied for their role in angiogenesis. To study CFs role in angiogenesis, we co-cultured different concentrations of various cell types in fibrin hemispheres with appropriate combinations of their specific media, to determine the optimal conditions for EC growth and sprout formation through DNA analysis, flow cytometry and immunohistology. ECs proliferated best when co-cultured with CFs and analysis of immunohistological images demonstrated that ECs formed the longest and most numerous sprouts with CFs as compared to MSCs. However, ECs were able to produce more multicellular sprouts when in culture with the MSCs. Moreover, these effects were dependent on the ratio of support cell to EC in co-culture. Overall, CFs provide a good support system for EC proliferation and sprout formation; however, MSCs allow for more multicellular sprouts, which is more indicative of the in vivo process. PMID:24435656

  20. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <107.7 M ⊙ and H I line widths <80 km s-1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * <~ 108 M ⊙ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and

  1. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA HI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release [1] detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function [2]. Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey [3], this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation.[1] Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142[2] Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810[3] Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815

  2. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). The Shannon-Weiner index of the microbiota from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the caecal and faecal DNA extracts showed that the alfalfa meal diet promotes the intestinal microbial diversity, as indicated by their higher species richness and Shannon-Weiner index. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio (p > 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the groups supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of alfalfa meal than the unsupplemented control group, and alfalfa meal promoted the lymphocytes proliferation of the growing egg-type ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  3. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). The Shannon-Weiner index of the microbiota from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the caecal and faecal DNA extracts showed that the alfalfa meal diet promotes the intestinal microbial diversity, as indicated by their higher species richness and Shannon-Weiner index. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio (p > 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the groups supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of alfalfa meal than the unsupplemented control group, and alfalfa meal promoted the lymphocytes proliferation of the growing egg-type ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. PMID:24460922

  4. Three-Dimensional Characterization of Mechanical Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenic Sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yue; Herath, Sahan C. B.; Wang, Qing-guo; Wang, Dong-an; Asada, H. Harry; Chen, Peter C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the three-dimensional cell-extracellular matrix interactions of endothelial cells that form multicellular structures called sprouts. We analyzed the data collected in-situ from angiogenic sprouting experiments and identified the differentiated interaction behavior exhibited by the tip and stalk cells. Moreover, our analysis of the tip cell lamellipodia revealed the diversity in their interaction behavior under certain conditions (e.g., when the heading of a sprout is switched approximately between the long-axis direction of two different lamellipodia). This study marks the first time that new characteristics of such interactions have been identified with shape changes in the sprouts and the associated rearrangements of collagen fibers. Clear illustrations of such changes are depicted in three-dimensional views. PMID:26903154

  5. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  6. Effect of dietary brussels sprouts with increased selenium content on mammary carcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stoewsand, G S; Anderson, J L; Munson, L; Lisk, D J

    1989-04-01

    Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea, L; Jade cross E, hybrid cultivar) were cultivated with inorganic selenium added to the plant growth medium. Sprague-Dawley, female, weanling rats were divided into groups and fed 20% brussels sprouts diets containing either 0.03, 0.58, 1.29, or 6.71 ppm of selenium naturally occurring in the sprouts. These diets were fed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and the rats were then placed on a low selenium basal diet for an additional 25 weeks. All brussels sprouts diets reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Increased dietary levels of naturally occurring selenium did not further depress mammary tumorigenesis. The time periods of selenium feeding may have been too brief to observe any additional tumor reductions.

  7. Development of a method for the analysis of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengzu; Zhao, Pengyue; Shan, Weili; Gong, Yong; Jian, Qiu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of four plant growth regulators (PGRs) residues in soybean sprouts and mung bean sprouts. The sample preparation procedure was based on a QuEChERS method. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) ≥ 0.9985) and precision (RSDs ≤ 13.0%). Average recoveries of four PGRs ranged between 74.9% and 106.3% at spiking levels 0.05, 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1). The LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.27-9.3 μg kg(-1) and 0.90-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. The procedure was applied to 18 bean sprout samples, and benzyladenine was found in some of the analyzed samples.

  8. An outbreak of Salmonella Newport associated with mung bean sprouts in Germany and the Netherlands, October to November 2011.

    PubMed

    Bayer, C; Bernard, H; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Hiller, P; Malorny, B; Pfefferkorn, B; Frank, C; de Jong, A; Friesema, I; Stark, K; Rosner, Bm

    2014-01-09

    The largest Salmonella enterica serovar Newport outbreak (n=106) ever reported in Germany occurred in October and November 2011. Twenty associated cases were reported in the Netherlands. The outbreak investigation included an analytical epidemiological study, molecular typing of human and food isolates and food traceback investigations. Unspecified Salmonella had been detected in samples of mung bean sprouts at a sprout producer (producer A) in the Netherlands and mung bean sprouts contaminated with S. Newport had been found during routine sampling at a sprout distributor in Germany. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of sprouts being the infection vehicle. In a case-control study, we compared 50 notified adult S. Newport cases with 45 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cases regarding their food consumption in the three days before illness. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only sprout consumption was significantly associated with S. Newport infection (odds ratio: 18.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.2-150.2). Molecular typing patterns of human isolates were indistinguishable from a mung bean sprouts isolate. Traceback of sprouts led to distributors and producer A in the Netherlands. Since sprouts are frequently contaminated with microorganisms, consumers need to be aware that consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked sprouts may pose a health risk.

  9. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  10. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  11. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  12. Photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO₂-mediated photosynthetic downregulation in nodulated alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Sáez, Alvaro; Erice, Gorka; Aranjuelo, Iker; Aroca, Ricardo; Ruíz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aguirreolea, Jone; Irigoyen, Juan José; Sanchez-Diaz, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Elevated CO₂ leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth. This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation. There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO₂ acclimation. In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO₂ acclimation, the effects of elevated CO₂, and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains. Plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG). At the end of the experiment, all plants showed acclimation in both seasons, especially under elevated summer temperatures. This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N₂-fixation under higher temperatures. Photosynthesis measured at growth CO₂ concentration, rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation. Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis. Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation, it was not coordinated with gene expression, possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  13. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products.

  14. Variation of unsaturated fatty acids in soybean sprout of high oleic acid accessions.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Jung, Ki-Hwal; Chae, Jong-Hyun; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Oleic acid and oleic acid rich foods may have beneficial health effects in humans. Soybeans with high oleic acid (around 80% in seed oil) have been developed. Soybean sprouts are an important vegetable in Korea, Japan and China. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids, in sprouts from soybeans with normal and high oleic acid concentration. Twelve soybean accessions with six high oleic acid lines, three parents of high oleic acid lines, and three checks with normal and high oleic acid concentration were used in this study. The unsaturated fatty acid concentration in sprouts from each genotype was similar to the concentration in the ungerminated seed. The oleic acid concentration in the sprouts of high oleic acid lines (up to 80%) was still high (>70%) compared to the ungerminated seed. Thus, high oleic soybean varieties developed for sprout production could add valuable health benefits to sprouts and the individuals who consume this vegetable.

  15. Identification of molecular markers associated with verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) using high-resolution melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to VW, an association study was conducted using autotetraploid alfalfa populations composed of 352...

  16. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  17. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  18. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  19. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  20. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  1. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  2. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  3. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  4. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  5. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  6. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  7. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  8. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  9. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression of a pore-forming toxin and glycosyl hydrolase genes in Rhizoctonia solani during potato sprout infection.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Rony; Samsatly, Jamil; Pakala, Suman B; Cubeta, Marc A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes black scurf on tubers and stem and stolon canker on underground parts of potato plant. Early in the season, the fungus attacks germinating sprouts underground before they emerge from the soil. Damage at this stage results in delayed emergence of weakened plants with poor and uneven stands. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has been investigated in this study by coupling a cDNA-suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library to differential screening to identify transcripts of R. solani that are down-regulated during infection of potato sprouts. We report on the identification of 33 unique genes with functions related to carbohydrate binding, vitamin synthesis, pathogenicity, translation, ATP and nucleic acid binding and other categories. RACE-PCR was used to clone and characterize the first full-length cDNA clones, RSENDO1 and RSGLYC1 that encode for an eukaryotic delta-endotoxin CytB protein and an intracellular glycosyl hydrolase, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the down-regulation of RSENDO1 during infection of potato sprouts and the up-regulation of RSGLYC1 when the fungus was grown on a cellulose-based nutrient medium. In contrast, additional experiments have highlighted the down-regulation of RSENDO1 when R. solani was co-cultured with the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans and the bacterial antagonist Bacillus subtilis B26. These results advance our understanding of R. solani-potato interaction in subterranean parts of the plant. Such approaches could be considered in building an efficient integrated potato disease management program. PMID:25472038

  10. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  11. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

    2014-12-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects.

  12. Wheat grain preharvest sprouting and late maturity alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mares, Daryl J; Mrva, Kolumbina

    2014-12-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects. PMID:25257145

  13. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  14. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  15. Beta-Amylases from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Doehlert, Douglas C.; Duke, Stanley H.; Anderson, Laurens

    1982-01-01

    Amylase was found in high activity (193 international units per milligram protein) in the tap root of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Sonora). The activity was separated by gel filtration chromatography into two fractions with molecular weights of 65,700 (heavy amylase) and 41,700 (light amylase). Activity staining of electrophoretic gels indicated the presence of one isozyme in the heavy amylase fraction and two in the light amylase fraction. Three amylase isozymes with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those in the heavy and the light amylase fractions were the only amylases identified in crude root preparations. Both heavy and light amylases hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch, and amylose but did not hydrolyze pullulan or β-limit dextrin. The ratio of viscosity change to reducing power production during starch hydrolysis was identical for both alfalfa amylase fractions and sweet potato β-amylase, while that of bacterial α-amylase was considerably higher. The identification of maltose and β-limit dextrin as hydrolytic end-products confirmed that these alfalfa root amylases are all β-amylases. The pH optimum for both β-amylase fractions was 6.0. Both light and heavy β-amylases showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with soluble starch as substrate, and had respectively Km values of 5.9 and 6.8 milligrams starch per milliliter and Vmax of 640 and 130 international units per milligram protein. Arrhenius plots indicated that the energy of activation for the heavy β-amylase remained relatively unchanged (12.7 to 13.0 kilocalories per mole) from 0 to 30°C, whereas the energy of activation for the light amylase increased from 12.0 to about 28.0 kilocalories per mole at 8.7°C as temperature was lowered. The light amylase was shown to be inhibited by maltose. Images PMID:16662350

  16. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  17. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  18. Absorption and chemopreventive targets of sulforaphane in humans following consumption of broccoli sprouts or a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Lauren L.; Hsu, Anna; Wong, Carmen P.; Stevens, Jan F.; Bella, Deborah; Yu, Tian-Wei; Pereira, Clifford B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Christensen, John Mark; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.; Shannon, Jackilen; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults. Methods and results Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 μmol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-μmol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ~3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21). Conclusion We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials. PMID:25522265

  19. Synergy between broccoli sprout extract and selenium in the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wu, Kun; Howie, A Forbes; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wang, Wei; Bao, Yongping

    2008-09-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium (Se) can up-regulate thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) in cultured human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells [Zhang et al. (2003). Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation. Carcinogenesis, 24, 497-503; Wang et al. (2005). Sulforaphane, erucin and iberin up-regulate thioredoxin reductase expression in human MCF-7 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1417-1421] at both the protein and mRNA levels. In this study, broccoli sprout extract (a rich source of the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and iberin) and Se interacted synergistically to induce TR1 in immortalised human hepatocytes. Broccoli sprout extracts containing 1.6, 4 and 8μM isothiocyanates were tested for their ability to induce TR1 at the protein and mRNA level. Although induction of TR1 mRNA by broccoli sprout extract (1.6-8μM) was only 1.7-2.2-fold, co-treatment with Se (0.2-1μM) enhanced the expression of TR1 mRNA (3.0-3.3-fold). Moreover, broccoli sprout extract induced the cellular concentration of TR1 and TR enzymatic activity, an induction that was augmented by Se addition. Thus, broccoli sprout extract (8μM) and Se induced cellular TR1 concentration and enzymatic activity 3.7- and 5-fold respectively, whereas, Se or broccoli sprout extract alone produced an induction of only approximately 2-fold. These data suggest that dietary isothiocyanates from broccoli sprouts and Se are important agents in the regulation of redox status in human liver cells. The synergistic effect between isothiocyanates and Se at physiologically-relevant concentrations on the induction of TR1 may play an important role in protection against oxidative stress.

  20. Fungicide tests on adult alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, C I; James, R R; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2008-08-01

    Chalkbrood is a serious disease of alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) larvae, causing upward of 20% infection in the field. The causative agent is the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. This bee is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the United States. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fungicides can reduce chalkbrood levels in the larvae. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of four fungicides, Benlate, Captan, Orbit, and Rovral, to adult bees by using three different bioassays. In the first test, fungicides were applied to bees' thoraces. In the second test, mimicking foliage residue, a piece of filter paper soaked in fungicide was placed on the bottom of a container of bees. The third test evaluated oral toxicity by incorporating fungicides into a sugar-water solution that was fed to the bees. The filter paper test did not discriminate among the fungicides well, and the oral test resulted in the greatest mortality. Toxicity to males was greater than to females. The use of fungicides for chalkbrood control is a logical choice, but caution should be used in how they are applied in the presence of bees. PMID:18767714

  1. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  2. Endothelial cell division in angiogenic sprouts of differing cellular architecture.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Vahap; Lenard, Anna; Denes, Alexandru Stefan; Sauteur, Loic; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vasculature of the zebrafish trunk is composed of tubes with different cellular architectures. Unicellular tubes form their lumen through membrane invagination and transcellular cell hollowing, whereas multicellular vessels become lumenized through a chord hollowing process. Endothelial cell proliferation is essential for the subsequent growth and maturation of the blood vessels. However, how cell division, lumen formation and cell rearrangement are coordinated during angiogenic sprouting has so far not been investigated at detailed cellular level. Reasoning that different tubular architectures may impose discrete mechanistic constraints on endothelial cell division, we analyzed and compared the sequential steps of cell division, namely mitotic rounding, cytokinesis, actin re-distribution and adherence junction formation, in different blood vessels. In particular, we characterized the interplay between cell rearrangement, mitosis and lumen dynamics within unicellular and multicellular tubes. The lumen of unicellular tubes becomes constricted and is ultimately displaced from the plane of cell division, where a de novo junction forms through the recruitment of junctional proteins at the site of abscission. By contrast, the new junctions separating the daughter cells within multicellular tubes form through the alteration of pre-existing junctions, and the lumen is retained throughout mitosis. We also describe variations in the progression of cytokinesis: while membrane furrowing between daughter cells is symmetric in unicellular tubes, we found that it is asymmetric in those multicellular tubes that contained a taut intercellular junction close to the plane of division. Our findings illustrate that during the course of normal development, the cell division machinery can accommodate multiple tube architectures, thereby avoiding disruptions to the vascular network. PMID:26369932

  3. Endothelial cell division in angiogenic sprouts of differing cellular architecture.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Vahap; Lenard, Anna; Denes, Alexandru Stefan; Sauteur, Loic; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus

    2015-09-14

    The vasculature of the zebrafish trunk is composed of tubes with different cellular architectures. Unicellular tubes form their lumen through membrane invagination and transcellular cell hollowing, whereas multicellular vessels become lumenized through a chord hollowing process. Endothelial cell proliferation is essential for the subsequent growth and maturation of the blood vessels. However, how cell division, lumen formation and cell rearrangement are coordinated during angiogenic sprouting has so far not been investigated at detailed cellular level. Reasoning that different tubular architectures may impose discrete mechanistic constraints on endothelial cell division, we analyzed and compared the sequential steps of cell division, namely mitotic rounding, cytokinesis, actin re-distribution and adherence junction formation, in different blood vessels. In particular, we characterized the interplay between cell rearrangement, mitosis and lumen dynamics within unicellular and multicellular tubes. The lumen of unicellular tubes becomes constricted and is ultimately displaced from the plane of cell division, where a de novo junction forms through the recruitment of junctional proteins at the site of abscission. By contrast, the new junctions separating the daughter cells within multicellular tubes form through the alteration of pre-existing junctions, and the lumen is retained throughout mitosis. We also describe variations in the progression of cytokinesis: while membrane furrowing between daughter cells is symmetric in unicellular tubes, we found that it is asymmetric in those multicellular tubes that contained a taut intercellular junction close to the plane of division. Our findings illustrate that during the course of normal development, the cell division machinery can accommodate multiple tube architectures, thereby avoiding disruptions to the vascular network.

  4. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  5. Uptake of iron by a vegetable; kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout).

    PubMed

    Saiki, Chika; Hirasawa, Rie; Sadayasu, Chie; Yamashiro, Sachiko; Tominaga, Mihoko; Sato, Kazuyoshi

    2004-08-01

    Uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. The supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230 ppm as calcium ion) and iron (III) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200 ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/ v), 100 ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so much, but caused their leaves to grow a little wider. Mineral contents in the sprout were maximal when it was added, at ca. 0.1% (w/v), to the hydroponic solution. In tests regarding iron (II) ion supplementation, the color of the kaiware daikon seeds changed from brownish to black and the sprout did not grow well. In contrast, the iron (III) ion did not affect their color and promoted growth of the sprout. When the seeds were soaked in an iron (II) sulfate (75 ppm) or an ammonium iron (III) citrate (180 ppm) solution for 24 h prior to germination, the resulting kaiware daikon contained a few times higher the amount of iron than commercially available ones.

  6. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  7. Glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. italica) as conditioned by sulphate supply during germination.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Balibrea, Santiago; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Sulphur (S) fertilization is essential for primary and secondary metabolism in cruciferous foods. Deficient, suboptimal, or excessive S affects the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in adult plants. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the influence of S fertilization on sprouts and seedlings. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effect of S fertilization, supplied as K(2)SO(4) at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/L, on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts during the germination course of 3, 6, 9, and 12 d after sowing. Glucosinolate concentration was strongly influenced by germination, causing a rapid increase during the first 3 d after sowing, and decreasing afterwards. The S supply increased aliphatic and total glucosinolate content at the end of the monitored sprouting period. S-treated sprouts, with S(15), S(30), and S(60) at 9 and 12 d after sowing presented enhanced glucosinolate content. Overall, both germination time and S fertilization were key factors in maximizing the bioactive health-promoting phytochemicals of broccoli. Practical Application: Germination with sulphate is a simple and inexpensive way to obtain sprouts that contain much higher levels of glucosinolates (health promoting compounds), than the corresponding florets from the same seeds.

  8. Potential regulatory role of gibberellic and humic acids in sprouting of Chlorophytum borivilianum tubers.

    PubMed

    Nakasha, Jaafar Juju; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Puteh, Adam; Hassan, Siti Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli.

  9. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  10. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  11. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  12. Potential regulatory role of gibberellic and humic acids in sprouting of Chlorophytum borivilianum tubers.

    PubMed

    Nakasha, Jaafar Juju; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Puteh, Adam; Hassan, Siti Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli. PMID:24688363

  13. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  14. Polo-like kinase 2 regulates angiogenic sprouting and blood vessel development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongbo; Fang, Longhou; Zhan, Rui; Hegarty, Jeffrey M.; Ren, Jie; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Miller, Yury I.; Trejo, JoAnn; Chi, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis relies on specialized endothelial tip cells to extend toward guidance cues in order to direct growing blood vessels. Although many of the signaling pathways that control this directional endothelial sprouting are well known, the specific cellular mechanisms that mediate this process remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) regulates Rap1 activity to guide endothelial tip cell lamellipodia formation and subsequent angiogenic sprouting. Using a combination of high-resolution in vivo imaging of zebrafish vascular development and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in vitro cell culture system, we observed that loss of PLK2 function resulted in a reduction in endothelial cell sprouting and migration, whereas overexpression of PLK2 promoted angiogenesis. Furthermore, we discovered that PLK2 may control angiogenic sprouting by binding to PDZ-GEF to regulate RAP1 activity during endothelial cell lamellipodia formation and extracellular matrix attachment. Consistent with these findings, constitutively active RAP1 could rescue the endothelial cell sprouting defects observed in zebrafish and HUVEC PLK2 knockdowns. Overall, these findings reveal a conserved PLK2-RAP1 pathway that is crucial to regulate endothelial tip cell behavior in order to ensure proper vascular development and patterning in vertebrates. PMID:26004360

  15. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  16. Modelling the Dynamics of Feral Alfalfa Populations and Its Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Begg, Graham S.; Gulden, Robert H.; Van Acker, Rene C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba), one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. Conclusions/Significance Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production systems for specific

  17. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts’ juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  18. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  19. Visible and near-infrared instruments for detection and quantification of sprouted wheat kernels and falling number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting of wheat kernels within the grain head presents serious problems as it can greatly affect end use quality. Functional properties of wheat flour made from sprouted wheat result in poor dough and bread-making quality. This research examined the ability of two instruments to estim...

  20. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  1. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  2. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

  3. Preservation of Brussels Sprouts by Pullulan Coating Containing Oregano Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kosakowska, Olga; Cis, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of pullulan (a fungal polysaccharide) film containing oregano essential oil (OEO) at 1.0 to 10.0% was evaluated against bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The quality of the sprouts, as determined by weight loss, color, and appearance, was monitored during storage at 2 and 16°C. An organoleptic evaluation of odor preference and odor acceptability of OEO on the Brussels sprouts was also conducted. The antimicrobial activity of pullulan films with OEO increased significantly with the increase in OEO concentration (1 to 10%). Pullulan films with OEO were more effective for inhibiting the growth of yeasts and molds than for inhibiting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Pullulan with 1.0% OEO was an effective combination and was used subsequently as the base coating for maintaining the safety and quality of fresh Brussels sprouts stored at 16°C for 14 days. The pullulan coating containing 1.0% OEO reduced Aspergillus niger populations by 2 log CFU/g. This coating also reduced weight loss in the sprouts. Compared with uncoated Brussels sprouts, the percent weight loss after 14 days was reduced in samples coated with pullulan and with pullulan plus 1% OEO by 3.81 and 6.06%, respectively, after storage at 2°C and by 8.04 and 9.30%, respectively, after storage 16°C. The coating also significantly reduced changes in general appearance and color during storage. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties indicated that pullulan containing OEO had only a slight detrimental effect on odor properties. Incorporating OEO into a delivery system for antimicrobial compounds in pullulan coatings extended the microbiological shelf life of Brussels sprouts. PMID:26939662

  4. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses Reveal a Special Glucosinolate Metabolism Mechanism in Brassica alboglabra Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rongfang; Huang, Zhongkai; Deng, Yanping; Chen, Xiaodong; XuHan, Xu; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs). Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08) and low-GS (JL-09) Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the Brassica oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09. Among these, 1477 genes were up-regulated and 1239 down-regulated in JL-09 compared with JL-08. Enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that the GS biosynthesis had the smallest enrichment factor and the highest Q-value of all metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, indicating the main metabolic difference between JL-08 and JL-09 is the GS biosynthetic pathway. Thirty-seven genes of the sequenced data were annotated as putatively involved in GS biosynthesis, degradation, and regulation, of which 11 were differentially expressed in JL-08 and JL-09. The expression level of GS degradation enzyme myrosinase in high-GS JL-08 was lower compared with low-GS JL-09. Surprisingly, in high-GS JL-08, the expression levels of GS biosynthesis genes were also lower than those in low-GS JL-09. As the GS contents in sprouts are determined by dynamic equilibrium of seed stored GS mobilization, de novo synthesis, degradation, and extra transport, the result of this study leads us to suggest that efforts to increase GS content should focus on either raising GS content in seeds or decreasing myrosinase activity, rather than improving the expression level of GS biosynthesis genes in sprouts. PMID:27757119

  6. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  7. Effects of PTEN and Nogo Codeletion on Corticospinal Axon Sprouting and Regeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G.; Lorenzana, Ariana O.; Kwan, Jeffrey P.; Lin, Kyle; Ghassemi, Omeed; Ma, Andrew; Xu, Nuo; Creger, Daniel; Liu, Kai; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Axons in the adult CNS have poor ability to grow after injury, impeding functional recovery in patients of spinal cord injury. This has been attributed to both a developmental decline in neuron-intrinsic growth ability and the presence of extrinsic growth inhibitors. We previously showed that genetic deletion of Nogo, an extrinsic inhibitor, promoted axonal sprouting from uninjured corticospinal tract (CST) neurons but not regeneration from injured CST neurons, whereas genetic deletion of PTEN, an intrinsic inhibitor, promoted both CST sprouting and regeneration. Here we test the hypothesis that combining an elevation of neuron-intrinsic growth ability and a reduction of extrinsic growth inhibition by genetic codeletion of PTEN and Nogo may further improve injury-induced axonal growth. In an apparent paradox, additionally deleting Nogo further enhanced CST regeneration but not sprouting in PTEN-deleted mice. Enhanced CST regeneration and sprouting in PTEN and PTEN/Nogo-deleted mice were associated with no or only temporary improvement in functional recovery. Our data illustrate that neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors regulate axon regeneration and sprouting in complex ways and provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting both can further improve regeneration. Neuron-intrinsic growth ability is an important determinant of neuronal responsiveness to changes in extrinsic growth inhibition, such that an elevated intrinsic growth state is a prerequisite for reducing extrinsic inhibition to take effect on CST regeneration. Meanwhile, additional strategies are required to unleash the full potential for functional recovery with enhanced axon regeneration and/or sprouting. PMID:25904793

  8. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, I G; Jacob, J M

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting 35S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative "cytomatrix" proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with 3H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  10. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  11. Sprout suppression on potato: need to look beyond CIPC for more effective and safer alternatives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Ezekiel, R; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    World over, potatoes are being stored at 8-12 °C (85-90 % RH). This is the most common way of long-term (up to 6 to 9 months) storage of potatoes. The benefit of storing the potatoes within the temperature range of 8-12 °C is minimum accumulation of sugars in stored potato tubers. In sub-temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries of the world, short-term (3 to 4 months) storage of potatoes is being done by non-refrigerated traditional/on-farm methods. These short- and long-term storage methods keep the stored potatoes suitable not only for table purpose but also for processing. However, once the natural dormancy period of potato is over, the prevailing temperatures in these storage methods favour sprouting and sprout growth. Therefore, use of some sprout suppressant to check the sprout growth becomes essential under these methods of potato storage. CIPC [Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate] is the most wide spread and commonly used sprout suppressant on potatoes. CIPC has been in use for more than 50 years and research carried out over such a long period use of CIPC has not only enhanced our understanding of its properties and chemistry but also about the production and toxicological status of its metabolites/degradation products. Today, various safety issues and concerns have surfaced primarily due to continuous and long-term use of CIPC. This review presents an appraisal on CIPC and explains the reasons for the long-time dependence on this chemical as a potato sprout suppressant. Issues like maximum residue limit and acceptable daily intake limit are being discussed for CIPC. This article brings an update on practical aspects of potato storage, residue levels of CIPC, efficacy of CIPC as sprout suppressant and health and environmental safety issues linked with CIPC and its metabolites. The aim of this article is to find possible solutions, way outs and future plans that can make the sprout suppression of potatoes safer and more risk free. PMID

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of lesion-induced axonal sprouting and its relation to functional architecture of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Matasha; Brenner, Joshua M; Sakimura, Kenji; Kano, Masanobu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative lesions induce sprouting of new collaterals from surviving axons, but the extent to which this form of axonal remodelling alters brain functional structure remains unclear. To understand how collateral sprouting proceeds in the adult brain, we imaged post-lesion sprouting of cerebellar climbing fibres (CFs) in mice using in vivo time-lapse microscopy. Here we show that newly sprouted CF collaterals innervate multiple Purkinje cells (PCs) over several months, with most innervations emerging at 3-4 weeks post lesion. Simultaneous imaging of cerebellar functional structure reveals that surviving CFs similarly innervate functionally relevant and non-relevant PCs, but have more synaptic area on PCs near the collateral origin than on distant PCs. These results suggest that newly sprouted axon collaterals do not preferentially innervate functionally relevant postsynaptic targets. Nonetheless, the spatial gradient of collateral innervation might help to loosely maintain functional synaptic circuits if functionally relevant neurons are clustered in the lesioned area. PMID:27651000

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of lesion-induced axonal sprouting and its relation to functional architecture of the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Matasha; Brenner, Joshua M.; Sakimura, Kenji; Kano, Masanobu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative lesions induce sprouting of new collaterals from surviving axons, but the extent to which this form of axonal remodelling alters brain functional structure remains unclear. To understand how collateral sprouting proceeds in the adult brain, we imaged post-lesion sprouting of cerebellar climbing fibres (CFs) in mice using in vivo time-lapse microscopy. Here we show that newly sprouted CF collaterals innervate multiple Purkinje cells (PCs) over several months, with most innervations emerging at 3–4 weeks post lesion. Simultaneous imaging of cerebellar functional structure reveals that surviving CFs similarly innervate functionally relevant and non-relevant PCs, but have more synaptic area on PCs near the collateral origin than on distant PCs. These results suggest that newly sprouted axon collaterals do not preferentially innervate functionally relevant postsynaptic targets. Nonetheless, the spatial gradient of collateral innervation might help to loosely maintain functional synaptic circuits if functionally relevant neurons are clustered in the lesioned area. PMID:27651000

  14. Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber:Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples.

    PubMed

    Mesléard, F; Lepart, J

    1989-03-01

    The two dominant species of the Corsican mattoral,Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., can produce abundant sprouts from the lignotuber not only immediately after fire but also more or less continuously in the absence of major disturbance. The lignotuber appears to be more important during the early stages of development; the result is an increase in the number of sprouts during the 25 years following the establishment of the individuals. Later the lignotuber seems to lose the ability to ensure the development of new basal sprouts. A hypothesis is that the presence of a lignotuber is related to the growth form.Arbutus unedo andErica arborea show behaviour intermediate between acrotony and basitony, as the shoots show acrotony, and continuous sprouting is characteristic of basitonic species. The fact that sprouting from the lignotuber is not necessarily a result of fire suggests that the relation between fire and vegetation in the Mediterranean region should be reconsidered. PMID:23494355

  15. Chlorpropham and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene Control Sprout Growth in Potato Tubers Through Different Mechanisms and not Through Prolongation of Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) to potato tubers prevents sprouting. CIPC prevents growth and suppresses sprouting by disruption of microtubules. DMN is a natural product originally isolated from potato skins suppresses sprout growth via an unknown mechanism. Bec...

  16. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems.

  17. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata: the world's most intensively managed solitary bee.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H

    2011-01-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata F. (Megachildae), was accidentally introduced into the United States by the 1940s. Nest management of this Eurasian nonsocial pollinator transformed the alfalfa seed industry in North America, tripling seed production. The most common ALCB management practice is the loose cell system, in which cocooned bees are removed from nesting cavities for cleaning and storage. Traits of ALCBs that favored their commercialization include gregarious nesting; use of leaves for lining nests; ready acceptance of affordable, mass-produced nesting materials; alfalfa pollination efficacy; and emergence synchrony with alfalfa bloom. The ALCB became a commercial success because much of its natural history was understood, targeted research was pursued, and producer ingenuity was encouraged. The ALCB presents a model system for commercializing other solitary bees and for advancing new testable hypotheses in diverse biological disciplines. PMID:20809804

  18. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  19. Effect of feeding macerated alfalfa silage on nutrient digestibility and milk yield in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Mauries, M J; Schneeberger, E; Kraus, T J

    1999-11-01

    Five feeding studies were conducted with 141 lactating Holstein cows comparing macerated and control alfalfa silage harvested at two cuttings in each of 2 yr. Overall, silage made from macerated alfalfa contained more ash (suggesting improved soil contamination); greater fiber and lower nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) content suggested greater fermentation in the silo. In a digestion study, two diets were fed containing [dry matter (DM) basis] 72% of either control or macerated second-cutting alfalfa. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was increased by maceration, and similar changes in digestibility were observed with Yb or indigestible ADF as marker; indigestible ADF was used as a marker in later studies. Lactation trials were conducted with first- and second-cutting alfalfa from each year. In each study, diets were formulated from alfalfa silage plus concentrate based on processed high moisture ear corn; mean compositions were (DM basis): negative control (61% control alfalfa silage), macerated (61% macerated alfalfa silage), and positive control (50% control alfalfa silage). All diets contained 2% crude protein from either roasted soybeans or low-solubles fish meal; soybean meal was added to make the positive control isonitrogenous (but not equal in ruminal undergraded protein). Milk yield was greater on macerated than negative control in two of four trials but not different in the other two trials. Yields of milk and milk components were not different between macerated and positive control in one of four trials. Versus the negative control, milk fat synthesis was depressed on macerated alfalfa in one trial. Overall performance on macerated versus negative control indicated greater apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM), greater yield of milk, protein, and solids not fat, but lower milk fat content. Yields of milk and milk components were greater overall on positive control versus macerated. Estimation of net

  20. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  1. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  2. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  3. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  4. Local production of agricultural fuel: conversion of alfalfa to ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Tjostem, J.; Koeltzow, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    Initial project goals were to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol from the sugars contained in alfalfa and other legumes using a small-scale, single-farm production facility. These data indicate that alfalfa from the field does have reducing sugar present before any breakdown due to the presence of the mold. There is also plenty of natural bacterial contamination which quickly depletes the sugar supply. However, if the alfalfa is autoclaved prior to incubation, the number of bacteria present in the samples is greatly reduced. There was no difference between the flasks which contained an inoculum of Tricoderma reesei and those that did not. Analysis of these solutions failed to show any trace of cellulase activity even after 288 hours (12 days). Therefore, one can also conclude that the Tricoderma reesei strain QM9414 does not grow on alfalfa under these conditions. Future experiments will involve different conditions of temperature and pH. Acid insoluble lignin levels in our 3rd cutting alfalfa samples range from 16.8% to 19.77% with an average of 18.3%. This agrees well with the levels of 13.8% and 15.9% reported by Linder, et al. Results of lipid, water, protein, lignin and cellulose analysis of alfalfa are given. Over 80% of the cellulose in alfalfa can be converted into glucose. Subsequent fermentation by S. carlisbergenois produced near theoretical yields of ethanol. However, the cost of the hay was $440.00; the market value of the ethanol was $120.00. The poor economics results since only 13.1% of the alfalfa contains cellulose. Results show that while production of ethanol from legume-type plants is technically possible, it is not economically feasible.

  5. Effects of Temperature on the Pathogenicity of Tylenchorhynchus clarus to Alfalfa and Observations on Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Gregory R.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    The involvement of Tylenchorhynchus clarus in plant disease is reported. Addition of a suspension of surface-axenized nematodes reduced top and root growth of alfalfa. Reproduction of T. clarus was greater at 24 and 27 than at 21 C. The interaction of nematodes with temperature did not produce significant effects on alfalfa growth in the 4.5-mo experimental period. T. clarus fed endo- and ectoparasitically. PMID:19305838

  6. [A contribution to an evalution of general combining ability of alfalfa clones].

    PubMed

    Crod, J

    1969-01-01

    Recombinational performance of different clones of alfalfa was compared in two types of seed : (a) produced by systematic mating of the clones and (b) produced by the polycross procedure. No basic differences between the two types of progeny were found for the characteristics investigated. Thus neither greater objectivity nor greater test efficiency of the polycross technique was demonstrated.Factors determining objective evaluation of general combining ability of alfalfa by means of the polycross test technique are discyssed.

  7. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  8. Effects of engineered Sinorhizobium meliloti on cytokinin synthesis and tolerance of alfalfa to extreme drought stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Li, Xiao-Lin; Luo, Li

    2012-11-01

    Cytokinin is required for the initiation of leguminous nitrogen fixation nodules elicited by rhizobia and the delay of the leaf senescence induced by drought stress. A few free-living rhizobia have been found to produce cytokinin. However, the effects of engineered rhizobia capable of synthesizing cytokinin on host tolerance to abiotic stresses have not yet been described. In this study, two engineered Sinorhizobium strains overproducing cytokinin were constructed. The tolerance of inoculated alfalfa plants to severe drought stress was assessed. The engineered strains, which expressed the Agrobacterium ipt gene under the control of different promoters, synthesized more zeatins than the control strain under free-living conditions, but their own growth was not affected. After a 4-week inoculation period, the effects of engineered strains on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation were similar to those of the control strain under nondrought conditions. After being subjected to severe drought stress, most of the alfalfa plants inoculated with engineered strains survived, and the nitrogenase activity in their root nodules showed no apparent change. A small elevation in zeatin concentration was observed in the leaves of these plants. The expression of antioxidant enzymes increased, and the level of reactive oxygen species decreased correspondingly. Although the ipt gene was transcribed in the bacteroids of engineered strains, the level of cytokinin in alfalfa nodules was identical to that of the control. These findings suggest that engineered Sinorhizobium strains synthesizing more cytokinin could improve the tolerance of alfalfa to severe drought stress without affecting alfalfa nodulation or nitrogen fixation.

  9. Alfalfa varieties for biomass production. Task IId. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.; Lamb, J.

    1997-10-30

    The use of alfalfa for biomass production may require harvest schedules and alfalfa varieties with different traits than currently marketed varieties. A late flower (2-cut) system may have several advantages compared to more frequent cutting systems because it can result in high stem yield, result in less trips over the field, allow more schedule flexibility, provide greater wildlife habitat, and allow greater alfalfa persistence. However, modem alfalfa varieties have been developed for a frequent harvest system with 3-4 cuttings per season. The objectives of this study were to determine the total biomass yield; leaf and stem biomass yield; and leaf and stem composition of alfalfa varieties subject to diverse harvest regimes. Alfalfa varieties included those currently marketed in the biomass region as well as experimental entries developed for lodging resistance and leaf retention. Harvest regimes included conventional strategies based on harvests at bud or first flower and a non-conventional strategy with harvests at late flower. Harvest regime had the most consistent and greatest effect on the variables studied. Forage yields were greater for the early flower regime. Harvests at earlier maturity frequently result in leafier, higher quality forage than harvest at late flower. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (P<0.05) on the yield of polysaccharides from alfalfa. The optimum conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  11. Gibberellic acid, kinetin, and the mixture indole-3-acetic acid-kinetin assisted with EDTA-induced lead hyperaccumnulation in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    López, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, José R; Parsons, Jason G; Benitez, Tenoch; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2007-12-01

    There are a few plant species considered potential hyperaccumulators for heavy metals, particularly lead (Pb). In this study, alfalfa plants grown in hydroponics were exposed to Pb at 40 mg/L, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) equimolar to Pb, and 1, 10, and 100 microM concentrations of the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), and kinetin (KN) and a mixture of IAA and KN at 100 microM each. Metal quantification by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy demonstrated that plants treated with Pb/EDTA plus KN at 1, 10, and 100 microM increased the Pb concentration in alfalfa leaves (compared to Pb alone) by factors of 17, 43, and 67, respectively, and by factors of 2, 5, and 8, respectively, compared to the Pb/EDTA treatment. The correlation coefficient between the Pb concentration in leaves and the concentrations of KN in the medium was 0.9993. In addition, the leaves of plants exposed to a Pb/EDTA/100 microM IAA-KN mixture had approximately 9500 mg of Pb/kg of dry weight, demonstrating that non-Pb hyperaccumulating plants could hyperaccumulate Pb when treated with EDTA and a mixture of IAA-KN. The X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies demonstrated that the absorption and translocation of Pb was in the same oxidation state as the supplied Pb(II).

  12. Constitutive overexpression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) gene in transgenic alfalfa demonstrates that GS1 may be regulated at the level of RNA stability and protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Ortega, J L; Temple, S J; Sengupta-Gopalan, C

    2001-05-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of NH4+ with glutanate to yield glutamine. Gene constructs consisting of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter driving a cytosolic isoform of GS (GS1) gene have been introduced into alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Although transcripts for the transgene were shown to accumulate to high levels in the leaves, they were undetectable in the nodules. However, significant amounts of beta-glucuronidase activity could be detected in nodules of plants containing the CaMV 35S promoter-beta-glucuronidase gene construct, suggesting that the transcript for the GS1 transgene is not stable in the root nodules. Leaves of alfalfa plants with the CaMV 35S promoter-GS1 gene showed high levels of accumulation of the transcript for the transgene when grown under low-nitrogen conditions and showed a significant drop in the level of GS1 transcripts when fed with high levels of NO3-. However, no increase in GS activity or polypeptide level was detected in the leaves of transgenic plants. The results suggest that GS1 is regulated at the level of RNA stability and protein turnover.

  13. Analysis of vegetable seedlings grown in contact with Apollo 14 lunar surface fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Johnson, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of plant seedlings treated with lunar material, grown for 14 to 21 days, and then subjected to chemical analyses and other measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether plants growing in contact with lunar-surface fines contained a different elemental composition compared with untreated seedlings. The results indicate a direct interaction between germfree plants and lunar material. Treated plants dissolved and absorbed significant quantities of Al, Fe, and Ti from the lunar fines. Cabbage and Brussel sprouts were particularly efficient in the dissolution and absorption of Mn.

  14. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards.

  15. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  16. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  17. Increased purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting with diurnally fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple nutsedge is among the most troublesome weeds of vegetables in the Southeast US and a substantial impediment in the search for methyl bromide alternatives. Greater understanding of the environmental cues that regulate tuber sprouting may assist in improved nutsedge management. Experiments we...

  18. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  19. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine. PMID:15587701

  20. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  1. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  2. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical properties of starch in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike, often because harvest coincides with untimely rain. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on the physicochemical changes of starch due t...

  3. Dissection of Genetic Componenets of Preharvest Sprouting Resistance in White Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) in rain-affected wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major constraint to the production of high-quality wheat, especially in regions where white grain wheat cultivars are preferred. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance and seed dormancy (SD), we eva...

  4. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  5. The effect of sprout and disease control products on disease development and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato industry utilizes various sprout and disease control products prior to storage and/or packing. Some of these products have not been tested for interference of wound healing and whether effects observed equate to greater disease development or weight loss. The objectives of this study we...

  6. Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bagatta, Manuela; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Ninfali, Paolino; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of brassica sprouts as raw vegetables provides a fair amount of glucosinolates (GLs) and active plant myrosinase, which enables the breakdown of GLs into health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITCs). This study reports the determination of the main constituents related to human health found in edible sprouts of two Brassica oleracea varieties, broccoli and Tuscan black kale, and two Raphanus sativus varieties, Daikon and Sango. Radish sprouts exhibited the highest ability to produce ITCs, with Daikon showing the greatest level of conversion of GLs into bioactive ITCs (96.5%), followed by Sango (90.0%). Tuscan black kale gave a value of 68.5%, whereas broccoli displayed the lowest with 18.7%. ITCs were not the exclusive GL breakdown products in the two B. oleracea varieties, since nitriles were also produced, thus accounting for the lower conversion observed. Measuring the release of plant ITCs is a valuable tool in predicting the potential level of exposure to these bioactive compounds after the consumption of raw brassica sprouts.

  7. Potato Tubers Treated with Sprout Inhibitors Exhibit Transcript Profiles That Have Similarities to the Dormant State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compounds chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are used to suppress sprout growth and prolong the storage of potato tubers. However, the mechanism of action for these chemicals is poorly defined. Microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were utilized to compare the tra...

  8. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  9. MG SPROUTS: A Project-in-a-Box Approach to Educational Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn,Sheri; Slagle, Krissy

    2016-01-01

    MG SPROUTS was developed as a "project-in-a-box" program, a self-contained educational programming tool for Extension agents working with master gardener Extension volunteers (MGEVs). The program design incorporates programmatic materials and project management materials and follows best management practices for volunteer management. MG…

  10. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet.

  11. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens.

  12. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency.

  13. Effects of cutting time, stump height, parent tree characteristics, and harvest variables on development of bigleaf maple sprout clumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.

  14. Netrin-1 Contributes to Myelinated Afferent Fiber Sprouting and Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cai-Hua; Yuan, Xiao-Cui; Gao, Fang; Li, Hong-Ping; Cao, Jie; Liu, Yan-Shen; Yu, Wei; Tian, Bo; Meng, Xian-Fang; Shi, Jing; Pan, Hui-Lin; Li, Man

    2016-10-01

    Netrin-1 is a neuronal guidance molecule implicated in the development of spinal cord neurons and cortical neurons. In the adult spinal cord, UNC5H (repulsive receptor of netrin-1), but not deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) (attractive receptor of netrin-1), constitutes a major mode of netrin-1 signal transduction, which may be involved in axon repulsion and inhibits neurite outgrowth. Abnormal sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn can cause mechanical allodynia associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, Shingles) and other neuropathic pains. However, whether netrin-1 participates in sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers and mechanical allodynia remains unknown. In an ultropotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced PHN-like model, RTX treatment for 6 weeks increased netrin-1 expression in dorsal horn neurons, including NK-1-positive projection neurons. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we found that TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine antagonized RTX-induced upregulation of netrin-1. After RTX treatment, UNC5H2 expression was gradually decreased, whereas DCC expression was significantly increased. Silencing netrin-1 in the spinal dorsal horn significantly attenuated RTX-induced mechanical allodynia and sprouting of myelinated fibers into the spinal lamina II. Our results suggest that RTX treatment upregulates netrin-1 expression through activation of TRPV1 receptors and change UNC5H2-rich spinal dorsal horn into a growth-permissive environment by increasing DCC expression, thus enhancing the sprouting of myelinated afferent nerves. Netrin-1 may be targeted for reducing primary afferent sprouting and mechanical allodynia in PHN and other neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:26482371

  15. Chondroitinase enhances cortical map plasticity and increases functionally active sprouting axons after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Harris, Neil G; Nogueira, Marcia S M; Verley, Derek R; Sutton, Richard L

    2013-07-15

    The beneficial effect of interventions with chondroitinase ABC enzyme to reduce axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate side chains after central nervous system injuries has been mainly attributed to enhanced axonal sprouting. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether newly sprouting axons that occur as a result of interventional strategies are able to functionally contribute to existing circuitry, and it is uncertain whether maladaptive sprouting occurs to increase the well-known risk for seizure activity after TBI. Here, we show that after a controlled cortical impact injury in rats, chondroitinase infusion into injured cortex at 30 min and 3 days reduced c-Fos⁺ cell staining resulting from the injury alone at 1 week postinjury, indicating that at baseline, abnormal spontaneous activity is likely to be reduced, not increased, with this type of intervention. c-Fos⁺ cell staining elicited by neural activity from stimulation of the affected forelimb 1 week after injury was significantly enhanced by chondroitinase, indicating a widespread effect on cortical map plasticity. Underlying this map plasticity was a larger contribution of neuronal, rather than glial cells and an absence of c-Fos⁺ cells surrounded by perineuronal nets that were normally present in stimulated naïve rats. After injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion produced the expected increase in growth-associated protein 43-positive axons and perikarya, of which a significantly greater number were double labeled for c-Fos after intervention with chondroitinase, compared to vehicle. These data indicate that chondroitinase produces significant gains in cortical map plasticity after TBI, and that either axonal sprouting and/or changes in perineuronal nets may underlie this effect. Chondroitinase dampens, rather than increases nonspecific c-Fos activity after brain injury, and induction of axonal sprouting is not maladaptive because greater numbers are functionally

  16. Pathological sprouting of adult nociceptors in chronic prostate cancer-induced bone pain.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M; Bloom, Aaron P; Stake, James I; Mantyh, William G; Taylor, Reid N; Freeman, Katie T; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Kuskowski, Michael A; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2010-11-01

    Pain frequently accompanies cancer. What remains unclear is why this pain frequently becomes more severe and difficult to control with disease progression. Here we test the hypothesis that with disease progression, sensory nerve fibers that innervate the tumor-bearing tissue undergo a pathological sprouting and reorganization, which in other nonmalignant pathologies has been shown to generate and maintain chronic pain. Injection of canine prostate cancer cells into mouse bone induces a remarkable sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP(+)) and neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200(+)) sensory nerve fibers. Nearly all sensory nerve fibers that undergo sprouting also coexpress tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA(+)). This ectopic sprouting occurs in sensory nerve fibers that are in close proximity to colonies of prostate cancer cells, tumor-associated stromal cells and newly formed woven bone, which together form sclerotic lesions that closely mirror the osteoblastic bone lesions induced by metastatic prostate tumors in humans. Preventive treatment with an antibody that sequesters nerve growth factor (NGF), administered when the pain and bone remodeling were first observed, blocks this ectopic sprouting and attenuates cancer pain. Interestingly, reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that the prostate cancer cells themselves do not express detectable levels of mRNA coding for NGF. This suggests that the tumor-associated stromal cells express and release NGF, which drives the pathological reorganization of nearby TrkA(+) sensory nerve fibers. Therapies that prevent this reorganization of sensory nerve fibers may provide insight into the evolving mechanisms that drive cancer pain and lead to more effective control of this chronic pain state.

  17. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia.

  18. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  19. NMDA receptor currents suppress synapse formation on sprouting axons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Colonnese, Matthew T; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Constantine-Paton, Martha

    2005-02-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play an important role in the structural maintenance and functional strength of synapses. The causal relationship between these anatomical and functional roles is poorly defined. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, synaptic vesicle immunoreactivity, and differential label of retinal projections, we measured axon volume and synapse density along ipsilateral retinal axons (ipsi axons) sprouting into the superficial visual layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) deafferented by a contralateral retinal lesion (a scotoma) 8 d earlier. When retinal lesions were made at postnatal day 6 (P6), glutamatergic synaptic currents on neurons within the scotoma were significantly reduced. Both ipsi axon sprouting and synapse density were increased by chronic d-AP-5 antagonism of NMDARs. Conversely, ipsi axon sprouting and synapse density were reduced by chronic exposure to the agonist, NMDA, known to functionally depress glutamate transmission in this system. After P11 lesions, however, NMDAR blockade had no effect on sprouting or synapse density. Developmental changes in NMDAR current kinetics could not account for this difference in the structural effects of NMDAR function. Also, synaptic current frequencies within the scotoma were not affected after the P11 lesions. The corticocollicular projection matures during the P11 survival interval and, as indicated by previous work, it is a source of competition for synaptic space and probably of maintained activity in the older sSC. Thus, our results suggest that during early development, NMDAR currents predominantly destabilize nascent synapses. As the neuropil matures, however, competition for synaptic space suppresses axon sprouting and synapse formation regardless of NMDAR function.

  20. Netrin-1 Contributes to Myelinated Afferent Fiber Sprouting and Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cai-Hua; Yuan, Xiao-Cui; Gao, Fang; Li, Hong-Ping; Cao, Jie; Liu, Yan-Shen; Yu, Wei; Tian, Bo; Meng, Xian-Fang; Shi, Jing; Pan, Hui-Lin; Li, Man

    2016-10-01

    Netrin-1 is a neuronal guidance molecule implicated in the development of spinal cord neurons and cortical neurons. In the adult spinal cord, UNC5H (repulsive receptor of netrin-1), but not deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) (attractive receptor of netrin-1), constitutes a major mode of netrin-1 signal transduction, which may be involved in axon repulsion and inhibits neurite outgrowth. Abnormal sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn can cause mechanical allodynia associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, Shingles) and other neuropathic pains. However, whether netrin-1 participates in sprouting of myelinated afferent fibers and mechanical allodynia remains unknown. In an ultropotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced PHN-like model, RTX treatment for 6 weeks increased netrin-1 expression in dorsal horn neurons, including NK-1-positive projection neurons. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we found that TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine antagonized RTX-induced upregulation of netrin-1. After RTX treatment, UNC5H2 expression was gradually decreased, whereas DCC expression was significantly increased. Silencing netrin-1 in the spinal dorsal horn significantly attenuated RTX-induced mechanical allodynia and sprouting of myelinated fibers into the spinal lamina II. Our results suggest that RTX treatment upregulates netrin-1 expression through activation of TRPV1 receptors and change UNC5H2-rich spinal dorsal horn into a growth-permissive environment by increasing DCC expression, thus enhancing the sprouting of myelinated afferent nerves. Netrin-1 may be targeted for reducing primary afferent sprouting and mechanical allodynia in PHN and other neuropathic pain conditions.

  1. Relationship between sympathetic nerve sprouting and repolarization dispersion at peri-infarct zone after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Lu, Zhibing; Yu, Ying; Zhao, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Huang, Congxin

    2007-07-31

    Sympathetic nerve sprouting is thought to contribute to sudden cardiac death (SCD) in chronic myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic nerve sprouting and repolarization dispersion at peri-infarct zones after MI. Thirty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent coronary artery ligation (MI group: n=20) or sham operation (SO group: n=10). Eight weeks after surgery, transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was examined at the peri-infarct zones in MI group and corresponding zones in the SO group at baseline and during sympathetic nerve stimulation. Sympathetic nerve sprouting was detected by immunocytochemical staining using anti-growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibodies. The results demonstrated that TDR was significantly larger at peri-infarct zones in MI group than the corresponding zone in SO group at baseline or during sympathetic nerve stimulation. The densities of both GAP43- and TH-positive nerves were significantly higher at peri-infarct zones in infracted hearts than the corresponding zones in control hearts (both p<0.01). In the MI group, the density of GAP43- or TH-positive nerves at peri-infarct zones had a significantly positive correlation with the TDR or DeltaTDR (change in TDR) at baseline as well as with sympathetic nerve stimulation (p<0.05 for all). These results suggested that sympathetic nerve sprouting is more pronounced and heterogeneous at peri-infarct zones at 8 weeks after MI. The excessive sprouting of sympathetic nerves increases local ventricular TDR, which may be a potential mechanism for SCD in chronic MI.

  2. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  4. Alfalfa rapidly remediates excess inorganic nitrogen at a fertilizer spill site.

    PubMed

    Russelle, M P; Lamb, J F; Montgomery, B R; Elsenheimer, D W; Miller, B S; Vance, C P

    2001-01-01

    By 19%, standard remediation techniques had significantly reduced the concentration of nitrate nitrogen (NO3- -N) in local ground water at the site of a 1989 anhydrous ammonia spill, but NO3- -N concentrations in portions of the site still exceeded the public drinking water standard. Our objective was to determine whether local soil and ground water quality could be improved with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A 3-yr study was conducted in replicated plots (24 by 30 m) located hydrologically upgradient of the ground water under the spill site. Three alfalfa entries ['Agate', Ineffective Agate (a non-N2-fixing elite germplasm similar to Agate), and MWNC-4 (an experimental germplasm)] were seeded in the spring of 1996. Corn (Zea mays L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was seeded adjacent to the alfalfa each year. Crops were irrigated with N-containing ground water to meet water demand. During the 3-yr period, about 540 kg of inorganic N was removed from the aquifer through irrigation of 4.9 million L water. Cumulative N removal from the site over 3 yr was 972 kg N ha(-1) in Ineffective Agate alfalfa hay, compared with 287 kg N ha(-1) for the annual cereal grain. Soil solution NO3- concentrations were reduced to low and stable levels by alfalfa, but were more variable under the annual crops. Ground water quality improved, as evidenced by irrigation water N concentration. We do not know how much N was removed by the N2-fixing alfalfas, but it appears that either fixing or non-N2-fixing alfalfa will effectively remove inorganic N from N-affected sites.

  5. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts.

  6. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. PMID:24632062

  7. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  8. Effects of sodium metavanadate and germination on the sprouting of chickpeas and its content of vanadium, formononetin and biochanin A in the sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Mao, Xueqin; Xia, Zuoli

    2012-03-01

    Chickpea sprouts (CS) may become one of the natural products of high demand due to their nutritional values. The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of vanadium (V) during the germination of chickpea seeds in order to combine the high nutritive value of sprouts with a readily bioavailable source of essential trace element-V. Chickpea seeds were germinated in sodium metavanadate solutions (NaVO(3)) with different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 mg/L as NaVO(3)) for 6 days at 28 °C. It was found that the addition of sodium metavanadate produced slight stress effect, and the growth of CS was inhibited. The addition of sodium metavanadate significantly increased V content in CS in a dose-dependent manner. The highest V content (1.52 mg/g) in CS was observed when germination was carried out in the NaVO(3) solution with 1,200 mg/L NaVO(3) concentration. Chickpea seeds germinated in 50 ∼200 mg/L NaVO(3) solutions for 6 days at 28 °C showed a higher germination rate (>99%%) and a higher content of isoflavones including formononetin and biochanin A than those obtained in NaVO(3) solutions with other concentration in the same germination conditions. Therefore, a concentration of 50∼200 mg/L sodium metavanadate solutions should be used for the production of V-enriched chickpea sprouts (VCS).

  9. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  10. Characterization of peptides in ensiled alfalfa treated with different chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wurong; Guo, Xusheng; Ataku, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Effects of different chemical additives on peptide composition in ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated by using gel filtration and determination of N characteristics. The alfalfa silages were prepared untreated (control) or with formic acid, formaldehyde or tannic acid as additives at ensiling. All additives reduced non-protein N (NPN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) and amino acid N (AA-N) in the ensiled forage, and the most effective reduction of NPN and AA-N was observed in the formaldehyde-treated silages. Peptides in the control silage were mainly dipeptides to peptides with five amino acid residues. Most peptides in the formic acid-treated silage contained 4-12 amino acid residues. Although most peptides in the formaldehyde-treated silages contained 4-6 amino acid residues, there was a considerable proportion of peptides with 7-11 amino acid residues. Tannic acid had little effect on peptide size of ensiled alfalfa extract in which most peptides contained 5-6 amino acid residues. Peptide size in formic acid-treated alfalfa silage was greater than that in the other treatments. Addition of formic acid and formaldehyde not only increased the peptide concentration in alfalfa silage, but enlarged the peptide size.

  11. Analysis of antioxidant enzyme activity during germination of alfalfa under salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Bin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kim, Ki-Yong; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2009-07-01

    To understand the adaptability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to environmental stresses, we analyzed the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), in alfalfa shoots and roots subjected to salt and drought stresses during germination. The germination rate of six alfalfa cultivars was comparatively studied under 200 mM NaCl or 35% PEG treatment. Alfalfa Xinmu No. 1 and Northstar varieties were selected as stress-tolerant and -sensitive cultivars, respectively, and were used for further characterization. After NaCl or PEG treatment, Xinmu No. 1 showed enhanced seedling growth, compared with Northstar. Xinmu No. 1 also exhibited low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and lipid peroxidation, compared with Northstar. In addition, Xinmu No. 1 showed higher enzymatic activity of SOD, APX, CAT, and POD in its shoots and roots than Northstar. These results seem to indicate that Xinmu No. 1 cultivar's tolerance to salt or drought stresses during germination is associated with enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes. This study highlights the importance of antioxidant enzymes in the establishment of alfalfa seedlings under drought and salinity conditions typical of desertification.

  12. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  13. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  14. ABA gene expression during kernel development in relation to pre-harvest sprouting in wheat and triticale.

    PubMed

    Sarah, De Laethauwer; Jan, De Riek; Geert, Haesaert

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) during wet and cool harvest periods remains a serious problem in the production of cereals like barley, wheat and triticale. Being involved in dormancy induction and maintenance during seed development, abscisic acid (ABA) may play a key role to improve dormancy level and hence PHS-tolerance in these grains. In this study, we investigated the ABA levels and expression profiles of ABA biosynthesis and degradation genes during kernel development to explore the potential of these genes for improving PHS-tolerance in wheat and triticale. Plants of a PHS-tolerant and a PHS-susceptible variety of both wheat and triticale were grown under controlled conditions from flowering to harvest. At regular time points, kernels were harvested for ABA analysis and RNA extraction. RNA extracts were used in an RT-qPCR assay to obtain expression profiles of the ABA synthesis genes ZEP, NCED1 and NCED2 and the ABA degradation genes CYP707A1 and CYP707A2. In contrast to reports in Arabidopsis, the ZEP gene was predominantly expressed towards harvest maturity in both wheat and triticale. NCED1 expression coincided well with the observed ABA levels during kernel development, while NCED2 expression was mainly detected in early development, indicating a potential role for dormancy induction. ABA degradation towards harvest maturity was mainly associated with increased CYP707A1 expression, whereas CYP707A2 expression appeared to correlate with the regulation of ABA levels during kernel development. However, no differential expression of the investigated genes was detected between PHS-tolerant and PHS-susceptible varieties.

  15. Improved health-relevant functionality in dark germinated Mucuna pruriens sprouts by elicitation with peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    PubMed

    Randhir, Reena; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-10-01

    The health-relevant functionality of Mucuna pruriens was improved by priming the seeds with elicitors of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), lactoferrin (LF) and oregano extract (OE) followed by dark germination. FPH elicited the highest phenolic content of 19 mg/g FW on day 1, which was 38% higher than control sprouts. OE enhanced Parkinson's disease-relevant L-DOPA content by 33% on day 1 compared to control sprouts. Anti-diabetes-relevant alpha-amylase inhibition percent (AIP) and alpha-glucosidase inhibition percent (GIP) were high in the cotyledons and decreased following elicitation and sprouting. For potential anti-diabetic applications, low AIP and high GIP with moderate L-DOPA content on day 4 of dark germination could be optimal. Improved L-DOPA concentrations in a soluble phenolic and antioxidant-rich M. pruriens background on day 1 sprouts have potential for Parkinson's disease management.

  16. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  17. Laboratory Bioassays to Evaluate Fungicides for Chalkbrood Control in Larvae of the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood, a fungal disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, is a major mortality factor in populations of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) used in commercial alfalfa seed production. Four formulated fungicides, Benlate®, Captan®, Orbit™, and Rovral®, were tested in the laboratory...

  18. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  19. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  20. Alfalfa varieties differ markedly in seedling survival when interseeded into corn and treated with prohexadione-calcium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa. R...

  1. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  2. Effects of dairy slurry application and bale moisture concentration on voluntary intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage by sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...

  3. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  4. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  5. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    PubMed

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Sustainability of Dwarf Bamboo ( Pseudosasa usawai) Sprout-Harvesting Practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo ( Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects.

  7. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects.

  8. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects. PMID:24950959

  9. I don't like it because it eats sprouts: conditioning preferences in children.

    PubMed

    Field, Andy P

    2006-03-01

    Although little is known about how preferences develop in childhood, work in adults suggests that evaluative responses to stimuli can be acquired through classical conditioning. In two experiments children were exposed to novel cartoon characters, that were either consistently paired with a picture of a disliked food (Brussels sprouts) or a liked food (ice cream). Relative preferences for these stimuli (and others) were measured before and after these paired presentations (Experiment 1): preferences for the cartoon character paired with Brussels sprouts decreased, whereas preferences for the character paired with ice cream increased. These preferences persisted after 10 un-reinforced trials. Experiment 2 replicated this finding using affective priming as an index of preference for the cartoon characters. These findings demonstrate that preferences to novel stimuli can be conditioned in children and result from associations formed between the stimulus and a stimulus possessing positive or negative valence.

  10. Promotion of neural sprouting using low-level green light-emitting diode phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Noa; Duadi, Hamootal; Cohen, Ortal; Samet, Tamar; Zilony, Neta; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-02-01

    We irradiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with low-level light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at a visible wavelength of 520 nm (green) and intensity of 100 mW/cm2. We captured and analyzed the cell morphology before LED treatment, immediately after, and 12 and 24 h after treatment. Our study demonstrated that LED illumination increases the amount of sprouting dendrites in comparison to the control untreated cells. This treatment also resulted in more elongated cells after treatment in comparison to the control cells and higher levels of expression of a differentiation related gene. This result is a good indication that the proposed method could serve in phototherapy treatment for increasing sprouting and enhancing neural network formation.

  11. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-01-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation. Images PMID:3865195

  12. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    PubMed

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-11-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation.

  13. Static mechanical strain induces capillary endothelial cell cycle re-entry and sprouting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, A. S.; Liu, F. D.; Durham, J. T.; Jagielska, A.; Mahmoodian, R.; Van Vliet, K. J.; Herman, I. M.

    2016-08-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are known to respond to a range of biochemical and time-varying mechanical cues that can promote blood vessel sprouting termed angiogenesis. It is less understood how these cells respond to sustained (i.e., static) mechanical cues such as the deformation generated by other contractile vascular cells, cues which can change with age and disease state. Here we demonstrate that static tensile strain of 10%, consistent with that exerted by contractile microvascular pericytes, can directly and rapidly induce cell cycle re-entry in growth-arrested microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. S-phase entry in response to this strain correlates with absence of nuclear p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this modest strain promotes sprouting of endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanical ‘angiogenic switch’. These findings suggest that static tensile strain can directly stimulate pathological angiogenesis, implying that pericyte absence or death is not necessarily required of endothelial cell re-activation.

  14. Dual Effects of Ethylene on Potato Dormancy and Sprout Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Rylski, Irena; Rappaport, Lawrence; Pratt, Harlan K.

    1974-01-01

    Dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) of two cultivars were treated with various concentrations of ethylene gas for various exposure periods. As has been shown by others, ethylene caused a rapid but transient increase in respiration rate, which appeared to be independent of any effects on dormancy. All concentrations tested caused accelerated sprouting, 2 microliters per liter being the most effective. Ethylene exerts a dual effect on potato tubers: it markedly shortens the duration of rest, but it inhibits elongation of the sprouts during extended treatment. Comparing these results with published work on seeds, bulbs, and corms suggests that ethylene must have a significant but as yet unexplained role in rest and dormancy. However, since the most effective ethylene treatment did not equal the response elicited by treatment with ethylene chlorhydrin, other factors must also contribute to termination of rest. PMID:16658762

  15. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. PMID:27179697

  16. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  17. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility.

  18. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  19. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility. PMID:25898616

  20. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase. PMID:27117847

  1. Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.

    PubMed

    Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

    2010-07-01

    Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase.

  2. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively.

  3. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  4. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  5. Isolation and partial characterization of thermostable isoperoxidases from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber sprouts.

    PubMed

    Boucoiran, C F; Kijne, J W; Recourt, K

    2000-03-01

    Peroxidases (POD; EC 1.11.1.7) can cross-link cell wall polymers and may have an impact on the final textural quality of potato tubers. Because heat treatments are important during processing, the thermal properties of isoPODs from soluble and ionically and covalently bound fractions were studied from both potato tubers and sprouts. For both tissues, the ionically bound fraction was the most thermostable; approximately 20% of POD activity remained after a heat treatment of 10 min at 90 degrees C (for sprouts). The temperature profile of the ionically bound sprout fraction appeared to be nonlinear and suggested the presence of a very thermostable POD, which still showed activity after a heat treatment at 100 degrees C. Visualization by using isoelectric focusing confirmed the occurrence of a thermostable isoPOD with an IEP of 9.5, which displayed regeneration of activity after heat inactivation. This cationic POD was further purified by chromatography techniques, and by SDS-PAGE its molecular mass was estimated at 38 kDa. PMID:10725137

  6. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  7. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Benjamin J; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M; Gage, Fred H; Johnson, Richard D; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C

    2015-12-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the "spared dermatome" model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact ("naïve") sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  8. The estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts in vitro.

    PubMed

    HaiRong, Ma; HuaBo, Wei; Zhen, Chen; Yi, Yang; ZhengHua, Wang; Madina, Habasi; Xu, Cao; Akber, Aisa Haji

    2013-08-01

    Isoflavones have drawn attention due to their potential therapeutic use. Isoflavones are the important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpea and higher isoflavones in sprouts than in seeds. However, there have been no previous reports of the estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts (ICS) in vitro. In this study, which incorporated several in vitro bioassays methods, we systematically evaluated the estrogenic properties of ICS. MTT assay showed that ICS at the low concentration ranges (10(-3)-1 mg/L) promoted MCF-7 cell growth, while at high concentrations, (>1 mg/L) inhibited cell proliferation, indicating ICS worked at a diphasic mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis further calculated the proliferation rate of ICS at low concentration (1 mg/L). ERα/Luc trans-activation assay and then semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICS at low concentrations induced ERα-mediated luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells and promoted the ER downstream target gene pS2 and PR trans-activation. These effects were inhibited by ICI 182,780, a special antagonist of ER, indicating that an ER-mediating pathway was involved. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in Ishikawa cells showed that ICS at low concentrations stimulated AP expression. Our current study is the first to demonstrate that ICS has significant estrogenic activity in vitro. ICS may be useful as a supplement to hormone replacement therapy and in dietary supplements.

  9. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched and poor allergic protein peanut sprout from ultrasound treated peanut seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Hongzhi; Shi, Aimin; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Peanut sprout is a kind of high quality natural food which has important effect on health-care. It contains abundant bioactive substances such as resveratrol and lower fat. Naturally, resveratrol occurs in stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the resveratrol accumulate in germinant peanut prepared from three varieties (FH12, FH18, and BS1016) in the dry state before steeping were investigated. All experiments were performed using an ultrasonic cleaner bath operating at three frequencies (28, 45 and 100 kHz) for 20 min at constant temperature 30°C. The resulted amounts of resveratrol in peanut sprout were increasing by 2.25, 3.34, and 1.71 times compared with the control group of peanut germinated from FH12, FH18, and BS1016, respectively, after 3d with decreasing the amounts of allergic protein. After ultrasound, the germination rate and total sugar content increased slightly while the crude fat decreased and protein remained unchanged. Overall, the study results indicated that ultrasound treatment combined with germination can be an effective method for producing enriched-resveratrol and poor allergic protein peanut sprout as a functional vegetable. PMID:26384916

  10. Chemical diversity in Mentha spicata: antioxidant and potato sprout inhibition activity of its essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shailendra S; Prakash, Om; Padalia, Rajendra C; Vivekanand; Pant, Anil K; Mathela, Chandra S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. collected from ten different natural habitats of Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by a combination of GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that monoterpenoids (46.1%-91.6%), mainly carvone (15.3%-68.5%), piperetenone oxide (24.0%-79.2%) and alpha-humulene (0.1%-29.9%), were the major constituents of the essential oils, but with significant qualitative and quantitative differences among the other constituents. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within different accessions collected from different natural habitats. The essential oils were also screened for their antioxidant activities by chelating properties of Fe2+, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and their reducing power. The essential oils of two chemo variants (viz. carvone and piperetenone oxide types) were also tested for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sprout suppressant activity. The results showed that these oils exhibit good sprout inhibition activity in comparison to CIPC and iodine, the standard sprout suppressant.

  11. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  12. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched and poor allergic protein peanut sprout from ultrasound treated peanut seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Hongzhi; Shi, Aimin; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Peanut sprout is a kind of high quality natural food which has important effect on health-care. It contains abundant bioactive substances such as resveratrol and lower fat. Naturally, resveratrol occurs in stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the resveratrol accumulate in germinant peanut prepared from three varieties (FH12, FH18, and BS1016) in the dry state before steeping were investigated. All experiments were performed using an ultrasonic cleaner bath operating at three frequencies (28, 45 and 100 kHz) for 20 min at constant temperature 30°C. The resulted amounts of resveratrol in peanut sprout were increasing by 2.25, 3.34, and 1.71 times compared with the control group of peanut germinated from FH12, FH18, and BS1016, respectively, after 3d with decreasing the amounts of allergic protein. After ultrasound, the germination rate and total sugar content increased slightly while the crude fat decreased and protein remained unchanged. Overall, the study results indicated that ultrasound treatment combined with germination can be an effective method for producing enriched-resveratrol and poor allergic protein peanut sprout as a functional vegetable.

  13. [Cation exchanges during the process of Cd(2+) absorption by Alfalfa in aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Peng; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jin-Shao; Peng, Hua; Qin, Hua-Ming; Long, Yan; He, Bao-Yan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Yao; Peng, Su-Fen

    2011-11-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the cation exchanges during the process of Cd2+ absorption by Alfalfa in aqueous solution. The absorption efficiency of Alfalfa plants with 0-10 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ treatments, changes of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and NH4(+) concentration, and the variation of pH values at different absorption time (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 72 h) were studied separately. The multiple linear regressions between Cd2+ absorption and cation variation were analyzed. The results indicated that when Cd2+ concentrations were 0.1, 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1), the absorption efficiencies of Cd2+ by Alfalfa after 72 h were 85.86%, 52.14%, 15.97% and 7.81%. Cation exchange was involved in the removal of Cd2+ by Alfalfa in aqueous solution. Except for NH4(+), the concentrations of cationic metals Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in aqueous solution increased over time, which increased 11.30% - 61.72%, 21.44% - 98.73%, 24.09% - 8.90% and 37.04% - 191.96%, respectively. Kinetic studies illuminated that the release of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ by Alfalfa in Cd2+ solution with initial concentrations of 0, 0. 1, 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1) best fitted pseudo-second-order equation,while the NH4(+) release fitted this model when Cd2+ concentrations were 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1). The gradual decrease of pH during adsorption of Cd2+ by Alfalfa was observed. As the competition ion of Cd2+, H+ might affect the capacity of Alfalfa root system to absorb Cd2+. The ternary linear equation results demonstrated that the content of Cd2+ absorption by Alfalfa strongly related with the release of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+. And this exchange mainly occurred among Cd2+ and divalent cations. PMID:22295633

  14. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism. PMID:26385932

  15. Improving Sprouting Ability of White Yam Minisetts (Dioscorea alata Poir) Var Pona and Dente Using Different Disinfectants and Protectants in Sterilized Saw Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asare-Bediako, E.; Showemimo, F. A.; Opoku-Asiama, Y.; Amewowor, D. H. A. K.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different disinfectants and protectants in improving sprouting and controlling rotting of yam minisetts. Results revealed that disinfection of both the sprouting medium and yam minisetts increase significantly the percentage sprouting of the Pona minisetts. Benlate was more effective in reducing the incidence of minisett rot and enhanced sprouting of the minisetts in roasted sawdust than the other protectants or disinfectants. Benlate-treated Pona minisetts gave high percentage sprouting and low percentage rotting in the roasted sawdust compare to that of Dente minisetts. Quicklime and neem wood ash were also effective in reducing incidence of minisett rot and increased sprouting of yam minisetts significantly compared with sodium hypochlorite, aqueous neem leaf extract and untreated minisetts (control).

  16. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia. PMID:26344997

  17. Peripheral facial nerve axotomy in mice causes sprouting of motor axons into perineuronal central white matter: time course and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Milan; Werner, Alexander; Acosta-Saltos, Alejandro; Gonitel, Roman; Pararajasingam, Abirami; Pararajasingham, Abirami; Ruff, Crystal; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Cuthill, Dan; Galiano, Mathias; Bohatschek, Marion; Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Patrick N; Mayer, Ulrike; Behrens, Axel; Raivich, Gennadij

    2010-03-01

    Generation of new axonal sprouts plays an important role in neural repair. In the current study, we examined the appearance, composition and effects of gene deletions on intrabrainstem sprouts following peripheral facial nerve axotomy. Axotomy was followed by the appearance of galanin(+) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(+) sprouts peaking at day 14, matching both large, neuropeptide(+) subpopulations of axotomized facial motoneurons, but with CGRP(+) sprouts considerably rarer. Strong immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and retrogradely transported MiniRuby following its application on freshly cut proximal facial nerve stump confirmed their axotomized motoneuron origin; the sprouts expressed CD44 and alpha7beta1 integrin adhesion molecules and grew apparently unhindered along neighboring central white matter tracts. Quantification of the galanin(+) sprouts revealed a stronger response following cut compared with crush (day 7-14) as well as enhanced sprouting after recut (day 8 + 6 vs. 14; 14 + 8 vs. 22), arguing against delayed appearance of sprouting being the result of the initial phase of reinnervation. Sprouting was strongly diminished in brain Jun-deficient mice but enhanced in alpha7 null animals that showed apparently compensatory up-regulation in beta1, suggesting important regulatory roles for transcription factors and the sprout-associated adhesion molecules. Analysis of inflammatory stimuli revealed a 50% reduction 12-48 hours following systemic endotoxin associated with neural inflammation and a tendency toward more sprouts in TNFR1/2 null mutants (P = 10%) with a reduced inflammatory response, indicating detrimental effects of excessive inflammation. Moreover, the study points to the usefulness of the facial axotomy model in exploring physiological and molecular stimuli regulating central sprouting. PMID:20034058

  18. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  19. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  20. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  1. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Kawasaki, T; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S; Isshikii, K

    2004-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on commercial ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts and to assess the chemical and physical quality of these sprouts. The use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means of reducing or totally inactivating these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. Treatment of mung bean and radish sprouts with a dose of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively, significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to nondetectable limits. The total vitamin C content was gradually reduced with the increase in irradiation dose (P < 0.0001). However, the effect of storage interval on the loss of vitamin C was nonsignificant for radish sprouts and significant for mung bean sprouts (P < 0.04). The color, firmness, and overall visual quality of the tested sprouts were acceptable when effective doses were applied to both radish and mung bean sprouts. Therefore, ionizing radiation could be useful in reducing the population of pathogens on sprouts and yet retain acceptable quality parameters.

  2. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  3. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings.

  4. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage. PMID:24741164

  5. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nauta, Tessa D.; Duyndam, Monique C. A.; Weijers, Ester M.; van Hinsbergh, Victor M. W.; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Background During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. Objectives We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Methods and Results Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Conclusion Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:27490118

  6. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71%) and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing. PMID:21794129

  7. Fixed-precision sequential sampling plans for estimating alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia, egg density in alfalfa, Medicago sativa, fields in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Serra, Gerardo V; Porta, Norma C La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies.

  8. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  9. Effects of alfalfa hay inclusion rate on productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed wet corn gluten feed-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying the alfalfa inclusion rate in diets containing 31% (dry matter basis) wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.). Eighty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows averaging 178 +/- 90 d in milk (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 7, 14, or 21% alfalfa on a dry matter basis, with corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varying across diets to maintain uniform nutrient densities. Diets were formulated for similar crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing the alfalfa inclusion rate were assessed using mixed model analysis. As the alfalfa inclusion rate increased, dry matter intake tended to increase linearly (26.7, 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5 kg/d for 0, 7, 14, and 21% alfalfa, respectively), and solids-corrected milk (29.9, 30.2, 30.8, and 30.5 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk production (32.9, 33.3, 33.8, and 33.6 kg/d) tended to increase linearly. Body weight gain decreased linearly (22.9, 18.0, 11.2, and 9.5 kg/28 d) with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate. Although increasing the inclusion rate of alfalfa increased the proportion of large particles in the diets, treatments had no effect on milk fat yield or concentration. Feeding more alfalfa (up to 21% of dry matter) tended to increase milk yield while decreasing body weight gain, suggesting that metabolizable energy utilization shifted from body weight gain to milk production in these treatments. However, adding alfalfa to the diet had only minor effects on productivity.

  10. Canopy visible and near-infrared reflectance data to estimate alfalfa nutritive attributes before harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal sensing could help improve profit margins by timing the cutting or harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), in rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) as well as nutritive quality indicators such as r...

  11. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  12. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  13. Environmental variability and/or stability of stem fiber content and digestibility in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration and low digestibility of stem fiber constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L, herbage can limit dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems. Stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and stem neutral detergent fiber digest...

  14. Transcriptome responses in alfalfa associated with tolerance to intensive animal grazing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Zhao, Yan; Ray, Ian; Song, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to animal grazing varies widely within the species. However, the molecular mechanisms influencing the grazing tolerant phenotype remain uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to identify genes and pathways that control grazing response in alfalfa. We analyzed whole-plant de novo transcriptomes from grazing tolerant and intolerant populations of M. sativa ssp. falcata subjected to grazing by sheep. Among the Gene Ontology terms which were identified as grazing responsive in the tolerant plants and differentially enriched between the tolerant and intolerant populations (both grazed), most were associated with the ribosome and translation-related activities, cell wall processes, and response to oxygen levels. Twenty-one grazing responsive pathways were identified that also exhibited differential expression between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These pathways were associated with secondary metabolite production, primary carbohydrate metabolic pathways, shikimate derivative dependent pathways, ribosomal subunit composition, hormone signaling, wound response, cell wall formation, and anti-oxidant defense. Sequence polymorphisms were detected among several differentially expressed homologous transcripts between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These differentially responsive genes and pathways constitute potential response mechanisms for grazing tolerance in alfalfa. They also provide potential targets for molecular breeding efforts to develop grazing-tolerant cultivars of alfalfa. PMID:26763747

  15. Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-02-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 μg/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 μg of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection. PMID:23291101

  16. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is affected by a fungal disease called chalkbrood. In several species of bees, chalkbrood is more likely to occur in larvae kept at 25-30 C than at 35 C. We found that both high and low temperature stress increased the expression of immune response g...

  17. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  18. Correlation of fermentation characteristics with intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage in gestating ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...

  19. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  20. Role of a putative amino acid transporter in fungal disease resistance in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, were identified that are resistant to several foliar pathogens, and microarray technology was used to identify genes specifically expressed in the resistance response. A large proportion of the up-regulated genes had on...

  1. Infection and development of Phoma medicaginis on moderately resistant and susceptible alfalfa genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In temperate regions of North America, spring black stem and leaf spot, caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum., is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The symptoms of the leaf phase of the disease appear initially as small dark brown to black spots, called tarspot...

  2. Flight metabolic rate as an expression of quality in temperature stressed alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee,Megachile rotundata F.(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)is a solitary species that develops inside a maternally constructed brood cell. Pre-pupal M. rotundata diapause over winter and resume development as ambient temperatures increase. Environmental cues are known to initiate b...

  3. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  4. Quantifying the area-wide dispersal patterns of honeybees in commercial alfalfa fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the foraging range of honey bees in an agroecosystem dominated by a glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® (RR) alfalfa seed production field and several non-RR fields. Honey bee self-marking devices were attached to colonies originating from nine different apiary locat...

  5. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  6. Foliar fungicides on alfalfa: 2012 University extension field trial results from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To answer the increasing number of questions received regarding the use of foliar fungicide on alfalfa, a group of Extension and USDA Agricultural Research Station staff in southeastern Minnesota and Wisconsin worked together to conduct field research trials to examine the benefit of using a foliar ...

  7. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  8. Enhancing forage yields and soil conservation by interseeding alfalfa into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...

  9. Flavonoids Released Naturally from Alfalfa Seeds Enhance Growth Rate of Rhizobium meliloti1

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Ueli A.; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) releases different flavonoids from seeds and roots. Imbibing seeds discharge 3′,4′,5,7-substituted flavonoids; roots exude 5-deoxy molecules. Many, but not all, of these flavonoids induce nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The dominant flavonoid released from alfalfa seeds is identified here as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, a molecule that does not induce nod genes. Low concentrations (1-10 micromolar) of this compound, as well as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, another major flavonoid released from germinating seeds, and the aglycones, quercetin and luteolin, increase growth rate of R. meliloti in a defined minimal medium. Tests show that the 5,7-dihydroxyl substitution pattern on those molecules was primarily responsible for the growth effect, thus explaining how 5-deoxy flavonoids in root exudates fail to enhance growth of R. meliloti. Luteolin increases growth by a mechanism separate from its capacity to induce rhizobial nod genes, because it still enhanced growth rate of R. meliloti lacking functional copies of the three known nodD genes. Quercetin and luteolin also increased growth rate of Pseudomonas putida. They had no effect on growth rate of Bacillus subtilis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens, but they slowed growth of two fungal pathogens of alfalfa. These results suggest that alfalfa can create ecochemical zones for controlling soil microbes by releasing structurally different flavonoids from seeds and roots. PMID:16668056

  10. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... included in the petition. In a notice published in the Federal Register on June 27, 2005 (70 FR 36917-36919..., 2009 (74 FR 67206-67207, Docket No. ER-FRL-8986-6). Public Meetings We are advising the public that we... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines...

  11. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... INFORMATION: On January 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (APHIS-2007-0044, 75 FR 1585-1586) a... Agency in the Federal Register on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 6026-6027; Docket No. ER-FRL-8987- 9... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as...

  12. Evaluating Headline fungicide on alfalfa production and sensitivity of pathogens to pyraclostrobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headline fungicide was recently registered for management of foliar diseases on alfalfa. The effect of disease control on yield, forage quality, and potential return on investment for fungicide application was determined for field experiments conducted at five locations in 2012, three in Wisconsin a...

  13. Alfalfa and weed response to alternatives to burning and new herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of crop residues is a common practice in alfalfa seed production to reduce insect, disease and weed pests. A field trial was conducted to evaluate alternative crop residue management practices including mowing and shallow tillage. Field buring reduce seed viability prickly lettuce, m...

  14. Emergence, forage production, and ion relations of alfalfa in response to saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is an important crop utilized in regions under irrigation commonly impacted by salinity. In this study we evaluate the effect of salinity, as a continual process, from emergence to mature plant growth in successive harvests. We studied emergence, biomass production, salt ...

  15. Transcriptional regulation of temperature stress response during development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects can be significantly affected by temperature induced stress. While evidence of the physiological consequences of temperature stress is growing, very little is known about how insects respond at the genetic level to these stressors. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, an emergin...

  16. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  17. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Undergraduate Participation and Outreach in Large Research Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Koopmann, R.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Adams, E. A. K.; Kent, B. R.; Stierwalt, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind neutral hydrogen survey is an ongoing project that includes an innovative undergraduate outreach component promoting the participation of students and faculty at undergraduate-focused institutions in a large, multi-year research collaboration. The survey, which will ultimately detect ˜30,000 gas-rich galaxies, provides resources and authentic opportunities for undergraduates and faculty, including a high fraction of women and minorities, through the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), an NSF-sponsored consortium of 18 participating institutions. The UAT experience features annual workshops at the Arecibo Observatory with hands-on experience for undergrad participants and their faculty mentors. Graduate students on the Cornell ALFALFA Team help plan and facilitate UAT activities and benefit by developing their own skills as mentors, project supervisors, and science communicators. The UAT is developing online lesson plans and activity guides that make use of the ALFALFA online data archive and of innovative learning techniques supported by the findings of astronomy education research.

  18. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    PubMed

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  19. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  20. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...