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Sample records for alfalfa sprouts grown

  1. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, T.; Benkel, D. H.; Shapiro, R. L.; Hall, W. N.; Winnett, M. M.; Linn, M. J.; Neimann, J.; Barrett, T. J.; Dietrich, S.; Downes, F. P.; Toney, D. M.; Pearson, J. L.; Rolka, H.; Slutsker, L.; Griffin, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred in the United States in June and July 1997. Two concurrent outbreaks were investigated through independent case-control studies in Michigan and Virginia and by subtyping isolates with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from 85 persons were indistinguishable by PFGE. Alfalfa sprouts were the only exposure associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection in both Michigan and Virginia. Seeds used for sprouting were traced back to one common lot harvested in Idaho. New subtyping tools such as PFGE used in this investigation are essential to link isolated infections to a single outbreak. PMID:11747724

  2. Transcriptional profile of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden during alfalfa sprout colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brankatschk, Kerstin; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2014-01-01

    Sprouted seeds represent a great risk for infection by human enteric pathogens because of favourable growth conditions for pathogens during their germination. The aim of this study was to identify mechanisms of interactions of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden with alfalfa sprouts. RNA-seq analysis of S. Weltevreden grown with sprouts in comparison with M9-glucose medium showed that among a total of 4158 annotated coding sequences, 177 genes (4.3%) and 345 genes (8.3%) were transcribed at higher levels with sprouts and in minimal medium respectively. Genes that were higher transcribed with sprouts are coding for proteins involved in mechanisms known to be important for attachment, motility and biofilm formation. Besides gene expression required for phenotypic adaption, genes involved in sulphate acquisition were higher transcribed, suggesting that the surface on alfalfa sprouts may be poor in sulphate. Genes encoding structural and effector proteins of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, involved in survival within macrophages during infection of animal tissue, were higher transcribed with sprouts possibly as a response to environmental conditions. This study provides insight on additional mechanisms that may be important for pathogen interactions with sprouts. PMID:24308841

  3. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  4. EFFICACY OF OZONE IN KILLING LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON ALFALFA SEEDS AND SPROUTS, AND EFFECTS ON SENSORY QUALITY OF SPROUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine the efficacy of aqueous ozone treatment in killing Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Reduction in populations of naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on sprouts and changes in sensory quality of sprouts were also determined. Treatme...

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  6. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-15

    On February 24, 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified six isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul with collection dates from February 7--14. Salmonella Saintpaul is not a commonly detected serotype; during 2008, only three Salmonella Saintpaul isolates were identified in Nebraska. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which has identified 228 cases in 13 states and implicated the source as alfalfa sprouts produced at multiple facilities using seeds that likely originated from a common grower. On April 26, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice. On May 1, FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that a seed supplier was withdrawing voluntarily from the market all lots of alfalfa seeds with a specific three-digit prefix. PMID:19444155

  7. A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella bovismorbificans associated with sprouted alfalfa seeds in Finland, 2009.

    PubMed

    Rimhanen-Finne, R; Niskanen, T; Lienemann, T; Johansson, T; Sjöman, M; Korhonen, T; Guedes, S; Kuronen, H; Virtanen, M J; Mäkinen, J; Jokinen, J; Siitonen, A; Kuusi, M

    2011-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Bovismorbificans is a rare serotype in Finland. In June 2009, a nationwide outbreak of S. Bovismorbificans infections occurred, and 42 clinical isolates were identified. We conducted a case-control study enrolling 28 cases and 48 matched controls, and found ready-to-eat alfalfa sprouts associated with the infection (odds ratio = 35.2, 95% confidence interval 2.8-435). The sprouts were traced back to a domestic producer, with the seeds originating in Italy. Although finding microbiological evidence for sprouts as a source of this outbreak was very challenging, S. Bovismorbificans was finally found in sprouts germinated in the laboratory, and in soaking and rinse waters during the germination process. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that these isolates were identical to the human outbreak isolates. Before sampling, it is important to mix the seeds well and to take several large-size samples from different seed lots. Instead of analysing seeds, the analysis should be targeted to soaking or rinse water samples and to the sprouts germinated in a laboratory. Accordingly, the sprout producers should only buy seeds that have been analysed for Salmonella. The producers have to include Salmonella testing in their internal quality control to ensure that Salmonella is absent from sprouts placed on the market during their shelf-life. In order to reduce the health hazard caused by sprouts, an effective and safe decontamination procedure should also be developed for the seeds. PMID:21824360

  8. RAPID DETECTION OF OUTBREAK ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 ADN SALMONELLA IN ALFALFA SPROUTS BY IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE AND TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22 0C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) medi...

  9. Use of green fluorescent protein expressing Salmonella Stanley to investigate survival, spatial location, and control on alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M; Golding, S; Yaron, S; Matthews, K R

    2001-12-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to observe the interaction of Salmonella Stanley with alfalfa sprouts. The green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was integrated into the chromosome of Salmonella Stanley for constitutive expression, thereby eliminating problems of plasmid stability and loss of signal. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated by immersion in a suspension of Salmonella Stanley (ca. 10(7) CFU/ml) for 5 min at 22 degrees C. Epifluorescence microscopy demonstrated the presence of target bacteria on the surface of sprouts. LSCM demonstrated bacteria present at a depth of 12 microm within intact sprout tissue. An initial population of ca. 10(4) CFU/g seed increased to 7.0 log CFU/g during a 24-h germination period and then decreased to 4.9 log CFU/g during a 144-h sprouting period. Populations of Salmonella Stanley on alfalfa seeds decreased from 5.2 to 4.1 log CFU/g and from 5.2 to 2.8 log CFU/g for seeds stored 60 days at 5 and 22 degrees C, respectively. The efficacy of 100, 200, 500, or 2,000 ppm chlorine in killing Salmonella Stanley associated with sprouts was determined. Treatment of sprouts in 2,000 ppm chlorine for 2 or 5 min caused a significant reduction in populations of Salmonella Stanley. Influence of storage on Salmonella Stanley populations was investigated by storing sprouts 4 days at 4 degrees C. The initial population (7.76 log CFU/g) of Salmonella Stanley on mature sprouts decreased (7.67 log CFU/g) only slightly. Cross-contamination during harvest was investigated by harvesting contaminated sprouts, then directly harvesting noncontaminated sprouts. This process resulted in the transfer of ca. 10(5) CFU/g Salmonella Stanley to the noncontaminated sprouts. PMID:11770613

  10. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method. PMID:16865888

  11. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  12. The isolation and identification of a light-induced protein in alfalfa sprouts and the cloning of its specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Xu, Wei-Zhuo; Liu, Xin; Zhuo, Rui-Fang; Wang, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Xin; Kakutani, K; You, Song

    2013-05-15

    We used 2D-PAGE to isolate a light-induced protein (AL-A) that is expressed abundantly in light-growth alfalfa sprouts. The seven amino acids of the N-terminal region of the protein were identified, and we searched for the protein in GenBank using the BLAST program. The results of the homology analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of the isolated protein is most similar to one from a pea plastocyanin. To identify the protein, we amplified and sequenced the DNA fragment encoding AL-A from genomic alfalfa DNA. We found that the AL-A gene was highly homologous (90%) to the sequences from the pea plastocyanin via multiple alignments, and the deduced protein precursor was predicted to be chloroplast-specific via the ChloroP computer program. The protein was named alfalfa-plastocyanin (AL-P). It was characterized as being a light-inducible protein, and RT-PCR analysis showed that AL-P mRNA transcription only occurred in the leaves of the alfalfa plant and the alfalfa seedlings growth in lighted conditions. PCR was also used to amplify the DNA fragment encoding the AL-P promoter (AL-Pp) from genomic alfalfa DNA. PlantCARE analysis of the promoter sequence indicated that both a typical TATA box and a CAAT box were located in the promoter sequence, and some of the cis-elements that are responsible for light responsiveness were also identified within this promoter region. The AL-P gene promoter fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene has been examined for expression in transgenic alfalfa seedlings. Our findings have a potential application in plant genetic engineering; the AL-Pp may be used to drive the expression of heterologous genes in transgenic alfalfa plants. PMID:23454621

  13. Temporally distinct Escherichia coli 0157 outbreaks associated with alfalfa sprouts linked to a common seed source--Colorado and Minnesota, 2003.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. D.; Scheftel, J.; Cronquist, A.; Smith, K.; Woo-Ming, A.; Anderson, E.; Knutsen, J.; De, A. K.; Gershman, K.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks were identified in Minnesota in February 2003 involving seven persons and in Colorado in July 2003 involving 13 persons. Case isolates from the two states had matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Independent case-control studies linked infections in each outbreak with eating alfalfa sprouts that were traced to the same seed distributor. The Colorado sprouter reportedly complied with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sprout guidance, whereas the Minnesota sprouter did not. These investigations revealed that increased compliance with existing FDA guidance is needed and that additional research is needed to improve the alfalfa seed decontamination process. This reaffirms the FDA recommendation that raw alfalfa sprouts should be considered potentially contaminated and avoided by persons at high-risk such as the elderly, young children, and immunocompromised persons. PFGE played an essential role in linking these two temporally and geographically distinct E. coli O157 outbreaks. PMID:15962550

  14. Determination of thiodicarb using a biosensor based on alfalfa sprout peroxidase immobilized in self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Moccelini, Sally K; Vieira, Iolanda C; de Lima, Fábio; Lucca, Bruno G; Barbosa, Antônio M J; Ferreira, Valdir S

    2010-06-30

    A biosensor based on alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa) homogenate as a source of peroxidase is proposed for the determination of thiodicarb by square-wave voltammetry. This enzyme was immobilized in self-assembled monolayers of l-cysteine on a gold electrode. Several parameters were investigated to evaluate the optimum conditions for operation of the biosensor. The analytical curve was linear for thiodicarb concentrations of 2.27 x 10(-6) to 4.40 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 5.75 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). The lifetime of the Au-alfalfa sprout-SAMs was 20 days (at least 220 determinations). The average recovery of thiodicarb from samples of vegetable extracts ranged from 99.02 to 101.04%. The results obtained for thiodicarb in vegetable extracts using the proposed method are in close agreement with those using a high performance liquid chromatography procedure at the 95% confidence level. PMID:20685452

  15. Survival of Murine Norovirus, Tulane Virus, and Hepatitis A Virus on Alfalfa Seeds and Sprouts during Storage and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Hirneisen, Kirsten A.; Markland, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Human norovirus (huNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been involved in several produce-associated outbreaks and identified as major food-borne viral etiologies. In this study, the survival of huNoV surrogates (murine norovirus [MNV] and Tulane virus [TV]) and HAV was investigated on alfalfa seeds during storage and postgermination. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with MNV, TV, or HAV with titers of 6.46 ± 0.06 log PFU/g, 3.87 ± 0.38 log PFU/g, or 7.01 ± 0.07 log 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50)/g, respectively. Inoculated seeds were stored for up to 50 days at 22°C and sampled during that storage period on days 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15. Following storage, virus presence was monitored over a 1-week germination period. Viruses remained infectious after 50 days, with titers of 1.61 ± 0.19 log PFU/g, 0.85 ± 0.21 log PFU/g, and 3.43 ± 0.21 log TCID50/g for MNV, TV, and HAV, respectively. HAV demonstrated greater persistence than MNV and TV, without a statistically significant reduction over 20 days (<1 log TCID50/g); however, relatively high levels of genomic copies of all viruses persisted over the testing time period. Low titers of viruses were found on sprouts and were located in all tissues as well as in sprout-spent water sampled on days 1, 3, and 6 following seed planting. Results revealed the persistence of viruses in seeds for a prolonged period of time, and perhaps of greater importance these data suggest the ease of which virus may transfer from seeds to sprouts and spent water during germination. These findings highlight the importance of sanitation and prevention procedures before and during germination. PMID:24014537

  16. Presence and correlation of some enteric indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes, and Salmonella serotypes in alfalfa sprouts from local retail markets in Pachuca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Data on the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) in alfalfa sprouts and correlations between the presence of coliform bacteria (CB), fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts are not available. The presence of and correlations between CB, FC, E. coli, DEPs, and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts were determined. One hundred sprout samples were collected from retail markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo State, Mexico. The presence of indicator bacteria and Salmonella was determined using conventional culture procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex PCR procedures. One hundred percent of samples were positive for CB, 90% for FC, 84% for E. coli, 10% for DEPs, and 4% for Salmonella. The populations of CB ranged from 6.2 up to 8.6 log CFU/g. The FC and E. coli concentrations were between , 3 and 1,100 most probable number (MPN)/g. The DEPs identified included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC; 2%), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; 3%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC; 5%). No E. coli O157:H7 strains were detected in any STEC-positive samples. In samples positive for DEPs, the concentrations ranged from 210 to 240 MPN/g for ETEC, 28 to 1,100 MPN/g for EPEC, and 3.6 to 460 MPN/g for STEC. The Salmonella isolates identified included Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in three samples and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in one. STEC and Salmonella Typhimurium were identified together in one sample. Positive correlations were observed between FC and E. coli, between FC and DEPs, and between E. coli and DEPs. Negative correlations occurred between CB and DEPs and between CB and Salmonella. Neither FC nor E. coli correlated with Salmonella in the sprout samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ETEC, EPEC, and STEC isolated from alfalfa sprouts and the first report of correlations between different indicator groups versus DEPs and Salmonella. PMID:25719889

  17. Control of Salmonella on sprouting mung bean and alfalfa seeds by using a biocontrol preparation based on antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxiong; Kostrzynska, Magdalaena; Dunfield, Kari; Warriner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the application of a combination of antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages to control the growth of Salmonella on sprouting mung beans and alfalfa seeds. Antagonistic bacteria were isolated from mung bean sprouts and tomatoes by using the deferred plate assay to assess anti-Salmonella activity. From the isolates screened, an Enterobacter asburiae strain (labeled "JX1") exhibited stable antagonistic activity against a broad range of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Berta, Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Javiana, Montevideo, Muenchen, Newport, Saint Paul, and Typhimurium). Lytic bacteriophages against Salmonella were isolated from pig or cattle manure effluent. A bacteriophage cocktail prepared from six isolates was coinoculated with E. asburiae JX1 along with Salmonella in broth culture. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophage cocktail reduced the levels of Salmonella by 5.7 to 6.4 log CFU/ml. Mung beans inoculated with Salmonella and sprouted over a 4-day period attained levels of 6.72 + or - 0.78 log CFU/g. In contrast, levels of Salmonella were reduced to 3.31 + or - 2.48 or 1.16 + or - 2.14 log CFU/g when the pathogen was coinoculated with bacteriophages or E. asburiae JX1, respectively. However, by using a combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages, the levels of Salmonella associated with mung bean sprouts were only detected by enrichment. The biocontrol preparation was effective at controlling the growth of Salmonella under a range of sprouting temperatures (20 to 30 degrees Celsius) and was equally effective at suppressing the growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages represents a promising, chemical-free approach for controlling the growth of Salmonella on sprouting seeds. PMID:20051198

  18. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health provider.Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your ...

  19. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1beta production and the NF-kappaB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 microl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 microl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. PMID:19594948

  20. Microbial profiles of on-line--procured sprouting seeds and potential hazards associated with enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. in homegrown sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Khalid, M F; Kalantari, A

    2005-08-01

    We examined the microbiological quality of sprouting seeds sold through the Internet. Overall, five types of seeds each from six organic and six conventional sources were evaluated. The growth and toxin production of naturally occurring Bacillus spp. in sprouts produced using home-scale sprouting devices also were investigated. For alfalfa, broccoli, lentil, mungbean, and radish seeds, the average microbial counts were 3.3, 4.0, 2.8, 3.5, and 3.6 log CFU/g, presumptive B. cereus counts were 0.7, 1.0, 0.8, 1.0, and 0.9 log CFU/g, and total coliform counts were -0.3, -0.4, -0.5, 0.0, and -0.4 log of the most probable number per gram, respectively. No Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157, other fecal coliforms, or Staphylococcus aureus was found on seeds. Compared with conventional seeds, the organic seeds had lower or equivalent counts for total microorganisms, presumptive B. cereus, and total coliforms. When seeds were sprouting using a glass jar, the growth of presumptive B. cereus was significant for radish and broccoli but not for alfalfa, lentil, and mungbean sprouts; the counts exceeded 5.0 log CFU/g in radish sprouts. When sprouts were grown using an automatic sprouting device, presumptive B. cereus showed slight growth (< 3.0 log cycles) in radish, broccoli, and mungbean sprouts but no growth in alfalfa and lentil sprouts. Although the presumptive B. cereus isolates were enterotoxigenic, they did not produce or accumulate detectable levels of diarrheal toxins in freshly produced sprouts. PMID:21132973

  1. Applications of immunomagnetic capture and time-resolved fluorescence to detect outbreak Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-I.; Gordon, Marsha; Fett, William F.; Gehring, Andrew G.; Irwin, Peter L.

    2004-03-01

    Commercially available alfalfa seeds were inoculated with low levels (~ 4 CFU/g) of pathogenic bacteria. The inoculated seeds were then allowed to sprout in sterile tap water at 22°C. After 48 hours, the irrigation water and sprouts were separately transferred to bovine heart infusion (BHI) media. The microbes in the BHI samples were allowed to grow for 4 hours at 37°C and 160 rpm. Specific immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were then applied to capture the E.coli O157 and/or Salmonella in the growth media. Separation and concentration of IMB-captured pathogens were achieved using magnetic separators. The captured E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp were further tagged with europium (Eu) labeled anti-E. coli O157 antibodies and samarium (Sm) labeled anti-Salmonella antibodies, respectively. After washing, the lanthanide labels were extracted out from the complexes by specific chelators to form strongly fluorescent chelates. The specific time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) associated with Eu or Sm was measured to estimate the extent of capture of the E. coli O157 and Salmonella, respectively. The results indicated that the approach could detect E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica from the seeds inoculated with ~ 4 CFU/g of the pathogens. Non-targeted bacteria, e.g., Aeromonas and Citrobacter exhibited essentially no cross reactivity. Since the pathogen detection from the sprouts was achieved within 6 hours, the developed methodology could be use as a rapid, sensitive and specific screening process for E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica in this popular salad food.

  2. Characterization of the cultivable microbiota of sprouts and their potential for application as protective cultures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Hertel, Christian; Grothe, Silke; Ha, Diep; Hammes, Walter P

    2007-09-01

    The microbiota of ten seeds and ready-to-eat sprouts produced thereof was characterized by bacteriological culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified DNA fragments of the 16S rRNA gene. The predominant bacterial biota of hydroponically grown sprouts mainly consisted of enterobacteria, pseudomonades and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). For adzuki, alfalfa, mung bean, radish, sesame and wheat, the ratio of these bacterial groups changed strongly in the course of germination, whereas for broccoli, red cabbage, rye and green pea the ratio remained unchanged. Within the pseudomonades, Pseudomonas gesardii and Pseudomonas putida have been isolated and strains of the potentially pathogenic species Enterobacter cancerogenes and Pantoea agglomerans were found as part of the main microbiota on hydroponically grown sprouts. In addition to the microbiota of the whole seedlings, the microbiota of root, hypocotyl and seed leafs were examined for alfalfa, radish and mung bean sprouts. The highest and lowest total counts for aerobic bacteria were found on seed leafs and hypocotyls, respectively. On the other hand, the highest numbers for LAB on sprouts were found on the hypocotyl. When sprouting occurred under the agricultural conditions, e.g. in soil, the dominating microbiota changed from enterobacteria to pseudomonades for mung beans and alfalfa sprouts. No pathogenic enterobacteria have been isolated from these sprout types. Within the pseudomonades group, Pseudomonas jessenii and Pseudomonas brassicacearum were found as dominating species on all seedling parts from soil samples. In practical experiments, a strain of P. jessenii was found to exhibit a potential for use as protective culture, as it suppresses the growth of pathogenic enterobacteria on ready-to-eat sprouts. PMID:17512686

  3. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  4. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  5. Automatic Sprout Grower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Self-contained seed-sprouting system provides environment for sprouting seeds quickly and easily. Sprouting container standard 6-oz package for dehydrated food and drink mixes in Space Shuttle. About 4 g of dry alfalfa or radish seeds vacuum-sealed in each cup, like freeze-dried foods. Sixteen cups suspended in tray. Air-and-water inlet tube links each cup to system of tubes and solenoid valves alternately furnish air and water and remove stale air. Peristaltic pump supplies water from vinyl medical-fluid bag. Small diaphragm pump supplies and exhausts air. Small circuit board times movements of air and water. Kit offers advantages to home gardeners. Apartment dwellers use it for steady production of homegrown sprouts even though they have no garden space.

  6. Composition and physiological profiling of sprout-associated microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matos, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Fett, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The native microfloras of various types of sprouts (alfalfa, clover, sunflower, mung bean, and broccoli sprouts) were examined to assess the relative effects of sprout type and inoculum factors (i.e., sprout-growing facility, seed lot, and inoculation with sprout-derived inocula) on the microbial community structure of sprouts. Sprouts were sonicated for 7 min or hand shaken with glass beads for 2 min to recover native microfloras from the surface, and the resulting suspensions were diluted and plated. The culturable fraction was characterized by the density (log CFU/g), richness (e.g., number of types of bacteria), and diversity (e.g., microbial richness and evenness) of colonies on tryptic soy agar plates incubated for 48 h at 30 degrees C. The relative similarity between sprout-associated microbial communities was assessed with the use of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) based on patterns of utilization of 95 separate carbon sources. Aerobic plate counts of 7.96 +/- 0.91 log CFU/g of sprout tissue (fresh weight) were observed, with no statistically significant differences in microbial cell density, richness, or diversity due to sprout type, sprout-growing facility, or seed lot. CLPP analyses revealed that the microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts are more similar than those associated with the other sprout types tested. Variability among sprout types was more extensive than any differences between microbial communities associated with alfalfa and clover sprouts from different sprout-growing facilities and seed lots. These results indicate that the subsequent testing of biocontrol agents should focus on similar organisms for alfalfa and clover, but alternative types may be most suitable for the other sprout types tested. The inoculation of alfalfa sprouts with communities derived from various sprout types had a significant, source-independent effect on microbial community structure, indicating that the process of

  7. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure. PMID:27155479

  8. Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phage resistant and susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA)and protein encoding (atpD and recA) g...

  9. Comparison of eight different agars for the recovery of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from baby spinach, cilantro, alfalfa sprouts and raw milk.

    PubMed

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Lin, Andrew; Hammack, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 4a recommends several agars for isolating non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC); not all have been thoroughly tested for recovering STECs from food. Using E. coli strains representing ten clinically relevant O serogroups (O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145) in artificially-contaminated fresh produce--bagged baby spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cilantro, and raw milk--we evaluated the performance of 8 different agars. Performance was highly dependent upon strain used and the presence of inhibitors, but not necessarily dependent on food matrix. Tellurite resistant-negative strains, O91:-, O103:H6, O104:H21, O113:H21, and O128, grew poorly on CHROMagar STEC, Rainbow agar O157, and a modified Rainbow O157 (mRB) agar. Although adding washed sheep's blood to CHROMagar STEC and mRB agars improved overall performance; however, this also reversed the inhibition of non-target bacteria provided by original formulations. Variable colony coloration made selecting colonies from Rainbow agar O157 and mRB agars difficult. Study results support a strategy using inclusive agars (e.g. L-EMB, SHIBAM) in combination with selective agars (R & F E. coli O157:H7, CHROMagar STEC) to allow for recovery of the most STECs while increasing the probability of recovering STEC in high bacterial count matrices. PMID:25475297

  10. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds. PMID:20591568

  11. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  12. Preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue grown adjacent to or at a distance from alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Friend, M A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue growing in monoculture at least 5 m away from alfalfa (fescue-middle (FM)) over endophyte-infected tall fescue growing adjacent (0.2 to 1 m; fescue-alfalfa (FA)) to alfalfa (FA), and the effect of legume scent on preference for endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Experiment 1, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered for 12 days a choice of freshly harvested FA and FM. On days 13 and 14, lambs were offered the same choice, except cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa were put in the feeders containing FA, whereas cages containing freshly harvested FM were included with the feeders containing FM. Forage intake was measured 1 h after feeding and at three consecutive 2-h intervals thereafter. FA contained greater (P<0.002) concentrations of the alkaloid ergovaline (360 ± 27 ppm) and CP (8 ± 0.4%) than FM (219 ± 27 ppm and 6 ± 0.4%, respectively). Lambs preferred (P<0.05) FA to FM during the 1st hour of feeding, but the differences became smaller and disappeared in later feeding periods (P<0.005). Lambs offered FA with alfalfa scent or FM with FM scent preferred (P<0.05) FA but only on the 2nd day. In Experiment 2, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered a choice of FM with cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa or FM for 8 days. During the following 4 days, FM in the cages was replaced with freshly harvested sainfoin. Preference was greater (P<0.05) for FM offered with alfalfa scent than for FM offered with FM scent only on days 4 and 8. When lambs were offered FM with alfalfa or sainfoin in cages, they preferred (P<0.05) tall fescue with sainfoin scent over fescue with alfalfa scent, but intake was variable across hours and days (P<0.001). It is concluded that (1) lambs adjusted their intake of and preference for FA and FM over successive feeding bouts within each day, likely owing to an attempt to balance

  13. Study of selenocompounds from selenium-enriched culture of edible sprouts.

    PubMed

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Morell-Garcia, Albert; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-12-15

    Selenium is recognised as an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. One of the main sources of selenocompounds in the human diet is vegetables. Therefore, this study deals with the Se species present in different edible sprouts grown in Se-enriched media. We grew alfalfa, lentil and soy in a hydroponic system amended with soluble salts, containing the same proportion of Se, in the form of Se(VI) and Se(IV). Total Se in the sprouts was determined by acidic digestion in a microwave system and by ICP/MS. Se speciation was carried out by enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV) and measured by LC-ICP/MS. The study shows that the Se content of plants depends on the content in the growth culture, and that part of the inorganic Se was biotransformed mainly into SeMet. These results contribute to our understanding of the uptake of inorganic Se and its biotransformation by edible plants. PMID:23993543

  14. Comparison of the Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Strains with Sprout Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventeen strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes were tested for their ability to colonize alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts, as well as their capacity to withstand acid and oxidative stress, two stresses common to the sprout growth environment. Whereas large variations in dif...

  15. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

  16. Microbiological examination of vegetable seed sprouts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Lee, Youngjun; Beuchat, Larry R; Yoon, Bong-June; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Sprouted vegetable seeds used as food have been implicated as sources of outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. We profiled the microbiological quality of sprouts and seeds sold at retail shops in Seoul, Korea. Ninety samples of radish sprouts and mixed sprouts purchased at department stores, supermarkets, and traditional markets and 96 samples of radish, alfalfa, and turnip seeds purchased from online stores were analyzed to determine the number of total aerobic bacteria (TAB) and molds or yeasts (MY) and the incidence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Enterobacter sakazakii. Significantly higher numbers of TAB (7.52 log CFU/g) and MY (7.36 log CFU/g) were present on mixed sprouts than on radish sprouts (6.97 and 6.50 CFU/g, respectively). Populations of TAB and MY on the sprouts were not significantly affected by location of purchase. Radish seeds contained TAB and MY populations of 4.08 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas populations of TAB were only 2.54 to 2.84 log CFU/g and populations of MY were 0.82 to 1.69 log CFU/g on alfalfa and turnip seeds, respectively. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected on any of the sprout and seed samples tested. E. sakazakii was not found on seeds, but 13.3% of the mixed sprout samples contained this potentially pathogenic bacterium. PMID:19435238

  17. A Winter Sprout Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1985-01-01

    Illustrates a method by which individual students or small groups can make a compact, self-sufficient system supplying all the growth needs for bean sprouts. Outlines several activities that can be completed while the bean sprouts are growing. (DH)

  18. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization. PMID:27040919

  19. Sprouting Interest in Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to the familiar paper cup and seed project in which students make grass heads out of nylon mesh stockings, sawdust, wire, rubber bands, plastic eyes, and grass seed. Students can observe the effects of light, sprouting rates, and the height and color of the sprouts on these grass heads. This creative activity is…

  20. INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED MALATE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION BY ALFALFA ON DIVERSITY OF RHIZOBACTERIA AND SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic alfalfa over-expressing a nodule-enhanced malate dehydrogenase (neMDH) cDNA and untransformed alfalfa plants were grown at the same field site and rhizosphere soils collected after 53 weeks of plant growth. These alfalfa lines differ in the amount and composition of root organic acids pro...

  1. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  2. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  3. New strategies for managing leaf diseases of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation from leaf diseases has been measured from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, age of the stand, and location. In addition to yield loss, foliar diseases can reduce forag...

  4. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  5. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  6. [Sprouting of forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, J

    1994-01-01

    Since there are materials relevant to medical jurisprudence in Qin Lu (law of Qin Dynasty), Feng Zhen Shi (sealed pattern of investigation) and Huangdi Neijing (inner canon of Yellow Emperor), and the examining system of Warring States Period include procedures, personnel and reports on examination of medical jurisprudence, it can be concluded that the pre-Qin Period saw the sprouting period of Chinese medical jurisprudence. PMID:11615229

  7. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout. PMID:25306322

  8. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  9. Reduced Lignin Alfalfa - Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. farmers harvested alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for hay or haylage from 24.5million acres in 2009. Midwestern states harvested 57 % of 2009 acreage for hay and haylage. However, acreage is stable to declining. Alfalfa provides an excellent source of fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins that partia...

  10. Drought and alfalfa nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although established alfalfa can access deep subsoil water, dry topsoils limit the availability of many nutrients. Dry topsoils can limit the uptake of many plant nutrients. With the potential for drought in 2007, farmers should consider fertilizing alfalfa if the soil tends to be droughty, is shall...

  11. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  12. Manure use on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  13. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  14. ALFALFA: BIOFUEL AND FEED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop that supports Idaho's dairy industry. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of its high biomasss production...

  15. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  16. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-01-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits. PMID:25351040

  17. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  18. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  19. Quantitative evaluation of fiber from nonforage sources used to replace alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Swain, S M; Armentano, L E

    1994-08-01

    The effectiveness of NDF from nonforage fiber sources was evaluated in two trials using midlactation Holsteins. Dietary NDF was added to the basal diet using either alfalfa silage or a nonforage high fiber feed. Diets were fed for 21 d. In trial 1, four amounts of alfalfa were fed. Basal milk fat percentage was 2.61% at 144 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet and increased linearly by .066 for each additional 1% alfalfa NDF added, up to 22.8 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet. Based on one amount of added nonforage fiber, the ratio of fat test increase to NDF added was .014 for brewers grains, .040 for oat hulls, and .047 for corn gluten feed. In trial 2, one amount of added alfalfa and each nonforage fiber source was used. The ratio of fat test increase to added NDF was .094 for alfalfa, .043 for brewers grains, .067 for oat hulls, .038 for corn gluten feed, .041 for beet pulp, and .044 for malt sprouts. When added to low fiber diets, NDF from the nonforage fiber sources elevated milk fat concentration approximately one-half as effectively as did NDF from alfalfa. Chewing activity was less affected by nonforage NDF than was milk fat concentration. PMID:7962854

  20. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption. PMID:24425891

  1. The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comp...

  2. Healthy food trends -- Brussels sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... top with garlic and olive oil. Add chicken, mushrooms, or beans for a hearty meal. Add whole ... mustard (spicy) ½ teaspoon thyme (dried) ½ cup mushroom (sliced) Instructions Trim Brussels sprouts and cut in ...

  3. Yield and ion relations of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in response to irrigation with saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a major forage crop utilized in arid and semi-arid regions under irrigation; these regions are commonly impacted by saline water and soils. Four commercial non-dormant, purported salt tolerant Alfalfa cultivars 'Salado', 'S&W8421s', 'S&W9720' and 'S&W9215' were grown in 24 outdoor sand ta...

  4. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (@ L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m{sup 2}. We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of techniques for enrichment and isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated sprouts.

    PubMed

    Weagant, S D; Bound, A J

    2001-12-01

    Because sprouted seed products are kept wet during and after production, have high levels of nutrients, and a neutral pH, they are subject to the outgrowth of pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. For these same reasons, these products also contain high levels of heterotrophic organisms and in particular coliform bacteria. Recent outbreaks have focused attention on the need to improve methodology for isolating this pathogen from sprouts. When 40 E. coli O157:H7 strains were grown in pure culture in enterohemorrhagic E. coli enrichment broth (EEB) as prescribed in the U.S. FDA-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and in EEB modified by varying the cefixime concentration, outgrowth for all strains in EEB was inhibited at 0.05 mg/l but for only 2 of 40 strains when the cefixime level was adjusted to 0.0125 mg/l. These two enrichment formulae were compared to modified E. coli broth (mEC), modified Tryptic Soy Broth with 20 mg/l novobiocin (mTSB + N), modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW), and mBPW with added 10 mg/l acriflavin, 10 mg/l cefsulodin, and 8 mg/l vancomycin (mBPW + ACV) for isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from sprouts. These comparisons were performed using low-level (0.12 to 0.42 cfu/g) artificially contaminated alfalfa and mixed salad sprouts. After enrichment, two isolation methods were compared for recovery; direct plating to Tellurite-Cefixime Sorbitol MacConkey agar (TCSMAC) and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) (Dynabeads anti-E. coli O157, Dynal, Oslo, Norway) followed by plating to TCSMAC. In addition, an immunoprecipitin detection kit, VIP (BioControl, Bellevue, WA), was evaluated for detection after enrichment. We found that five of the six enrichments were equivalent for detection or recovery while one enrichment (mTSB + N without agitation) was less productive. Incubation for 24 h was more effective in recovering E. coli O157:H7 from sprouts than 6 h for all enrichment broths. Plating after IMS was more productive than direct plating

  6. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts. PMID:19343955

  7. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

  8. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  9. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the ... green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ...

  10. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  11. A comparison of the retention of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 by sprouts, leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Smith, Rachel B; Matthysse, Ann G

    2014-11-01

    The retention (binding to or association with the plant) of Escherichia coli by cut leaves and fruits after vigorous water washing was compared with that by sprouts. Retention by fruits and leaves was similar but differed from retention by sprouts in rate, effect of wounding and requirement for poly-β,1-6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Escherichia coli was retained by cut ends of lettuce leaves within 5 min while more than 1 h was required for retention by the intact epidermis of leaves and fruits, and more than 1 day for sprouts. Retention after 5 min at the cut leaf edge was specific for E. coli and was not shown by the plant-associated bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Escherichia coli was retained by lettuce, spinach, alfalfa, bean, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucumber, and pepper leaves and fruits faster than by sprouts. Wounding of leaves and fruits but not sprouts increased bacterial retention. Mutations in the exopolysaccharide synthesis genes yhjN and wcaD reduced the numbers of bacteria retained. PgaC mutants were retained by cut leaves and fruits but not by sprouts. There was no significant difference in the retention of an O157 and a K12 strain by fruits or leaves. However, retention by sprouts of O157 strains was significantly greater than K12 strains. These findings suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of E  coli retention among sprouts, and leaves and fruits. PMID:25351040

  12. EFFECTS OF OZONE AND WATER STRESS ON CANOPY TEMPERATURE, WATER USE, AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF ALFALFA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) and soil water deficit are two environmental stresses that significantly affect the growth and yield of alfalfa. However, little is known of the responses of field-grown alfalfa to O3, and the effects of the interaction between O3 and water stress on canopy temperature...

  13. Chalkbrood Transmission in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee: The Impact of Disinfecting Bee Cocoons in Loose Cell Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A good understanding of pathogen transmission in a host population should illuminate methods for disease prevention and control. A case in point for this is the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), a solitary bee which is used extensively for pollination of alfalfa grown for seed. Propaga...

  14. A native ground nesting bee, Nomia melanderi, sustainably managed to pollinate alfalfa across an intensively agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The world’s only intensively managed ground-nesting bee, the alkali bee (Nomia melanderi Cockerell), has been used for >50 years as an effective pollinator of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown for seed across the western USA. Throughout the 240 km2 Touchet Valley alfalfa farmin...

  15. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous...

  16. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  17. Three Dimensional 10% Cyclic Strain Reduces Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cell Angiogenic Sprout Length and Augments Tubulogenesis in Tubular Fibrin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Andrew A.; Kuprys, Tomas; Ucuzian, Areck A.; Brey, Eric; Matsumura, Akie; Pang, Yonggang; Larson, Jef; Greisler, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a functional microvasculature is critical to the long-term survival of implanted tissue-engineered constructs. Dynamic culture conditions have shown to significantly modulate phenotypic characteristics and stimulate proliferation of cells within hydrogel-based tissue engineered blood vessels. Although prior work has described the effects uniaxial or equibiaxial mechanical stimulation has on endothelial cells, no work has outlined effects of three-dimensional mechanical stimulation on endothelial cells within tubular vessel analogs. We demonstrate here that 7 days of 10% cyclic volumetric distension has a deleterious effect on the average length and density of angiogenic sprouts derived from pellets of bovine aortic endothelial cells. Although both groups demonstrated lumen formation, the sprouts grown under dynamic culture conditions typically had wider, less-branching sprout patterns. These results suggest that prolonged mechanical stimulation could represent a cue for angiogenic sprouts to preferentially develop larger lumens over cellular migration and subsequent sprout length. PMID:20718050

  18. Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K

    1994-01-15

    Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States. PMID:7908282

  19. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  20. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  1. Biotechnological advancements in alfalfa improvement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2011-05-01

    Review of biotechnology research in alfalfa shows that molecular techniques are extensively being used for basic and applied research toward alfalfa improvement. Biotechnological approaches have been used in two major areas, genomics and transgenics. In genomics, molecular markers, structural and functional genomics allowed identification of genes of interest and their regulatory components. Alfalfa being obstinate to genetic and genomic analysis, comparative genomics is used for molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes in alfalfa. Alternatively, transgenic approach involves incorporation of specific and useful genes into alfalfa to improve the traits of interest. Input traits to improve agronomic performance and output traits to improve forage quality, or to produce novel industrial/pharmaceutical proteins, are the focus of current transgenic research in alfalfa. However, transgenic approach is controversial requiring cautious experimental design to combat bioisafety concerns. Ideally, forage alfalfa needs to possess more fermentable carbohydrates, proteins with balanced amino acid profile that degrade slower in rumen, improved winter hardiness, better water use efficiency, pest resistance and no anti-quality factors. Concerted efforts are required to bring together maximum of these characteristic features into the alfalfa plant. PMID:21279557

  2. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  3. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association. [Medicago sativa; Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after /sup 3/H/sub 2/O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots.

  4. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  5. Ractopamine uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in t...

  6. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  7. Involvement of ethylene in chemically induced sprouting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter, tubers are dormant and will not sprout. Dormancy is lost during postharvest storage or after treatment with a variety of unrelated chemicals. The mechanisms of action of these sprout-inducing substances are largely unknown but may involve chan...

  8. Update: intervention strategies for producing safe sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are still foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls due to pathogen contaminated sprouts. Contaminated seeds, used for sprouting, are considered the main source of the problem. A review of seed contamination strategies, both chemical and non-thermal, will be presented. The chemical in...

  9. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650–660), far red (720–730) and blue (440–450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes. PMID:25679808

  10. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  11. Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage, has potential for development as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. Identifying key genes regulating lignin and cellulose biosynthesis in alfalfa would advance its development as a cellulosic feedstock. However, the ...

  12. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  13. Genetic Mapping of Persistence in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence is a critical trait for alfalfa, yet the genetics of this trait is poorly understood. Herein, we characterize an F1 alfalfa population derived from the cross between the two cultivated alfalfa subpecies for persistence in three production seasons at Ames and Nashua, Iowa locations and o...

  14. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  15. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  16. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  17. Influence of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on alfalfa growth and nutrient uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that large amounts of volcanic ash from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens may have created potential nutritional problems associated with forage production in northern Idaho and eastern Washington to the extent that adjustments need to be made in soil test correlation data. The objectives of this greenhouse study were to : (1) determine the effect of varying amounts of volcanic ash mixed into soils of northern Idaho on total alfalfa biomass production, and (2) to determine the effect of various soil/ash mixtures on the nutrient concentrations of P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in alfalfa. Alfalfa was grown in eight different northern Idaho soils amended with differing levels of volcanic ash (0, 20, 35, 50 and 75%) in the greenhouse. The alfalfa seeds were inoculated and fertilizer P and S were added to all treatments. Total plant biomass and P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn plant concentrations were measured. The eight were pooled for analysis and it was found that increasing amounts of volcanic ash increased alfalfa biomass production. Plant P, S, Ca, Mg and Zn concentrations also increased with increasing levels of ash. Conversely, increasing levels of ash resulted in lower alfalfa tissue K and Mn concentrations. 13 references, 7 figures.

  18. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  19. Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern.

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.; Slutsker, L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with raw seed sprouts have occurred in several countries. Subjective evaluations indicate that pathogens can exceed 107 per gram of sprouts produced from inoculated seeds during sprout production without adversely affecting appearance. Treating seeds and sprouts with chlorinated water or other disinfectants fails to eliminate the pathogens. A comprehensive approach based on good manufacturing practices and principles of hazard analysis and critical control points can reduce the risk of sprout-associated disease. Until effective measures to prevent sprout-associated illness are identified, persons who wish to reduce their risk of foodborne illness from raw sprouts are advised not to eat them; in particular, persons at high risk for severe complications of infections with Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, such as the elderly, children, and those with compromised immune systems, should not eat raw sprouts. PMID:10511518

  20. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  1. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  2. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  3. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  5. Effects of ozone and water stress on canopy temperature, water use, and water-use efficiency of alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.; Benoit, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone (O/sub 3/) and soil water deficit are two environmental stresses that significantly affect the growth and yield of alfalfa. However, little is known of the responses of field-grown alfalfa to O/sub 3/, and the effects of the interaction between O/sub 3/ and water stress on canopy temperature and water relations of alfalfa have not been previously reported. Water use, rate of soil-water depletion, or depth of effective rooting zone were not affected by O/sub 3/, whereas water stress significantly reduced all three. Water-use efficiency was significantly reduced by O/sub 3/. The effects of O/sub 3/ on WUE were attributed to premature senescence and abscission of older alfalfa leaves.

  6. Stump sprouting of Pacific yew. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Minore, D.; Weatherly, H.G.

    1996-09-01

    Large numbers of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) trees have been cut to supply bark for taxol production, and replacement of those trees may depend on their ability to sprout from the stump. Stump characteristics were related to the initiation and survival of epicormic branches (sprouts) on 100 yew stumps in each of 11 recently harvested stands during 1992. Half of the stumps were artificially shaded and all were remeasured in 1993. The number of living stumps in each stand was positively correlated with average stump height and average percentage of bark retained. Postharvest sprouting was most abundant on stumps with established sprouts or live branches. For individual stumps, the number and length of preharvest sprouts were the only variables consistently related to number of postharvest sprouts. Artificial shading did not promote sprouting.

  7. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  8. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light. PMID:27075731

  9. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  10. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rainfall on yields of radish (Raphanus sativa), garden beet (Beta vulgaris), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under standard agronomic practices. The experimental design a...

  11. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  12. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  13. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  14. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is known as the “Queen of the Forages” as it is primarily used as animal feed for dairy cows, beef cattle, horses, sheep, chickens and other domesticated animals. Alfalfa is the forage of choice due to its high feed value and high biomass production along with its ease of establishment; res...

  15. The Tradeoff Between Alfalfa Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  16. Past and Present Management of Alfalfa Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter covers the history of alfalfa pollination by bees. The management of alkali bees, Nomia melanderi, and alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata, is described. Concerns surrounding the current and future use of these bee species as commercial pollinators are discussed....

  17. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  18. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  19. Short-term low temperature storage of alfalfa leafcutting bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a major pollinator in alfalfa seed production systems throughout North America. Recent studies have shown that improved timing of female establishment and alfalfa bloom may allow producers to pollinate alfalfa seed crop...

  20. Biological Control of Damping-Off of Alfalfa Seedlings with Bacillus cereus UW85.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, J; Raffel, S; Mester, E H; Wunderlich, L; Grau, C R

    1990-03-01

    We explored the potential of biological control of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling damping-off caused by Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. medicaginis by screening root-associated bacteria for disease suppression activity in a laboratory bioassay. A total of 700 bacterial strains were isolated from the roots of field-grown alfalfa plants by using Trypticase soy agar. A simple, rapid assay was developed to screen the bacteria for the ability to reduce the mortality of Iroquois alfalfa seedlings that were inoculated with P. megasperma f. sp. medicaginis zoospores. Two-day-old seedlings were planted in culture tubes containing moist vermiculite, and each tube was inoculated with a different bacterial culture. Sufficient P. megasperma f. sp. medicaginis zoospores were added to each tube to result in 100% mortality of control seedlings. Of the 700 bacterial isolates tested, only 1, which was identified as Bacillus cereus and designated UW85, reduced seedling mortality to 0% in the initial screen and in two secondary screens. Both fully sporulated cultures containing predominantly released spores and sterile filtrates of these cultures of UW85 were effective in protecting seedlings from damping-off; filtrates of cultures containing predominantly vegetative cells or endospores inside the parent cell had low biocontrol activity. Cultures grown in two semidefined media had significantly greater biocontrol activities than cultures grown in the complex tryptic soy medium. In a small-scale trial in a field infested with P. megasperma f. sp. medicaginis, coating seeds with UW85 significantly increased the emergence of alfalfa. The results suggest that UW85 may have potential as a biocontrol agent for alfalfa damping-off, thus providing an alternative to current disease control strategies. PMID:16348145

  1. Ecological and environmental factors constrain sprouting ability in tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Salk, Carl F; McMahon, Sean M

    2011-06-01

    Most theories of forest biodiversity focus on the role of seed dispersal and seedling establishment in forest regeneration. In many ecosystems, however, sprouting by damaged stems determines which species occupies a site. Damaged trees can quickly recover from disturbance and out-compete seedlings. Links among species' traits, environmental conditions and sprouting could offer insight into species' resilience to changes in climate, land use, and disturbance. Using data for 25 Neotropical tree species at two sites with contrasting rainfall and soil, we tested hypotheses on how four functional traits (seed mass, leaf mass per area, wood density and nitrogen fixation) influence species' sprouting responses to disturbance and how these relationships are mediated by a tree's environmental context. Most species sprouted in response to cutting, and many species' sprouting rates differed significantly between sites. Individual traits showed no direct correlation with sprouting. However, interactions among traits and site variables did affect sprouting rates. Many species showed increased sprouting in the higher-quality site. Most nitrogen-fixing species showed the opposite trend, sprouting more frequently where resources are scarce. This study highlights the use of functional traits as a proxy for life histories, and demonstrates the importance of environmental effects on demography. PMID:21116651

  2. Nitrogen requirements of first-year corn following alfalfa were not altered by fall-applied manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no published reports on the direct effects of fall manure application on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) N credits to first-year corn (Zea mays L.) grown as grain or silage. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted at eight locations in Minnesota to test whether manure applied during fal...

  3. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on photosynthesis and productivity of alfalfa in relation to seasonal changes in temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa was grown at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations at Beltsville, Maryland, using open top chambers in field plots. Periodic harvests and measurements of leaf photosynthesis were used to test the hypothesis that the stimulation of yield and photosynthesis by...

  4. Seeding Rate Effect on Establishment and Yield of Alfalfa in Bermudagrass Sod

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing alfalfa often requires field conversion from another forage species. Planting alfalfa into bermudagrass sod reduces risk of forage loss because bermudagrass would remain if alfalfa was not successfully established. Previous Arkansas experiments on establishing alfalfa in bermudagrass so...

  5. De Novo Amino Acid Biosynthesis Contributes to Salmonella enterica Growth in Alfalfa Seedling Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Grace; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a member of the plant microbiome. Growth of S. enterica in sprouting-seed exudates is rapid; however, the active metabolic networks essential in this environment are unknown. To examine the metabolic requirements of S. enterica during growth in sprouting-seed exudates, we inoculated alfalfa seeds and identified 305 S. enterica proteins extracted 24 h postinoculation from planktonic cells. Over half the proteins had known metabolic functions, and they are involved in over one-quarter of the known metabolic reactions. Ion and metabolite transport accounted for the majority of detected reactions. Proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were highly represented, suggesting that amino acid metabolic networks may be important for S. enterica growth in association with roots. Amino acid auxotroph growth phenotypes agreed with the proteomic data; auxotrophs in amino acid-biosynthetic pathways that were detected in our screen developed growth defects by 48 h. When the perceived sufficiency of each amino acid was expressed as a ratio of the calculated biomass requirement to the available concentration and compared to growth of each amino acid auxotroph, a correlation between nutrient availability and bacterial growth was found. Furthermore, glutamate transport acted as a fitness factor during S. enterica growth in association with roots. Collectively, these data suggest that S. enterica metabolism is robust in the germinating-alfalfa environment; that single-amino-acid metabolic pathways are important but not essential; and that targeting central metabolic networks, rather than dedicated pathways, may be necessary to achieve dramatic impacts on bacterial growth. PMID:25416761

  6. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  7. Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Sikin, Adi Md; Zoellner, Claire; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts have gained popularity worldwide due to their nutritional values and health benefits. The fact that their consumption has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness threatens the $250 million market that this industry has established in the United States. Therefore, sprout manufacturers have utilized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended application of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite solution to seeds before germination as a preventative method. Concentrations of up to 200 ppm of chlorine wash are also commonly used on sprouts. However, chlorine-based treatment achieves on average only 1- to 3-log reductions in bacteria and is associated with negative health and environmental issues. The search for alternative strategies has been widespread, involving chemical, biological, physical, and hurdle processes that can achieve up to 7-log reductions in bacteria in some cases. The compilation here of the current scientific data related to these techniques is used to compare their efficacy for ensuring the microbial safety of sprouts and their practicality for commercial producers. Of specific importance for alternative seed and sprout treatments is maintaining the industry-accepted germination rate of 95% and the sensorial attributes of the final product. This review provides an evaluation of suggested decontamination technologies for seeds and sprouts before, during, and after germination and concludes that thermal inactivation of seeds and irradiation of sprouts are the most practical stand-alone microbial safety interventions for sprout production. PMID:24290689

  8. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  9. Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes, with more than 650 genera and 20,000 species, range from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials that are important for providing quality human diet and livestock diet. Legumes also contribute to sustainable agriculture because they can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with the soil bacteria called...

  10. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... like estrogen, and this might affect the pregnancy. “Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus ( ... active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. There are two case reports of ...

  11. Effects of UV-B irradiation on the levels of anthocyanin, rutin and radical scavenging activity of buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tsurunaga, Yoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Katsube, Takuya; Kudo, Akihide; Kuramitsu, Osamu; Ishiwata, Masaki; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2013-11-01

    The effects of various light compositions on the levels of anthocyanin, rutin and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts were evaluated. Dark-grown 6-day-old buckwheat sprouts were irradiated with different sources of visible and ultraviolet (UV) light. Particularly, we examined the effect of UV-B at wavelengths of 260-320 nm, 280-320 nm, and 300-320 nm on the production of flavonoid compounds, using multiple fluorescent lights and cylinders that filter out certain portions of the UV-B. The results showed that irradiation with UV-B>300 nm increased the levels of anthocyanin and rutin, as well as the DPPH radical scavenging activity. When sprouts were irradiated with UV-B light at wavelengths of 260-300 nm, yellowing or withering occurred within 24h of irradiation, indicating that wavelengths in this range are detrimental to the growth of buckwheat sprouts. PMID:23768393

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  13. Disinfection of radish and alfalfa seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by a gaseous acetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Latiful, Bari M; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2011-10-01

    Abstract The majority of seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on seeds before sprouting. Treatment with 8.7% (v/v) acetic acid at 55°C for 2-3 h reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella inoculated on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) by more than 5.0 log CFU/g, and a longer treatment time completely eliminated the E. coli O157:H7 population. The E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced to an undetectable level with a gaseous acetic acid treatment for 48 h. After enrichment, no E. coli O157:H7 were found in the alfalfa and radish seeds (25 g). However, these treatments were unable to eliminate Salmonella in both seed types. No significant difference between the germination rates of treated alfalfa seeds and control seeds was found, and germination rates greater than 95% were obtained for the radish seeds. Although chlorine washing is commonly used for seed decontamination, chlorine washing at 200 and 20,000 ppm resulted in a reduction of pathogens by less than or equal to 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, these results suggested that gaseous acetic acid is more effective than chlorine washing in controlling pathogenic bacteria on sprout seeds. PMID:21651341

  14. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  15. Lignin Modification Leads to Increased Nodule Numbers in Alfalfa1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I.; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K.; Monteros, Maria J.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials. PMID:24406794

  16. Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates on Alfalfa Seeds by Aqueous Ozone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-08-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of aqueous ozone on bacterially contaminated seeds, yet little is known about the response of human norovirus (huNoV). This study assessed aqueous ozone for the disinfection of alfalfa seeds contaminated with huNoV and its surrogates. The inactivation of viruses without a food matrix was also investigated. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with huNoV genogroup II, Tulane virus (TV), and murine norovirus (MNV); viruses alone or inoculated on seeds were treated in deionized water containing 6.25 ppm of aqueous ozone with agitation at 22°C for 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 min. The data showed that aqueous ozone resulted in reductions of MNV and TV infectivity from 1.66 ± 1.11 to 5.60 ± 1.11 log PFU/g seeds; for all treatment times, significantly higher reductions were observed for MNV (P < 0.05). Viral genomes were relatively resistant, with a reduction of 1.50 ± 0.14 to 3.00 ± 0.14 log genomic copies/g seeds; the reduction of TV inoculated in water was similar to that of huNoV, whereas MNV had significantly greater reductions in genomic copies (P < 0.05). Similar trends were observed in ozone-treated viruses alone, with significantly higher levels of inactivation (P < 0.05), especially with reduced levels of infectivity for MNV and TV. The significant inactivation by aqueous ozone indicates that ozone may be a plausible substitute for chlorine as an alternative treatment for seeds. The behavior of TV was similar to that of huNoV, which makes it a promising surrogate for these types of scenarios. PMID:26219375

  17. Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2″-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process. PMID:21897039

  18. Apoptotic Cells Initiate Endothelial Cell Sprouting via Electrostatic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weihua, Zhang; Tsan, Rachel; Schroit, Alan J.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, is crucial to tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. This process begins with the formation of endothelial cell sprouts followed by the proliferation and migration of neighboring endothelial cells along the pre-formed extensions. The initiating event and mechanism of sprouting is not known. We demonstrate that the phenotypic expression of negative-charged membrane surface in apoptotic cells initiates the formation of directional endothelial cell sprouts that extend toward the dying cells by a mechanism that involves endothelial cell membrane hyperpolarization and cytoskeleton reorganization but is independent of diffusible molecules. PMID:16357162

  19. Evaluation of Medicago sativa L. sprouts as antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.

    PubMed

    Seida, Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Hala; Abou-Hussein, Dina; Mokhtar, Fatma Alzahraa; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf

    2015-11-01

    Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa) is traditionally used to treat diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the potential antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity of M. sativa sprouts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes via i.p. injection of 55 mg/kg of STZ. Experimental animals were divided into the following groups: GP1 (normal), GP2 (STZ-hyperlipidemic), GP3 (rouvastatin), GP4 (metformin), GP 5-9 (diabetic treated with methanolic, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts). The administration of the total methanolic extract (500 mg/kg), the petroleum ether (32.5mg) and butanol fractions (60 mg) for 4 weeks significantly decreased (p<0.05) triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in comparison to rouvastatin. Petroleum ether fraction proved to exhibit the best activity as antihyperlipidemic agent (12.23%). On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction retained the best activity (vs. metformin) as antihyperglycemic agent. Histopathological evidences on liver, pancreas and spleen were in agreement with the above mentioned results. Purification, characterization, and identification of isolated compounds from the active fractions afforded 9 compounds: β-sitosterol and stigmasterol from the petroleum ether fraction; 10-hydroxy-coumestrol, apigenin, genistein, p-hydroxy-benzoic-acid, 7, 4'- dihydroxyflavone, quercetin-3-glucoside and sissotrin from the ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:26639479

  20. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  1. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  2. Using genomics to develop alfalfa as a biomass crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is frequently overlooked as a biomass feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. However, alfalfa has a number of advantages compared to other potential feedstocks. Alfalfa is a perennial, non-food crop that fixes atmospheric nitrogen, improves soil quality, and provides environmental bene...

  3. Understanding the Regulation of Cell Wall Composition in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and has excellent potential to be a sustainable cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. As the alfalfa stem matures, the xylem tissues become rich in cellulose, xylan, and lignin. The ideal alfalfa plant would have stems...

  4. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  5. Deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of field-grown Medicago sativa L. crown buds acclimated to freezing stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yue; Shu, Yongjun; Bai, Yan; Guo, Changhong

    2016-09-01

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) 'Zhaodong' is an important forage legume that can safely survive in northern China where winter temperatures reach as low as -30 °C. Survival of alfalfa following freezing stress depends on the amount and revival ability of crown buds. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of frost tolerance in alfalfa, we used transcriptome sequencing technology and bioinformatics strategies to analyze crown buds of field-grown alfalfa during winter. We statistically identified a total of 5605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in freezing stress including 1900 upregulated and 3705 downregulated DEGs. We validated 36 candidate DEGs using qPCR to confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Unlike other recent studies, this study employed alfalfa plants grown in the natural environment. Our results indicate that not only the CBF orthologs but also membrane proteins, hormone signal transduction pathways, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathways indicate the presence of a special freezing adaptation mechanism in alfalfa. The antioxidant defense system may rapidly confer freezing tolerance to alfalfa. Importantly, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and phenylalanine metabolism, which is of potential importance in coordinating freezing tolerance with growth and development, were downregulated in subzero temperatures. The adaptive mechanism for frost tolerance is a complex multigenic process that is not well understood. This systematic analysis provided an in-depth view of stress tolerance mechanisms in alfalfa. PMID:27272950

  6. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  7. Effects of Soil pH on Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Forage Yield of Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Willis, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    'Vernal' alfalfa was grown for 30 weeks in nematode-free soil and in soil infested with Pratylenchus penetrans. Charlottetown fine sandy loam soil was used at its pH of 4.4 and at adjusted reactions of 5.2, 6.4 and 7.3. Nematode reproduction was significantly greater at pit 5.2 and 6.4 and was not related to alfalfa root production over the full pH range studied. A significant nematode infestation X soil pit interaction on forage yield was recorded. Nematode infestation significantly decreased forage yields at ptt 5.2 and 6.4 but not at pH 4.4 and 7.3. PMID:19319283

  8. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  9. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour.

    PubMed

    Sur, R; Nagi, H P; Sharma, S; Sekhon, K S

    1993-07-01

    Sound and sprouted flours (24 and 48 hr) from bread wheat (WL-1562), durum wheat (PBW-34) and triticale (TL-1210) were stored at room temperature (34.8 degrees C) and relative humidity (66.7%) for 0, 45, 90 and 135 days to assess the changes in physico-chemical and baking properties. Protein, gluten, sedimentation value, starch and crude fat decreased during storage in all the samples; however, the decrease was more in sprouted flours. Free amino acids, proteolytic activity, diastatic activity and damaged starch decreased with increase in storage period. Total sugars and free fatty acids increased more rapidly in the flours of sprouted wheats during 135 days of storage. Loaf volume of breads decreased during storage in both sound and sprouted flour but the mean percent decrease in loaf volume was more in stored sound flours. Aging of sprouted flour for 45 days improved the cookie and cake making properties but further storage was of no value for these baked products. Chapati making properties of stored sound and sprouted flour were inferior to that of fresh counterparts. PMID:8332585

  10. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird’s-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant’s developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  11. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Predominant Alterations in Lipid Metabolism Following Light Exposure in Broccoli Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Natella, Fausta; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina; Langridge, James; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae (e.g., broccoli and cauliflower) is linked to a reduced incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The molecular composition of such plants is strongly affected by growing conditions. Here we developed an unbiased metabolomics approach to investigate the effect of light and dark exposure on the metabolome of broccoli sprouts and we applied such an approach to provide a bird's-eye view of the overall metabolic response after light exposure. Broccoli seeds were germinated and grown hydroponically for five days in total darkness or with a light/dark photoperiod (16 h light/8 h dark cycle). We used an ultra-performance liquid-chromatography system coupled to an ion-mobility, time-of-flight mass spectrometer to profile the large array of metabolites present in the sprouts. Differences at the metabolite level between groups were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Altered metabolites were identified by searching publicly available and in-house databases. Metabolite pathway analyses were used to support the identification of subtle but significant changes among groups of related metabolites that may have gone unnoticed with conventional approaches. Besides the chlorophyll pathway, light exposure activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterol lipids, prenol lipids, and polyunsaturated lipids, which are essential for the photosynthetic machinery. Our results also revealed that light exposure increased the levels of polyketides, including flavonoids, and oxylipins, which play essential roles in the plant's developmental processes and defense mechanism against herbivores. This study highlights the significant contribution of light exposure to the ultimate metabolic phenotype, which might affect the cellular physiology and nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of an

  12. MANURE MANAGEMENT: ALFALFA FIELDS GIVE US OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in the U.S. produces more than 18,000 lbs. of milk each year and generates about 42,000 lbs. of manure. Manure management is not the only task on the farmer's 'to do' list, but in today’s world it is increasingly important to do it right. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively smal...

  13. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  14. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  15. N fixation versus N uptake in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer N is the single most expensive input in nearly all crop-production systems and has been implicated in declining groundwater quality due to nitrate contamination. Commercial alfalfas are highly productive in the absence of nitrogen inputs because of the symbiotic association with soil bact...

  16. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  17. ALFALFA TRAITS THAT WILL IMPACT BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in production of energy from renewable resources such as biomass has increased tremendously with the recent price spike for oil and growing recognition of the threat posed by global warming. Alfalfa is an attractive alternative for biomass production because of its perennial nature, ability...

  18. Increased photosynthetic acclimation in alfalfa associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and cultivated in greenhouse under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Baslam, Marouane; Erice, Gorka; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2014-11-15

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) can exhibit photosynthetic down-regulation when grown in greenhouse conditions under elevated atmospheric CO2. This forage legume can establish a double symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may increase the carbon sink effect of roots. Our aim was to assess whether the association of alfalfa with AMF can avoid, diminish or delay the photosynthetic acclimation observed in previous studies performed with nodulated plants. The results, however, showed that mycorrhizal (M) alfalfa at the end of their vegetative period had lower carbon (C) discrimination than non-mycorrhizal (NM) controls, indicating photosynthetic acclimation under ECO2 in plants associated with AMF. Decreased C discrimination was due to the acclimation of conductance, since the amount of Rubisco and the expression of genes codifying both large and small subunits of Rubisco were similar or slightly higher in M than in NM plants. Moreover, M alfalfa accumulated a greater amount of soluble sugars in leaves than NM plants, thus favoring a down-regulation effect on photosynthetic rates. The enhanced contents of sugars in leaves coincided with a reduced percentage of arbuscules in roots, suggesting decreased sink of carbohydrates from shoots to roots in M plants. The shorter life cycle of alfalfa associated with AMF in comparison with the NM controls may also be related to the accelerated photosynthetic acclimation in M plants. Further research is needed to clarify to what extent this behavior could be extrapolated to alfalfa cultivated in the field and subjected to periodic cutting of shoots under climatic change scenarios. PMID:25240322

  19. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage in rats by brussels sprouts.

    PubMed

    Deng, X S; Tuo, J; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    1998-03-01

    The alleged cancer preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables could be related to protection from mutagenic oxidative DNA damage. We have studied the effects of Brussels sprouts, some non-cruciferous vegetables and isolated glucosinolates on spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in groups of 6-8 male Wistar rats. Excess oxidative DNA damage was induced by 2-nitropropane (2-NP 100 mg/kg). Four days oral administration of 3 g of cooked Brussels sprouts homogenate reduced the spontaneous urinary 8-oxodG excretion by 31% (p<0.05) whereas raw sprouts, beans and endive (1:1), isolated indolyl glucosinolates and breakdown products had no significant effect. An aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts (corresponding to 6.7 g vegetable per day for 4 days) decreased the spontaneous 8-oxodG excretion from 92 +/- 12 to 52 +/- 15 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). After 2-NP administration the 8-oxodG excretion was increased to 132 +/- 26 pmol/24 h (p<0.05) whereas pretreatment with the sprouts extract reduced this to 102 +/- 30 pmol/24 h (p<0.05). The spontaneous level of 8-oxodG in nuclear DNA from liver and bone marrow was not significantly affected by the sprouts extract whereas the level decreased by 27% in the kidney (p<0.05). In the liver 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels in nuclear DNA 8.7 and 3.8 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. The sprouts extract reduced this increase by 57% (p<0.05) at 6 h whereas there was no significant effect at 24 h. In the kidneys 2-NP increased the 8-oxodG levels 2.2 and 1.2 times (p<0.05) 6 and 24 h after dose, respectively. Pretreatment with the sprouts extract abolished these increases (p<0.05). Similarly, in the bone marrow the extract protected completely (p<0.05) against a 4.9-fold 2-NP induced increase (p<0.05) in the 8-oxodG level. These findings demonstrate that cooked Brussels sprouts contain bioactive substance(s) with a potential for reducing the physiological

  20. Selecting sprouts of brassicaceae for optimum phytochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-11-14

    Cruciferous foods (Brassicaceae spp.) are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Edible sprouts are becoming popular fresh foods and, therefore, the phytochemical profiling of nine varieties of Brassicaceae (broccoli, kohlrabi, red cabbage, rutabaga, turnip, turnip greens, radish, garden cress, and white mustard) was evaluated for this purpose. The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (∼815, ∼766, and ∼653 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (∼516 and ∼297 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds. Further research on the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds in Brassica foods will allow backing of recommendations for dietarily effective dosages for nutrition and health. PMID:23061899

  1. Spinal irradiation does not inhibit distal axonal sprouting

    SciTech Connect

    Pamphlett, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    In an attempt to determine the relative importance of the nerve cell body and of the axon in initiating and controlling axonal regeneration, nerve cell bodies were irradiated and the ability of the distal axon to sprout was examined. Mice were subjected to either 25 or 50 Gray (Gy) of x-irradiation localized to the lumbar spinal cord. After times varying from 1 day to 6 months after irradiation, a sublethal dose of botulinum toxin (BoTx) was injected into the calf muscles of one leg. The soleus muscle was examined histologically after times varying from 1 week to 6 months after injection, and BoTx-induced ultraterminal axonal sprouting was assessed by the number of motor endplates showing sprouts, the length of the sprouts, and the long term endplate morphology. Apart from some irradiated subgroups having slightly shorter sprout lengths, no significant differences were found between irradiated and nonirradiated groups. The results suggest either that the processes in the nerve cell body responsible for initiating and supporting axonal growth are resistant to large doses of irradiation, or that growth regulatory mechanisms in the distal axon are under local control.

  2. Selecting Rhizobium meliloti for inoculation of alfalfa planted in acid soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lowendorf, H.S.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    The study was conducted to obtain Rhizobium meliloti strains suitable for use with alfalfa grown in acid soils. Thirteen strains of R. meliloti were examined for their ability to grow in acidified culture media and seven of these were characterized for the ability to surive in acid and limed nonsterile soils or grow in the presence of the host legume, Medicago sativa L. The pH values of the most acid, defined medium that permitted growth of the bacteria from a small inoculum ranged from pH 5.3 to 6.0. For R. meliloti 411SE1 and GH1-1SE1, the minimum pH that allowed for growth, the critical pH, was not a dependable indicator of survival in a more acid medium. Strains of R. meliloti with relatively low critical pH values survived better in a limed soil but not in acid soils than strains with higher critical pH values. Three strains of R. meliloti previously identified as good inoculants for alfalfa in acid soils did not consistently survive beter than other strains in a planted or unplanted acid soil of pH 5.3. However, the plants increase the population densities of these three strains more than other strains. These results suggest that R. meliloti strains suitable for inoculation of alfalfa in acid soils may be selected not by simple saprophytic properties but by their stimulation by the host legume in acid soils.

  3. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; Barbour, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st–2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  4. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Erin W; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Barbour, James D

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st-2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  5. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

  6. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes. PMID:20433090

  7. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  8. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods. PMID:18314243

  9. Control of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla and Yield Response of Alfalfa Due to Oxamyl Seed Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Townshend, J. L.; Chiba, M.

    1987-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Saranac) seed were soaked for 20 minutes in water, acetone, or methanol containing 10 or 50 mg/ml of oxamyl (Vydate L) or coated with a 2% aqueous cellulose solution containing the same amounts of oxamyl. Seed were analyzed for oxamyl by HPLC immediately after treatment and after 9 and 26 months of storage. Oxamyl content of alfalfa seed did not decline after 26 months of storage. The effects of seed treatment on growth of alfalfa and nematode control were examined using soils infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Germination was not affected by any of the seed treatments. Twenty-one days after sowing, the total growth of alfalfa seedlings grown from seed treated with 50 mg/ml of oxamyl in P. penetrans-infested soils had increased by 62% over controls. Nodulation per pot increased by as much as 267%, and the densities of P. penetrans per gram of root were reduced by as much as 73% compared to control plants. In M. hapla-infested soils, increases in plant growth (32%) and nodulation (71%) also occurred with oxamyl-treated seeds. Root gall reduction (86%) was also substantial due to oxamyl seed treatment. PMID:19290170

  10. Effects of ozone and Fusarium root and crown rot on the growth and decline of Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Research examined the reaction of several major alfalfa cultivars to ozone fumigations in chambers using ozone concentrations simulating ambient levels observed in Massachusetts. These cultivars were all shown to be susceptible in varying degrees to such ozone stress. Further experiments showed that ozone at these concentrations not only reduced growth, but also altered photoassimilate partitioning. Greatest weight reductions occurred in roots, followed by leaves, and then stems. Ozone-stressed plants produced fewer leaves which weighed less per unit area than control leaves. Classic and functional growth analyses were used to examine such parameters as net assimilation rate and relative growth rate. Ozone-stressed plants fixed dry matter less efficiently than control plants, in terms of both leaf area and existing dry matter. In a final study, alfalfa was grown in the presence of isolates of pathogenic Fusarium, or to soil from a diseased alfalfa field, and concurrently fumigated with ozone. There was no significant interaction between pathogen and air pollutant, but each stress significantly reduced alfalfa growth independently.

  11. Effect of electromagnetic stimulation of alfalfa seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwintal, M.; Dziwulska-Hunek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the conducted experiments the effect of presowing He-Ne laser light, magnetic field stimulation or the combination of these two factors of alfalfa seeds on the field emergence, structure and yields in the year of sowing and during three following years of full land use were studied. The examined factors had a significant effect on the number of shoots per 1 m2, plant height, mass of shoots, fresh and dry mass. Electromagnetic stimulation resulted in a significant increase in alfalfa seeds emergence (from 35% - control to 47.8% - magnetic field), number of shoots per 1m2 (from 608 - control to 813 - laser light in cut), but a decrease of the mass of the shoots (from 0.61 g - control to 0.50 g - laser light).

  12. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  13. TRUNK SPROUTING AND GROWTH OF CITRUS AS AFFECTED BY NAA, ALUMINUM FOIL, AND PLASTIC TRUNK WRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spring 1999, a commercial NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) preparation for trunk sprout inhibition was compared to a corrugated plastic trunk wrap, aluminum foil wrap, bimonthly hand-removal of sprouts, use of NAA preparation plus bimonthly hand-removal when sprouts appeared, and a non-treated cont...

  14. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although fresh-sprouted beans and grains are considered a good source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide a good matrix for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill...

  15. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical changes of proteins in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High moisture before harvest can cause sprouting of the wheat kernel, which is termed as pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). The aim of this study was to examine the variation in physicochemical properties of proteins and free asparagine concentration in PHS damaged (sprouted) hard red and white spring whe...

  16. Role of gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole mediated sprout inhibition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At harvest and for an indeterminate period thereafter, potato tubers are dormant and will not sprout. Tuber dormancy is lost during postharvest storage and the subsequent sprouting results in the loss of tuber processing and nutritional qualities. Therefore, control of tuber sprouting is an essent...

  17. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  18. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. ); Geno, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  19. Efficacy of chemical treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on scarified and polished alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Holliday, S L; Scouten, A J; Beuchat, L R

    2001-10-01

    Alfalfa seeds are sometimes subjected to a scarification treatment to enhance water uptake, which results in more rapid and uniform germination during sprout production. It has been hypothesized that this mechanical abrasion treatment diminishes the efficacy of chemical treatments used to kill or remove pathogenic bacteria from seeds. A study was done to compare the effectiveness of chlorine (20,000 ppm), H2O, (8%), Ca(OH)2 (1%), Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Tween 80 (1%), and Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Span 20 (1%) treatments in killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds obtained from two suppliers. The influence of the presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier on the efficacy of sanitizers was investigated. Overall, treatment with 1% Ca(OH)2 was the most effective in reducing populations of the pathogens. Reduction in populations of pathogens on seeds obtained from supplier I indicate that chemical treatments are less efficacious in eliminating the pathogens on scarified seeds compared to control seeds. However, the effectiveness of chemical treatment in removing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 from seeds obtained from supplier 2 was not markedly affected by scarification or polishing. The presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier did not have a marked influence on the efficacy of chemicals in reducing populations of test pathogens. Additional lots of control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds of additional varieties need to be tested before conclusions can be drawn concerning the impact of mechanical abrasion on the efficacy of chemical treatment in removing or killing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. PMID:11601695

  20. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows. PMID:18218755

  1. Temperature variation effect on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, high-value vegetable production in the Southeast US used methyl bromide to control a multitude of pests, including weeds. In the absence of methyl bromide, control of nutsedges has become problematic. A greater understanding of the factors that regulate the sprouting of nutsedges fro...

  2. Molecules involved in reactive sprouting in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Savaskan, N E; Nitsch, R

    2001-01-01

    Denervation of the hippocampus triggers reactive responses in neurons and glial cells in their affected strata in a temporally ordered fashion. Many of these responses have been studied extensively, focusing on the one hand on glial initiation and clearing responses during the degeneration phase and, on the other, on transneuronal reorganization and the newly adjusted physiological balance. We used the entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL) as a model system to study the cues that underlie the layer-specific sprouting response. This lesion destroys the perforant path, which is a massive excitatory projection to the dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper. In the deafferented zones of the hippocampus, sprouting of the remaining unlesioned fibers occurs, which replaces the lost afferences of the perforant path. We focus on candidate molecules which govern the layer-specific sprouting of the remaining axons and, in particular, on membrane-bound cues. The fact that layer-specific sprouting occurs even in the adult central nervous system (CNS) provides a valuable model for understanding the mechanisms of reactive neuronal growth and reorganization in the adult CNS. Isolation and analysis of the molecules involved in these mechanisms are important steps in understanding the potential and limitations of regeneration in the CNS. PMID:11560368

  3. Microbial contamination in sprouts: how effective is seed disinfection treatment?

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen; Smith, Michelle A

    2013-04-01

    Microbial contamination of sprouts by Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 has been a common cause of foodborne diseases and a continuing challenge to the sprout industry. Seed disinfection treatment has been recommended as a major intervention step in a multihurdle approach to reduce the risk of illness associated with contaminated sprouts. U.S. Food and Drug Administration cited 20000 ppm calcium hypochlorite as an example treatment in its recommendation for seed treatment and this treatment has been considered the reference standard for seed disinfection treatment for over a decade. However, promising new disinfection treatments have emerged in recent years. In this study, we summarized published data and compared the efficacies of different disinfection methods in the reduction of microbial contamination on seeds. Our findings suggest that while biological interventions such as competitive exclusion and certain chemical treatments appear to be similar to 20000 ppm calcium hypochlorite for seed disinfection, physical methods especially high pressure may be more effective than the reference standard regardless of the type of bacteria or seed. The combination of 2 or more treatments, sequentially or simultaneously, may further improve disinfection results. Since treatments with high levels of chemical disinfectants, especially 20000 ppm calcium hypochlorite, can pose environmental and worker safety risks, alternative intervention approaches should be considered. Additional studies to confirm the greater efficacy of certain physical and combined seed disinfection treatments and to identify other effective management strategies are needed to further improve sprout safety. PMID:23464679

  4. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  5. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  6. ABA Levels and Sensitivity in Developing Wheat Embryos of Sprouting Resistant and Susceptible Cultivars 1

    PubMed Central

    Walker-Simmons, Mary

    1987-01-01

    A sprouting-resistant and a sprouting-susceptible wheat cultivar were utilized to examine the role of ABA levels and sensitivity responses in wheat embryonic germination. Endogenous embryonic ABA levels were measured in both cultivars throughout grain maturation utilizing a new and sensitive ABA immunoassay. Embryonic ABA levels of each cultivar were similar with the sprouting-susceptible cultivar having about a 25% lower ABA level than that of the sprouting-resistant cultivar. Larger differences between the cultivars were noted in sensitivity to ABA, as measured by capability of ABA to block embryonic germination. ABA inhibited embryonic germination much more effectively in the sprouting-resistant cultivar. PMID:16665406

  7. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  8. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  9. Alfalfa forage and seed crop tolerance to flumioxazin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed and forage. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa forage and seed production in 2007 and 2008 in Washington State. Flumioxazin applied at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat in February t...

  10. Reductions in potash for last-year alfalfa production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying the correct amount of potassium (K) fertilizer is critical for alfalfa yield and stand persistence; however, excess K fertilizer will decrease profits and increase the risk of milk fever when alfalfa is fed to fresh cows. Stand persistence is often not a major concern in the last year of al...

  11. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  12. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  13. Alfalfa: Potential For New Feed and Biofuel - USDFRC Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop supporting U.S ruminant livestock industry, particularly dairy. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of i...

  14. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  15. ALFALFA YIELD AND QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN INDIVIDUAL HARVESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within cuttings over the whole growi...

  16. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  17. Harvest management impacts on stem quality in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem total cell wall concentration, Kla...

  18. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  19. Dig Alfalfa Plants to Assess Root Rots and Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digging alfalfa plants and inspecting their crowns and roots for rot is critical to assess stand health and production potential. Brown root rot (BRR) has been a significant plant disease on alfalfa for decades but until recently was thought to only cause significant damage in western Canada. With i...

  20. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: fermentation products and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of fourteen microbial inoculants on the fermentation and nutritive value of alfalfa silages was studied under laboratory conditions. First (477 g dry matter (DM)/kg) and second cuttings (393 g DM /kg) of a second year alfalfa stand were ensiled in two experiments. In both experiments, alf...

  1. CYTOGENETIC INVESTIGATIONS OF NON-DORMANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined techniques of chromosome C-banding, image analysis, and cluster analysis were utilized to compare the four historically distinct non-dormant alfalfa germplasm sources of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa). Cytogenetic analyses revealed polymorphisms for heterochromatic DN...

  2. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  3. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  4. Alfalfa Biomass Germplasms: SFP Detection and Transcriptome Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex polysomic inheritance. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve ...

  5. Does Alfalfa-Hay NDFD Matter in a Dairy TMR?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three feeding trials were conducted to study the effect of alfalfa-hay in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, 48-hour laboratory incubation in rumen fluid) on Holstein dairy cow performance. Treatments (Lh, Ll, Hh, and Hl) included four alfalfa hays selected for relatively low-(L) o...

  6. Potassium management during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for growers to apply optimum K rates to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Current University of Minnesota fertilizer guidelines in the Corn Belt do not change for the last production year when alfalfa stand persistence is not a...

  7. 'Don' a Diploid Falcata Alfalfa for Western US Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Don' (Reg. No. CV-______, PI _______) a diploid falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp falcata L.) developed by the Forage and Range Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Recent interest in falcata alfalfa has been ...

  8. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  9. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. PMID:26257350

  10. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  11. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  12. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  13. Host density drives spatial variation in parasitism of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, across dryland and irrigated alfalfa cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control against the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), a destructive pest of alfalfa, has resulted in the establishment of nine hymenpoteran parasitoid species in the USA. Despite widespread redistribution of a number of these species, there remains little post-release data on th...

  14. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  15. MOLECULAR DNA MARKERS UTILIZED TO DISCERN ALFALFA FALL DORMANCY CHECK CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa cultivars are difficult to distinguish based upon morphological traits. Only a few morphological traits have been used to describe alfalfa. Molecular markers especially simple sequence repeats (SSR) have not been utilized in alfalfa to characterize alfalfa cultivars. This study was conduct...

  16. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  17. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value

    PubMed Central

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000–2800 cm-1), proteins (1550–1530 cm-1), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  18. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  19. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. PMID:25952846

  20. Tetrasomic Segregation for Multiple Alleles in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Quiros, Carlos F.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence of tetrasomic inheritance in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L., for multiple codominant alleles at three isozymic loci is reported in this study. The locus Prx-1 governing anodal peroxidase and the loci Lap-1 and Lap-2 governing anodal leucine-aminopeptidase were studied by starch gel electrophoresis in seedling root tissue or seeds. The progenies from several di-, tri- or tetra-allelic plants belong to the species M. sativa and M. falcata and their hybrids were studied for the segregation of the three genes. In all cases, tetrasomic inheritance of chromosomal-type segregation was observed. In another progeny resulting from the crossing of two plants involving four different alleles at locus Lap-2, tetrasomic segregation with the possible occurrence of double reduction was observed. This study presents direct evidence of autotetraploidy and the existence of tetra-allelic loci in alfalfa. It also supports the concept that the species M. sativa and M. falcata are genetically close enough to be considered biotypes of a common species. PMID:17246077

  1. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  2. In vitro ruminal degradation and synthesis of protein on fractions extracted from alfalfa hay and silage.

    PubMed

    Peltekova, V D; Broderick, G A

    1996-04-01

    Net release of degraded N as NH3 and total AA plus microbial protein synthesis, quantified from incorporation of 15NH3 into microbial protein, was used to estimate the rate and extent of in vitro degradation of protein fractions isolated from alfalfa hay and silage. Seven proteins (casein, alfalfa hay, alfalfa silage, extracts from alfalfa hay and silage, and residues from alfalfa hay and silage) were studied. Results from (NH4)2SO4 and SDS-PAGE fractionations suggested that soluble proteins in alfalfa hay and silage differed in susceptibility to proteolytic attack. Although the net release of NH3 plus total AA N from alfalfa silage and alfalfa silage extract was twofold greater than that from alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract, net microbial protein synthesis on alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract was 33 and 43% greater. Despite greater NPN content in alfalfa silage, protein degradation rate and estimated escape were similar for intact alfalfa hay (0.103/h and 43%) and silage (0.067/h and 43%). This result might be explained by the less efficient microbial utilization of silage NPN, greater protozoal numbers on hay, greater soluble true protein in hay, or differences in molecular mass and stability of soluble proteins in hay versus silage. Use of a two-compartment model, based on water-soluble and insoluble CP fractions assumed to pass with the liquid and solid phases, respectively, yielded RUP estimates for alfalfa hay and silage that were similar to NRC estimates. PMID:8744226

  3. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.; Wiant, B.; Oelke, E.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant to operate in conjunction with an alfalfa processing plant that provides the gasification feedstock and a mid-level protein animal feed co-product. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a gasification feedstock. The leaf material was evaluated as a mid-level protein animal feed supplement. The alfalfa leaf-stem separation and power generation operations have dual and/or synergistic functions which contribute to a technically and economically compatible combination. The pressurized biomass gasification process selected is the IGT RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corp. Adaptation of the air-blown gasification process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion with low tar production, overcome ash agglomeration, and provide for control of volatile alkali species. A hot gas clean-up system removes particulate matter with a ceramic filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa. The physical and chemical properties of the alfalfa feedstock were evaluated for the gasification process. The alfalfa char carbon-steam reaction, which is the slowest step in the complete conversion of biomass to gases, was measured and the char proved to have a high reactivity. Ash components were measured and evaluated in terms of agglomeration within the gasifier. Using this information, the alfalfa gasification conditions were predicted. A subsequent preliminary gasification test confirmed the alfalfa gasification conditions. To complete the engineering design of the IGCC system, additional testing is required, but the results to date are positive for a successful process.

  4. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  5. Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

    1996-05-28

    The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

  6. Plant development controls leaf area expansion in alfalfa plants competing for light

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Tiago Celso; Frak, Ela; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar de Faccio; Louarn, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The growth of crops in a mixture is more variable and difficult to predict than that in pure stands. Light partitioning and crop leaf area expansion play prominent roles in explaining this variability. However, in many crops commonly grown in mixtures, including the forage species alfalfa, the sensitivity and relative importance of the physiological responses involved in the light modulation of leaf area expansion are still to be established. This study was designed to assess the relative sensitivity of primary shoot development, branching and individual leaf expansion in alfalfa in response to light availability. Methods Two experiments were carried out. The first studied isolated plants to assess the potential development of different shoot types and growth periods. The second consisted of manipulating the intensity of competition for light using a range of canopies in pure and mixed stands at two densities so as to evaluate the relative effects on shoot development, leaf growth, and plant and shoot demography. Key Results Shoot development in the absence of light competition was deterministic (constant phyllochrons of 32·5 °Cd and 48·2 °Cd for primary axes and branches, branching probability of 1, constant delay of 1·75 phyllochron before axillary bud burst) and identical irrespective of shoot type and growth/regrowth periods. During light competition experiments, changes in plant development explained most of the plant leaf area variations, with average leaf size contributing to a lesser extent. Branch development and the number of shoots per plant were the leaf area components most affected by light availability. Primary axis development and plant demography were only affected in situations of severe light competition. Conclusions Plant leaf area components differed with regard to their sensitivity to light competition. The potential shoot development model presented in this study could serve as a framework to integrate light responses

  7. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  8. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  10. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  11. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  12. Flow dynamics control the location of sprouting and direct elongation during developmental angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Siavash; Leask, Richard L; Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly controlled by a number of signalling pathways. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis has rapidly increased, the role that biomechanical signals play in this process is understudied. We recently developed a technique to simultaneously analyse flow dynamics and vascular remodelling by time-lapse microscopy in the capillary plexus of avian embryos and used this to study the hemodynamic environment present during angiogenic sprouting. We found that sprouts always form from a vessel at lower pressure towards a vessel at higher pressure, and that sprouts form at the location of a shear stress minimum, but avoid locations where two blood streams merge even if this point is at a lower level of shear stress than the sprouting location. Using these parameters, we were able to successfully predict sprout location in quail embryos. We also found that the pressure difference between two vessels is permissive to elongation, and that sprouts will either change direction or regress if the pressure difference becomes negative. Furthermore, the sprout elongation rate is proportional to the pressure difference between the two vessels. Our results show that flow dynamics are predictive of the location of sprout formation in perfused vascular networks and that pressure differences across the interstitium can guide sprout elongation. PMID:26552886

  13. Quantification of angiogenic sprouting under different growth factors in a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Del Amo, Cristina; Borau, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Raquel; Asín, Jesús; García-Aznar, José Manuel

    2016-05-24

    Angiogenesis, as example of collective migration of endothelial cells (ECs), is the main dynamic process that culminates in sprout formation from existing vessels. After tissue injury, the vascularity is interrupted, triggering the regeneration process and the release of different growth factors (GFs). The main aim of this work is to quantify the effect of specific GFs during the initial stage of sprout formation, namely: VEGF, PDGF-BB, TGFβ and BMP-2, all of them involved in regenerative processes. For this purpose, we designed a novel algorithm implemented in Matlab to quantify the advance of the EC monolayer over time and the sprout structure in 3D. Our results show that VEGF is the main regulatory GF on angiogenesis processes, producing longer sprouts with higher frequency. However, the chemoattractant effect of VEGF depends on its concentration and its spatiotemporal location, having a critical impact on the sprout time evolution. PDGF-BB (namely as PDGF) has a global negative effect on both the number and length of sprouts. TGFβ enhances sprout length at earlier times, although its effect gradually disappears over time. Finally, BMP-2 produces, overall, less number and shorter sprouts, but was the only GF with a positive evolution at longer times, producing fewer but longer sprouts. PMID:26556715

  14. Nutraceutical Improvement Increases the Protective Activity of Broccoli Sprout Juice in a Human Intestinal Cell Model of Gut Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ferruzza, Simonetta; Natella, Fausta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Murgia, Chiara; Rossi, Carlotta; Trošt, Kajetan; Mattivi, Fulvio; Nardini, Mirella; Maldini, Mariateresa; Giusti, Anna Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Scaccini, Cristina; Sambuy, Yula; Morelli, Giorgio; Baima, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Benefits to health from a high consumption of fruits and vegetables are well established and have been attributed to bioactive secondary metabolites present in edible plants. However, the effects of specific health-related phytochemicals within a complex food matrix are difficult to assess. In an attempt to address this problem, we have used elicitation to improve the nutraceutical content of seedlings of Brassica oleracea grown under controlled conditions. Analysis, by LC-MS, of the glucosinolate, isothiocyanate and phenolic compound content of juices obtained from sprouts indicated that elicitation induces an enrichment of several phenolics, particularly of the anthocyanin fraction. To test the biological activity of basal and enriched juices we took advantage of a recently developed in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium. Both sprouts' juices protected intestinal barrier integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α under marginal zinc deprivation, with the enriched juice showing higher protection. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the extent of rescue from stress-induced epithelial dysfunction correlated with the composition in bioactive molecules of the juices and, in particular, with a group of phenolic compounds, including several anthocyanins, quercetin-3-Glc, cryptochlorogenic, neochlorogenic and cinnamic acids. PMID:27529258

  15. Toxic Effects of Copper-based Nanoparticles or Compounds to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Keller, Arturo A.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2014-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 day-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L. At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species. PMID:25474419

  16. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6–48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  17. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6-48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  18. A link between hurricane-induced tree sprouting, high stem density and short canopy in tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Van Bloem, Skip J; Murphy, Peter G; Lugo, Ariel E

    2007-03-01

    The physiognomy of Caribbean dry forest is shorter, denser and contains a greater proportion of multi-stemmed trees than other neotropical dry forests. Our previous research, conducted after Hurricane Georges in 1998, has shown that dry forest trees sprout near the base following hurricane disturbance, even if the trees have not incurred structural damage. However, for these hurricane-induced sprouts to contribute to the physiognomy of the forest, they must grow and survive. We followed sprout dynamics and stem mortality on 1,407 stems from 1998, after Hurricane Georges, until 2005. The number of surviving sprouts and the proportion of sprouting stems decreased during the 7-year period, but the sprouting rate was still 3-fold higher and the proportion of sprouting stems 5-fold higher than before the hurricane. Mortality of non-sprouting stems (15.4%) was about the same as for sprouting stems (13.9%) after 7 years. The mean length of the dominant sprout surpassed 1.6 m by 2005, with over 13% of the dominant sprouts reaching subcanopy height. Sprout growth and survival varied among species. These results demonstrate that, despite some thinning, hurricane-induced sprouts survive and grow and that the unique physiognomic characteristic of Caribbean dry forests is related to hurricane disturbance. PMID:17241989

  19. Mint essential oil can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alteration of apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Dudai, Nativ; Fischer, Ravit; Belausov, Eduard; Zemach, Hanita; Shoseyov, Oded; Eshel, Dani

    2010-06-01

    Sprouting of potatoes during storage, due to tuber dormancy release, is associated with weight loss and softening. Sprout-preventing chemicals, such as chlorpropham (CIPC), can negatively impact the environment and human health. Monthly thermal fogging with mint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil (MEO) inhibited sprouting in eight potato cultivars during large-volume 6-month storage: the tubers remained firm with 38% lower weight loss after 140 days of storage. The sprout-inhibitory action may be nullified: treated tubers washed with water resumed sprouting within days, with reduced apical dominance. MEO application caused local necrosis of the bud meristem, and a few weeks later, axillary bud (AX) growth was induced in the same sprouting eye. MEO components analysis showed that 73% of its content is the monoterpene R-carvone. Tubers treated with synthetic R-carvone in equivalent dose, 4.5 microl l(-1), showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of MEO. Surprisingly, 0.5 microl l(-1) of MEO or synthetic R-carvone catalyzed AX sprouting in the tuber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an essential oil vapor inducing early sprouting of potato tubers. R-carvone caused visible damage to the meristem membrane at sprout-inhibiting, but not sprout-inducing doses, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. After 5 days' exposure to R-carvone, its derivatives transcarveol and neo-dihydrocarveol were found in buds of tubers treated with the inhibitory dose, suggesting biodegradation. These experiments demonstrate the potential of MEO vapor as an environmentally friendly alternative to CIPC in stored potatoes and as a research tool for the control of sprouting in plants. PMID:20390295

  20. Choroid Sprouting Assay: An Ex Vivo Model of Microvascular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhuo; Friedlander, Mollie; Hurst, Christian G.; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy T.; Evans, Lucy P.; Juan, Aimee M.; Tahir, Houda; Duhamel, François; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chemtob, Sylvain; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Smith, Lois E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis of the microvasculature is central to the etiology of many diseases including proliferative retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and cancer. A mouse model of microvascular angiogenesis would be very valuable and enable access to a wide range of genetically manipulated tissues that closely approximate small blood vessel growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro are widely used, however, isolating pure vascular murine endothelial cells is technically challenging. A microvascular mouse explant model that is robust, quantitative and can be reproduced without difficulty would overcome these limitations. Here we characterized and optimized for reproducibility an organotypic microvascular angiogenesis mouse and rat model from the choroid, a microvascular bed in the posterior of eye. The choroidal tissues from C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice and Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and incubated in Matrigel. Vascular sprouting was comparable between choroid samples obtained from different animals of the same genetic background. The sprouting area, normalized to controls, was highly reproducible between independent experiments. We developed a semi-automated macro in ImageJ software to allow for more efficient quantification of sprouting area. Isolated choroid explants responded to manipulation of the external environment while maintaining the local interactions of endothelial cells with neighboring cells, including pericytes and macrophages as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. This reproducible ex vivo angiogenesis assay can be used to evaluate angiogenic potential of pharmacologic compounds on microvessels and can take advantage of genetically manipulated mouse tissue for microvascular disease research. PMID:23922736

  1. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m−2 s−1). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops. PMID:26504531

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  3. Sprouting of axonal collaterals after spinal cord injury is prevented by delayed axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Collyer, E; Catenaccio, A; Lemaitre, D; Diaz, P; Valenzuela, V; Bronfman, F; Court, F A

    2014-11-01

    After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), partial recovery of locomotion is accomplished with time. Previous studies have established a functional link between extension of axon collaterals from spared spinal tracts and locomotor recovery after SCI, but the tissular signals triggering collateral sprouting have not been identified. Here, we investigated whether axonal degeneration after SCI contributes to the sprouting of collaterals from axons spared after injury. To this end, we evaluated collateral sprouting from BDA-labeled uninjured corticospinal axons after spinal cord hemisection (SCI(H)) in wild type (WT) mouse and Wld(S) mouse strains, which shows a significant delay in Wallerian degeneration after injury. After SCI(H), spared fibers of WT mice extend collateral sprouts to both intact and denervated sides of the spinal cord distant from the injury site. On the contrary, in the Wld(S) mice collateral sprouting from spared fibers was greatly reduced after SCI(H). Consistent with a role for collateral sprouting in functional recovery after SCI, locomotor recovery after SCI(H) was impaired in Wld(S) mice compared to WT animals. In conclusion, our results identify axonal degeneration as one of the triggers for collateral sprouting from the contralesional uninjured fibers after an SCI(H). These results open the path for identifying molecular signals associated with tissular changes after SCI that promotes collateral sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:25079366

  4. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  5. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Joung-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Oh, Ji Youn; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Jae-Chul; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. PMID:27455313

  6. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  7. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  8. Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for pre-harvest sprouting in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat u...

  9. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Loretta; Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Zhou, Haibo; Zhang, Hongtao; Jones, Shannon; Robinette, Carole; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13) or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16) on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1) and post (day2, day21) LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21) and T cell (day2) populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2). BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2) in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:26820305

  10. Green Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Sprout Plants: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmook; Sung, Hwa Kyung; Kim, Younghun

    2016-05-01

    A critical need in the field of nanotechnology is the development of a sustainable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs). To accomplish this, the use of live plants becomes essential for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic metallic NPs. In this study, we tried in-vivo synthesis (green synthesis) of silver and gold NPs using seeds of bean, radish, and alfalfa, which were grown hydroponically in aqueous solutions containing metal salts, 20-25 nm sized NPs were found on the inner surfaces of the plants' vascular cylinders and cortex. The amounts of NPs taken up by the intracellular systems were clearly dependent on the exposure time and concentration of the metal salts. Although these results regarding the green synthesis of NPs on the growth of plant species are somewhat interesting and effective, metal salts adversely affected the root growth of the plants. Silver ions in the growth media showed a more negative impact on root growth compared to gold ions. Therefore, even though biosynthesis of metal NPs using live plants is considered as green synthesis, we have to consider their phytotoxicity on plant growth. PMID:27483771

  11. Conserving alfalfa wild relatives: is past introgression with Russian varieties evident today?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia, particularly Kazakhstan, supports a rich concentration of wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) relatives. Because they freely cross with domesticated alfalfa, they are important genetic resources. When identifying in situ populations to conserve, contamination of wild populations with dom...

  12. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1-42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  13. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts. PMID:26868554

  14. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  15. CIPC and 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene Inhibit Sprout Growth Through Different Mechanisms and Do Not Extend Tuber Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are sprout inhibitors used to control sprouting in commercial potato storages. CIPC interferes with microtubule function and is thought to suppress sprouting by inhibiting cell division. DMN is a natural product produced by potato tubers whose sp...

  16. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further. PMID:26735027

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L.; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe3O4-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe3O4. CNTs bearing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up. PMID:22977097

  18. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  19. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  20. Soil N to corn after alfalfa through tillage and regrowth management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting corn after alfalfa can eliminate or greatly reduce the nitrogen (N) fertilizer requirement for first-year corn while increasing corn yield potential due to the rotation effect. Current University of Minnesota guidelines regarding alfalfa N credits to corn are based on alfalfa stand density ...

  1. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Methods and Results: Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa, and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population stru...

  2. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  3. Comparison of Alfalfa and Orchardgrass Hay as Replacements for Grain in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While alfalfa has been the predominant perennial forage fed to dairy cows in the Midwest, there has been recent interest to increase use of perennial grasses. This interest is because alfalfa can be expensive to produce (short stand life), the perception that manure cannot be applied to alfalfa, and...

  4. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  5. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  6. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  7. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  8. Corn response to nitrogen after alfalfa as affected by tillage and regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current N guidelines for corn following alfalfa in Minnesota suggest that when compared to corn following corn, N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa can be reduced by 168 kg N/ha when greater than or equal to 43 alfalfa plants/square meter are present at termination. Two unanswered questions re...

  9. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  10. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  11. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  12. Intake of bean sprouts influences melatonin and antioxidant capacity biomarker levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Herrera, Teresa; Cayuelas, L Tábata; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; de Pablo, Ángel L López; Arribas, Silvia M; Martin-Cabrejas, María A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous antioxidant hormone, which reduces with ageing and the low levels are associated with some chronic diseases. Germination of legumes increases the plant levels of melatonin, making sprouts a suitable food source of this hormone. However, information on its bioavailability after consumption is lacking. We aimed to evaluate in rats the effect of kidney bean sprout intake on the plasma levels of melatonin and metabolically related compounds (serotonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin), total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity. In addition, we compared the plasma bioavailability derived from kidney bean sprouts versus synthetic melatonin intake. Kidney beans were germinated for 6 days and an extract was prepared in water. Male young Sprague Dawley rats were used; blood and urine samples were obtained before and after 90 min of administration of kidney bean sprout extract via a gavage. The plasmatic melatonin levels increased after sprout ingestion (16%, p < 0.05). This increment correlated with the urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin content, the principal biomarker of plasmatic melatonin levels (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity levels did not exhibit any significant variation. The comparison of the bioavailability between the melatonin contained in the kidney bean sprouts and in a synthetic solution evidenced slightly higher levels of plasmatic melatonin (17%) in rats fed with the solution of synthetic melatonin. We conclude that kidney bean sprouts could be a good source of dietary melatonin and other bioactive compounds known to have health benefits. PMID:26841704

  13. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    PJ, Noy; P, Lodhia; K, Khan; X, Zhuang; DG, Ward; AR, Verissimo; A, Bacon; R, Bicknell

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a HUVEC spheroid sprouting assay we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a+/+ and clec14a−/− mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a−/− mice. Pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4 but not C2 blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4 treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4 treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, that has the potential to be manipulated in future anti-angiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  14. Blocking CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Noy, P J; Lodhia, P; Khan, K; Zhuang, X; Ward, D G; Verissimo, A R; Bacon, A; Bicknell, R

    2015-11-19

    We previously identified CLEC14A as a tumour endothelial marker. Here we show that CLEC14A is a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell spheroid-sprouting assay, we found CLEC14A to be a regulator of sprout initiation. Analysis of endothelial sprouting in aortic ring and in vivo subcutaneous sponge assays from clec14a(+/+) and clec14a(-/-) mice revealed defects in sprouting angiogenesis in CLEC14A-deficient animals. Tumour growth was retarded and vascularity reduced in clec14a(-/-) mice. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that MMRN2 binds to the extracellular region of CLEC14A. The CLEC14A-MMRN2 interaction was interrogated using mouse monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for their ability to block this interaction. Clone C4, but not C2, blocked CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding. C4 antibody perturbed tube formation and endothelial sprouting in vitro and in vivo, with a similar phenotype to loss of CLEC14A. Significantly, tumour growth was impaired in C4-treated animals and vascular density was also reduced in the C4-treated group. We conclude that CLEC14A-MMRN2 binding has a role in inducing sprouting angiogenesis during tumour growth, which has the potential to be manipulated in future antiangiogenic therapy design. PMID:25745997

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella on Sprouting Seeds Using a Spontaneous Carvacrol Nanoemulsion Acidified with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Komaiko, Jennifer; Wong, Dana E; Xu, Ting; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, demand has increased for natural, minimally processed produce, including sprout-based products. Sanitization with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite is currently recommended for all sprouting seeds before germination to limit sprout-related foodborne outbreaks. A potentially promising disinfectant as an alternative to calcium hypochlorite is acidified spontaneous essential oil nanoemulsions. In this study, the efficacy of an acidified carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against mung beans and broccoli seeds artificially contaminated with a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis cocktail (ATCC BAA-709, ATCC BAA-711, and ATCC BAA-1045). Treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in acidified (50 mM acetic or levulinic acid) carvacrol nanoemulsions (4,000 or 8,000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. After treatment, the number of surviving cells was determined via plate counts and/or the most probable number (MPN) approach. Treatment for 30 min successfully reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by 4 log CFU/g on mung beans (from an initial contamination level of 4.2 to 4.6 log CFU/g) and by 2 log CFU/g on broccoli seeds (from an initial contamination level of 2.4 to 2.6 log CFU/g) to below our detection limit (≤3 MPN/g). Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens and sprout yield. The final sprout product had no detectable pathogens, and total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatment. PMID:27357030

  16. Outbreaks caused by sprouts, United States, 1998-2010: lessons learned and solutions needed.

    PubMed

    Dechet, Amy M; Herman, Karen M; Chen Parker, Cary; Taormina, Peter; Johanson, Joy; Tauxe, Robert V; Mahon, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    After a series of outbreaks associated with sprouts in the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published guidelines in 1999 for sprouts producers to reduce the risk of contamination. The recommendations included treating seeds with an antimicrobial agent such as calcium hypochlorite solution and testing spent irrigation water for pathogens. From 1998 through 2010, 33 outbreaks from seed and bean sprouts were documented in the United States, affecting 1330 reported persons. Twenty-eight outbreaks were caused by Salmonella, four by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and one by Listeria. In 15 of the 18 outbreaks with information available, growers had not followed key FDA guidelines. In three outbreaks, however, the implicated sprouts were produced by firms that appeared to have implemented key FDA guidelines. Although seed chlorination, if consistently applied, reduces pathogen burden on sprouts, it does not eliminate the risk of human infection. Further seed and sprouts disinfection technologies, some recently developed, will be needed to enhance sprouts safety and reduce human disease. Improved seed production practices could also decrease pathogen burden but, because seeds are a globally distributed commodity, will require international cooperation. PMID:25076040

  17. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  18. Effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Tang, Kexuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. It is recommended to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to prevent chronic diseases related to free radical-induced oxidative stress. Different varieties of fruits and vegetables provide different vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, minerals, and dietary fibers for optimal health benefits. Mung bean sprouts are one of the major vegetables in human diet. However, the profiles of phytochemicals and effect of germination on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts have not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts. Germination of mung beans dramatically increased vitamin C content in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner and reached the peak on day 8 of germination up to 285 mg/100 g DW, almost 24 times higher than the initial concentration in mung bean seeds (p < 0.05). On fresh weight basis, one serving of mung bean sprouts (about 104 g) provides 21.6 mg of vitamin C, which could meet 36% of Daily Value (DV). In addition, the germination dramatically increased total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner, up to 4.5 and 6.8 times higher than the original concentration of mung bean seeds, respectively. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside content was significantly increased in mung bean sprouts after germination. The total antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was increased by 6 times higher than that of mung bean seeds. Therefore, the germination of mung bean sprouts significantly increased phytochemical content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activity. PMID:23088738

  19. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  20. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    PubMed

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  1. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids) were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64%) elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently identified S. meliloti s

  3. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  4. Soil particulate organic matter response to incorporation of alfalfa regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the potential effects of climate change have driven a need to understand the potential of agricultural soils to store carbon (C). In Midwestern cropping systems, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has received attention from researchers because including it in crop r...

  5. Validating potassium fertilizer guidelines in alfalfa-corn rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2008 to 2010, on-farm research was conducted on 10 fields with medium soil test K (STK) to validate Minnesota K fertilizer guidelines by determining the effect of K fertilizer applications on alfalfa yield and quality in its last production year and estimating the carryover of excess fertilizer...

  6. The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

  7. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  8. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: widespread distribution of race 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early spring of 2012 with prolonged wet soil conditions in many parts of the country resulted in reports of poor performance of alfalfa due to Aphanomyces root rot (ARR). Varieties with resistance to ARR are available, although fewer varieties have resistance to both race 1 and race 2 of the pat...

  9. How reliable are N credits from alfalfa to corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first Century farmer and writer, Columella, wrote that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 'dungs the land,' and it is likely that most of the benefit he saw was derived from improved nitrogen (N) supply. Today, there is widespread skepticism among growers and farm advisors about how much fertilizer N ...

  10. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  11. Hourly and daily evapotranspiration of alfalfa under regional advection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional advection often affects the evapotranspiration rates of irrigated crops in the Southern High Plains. In 1998, during a 10-day period (13-22 June) of unusually strong advection, high evapotranspiration (ET) rates for unstressed, irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were measured with two prec...

  12. In-Situ Use of Ground Water By Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated column lysimeter study was conducted over a 4 year period to determine the effect of groundwater salinity and depth to ground water on the in-situ use of groundwater by a salt tolerant alfalfa crop. The treatments included a control with no groundwater, and ground water with electrical ...

  13. QTL Underlying Self-Fertility in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential strategy to decrease the levels of self-seed production during the seed increase stages of alfalfa synthetic cultivar development is selection for decreased self-fertility. The underlying genetics of this trait have not been elucidated, and therefore, a study was designed to identify ge...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus.

    PubMed

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  15. Reducing Alfalfa Brown Root Rot with Crop Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stand injury resulting from brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa, caused by Phoma sclerotioides, may be noted this spring as warmer temperatures promote stand emergence. BRR development occurs primarily over the winter and is favored when stands are covered with snow for an extended period of time. It is...

  16. RATE OF YIELD AND QUALITY CHANGE IN ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  17. Biochemical Conversion of Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Stems Into Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has potential utility as an energy crop for conversion to biofuels because it is already produced commercially, grows as a perennial, and the protein enriched leaves can be marketed for animal feed. In this paper, the biomass processing characteristics of the stem mater...

  18. The role of disease resistance in alfalfa persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of disease resistance on alfalfa persistence, a five-year field study was conducted using sixteen cultivars with release dates from 1940 to 1996. Fusarium wilt and anthracnose were the prevalent lethal diseases observed. Disease was present in all cultivars, with higher incide...

  19. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  20. ADVECTION INFLUENCES ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF ALFALFA IN A SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advective enhancement of crop evapotranspiration (ET) occurs when drier, hotter air is transported into the crop by wind and can be an important factor in the water balance of irrigated crops in a semiarid climate. Thirteen days of moderate to extremely high ET rates of irrigated alfalfa (Medicago ...

  1. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  2. Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

  3. Orchardgrass vs. alfalfa for replacing dairy-cow grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is currently the predominant forage fed to lactating dairy cows in the Midwestern United States however interest in incorporating grasses into lactating dairy cow diets has recently been rejuvenated. Due to differences in chemical composition and physical characteristics of grasses and legum...

  4. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  5. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  6. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  7. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  9. Thermoperiodism in the cavity nesting alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is the most intensively managed solitary bee, and is the third most used pollinator in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that while the eclosion pattern of this cavity nesting bee is unaffected by photoperiod, a thermoperiod can give...

  10. Morphological and Molecular Variation in Perennial Medicago (Alfalfa) Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important cultivated forage legumes worldwide. Understanding the areas of adaptation and genetic variation available in a crop species facilitates efforts to identify suitable germplasm for integration in plant breeding programs. Accessions that repr...

  11. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  12. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  13. Alfalfa genomics: importance to sustainability and ecological services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of genomic approaches has the potential to impact alfalfa improvement for any number of traits. We have focused on using genomic and molecular approaches to understand how symbiotic nitrogen fixation, acclimation to phosphorus stress, and cell wall synthesis processes are regulated in alfalf...

  14. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  15. Nitrogen management for first-year corn after alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn can increase corn yield potential due to improved soil physical properties that enhance water infiltration and root extension, altered soil microbial communities, and reduced pest pressure. In addition, fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements are commonly reduced by about 100...

  16. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  17. Analysis of alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes, AZ-88NDC and AZ-GERM SALT-II in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by and/or involved in adaptation to salt stress. Both accessions were considered susceptible due to the stage at which samples were collected. A total ...

  18. Rate of yield and quality change in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  19. Three-Dimensional Characterization of Mechanical Interactions between Endothelial Cells and Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenic Sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yue; Herath, Sahan C. B.; Wang, Qing-guo; Wang, Dong-an; Asada, H. Harry; Chen, Peter C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the three-dimensional cell-extracellular matrix interactions of endothelial cells that form multicellular structures called sprouts. We analyzed the data collected in-situ from angiogenic sprouting experiments and identified the differentiated interaction behavior exhibited by the tip and stalk cells. Moreover, our analysis of the tip cell lamellipodia revealed the diversity in their interaction behavior under certain conditions (e.g., when the heading of a sprout is switched approximately between the long-axis direction of two different lamellipodia). This study marks the first time that new characteristics of such interactions have been identified with shape changes in the sprouts and the associated rearrangements of collagen fibers. Clear illustrations of such changes are depicted in three-dimensional views. PMID:26903154

  20. ANALYSIS OF GLUCOSINOLATES AND GLUCOSINOLATE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN SPROUTING BROCCOLI SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate degradation products were examined in unsprouted `Marathon' broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) seeds and in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old sprouts. Glucosinolates identified were glucoiberin, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoiberverin, 4-...

  1. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  2. The Force at the Tip--Modelling Tension and Proliferation in Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Santos-Oliveira, Patrícia; Correia, António; Rodrigues, Tiago; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa M; Matafome, Paulo; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Seiça, Raquel; Girão, Henrique; Travasso, Rui D M

    2015-08-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis, where new blood vessels grow from pre-existing ones, is a complex process where biochemical and mechanical signals regulate endothelial cell proliferation and movement. Therefore, a mathematical description of sprouting angiogenesis has to take into consideration biological signals as well as relevant physical processes, in particular the mechanical interplay between adjacent endothelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. In this work, we introduce the first phase-field continuous model of sprouting angiogenesis capable of predicting sprout morphology as a function of the elastic properties of the tissues and the traction forces exerted by the cells. The model is very compact, only consisting of three coupled partial differential equations, and has the clear advantage of a reduced number of parameters. This model allows us to describe sprout growth as a function of the cell-cell adhesion forces and the traction force exerted by the sprout tip cell. In the absence of proliferation, we observe that the sprout either achieves a maximum length or, when the traction and adhesion are very large, it breaks. Endothelial cell proliferation alters significantly sprout morphology, and we explore how different types of endothelial cell proliferation regulation are able to determine the shape of the growing sprout. The largest region in parameter space with well formed long and straight sprouts is obtained always when the proliferation is triggered by endothelial cell strain and its rate grows with angiogenic factor concentration. We conclude that in this scenario the tip cell has the role of creating a tension in the cells that follow its lead. On those first stalk cells, this tension produces strain and/or empty spaces, inevitably triggering cell proliferation. The new cells occupy the space behind the tip, the tension decreases, and the process restarts. Our results highlight the ability of mathematical models to suggest relevant hypotheses

  3. The Force at the Tip - Modelling Tension and Proliferation in Sprouting Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Oliveira, Patrícia; Correia, António; Rodrigues, Tiago; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa M; Matafome, Paulo; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Seiça, Raquel; Girão, Henrique; Travasso, Rui D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis, where new blood vessels grow from pre-existing ones, is a complex process where biochemical and mechanical signals regulate endothelial cell proliferation and movement. Therefore, a mathematical description of sprouting angiogenesis has to take into consideration biological signals as well as relevant physical processes, in particular the mechanical interplay between adjacent endothelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. In this work, we introduce the first phase-field continuous model of sprouting angiogenesis capable of predicting sprout morphology as a function of the elastic properties of the tissues and the traction forces exerted by the cells. The model is very compact, only consisting of three coupled partial differential equations, and has the clear advantage of a reduced number of parameters. This model allows us to describe sprout growth as a function of the cell-cell adhesion forces and the traction force exerted by the sprout tip cell. In the absence of proliferation, we observe that the sprout either achieves a maximum length or, when the traction and adhesion are very large, it breaks. Endothelial cell proliferation alters significantly sprout morphology, and we explore how different types of endothelial cell proliferation regulation are able to determine the shape of the growing sprout. The largest region in parameter space with well formed long and straight sprouts is obtained always when the proliferation is triggered by endothelial cell strain and its rate grows with angiogenic factor concentration. We conclude that in this scenario the tip cell has the role of creating a tension in the cells that follow its lead. On those first stalk cells, this tension produces strain and/or empty spaces, inevitably triggering cell proliferation. The new cells occupy the space behind the tip, the tension decreases, and the process restarts. Our results highlight the ability of mathematical models to suggest relevant hypotheses

  4. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  5. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L

    2014-11-01

    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces. PMID:25364920

  6. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  7. Expression of β-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Joyce A.; Kalengamaliro, Newton E.; Cunningham, Suzanne M.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of β-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a β-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The β-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant β-amylases. Starch concentrations, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase mRNA levels were measured in roots of alfalfa after defoliation, in suspension-cultured cells incubated in sucrose-rich or -deprived media, and in roots of cold-acclimated germ plasms. Starch levels, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase transcripts were reduced significantly in roots of defoliated plants and in sucrose-deprived cell cultures. β-Amylase transcript was high in roots of intact plants but could not be detected 2 to 8 d after defoliation. β-Amylase transcript levels increased in roots between September and October and then declined 10-fold in November and December after shoots were killed by frost. Alfalfa roots contain greater β-amylase transcript levels compared with roots of sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Southern analysis indicated that β-amylase is present as a multigene family in alfalfa. Our results show no clear association between β-amylase activity or transcript abundance and starch hydrolysis in alfalfa roots. The great abundance of β-amylase and its unexpected patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation support our current belief that this protein serves a storage function in roots of this perennial species. PMID:9847126

  8. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  9. Endophytic bacterial and fungal microbiota in sprouts, roots and stems of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenfeng; Zhai, Yanyan; Cao, Lixiang; Tan, Hongming; Zhang, Renduo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the endophytic microbiota in rice sprouts, roots, and stems, and their transmission in the plant development. Prior to DNA extraction, roots and stems were treated with 36% formaldehyde and 0.1M NaOH solutions to remove epiphytic bacterial whole 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial and fungal taxa in the sprout, root, and stem samples were analyzed using Illumina-based sequencing of the V3-V4 hyper variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the ITS2 regions of fungal rRNA genes, respectively. Results showed that more diverse bacterial OTUs were detected in roots than in stems, while more diverse fungal OTUs were detected in stems than in roots. Compared with the endophytic microbiota in sprouts, the bacterial OTUs increased in roots but decreased in stems, whereas the fungal OTUs in both stems and roots decreased. Sprout-borne bacterial genera Sphingomonas and Pseudomonus, and fungal genera Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Penicillium were detected in stems and roots. The coexistence of these indigenous bacterial and fungal taxa in sprouts, roots, and stems indicated their transmission during the development from sprouts to mature plants. The results from this study should be useful to better understand the plant-microbe interactions and to select suitable microbial taxa for rice production. PMID:27296957

  10. Ultrastructural observation of capillary sprouts in the dental organs of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, H; Sasa, S

    1994-10-01

    The morphological events associated with the formation of capillary sprouts were examined in the dental organs to elucidate the morphological processes of angiogenesis in epithelial tissues. Mandibular first molars of 2-day-old male rats were processed for routine observation by transmission electron microscopy. In angiogenic regions, capillaries were located in the caves delineated by outer enamel epithelium, and extravasated erythrocytes were often observed in the stellate reticulum. At the capillary sprout, endothelial cells were amoeboidal in shape, and extended their filopodia to the fluffy extracellular matrix. On the other hand, each endothelial cell interdigitated with each process to form a tubule, and bulbous cell processes filled the luminal side of capillaries. Coated vesicles or pits 50-90 nm in diameter lined the luminal plasma membrane and that comprising the base of filopodial processes. Some endothelial sprouting tips (30 of 47 sprouts) were associated with pericyte-like cells. However, pericyte-like cells were observed in most of the caves where capillaries were located or destined to be located. We investigated the dynamic status of endothelial cells via parameters such as cell elongation and spreading which were supported by the additional observation of membranous components such as coated vesicles at the capillary sprouting region. It was also suggested that pericyte-like cells participated in angiogenesis of epithelial tissues by guiding the sprouts and sealing labile junctions between endothelial cells. PMID:7531382

  11. Development of Lipophilic Antioxidants and Chloroplasts during the Sprouting of Diverse Triticum spp.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Flockerzie, Miriam; Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of sprouting times and illumination conditions on lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids, tocochromanols, alkylresorcinols, and steryl ferulates), chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was investigated using four varieties each of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta), durum (T. durum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and einkorn (T. monococcum). Carotenoid levels significantly increased during sprouting, particularly, under light exposure. In contrast, concentrations of other lipophilic antioxidants were affected to a lesser extent. Moreover, the quantitative development of lipophilic antioxidants was evidently determined by genotype. On the basis of the levels of carotenoids newly synthesized during sprouting, a chloroplast development index indicated that chloroplast ontogenesis during sprouting occurred at different species-dependent rates. Thermal degradation of carotenoids, tocochromanols, chlorophylls, and α-amylase activity was observed during the drying of sprouts at 40 and 90 °C, while alkylresorcinol and steryl ferulate levels remained unaffected. Wheat sprouts were shown to be potential functional ingredients to increase the nutritional value of cereal products. PMID:26752117

  12. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-01

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts. PMID:23855586

  13. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression of a pore-forming toxin and glycosyl hydrolase genes in Rhizoctonia solani during potato sprout infection.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Rony; Samsatly, Jamil; Pakala, Suman B; Cubeta, Marc A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes black scurf on tubers and stem and stolon canker on underground parts of potato plant. Early in the season, the fungus attacks germinating sprouts underground before they emerge from the soil. Damage at this stage results in delayed emergence of weakened plants with poor and uneven stands. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has been investigated in this study by coupling a cDNA-suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library to differential screening to identify transcripts of R. solani that are down-regulated during infection of potato sprouts. We report on the identification of 33 unique genes with functions related to carbohydrate binding, vitamin synthesis, pathogenicity, translation, ATP and nucleic acid binding and other categories. RACE-PCR was used to clone and characterize the first full-length cDNA clones, RSENDO1 and RSGLYC1 that encode for an eukaryotic delta-endotoxin CytB protein and an intracellular glycosyl hydrolase, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the down-regulation of RSENDO1 during infection of potato sprouts and the up-regulation of RSGLYC1 when the fungus was grown on a cellulose-based nutrient medium. In contrast, additional experiments have highlighted the down-regulation of RSENDO1 when R. solani was co-cultured with the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans and the bacterial antagonist Bacillus subtilis B26. These results advance our understanding of R. solani-potato interaction in subterranean parts of the plant. Such approaches could be considered in building an efficient integrated potato disease management program. PMID:25472038

  14. Viral mediated gene transfer to sprouting blood vessels during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Akram; Eldor, Amiram; Falk, Haya; Panet, Amos

    2002-08-01

    Several experimental systems have been applied to investigate the development of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis can be followed ex-vivo by culturing explants of rat aorta 'rings' in biomatrix gels. This angiogenesis system was modified for the study of viral vector mediated gene transfer, using adenovirus, vaccinia- and retroviral vectors. Two modifications were introduced to the model in order to facilitate efficient viral mediated gene transfer, (i) placing the aorta ring on top of a thin layer of collagen such that the angiogenic tissue will be accessible to the viral vector; and (ii) infection of the aorta rings prior to embedding them into the collagen matrix. While adenovirus and vaccinia vectors infected efficiently the aorta rings they induced cell death. Subsequent gene transfer experiments were, therefore, carried with retroviral vectors containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the beta-interferon (IFN) genes. Overexpression of VEGF enhanced significantly microvessel sprouting, while overexpression of IFN-beta induced an antiviral effect. The experimental system described in this study can facilitate the application of other viral vectors to the study of genes that may regulate the complex angiogenic process and thereby open new avenues for vascular gene therapy. PMID:12176137

  15. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  16. Agronomic field evaluation of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase downregulated alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a widely used forage legume. Increasing alfalfa digestibility would increase forage value. One digestibility limitation in alfalfa is stem lignification, which presents an attractive target for genetic manipulation and selection. Lignin biosynthesis is controlled by the...

  17. Mercury localization and speciation in plants grown hydroponically or in a natural environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Siebner, Hagar; Leduc, Danika L; Webb, Samuel M; Millán, Rocío; Andrews, Joy C; Hernández, Luis E

    2013-04-01

    Better understanding of mercury (Hg) accumulation, distribution, and speciation in plants is required to evaluate potential risks for the environment and to optimize phytostabilization strategies for Hg-contaminated soils. The behavior of Hg in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants grown under controlled conditions in a hydroponic system (30 μM HgCl2) was compared with that of naturally occurring Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) plants collected from a mining soil polluted with Hg (Almadenejos, Spain) to characterize common mechanisms of tolerance. Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence microprobe (μ-SXRF) showed that Hg accumulated at the root apex of alfalfa and was distributed through the vascular system to the leaves. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) implied association of Hg with cell walls, accompanied by their structural changes, in alfalfa roots. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) determined that Hg was principally bound to biothiols and/or proteins in M. sativa roots, stems, and leaves. However, the major fraction of Hg detected in M. vulgare plants consisted of mineral species, possibly associated with soil components. Interestingly, the fraction of Hg bound to biothiols/proteins (i.e., metabolically processed Hg) in leaves of both plants (alfalfa and M. vulgare) was similar, in spite of the big difference in Hg accumulation in roots, suggesting that some tolerance mechanisms might be shared. PMID:23406525

  18. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression in fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an adaptive trait in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). It appeared in the regrowth process in late summer or early autumn after alfalfa was harvested. FD affects the biomass accumulation and winter survival in high latitude area. However, the molecular mechanism under FD is still not clear at present. Performing RNA-seq of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties at different time points, we obtained differentially expressed genes between different FD types or time points. These differentially expressed genes may relate to FD in alfalfa. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study (Zhang S et al., De novo Characterization of Fall Dormant and Nondormant Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Relate to Fall Dormancy, submitted for publication) for reproducible research. Data generated in our work provide a resource to help decipher the molecular mechanism of FD in alfalfa. PMID:26484109

  19. Absorption and chemopreventive targets of sulforaphane in humans following consumption of broccoli sprouts or a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Lauren L.; Hsu, Anna; Wong, Carmen P.; Stevens, Jan F.; Bella, Deborah; Yu, Tian-Wei; Pereira, Clifford B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Christensen, John Mark; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.; Shannon, Jackilen; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults. Methods and results Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 μmol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-μmol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ~3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21). Conclusion We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials. PMID:25522265

  20. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  1. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  2. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  3. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  4. Effects of tabtoxinine-. beta. -lactam treatments on alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Margiotta, E.A.; Weaver, L.M.; Unkefer, P.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam (T{beta}L), excreted by the tobacco pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, is an active site directed, irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C.6.3.2.1). Previously, we have shown infestation of the alfalfa rhizosphere with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci results in selective impairment of GS and increased plant growth and nodule number. We have now shown purified T{beta}L, when administered to alfalfa roots, can produce the same effects as colonization of the rhizosphere with P. syringae pv. tabaci. Results of GS specific activity, nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction, and plant growth response to T{beta}L dosage are presented.

  5. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  6. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  7. Endothelial Cell mTOR Complex-2 Regulates Sprouting Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Maikel A.; Carmine-Simmen, Katia; Lewis, John D.; Moore, Ronald B.; Murray, Allan G.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor neovascularization is targeted by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the receptor to prevent tumor growth, but drug resistance to angiogenesis inhibition limits clinical efficacy. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase pathway intermediate, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also inhibits tumor growth and may prevent escape from VEGF receptor inhibitors. mTOR is assembled into two separate multi-molecular complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. The direct effect of mTORC2 inhibition on the endothelium and tumor angiogenesis is poorly defined. We used pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference to determine the function of mTORC2 versus Akt1 and mTORC1 in human endothelial cells (EC). Angiogenic sprouting, EC migration, cytoskeleton re-organization, and signaling events regulating matrix adhesion were studied. Sustained inactivation of mTORC1 activity up-regulated mTORC2-dependent Akt1 activation. In turn, ECs exposed to mTORC1-inhibition were resistant to apoptosis and hyper-responsive to renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-stimulated angiogenesis after relief of the inhibition. Conversely, mTORC1/2 dual inhibition or selective mTORC2 inactivation inhibited angiogenesis in response to RCC cells and VEGF. mTORC2-inactivation decreased EC migration more than Akt1- or mTORC1-inactivation. Mechanistically, mTORC2 inactivation robustly suppressed VEGF-stimulated EC actin polymerization, and inhibited focal adhesion formation and activation of focal adhesion kinase, independent of Akt1. Endothelial mTORC2 regulates angiogenesis, in part by regulation of EC focal adhesion kinase activity, matrix adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling, independent of Akt/mTORC1. PMID:26295809

  8. Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.

    PubMed

    De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter

  9. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Kessmann, Helmut; Edwards, Robert; Geno, Paul W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with l-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures. PMID:16667691

  10. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    PubMed

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-11-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960

  11. Primary photosensitization related to ingestion of alfalfa silage by cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; George, L W; Oslund, K L; Galey, F D; Stannard, A W; Koch, L M

    1996-11-01

    A herd of 650 Holstein cows was examined for skin disease. Approximately 400 of the lactating adults were affected, but heifers, calves, and nonlactating cows were clinically normal. The condition was characteristic of primary photosensitization. Milk production of the affected cows was normal. Affected cows did not appear to be ill, and none of the cows was icteric. Three of 7 cows had high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, but in the other 4 cows, activity was within the reference range. Serum activities of other hepatic enzymes were within reference ranges in the 7 cows that were examined. Hepatic biopsy specimens from 3 cows were normal. Specimens from 4 other cows had changes that ranged from minimal to mild, chronic, lymphoplasmacytic periportal hepatitis to acute, random, necrotizing hepatitis. Development of photosensitivity was related to ingestion of alfalfa silage. Acetone extracts of the alfalfa silage, but not of other feedstuffs, were found to inhibit growth of Candida albicans under ultraviolet light. Cows experimentally fed a diet composed exclusively of the alfalfa silage developed skin lesions after 6 days, but did not have detectable serum concentrations of phylloerythrin. PMID:8899027

  12. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  13. Agent-based model of angiogenesis simulates capillary sprout initiation in multicellular networks.

    PubMed

    Walpole, J; Chappell, J C; Cluceru, J G; Mac Gabhann, F; Bautch, V L; Peirce, S M

    2015-09-01

    Many biological processes are controlled by both deterministic and stochastic influences. However, efforts to model these systems often rely on either purely stochastic or purely rule-based methods. To better understand the balance between stochasticity and determinism in biological processes a computational approach that incorporates both influences may afford additional insight into underlying biological mechanisms that give rise to emergent system properties. We apply a combined approach to the simulation and study of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from existing networks. This complex multicellular process begins with selection of an initiating endothelial cell, or tip cell, which sprouts from the parent vessels in response to stimulation by exogenous cues. We have constructed an agent-based model of sprouting angiogenesis to evaluate endothelial cell sprout initiation frequency and location, and we have experimentally validated it using high-resolution time-lapse confocal microscopy. ABM simulations were then compared to a Monte Carlo model, revealing that purely stochastic simulations could not generate sprout locations as accurately as the rule-informed agent-based model. These findings support the use of rule-based approaches for modeling the complex mechanisms underlying sprouting angiogenesis over purely stochastic methods. PMID:26158406

  14. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  15. BREAST CANCER-INDUCED BONE REMODELING, SKELETAL PAIN AND SPROUTING OF SENSORY NERVE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Aaron P.; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Taylor, Reid N.; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Kaczmarska, Magdalena J.; Freeman, Katie T.; Coughlin, Kathleen A.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis to bone is frequently accompanied by pain. What remains unclear is why this pain tends to become more severe and difficult to control with disease progression. Here we test the hypothesis that with disease progression sensory nerve fibers that innervate the breast cancer bearing bone undergo a pathological sprouting and reorganization, which in other non-malignant pathologies has been shown to generate and maintain chronic pain. Injection of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231-BO) into the femoral intramedullary space of female athymic nude mice induces sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+) sensory nerve fibers. Nearly all CGRP+ nerve fibers that undergo sprouting also co-express tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA+) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP43+). This ectopic sprouting occurs in periosteal sensory nerve fibers that are in close proximity to breast cancer cells, tumor-associated stromal cells and remodeled cortical bone. Therapeutic treatment with an antibody that sequesters nerve growth factor (NGF), administered when the pain and bone remodeling were first observed, blocks this ectopic sprouting and attenuates cancer pain. The present data suggest that the breast cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells express and release NGF, which drives bone pain and the pathological reorganization of nearby CGRP+ / TrkA+ / GAP43+ sensory nerve fibers. PMID:21497141

  16. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  17. Potential regulatory role of gibberellic and humic acids in sprouting of Chlorophytum borivilianum tubers.

    PubMed

    Nakasha, Jaafar Juju; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Puteh, Adam; Hassan, Siti Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli. PMID:24688363

  18. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  19. Hic-5 mediates the initiation of endothelial sprouting by regulating a key surface metalloproteinase.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jui M; Abbey, Colette A; Duran, Camille L; Seo, Heewon; Johnson, Gregory A; Bayless, Kayla J

    2016-02-15

    During angiogenesis, endothelial cells must coordinate matrix proteolysis with migration. Here, we tested whether the focal adhesion scaffold protein Hic-5 (also known as TGFB1I1) regulated endothelial sprouting in three dimensions. Hic-5 silencing reduced endothelial sprouting and lumen formation, and sprouting defects were rescued by the return of Hic-5 expression. Pro-angiogenic factors enhanced colocalization and complex formation between membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, also known as MMP14) and Hic-5, but not between paxillin and MT1-MMP. The LIM2 and LIM3 domains of Hic-5 were necessary and sufficient for Hic-5 to form a complex with MT1-MMP. The degree of interaction between MT1-MMP and Hic-5 and the localization of the complex within detergent-resistant membrane fractions were enhanced during endothelial sprouting, and Hic-5 depletion lowered the surface levels of MT1-MMP. In addition, we observed that loss of Hic-5 partially reduced complex formation between MT1-MMP and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), suggesting that Hic-5 bridges MT1-MMP and FAK. Finally, Hic-5 LIM2-LIM3 deletion mutants reduced sprout initiation. Hic-5, MT1-MMP and FAK colocalized in angiogenic vessels during porcine pregnancy, supporting that this complex assembles during angiogenesis in vivo. Collectively, Hic-5 appears to enhance complex formation between MT1-MMP and FAK in activated endothelial cells, which likely coordinates matrix proteolysis and cell motility. PMID:26769900

  20. Potential Regulatory Role of Gibberellic and Humic Acids in Sprouting of Chlorophytum borivilianum Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam; Hassan, Siti Aishah

    2014-01-01

    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L−1) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L−1 GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L−1 GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli. PMID:24688363

  1. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  2. Assessment of Genetic Diversity Among Nondormant and Semi-Dormant Alfalfa Populations using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphisms (SRAPs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic alfalfa populations consist of genetically heterogeneous plants, which has contributed to difficulties in applying molecular markers for examining genetic relationships among alfalfa cultivars. Molecular marker techniques combined with bulked plant DNA analyses provide perhaps the best com...

  3. GENETIC MAPPING FORAGE YIELD, PLANT HEIGHT, AND REGROWTH AT MULTIPLE HARVESTS IN TETRAPLOID ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between Medicago sativa subspecies falcata and sativa result in high levels of heterosis for alfalfa forage production. However, desirable alfalfa cultivars must have acceptable performance for other agronomic traits including regrowth following harvest and appropriate autumn dormancy. In ...

  4. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA HI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release [1] detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function [2]. Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey [3], this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation.[1] Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142[2] Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810[3] Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815

  5. Percent Moisture and Seed Coat Characteristics of Alfalfa Seeds After Artificial Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable sprouts can be a vehicle for food borne illness and the seeds used for sprouts are considered the probable source of the pathogen contamination. Since naturally contaminated seeds have a very low pathogen level, most reports on the efficacy of sanitizing decontamination methods use artifi...

  6. Disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes with low energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    2000-03-01

    Electrons at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV reduced microbial count of seeds of adzuki bean, pot herb mustered and black gram to undetectable levels without any detrimental effects on the germination ability. However, electrons at 200 kV or higher affected the growing of black gram sprouts. The energies of electrons at the surface of seed (15 cm distance from the accelerator's window) at acceleration voltages of 170-190 kV were estimated to be 60-90 kV, based on the stopping powers of titanium and air. Electrons at acceleration voltages of 250 kV or higher inhibited sprouting of potato tubers of various cultivars. The results suggest the efficacy of low energy electron treatment for disinfection of seeds and sprout inhibition of potatoes.

  7. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  8. Preservation of Brussels Sprouts by Pullulan Coating Containing Oregano Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Kraśniewska, Karolina; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kosakowska, Olga; Cis, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of pullulan (a fungal polysaccharide) film containing oregano essential oil (OEO) at 1.0 to 10.0% was evaluated against bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The quality of the sprouts, as determined by weight loss, color, and appearance, was monitored during storage at 2 and 16°C. An organoleptic evaluation of odor preference and odor acceptability of OEO on the Brussels sprouts was also conducted. The antimicrobial activity of pullulan films with OEO increased significantly with the increase in OEO concentration (1 to 10%). Pullulan films with OEO were more effective for inhibiting the growth of yeasts and molds than for inhibiting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Pullulan with 1.0% OEO was an effective combination and was used subsequently as the base coating for maintaining the safety and quality of fresh Brussels sprouts stored at 16°C for 14 days. The pullulan coating containing 1.0% OEO reduced Aspergillus niger populations by 2 log CFU/g. This coating also reduced weight loss in the sprouts. Compared with uncoated Brussels sprouts, the percent weight loss after 14 days was reduced in samples coated with pullulan and with pullulan plus 1% OEO by 3.81 and 6.06%, respectively, after storage at 2°C and by 8.04 and 9.30%, respectively, after storage 16°C. The coating also significantly reduced changes in general appearance and color during storage. Evaluation of the organoleptic properties indicated that pullulan containing OEO had only a slight detrimental effect on odor properties. Incorporating OEO into a delivery system for antimicrobial compounds in pullulan coatings extended the microbiological shelf life of Brussels sprouts. PMID:26939662

  9. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  10. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush

    SciTech Connect

    McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

  11. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  12. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  13. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  14. Evaluation of genetic markers for prediction of pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in hard white winter wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting of wheat results in significant financial loss at all steps in the production and marketing chain. Due to its intermittent nature in many wheat growing regions, direct selection for tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting is difficult. DNA markers linked to genes conditioning tole...

  15. Identification of molecular markers associated with verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) using high-resolution melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to VW, an association study was conducted using autotetraploid alfalfa populations composed of 352...

  16. Assessing the potential of forage alfalfa crops to serve as Xylella fastidiosa, primary inoculum sources in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for forage alfalfa to serve as a primary inoculum source of Xylella fastidiosa in the San Joaquin Valley of California was evaluated. Laboratory inoculation of fourteen cultivars of alfalfa indicated that all alfalfa cultivars tested were equally suitable hosts for X. fastidiosa. Inci...

  17. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  18. Sprout suppression on potato: need to look beyond CIPC for more effective and safer alternatives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Vijay; Ezekiel, R; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    World over, potatoes are being stored at 8-12 °C (85-90 % RH). This is the most common way of long-term (up to 6 to 9 months) storage of potatoes. The benefit of storing the potatoes within the temperature range of 8-12 °C is minimum accumulation of sugars in stored potato tubers. In sub-temperate, sub-tropical and tropical countries of the world, short-term (3 to 4 months) storage of potatoes is being done by non-refrigerated traditional/on-farm methods. These short- and long-term storage methods keep the stored potatoes suitable not only for table purpose but also for processing. However, once the natural dormancy period of potato is over, the prevailing temperatures in these storage methods favour sprouting and sprout growth. Therefore, use of some sprout suppressant to check the sprout growth becomes essential under these methods of potato storage. CIPC [Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate] is the most wide spread and commonly used sprout suppressant on potatoes. CIPC has been in use for more than 50 years and research carried out over such a long period use of CIPC has not only enhanced our understanding of its properties and chemistry but also about the production and toxicological status of its metabolites/degradation products. Today, various safety issues and concerns have surfaced primarily due to continuous and long-term use of CIPC. This review presents an appraisal on CIPC and explains the reasons for the long-time dependence on this chemical as a potato sprout suppressant. Issues like maximum residue limit and acceptable daily intake limit are being discussed for CIPC. This article brings an update on practical aspects of potato storage, residue levels of CIPC, efficacy of CIPC as sprout suppressant and health and environmental safety issues linked with CIPC and its metabolites. The aim of this article is to find possible solutions, way outs and future plans that can make the sprout suppression of potatoes safer and more risk free. PMID

  19. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  20. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  1. Production of bio-oil from alfalfa stems by fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study focused on the production of bio-oil from alfalfa stem material. Two alfalfa maturity stages, harvested at early bud and full flower stages of development, were examined to evaluate the impact of variation in cell wall polysaccharide and lignin content on pyrolysis oil yields, production ...

  2. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  3. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions ...

  4. Validating Topdressed K Fertilizer Recommendations in an Alfalfa-Corn Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) fertilizer prices are higher than average and may reduce bottom line returns for alfalfa growers. Potassium supports plant stress tolerance and plays a critical role in alfalfa yield by moving sugars from shoots to roots. Current University of Minnesota recommendations are to apply bet...

  5. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot of Alfalfa: An Emerging Problem in Minnesota and Wisconsin?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot was observed on alfalfa plants from southeastern MN and southwestern WI during the summer of 2009. The disease was observed in new plantings and established stands. Although the disease has been known since the 1950's, it has not caused severe problems in alfalfa p...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  7. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  8. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  9. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  10. Effect of temperature on post-wintering development and total lipid content of alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature plays an important role in effective management of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata L.), the major commercial pollinator of seed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in North America. Previous studies of the effects of temperature on post-wintering development of M. rotundata ha...

  11. Gain from selection for 16- and 96-h in vitro NDF digestibility of alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a high-quality forage, but stems are high in NDF and of limited digestibility. A gain from selection study with alfalfa populations selected for divergent in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) was planted at St. Paul and Becker, MN. Two cycles of selection were conducted starting with a bas...

  12. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  13. Fungicide Tests on Adult Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera:Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of bee larvae caused by Ascosphaera aggregata. It causes significant mortality in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), a bee that is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the U.S. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fung...

  14. Ensuring coexistence of GE and non-GE alfalfa: status of current research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa routinely places among the top five crops in the nation in terms of both farmgate value and total acreage. In 2011 USDA APHIS announced the complete deregulation of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa in 2011. Since then grower demand for RRA seed has surged. Recognizing the need to support all fac...

  15. INCIDENCE OF INTROGRESSION BETWEEN CULTIVATED ALFALFA AND WILD RELATIVES IN NORTHWESTERN KAZAKHSTAN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia is considered the primary center of origin for alfalfa and has a rich diversity of taxa in the Medicago sativa Complex. An exploration was carried out in 2000 to collect germplasm of wild relatives of alfalfa in Northwestern Kazakhstan. Russian scientists had previously proposed areas w...

  16. Identification of Drought Response Genes fom Two Alfalfa Cultivars Using Medicago Truncatula Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the first step to identify drought-responsive genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and understand how nitrogen fixation interacts with drought response, the alfalfa Ladak and 53V08 were studied when subjected to drought stress. A small set of genes shared by these two cultivars were identified ...

  17. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: in vitro gas and volatile fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa silages from two similar trials, 15 treatments with an untreated control and 14 lactic acid bacterial inoculants, were analyzed for in vitro ruminal gas production. First cut (477 g DM/kg) and second cut (393 g DM/kg) alfalfa had been ensiled in glass jars for a minimum of 30 days at room te...

  18. Responses of Medicago sativa and M. falcata type alfalfas to different defoliation times and grass competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating alfalfa into rangelands can enhance the quantity and quality of forage production. We evaluated the impact of defoliation timing and selective defoliation on two grazing- (Anik and SCMF 3713) and one hay-type alfalfas (Vernal) near Mandan, North Dakota, USA. Entries were space-plante...

  19. Alfalfa root health and disease management: a foundation for maximizing production potential and stand life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneath the lush green leaves of an alfalfa plant is a surprisingly large root system. It is this large root system that is at the heart of the valuable traits of the crop. Many factors influence root growth and root health of alfalfa, but diseases can be especially important. Several different dise...

  20. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions...

  1. Optimizing Sativa and Falcata Alfalfa Subspecies Ratios for Leafcutter Bee Pollination to Maximize Hybrid Seed Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing seed production schemes which capture and maintain desired alfalfa (Medicago sativa) heterosis for utilization by growers has been problematic. The semi-hybrid seed production scheme is one proposed means of capturing heterosis in alfalfa cultivars. This scheme proposes mixing equal qua...

  2. Storage characteristics of large round and square alfalfa bales: low-moisture wrapped bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial dry matter (DM) and quality losses have been reported for partially dried alfalfa that has been rained on before moisture reduction to levels acceptable for dry hay storage. The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of preserving alfalfa baled at less than 45% mois...

  3. Should Yield or Quality be the 'Rule' at Alfalfa Harvest Time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  4. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  5. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  6. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  7. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  8. Prolonged field exposure after cut alfalfa receives rain reduces ensilability and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving high-quality alfalfa silage during unstable, inclement weather is a challenge. Within a series of experiments, rainfall events were applied to wilting alfalfa by both simulated (using a rainfall simulator) and natural methods across four different harvests. Based on our studies, the ensi...

  9. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  10. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  11. Potato Leafhopper Injury and Fusarium Crown Rot Effects on Three Alfalfa Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests homopterous insects and crown-rotting Fusarium species interact to impose stresses affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence. Our objective was to investigate interactions of Fusarium crown rot and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) in three alfalfa populations dif...

  12. A comparative study of alfalfa and Medicago truncatula stem traits: morphology, chemical composition, and ruminal digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an agronomically important forage, but digestibility of stem cell wall material is low. Because the tetraploid genome of alfalfa complicates genetic dissection of complex pathways, Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) could serve as a model for stem cell wall development in ...

  13. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labeled total miRNA purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of alfalfa clone 252 to a miRNA-macroarray that contained a total of 70 reference anti-...

  14. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labled total microRNAs purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of the alfalfa Clone 252 to a microRNA dot blot that contains a total of 70 reference anti-mi...

  15. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery in the Transcriptome of Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa ) has economic importance as a forage crop for livestock and potential for development as a biofuel feedstock. Advances in alfalfa breeding, genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex p...

  16. Fluctuating thermal regimes improve survival of the alfalfa leafcutting bee during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is commonly held at low temperatures for overwintering the prepupae or for interrupting spring incubation to synchronize adult emergence with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, static low temperature exposures can be stressful depending on the temperatu...

  17. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common alfalfa pollinator in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus ...

  18. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  19. Chlorpropham and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene Control Sprout Growth in Potato Tubers Through Different Mechanisms and not Through Prolongation of Dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of Chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) to potato tubers prevents sprouting. CIPC prevents growth and suppresses sprouting by disruption of microtubules. DMN is a natural product originally isolated from potato skins suppresses sprout growth via an unknown mechanism. Bec...

  20. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  1. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  2. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  3. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  4. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  5. Interactions Among Selected Endoparasitic Nematodes and Three Pseudomonads on Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Bookbinder, M. G.; Bloom, J. R.; Lukezic, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Helicotylenchus dihystera, reduced the growth of 'Saranac AR alfalfa seedlings when applied at concentrations of 50 nematodes per plant. All except P. penetrans reduced seedling growth when applied at 25 per seedling. M. hapla reduced growth when applied at 12 per seedling. Nematodes interacted with three pseudomonads to produce greater growth reductions than were obtained with single pathogens, suggesting synergistic relationships. Ditylenchus dipsaci, applied at 25 or 50 nematodes per seedling, reduced plant weight compared with weights of control plants, but did not interact with test bacteria. All of the nematodes except D. dipsaci produced root wounds which were invaded by bacteria. PMID:19295682

  6. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  7. Increased purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting with diurnally fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple nutsedge is among the most troublesome weeds of vegetables in the Southeast US and a substantial impediment in the search for methyl bromide alternatives. Greater understanding of the environmental cues that regulate tuber sprouting may assist in improved nutsedge management. Experiments we...

  8. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  9. The Transcription Factor MEF2C Negatively Controls Angiogenic Sprouting of Endothelial Cells Depending on Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sturtzel, Caterina; Testori, Julia; Schweighofer, Bernhard; Bilban, Martin; Hofer, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C has been detected by us to be upregulated by the angiogenic factors VEGF-A and bFGF in endothelial cells. We have here investigated its potential role for angiogenesis. MEF2C was surprisingly found to strongly inhibit angiogenic sprouting, whereas a dominant negative mutant rather induced sprouting. The factor mainly affected migratory processes of endothelial cells, but not proliferation. In gene profiling experiments we delineated the alpha-2-macroglobulin gene to be highly upregulated by MEF2C. Further data confirmed that MEF2C in endothelial cells indeed induces alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA as well as the secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin and that conditioned supernatants of cells overexpressing MEF2C inhibit sprouting. Alpha-2-macroglobulin mediates, at least to a large extent, the inhibitory effects of MEF2C as is shown by knockdown of alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA by lentiviral shRNA expression which reduces the inhibitory effect. However, under hypoxic conditions the VEGF-A/bFGF-mediated upregulation of MEF2C is reduced and the production of alpha-2-macroglobulin largely abolished. Taken together, this suggests that the MEF2C/alpha-2-macroglobulin axis functions in endothelial cells as a negative feed-back mechanism that adapts sprouting activity to the oxygen concentration thus diminishing inappropriate and excess angiogenesis. PMID:24988463

  10. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine. PMID:15587701

  11. Attachment to an endogenous laminin-like protein initiates sprouting by leech neurons.

    PubMed

    Chiquet, M; Masuda-Nakagawa, L; Beck, K

    1988-09-01

    Leech neurons in culture sprout rapidly when attached to extracts from connective tissue surrounding the nervous system. Laminin-like molecules that promote sprouting have now been isolated from this extracellular matrix. Two mAbs have been prepared that react on immunoblots with a approximately equal to 220- and a approximately equal to 340-kD polypeptide, respectively. These antibodies have been used to purify molecules with cross-shaped structures in the electron microscope. The molecules, of approximately equal to 10(3) kD on nonreducing SDS gels, have subunits of approximately equal to 340, 220, and 160-180 kD. Attachment to the laminin-like molecules was sufficient to initiate sprouting by single isolated leech neurons in defined medium. This demonstrates directly a function for a laminin-related invertebrate protein. The mAbs directed against the approximately equal to 220-kD chains of the laminin-like leech molecule labeled basement membrane extracellular matrix in leech ganglia and nerves. A polyclonal antiserum against the approximately equal to 220-kD polypeptide inhibited neurite outgrowth. Vertebrate laminin did not mediate the sprouting of leech neurons; similarly, the leech molecule was an inert substrate for vertebrate neurons. Although some traits of structure, function, and distribution are conserved between vertebrate laminin and the invertebrate molecule, our results suggest that the functional domains differ. PMID:3047150

  12. MG SPROUTS: A Project-in-a-Box Approach to Educational Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn,Sheri; Slagle, Krissy

    2016-01-01

    MG SPROUTS was developed as a "project-in-a-box" program, a self-contained educational programming tool for Extension agents working with master gardener Extension volunteers (MGEVs). The program design incorporates programmatic materials and project management materials and follows best management practices for volunteer management. MG…

  13. QTL analysis for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in rice (Oryza sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is caused by early breaking of seed dormancy. In Sichuan, a major producer of hybrid rice seed production in China, PHS in hybrid seeds originated from ‘G46A’ parent may result in severe yield loss and cause serious damage to agricultural production. We developed an F2 po...

  14. Expression of putative AhMFT in peanut lines with contrasting seed dormancy and preharvest sprouting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting has been reported to cause up to 20-50% yield loss and reduce seed quality. MFT, a homolog of the antagonistic flowering-time regulators FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is a proposed ABA-induced negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes embryo growth...

  15. Salmonella infections associated with mung bean sprouts 2000-2002: Epidemiological and environmental investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated 7 outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections linked to raw mung bean sprouts in 2000-2002 through case-control and cohort studies. All outbreaks were due to unusual phage types (PT) of SE and occurred in the United States (PT 33, 1, and 913), Canada (PT 11b and 913), and the...

  16. Effect of pre-harvest sprouting on physicochemical properties of starch in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike, often because harvest coincides with untimely rain. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on the physicochemical changes of starch due t...

  17. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in Synthetic Hydrogel Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can rec...

  18. Potato Tubers Treated with Sprout Inhibitors Exhibit Transcript Profiles That Have Similarities to the Dormant State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compounds chlorpropham (CIPC) and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) are used to suppress sprout growth and prolong the storage of potato tubers. However, the mechanism of action for these chemicals is poorly defined. Microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were utilized to compare the tra...

  19. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  20. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  1. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens. PMID:27240217

  2. Production of ready-to-eat lentil sprouts with improved antioxidant capacity: optimization of elicitation conditions with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the optimal conditions for elicitation with H2O2 for improving the antioxidant capacity of lentil sprouts. Generally, except for 3-day-old sprouts, elicitation increased phenolic content (in respect to the control). The highest phenolic content was determined for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 15 mM H2O2 (0.71 mg/gf.m.). All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts. The highest elevation (3.2-fold) was found for 5-day-old sprouts (single 15 mM H2O2 treatment). A significant increase was also found on the 2nd and 4th days (2.13- and 2.14-fold, respectively). Elicitation induced tyrosine and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases activities. H2O2 treatments induced the activity of catalase - especially for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 150 mM H2O2 (597 U/gf.m.). Elicitation with H2O2 is a useful tool for designing some features of sprouts. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are strongly affected by concentration of the elicitor, and time and intervals of its application. PMID:25766821

  3. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency. PMID:24827602

  4. Effects of cutting time, stump height, parent tree characteristics, and harvest variables on development of bigleaf maple sprout clumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C., II; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.

  5. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  6. Modelling the Dynamics of Feral Alfalfa Populations and Its Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Begg, Graham S.; Gulden, Robert H.; Van Acker, Rene C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba), one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. Conclusions/Significance Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production systems for specific

  7. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  8. Analysis of vegetable seedlings grown in contact with Apollo 14 lunar surface fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Johnson, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of plant seedlings treated with lunar material, grown for 14 to 21 days, and then subjected to chemical analyses and other measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether plants growing in contact with lunar-surface fines contained a different elemental composition compared with untreated seedlings. The results indicate a direct interaction between germfree plants and lunar material. Treated plants dissolved and absorbed significant quantities of Al, Fe, and Ti from the lunar fines. Cabbage and Brussel sprouts were particularly efficient in the dissolution and absorption of Mn.

  9. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  10. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems. PMID:25151072

  11. Experimental evaluation of the sustainability of dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) sprout-harvesting practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo (Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects. PMID:24950959

  12. Experimental Evaluation of the Sustainability of Dwarf Bamboo ( Pseudosasa usawai) Sprout-Harvesting Practices in Yangminshan National Park, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Ru; Hsu, Meng-Ting; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable harvest of natural products that meets the needs of local people has been viewed by many as an important means for sustaining conservation projects. Although plants often respond to tissue damage through compensatory growth, it may not secure long-term sustainability of the populations because many plants enhance individual well-being at the expense of propagation. Sustainability may further be threatened by infrequent, large-scale events, especially ill-documented ones. We studied the impacts of sprout harvesting on sprout growth in a dwarf bamboo ( Pseudosasa usawai) population that has seemingly recovered from an infrequent, large-scale masting event. Experimental results suggest that although a single sprout harvest did not significantly alter the subsequent abundance and structure of sprouts, culm damage that accompanied sprout harvesting resulted in shorter, thinner, and fewer sprouts. Weaker recovery was found in windward, continually harvested, and more severely damaged sites. These findings suggest that sprout growth of damaged dwarf bamboos is likely non-compensatory, but is instead supported through physiological integration whose strength is determined by the well-being of the supplying ramets. Healthy culms closer to the damage also provided more resources than those farther away. Sustainable harvesting of sprouts could benefit from organized community efforts to limit the magnitude of culm damage, provide adequate spacing between harvested sites, and ensure sufficient time interval between harvests. Vegetation boundaries relatively resilient to infrequent, large-scale events are likely maintained by climatic factors and may be sensitive to climate change. Continual monitoring is, therefore, integral to the sustainability of harvesting projects.

  13. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    PubMed

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization. PMID:26243894

  14. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  15. Tissue Cultures Derived from Ineffective Root Nodules of Alfalfa 1

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Carroll P.; Johnson, Lois E. B.; Boylan, Kristin L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Callus tissue cultures were developed from apical meristem regions of tumor-like ineffective root nodules of alfalfa. Callus growth was a function of tissue source and hormone composition and concentration. Callus derived from ineffective nodules also were shown not to contain Rhizobium meliloti. Glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were present in callus cultures and in the respective nodule source used for callus induction. The mean specific activity of all enzymes evaluated was higher in callus cultures than in ineffective nodules. Quantitative but not qualitative differences in enzyme activities were evident between ineffective nodules and callus derived from these nodules. Tissue cultures derived from ineffective nodules may provide a model system to evaluate host plant-Rhizobium interactions. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663985

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  17. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  18. Static mechanical strain induces capillary endothelial cell cycle re-entry and sprouting.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, A S; Liu, F D; Durham, J T; Jagielska, A; Mahmoodian, R; Van Vliet, K J; Herman, I M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are known to respond to a range of biochemical and time-varying mechanical cues that can promote blood vessel sprouting termed angiogenesis. It is less understood how these cells respond to sustained (i.e., static) mechanical cues such as the deformation generated by other contractile vascular cells, cues which can change with age and disease state. Here we demonstrate that static tensile strain of 10%, consistent with that exerted by contractile microvascular pericytes, can directly and rapidly induce cell cycle re-entry in growth-arrested microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. S-phase entry in response to this strain correlates with absence of nuclear p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this modest strain promotes sprouting of endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanical 'angiogenic switch'. These findings suggest that static tensile strain can directly stimulate pathological angiogenesis, implying that pericyte absence or death is not necessarily required of endothelial cell re-activation. PMID:27526677

  19. Promotion of neural sprouting using low-level green light-emitting diode phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Noa; Duadi, Hamootal; Cohen, Ortal; Samet, Tamar; Zilony, Neta; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-02-01

    We irradiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with low-level light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at a visible wavelength of 520 nm (green) and intensity of 100 mW/cm2. We captured and analyzed the cell morphology before LED treatment, immediately after, and 12 and 24 h after treatment. Our study demonstrated that LED illumination increases the amount of sprouting dendrites in comparison to the control untreated cells. This treatment also resulted in more elongated cells after treatment in comparison to the control cells and higher levels of expression of a differentiation related gene. This result is a good indication that the proposed method could serve in phototherapy treatment for increasing sprouting and enhancing neural network formation.

  20. Dendritic sprouting and compensatory synaptogenesis in an identified interneuron follow auditory deprivation in a cricket.

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, R R; Nolen, T G; Casaday, G C

    1985-01-01

    We examined the effect of chronic afferent deprivation on an identified interneuron (Int-1) in the auditory system of the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. In normal intact crickets, the auditory afferents from each ear terminate ipsilaterally onto a single Int-1. Each bilaterally paired Int-1 is excited by ultrasound stimulation of its ipsilateral ear but not by the contralateral ear. Unilateral removal of an ear early in postembryonic development deprives the developing Int-1 of ipsilateral auditory innervation. Consequently, the ipsilateral dendrites of the deprived interneuron sprout, grow aberrantly across the ganglionic midline, and terminate specifically in the intact auditory neuropile of the contralateral (unlesioned) side, where they form functional synapses with the contralateral afferents. This unusual compensatory dendritic sprouting restores auditory function to the neuron. Thus, it is demonstrated that the dendritic shape of an identified Int, as well as its synaptic connectivity, is altered as a consequence of chronic sensory deprivation. Images PMID:3865195

  1. Zinc-deficient sprouting blight potatoes and their possible relation with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Cevval; Taneli, Fatma; Oksel, Figen; Hakerlerler, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    Maternal nutritional zinc deficiency is blamed in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. In animal and plant domains zinc is required for growth and development. The objective of the present study was to show that sprouting blighted potato tuber is zinc deficient. In five potato varieties, zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in wet-ashed paired slices of edible potato tuber and in its peel, in blighted potato tuber and in its sprout. Zinc contents were measured as the mean (+/- SEM) and the following values were found, 0.388 +/- 0.036, 0.623 +/- 0.059, 0.550 +/- 0.030 and 1.089 +/- 0.181 mg per 100 g wet weight, respectively. In conclusion, we believe that long-term consumption of zinc-depleted, blight potato tuber by pregnant woman could be potentially teratogenic with the consequent birth of a baby with neural tube defects. PMID:15376231

  2. Lipid and oxylipin profiles during aging and sprout development in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Fauconnier, Marie Laure; Welti, Ruth; Blée, Elizabeth; Marlier, Michel

    2003-07-21

    Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) were stored at 20 degrees C for 210 days without desprouting to study the lipoxygenase pathway during aging. After 15 days of storage, potato tubers sprouted, while after 45-60 days, apical dominance was lost and multiple sprouts developed. Analysis of the fatty acid hydroperoxides (HPOs) revealed that 9-S-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (9-HPOD) was the main oxylipin formed. Between 45 and 60 days of storage, increases in the levels of 9-HPOD and colneleic acid were observed. Analysis of phospholipids and galactolipids by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) showed that a decrease in the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) occurred between 0 and 45 days of aging. The decrease in the amount of linoleic acid in complex lipids correlates well with the amount of 9-HPOD and colneleic acid produced. PMID:12880871

  3. Effects of Temperature on the Pathogenicity of Tylenchorhynchus clarus to Alfalfa and Observations on Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Gregory R.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    The involvement of Tylenchorhynchus clarus in plant disease is reported. Addition of a suspension of surface-axenized nematodes reduced top and root growth of alfalfa. Reproduction of T. clarus was greater at 24 and 27 than at 21 C. The interaction of nematodes with temperature did not produce significant effects on alfalfa growth in the 4.5-mo experimental period. T. clarus fed endo- and ectoparasitically. PMID:19305838

  4. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  5. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  6. Local production of agricultural fuel: conversion of alfalfa to ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Tjostem, J.; Koeltzow, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    Initial project goals were to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol from the sugars contained in alfalfa and other legumes using a small-scale, single-farm production facility. These data indicate that alfalfa from the field does have reducing sugar present before any breakdown due to the presence of the mold. There is also plenty of natural bacterial contamination which quickly depletes the sugar supply. However, if the alfalfa is autoclaved prior to incubation, the number of bacteria present in the samples is greatly reduced. There was no difference between the flasks which contained an inoculum of Tricoderma reesei and those that did not. Analysis of these solutions failed to show any trace of cellulase activity even after 288 hours (12 days). Therefore, one can also conclude that the Tricoderma reesei strain QM9414 does not grow on alfalfa under these conditions. Future experiments will involve different conditions of temperature and pH. Acid insoluble lignin levels in our 3rd cutting alfalfa samples range from 16.8% to 19.77% with an average of 18.3%. This agrees well with the levels of 13.8% and 15.9% reported by Linder, et al. Results of lipid, water, protein, lignin and cellulose analysis of alfalfa are given. Over 80% of the cellulose in alfalfa can be converted into glucose. Subsequent fermentation by S. carlisbergenois produced near theoretical yields of ethanol. However, the cost of the hay was $440.00; the market value of the ethanol was $120.00. The poor economics results since only 13.1% of the alfalfa contains cellulose. Results show that while production of ethanol from legume-type plants is technically possible, it is not economically feasible.

  7. An Undergraduate Research Project within the ALFALFA Collaboration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, J. A.; Stilp, A.; Patel, N.; Altaf, A.; Goldstein, J.; Forsyth, C.; Gillin, M.; Mahmood, B.; Read, J.; Vucic, L.; Mullan, B.; Walsh, B.; Wortel, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Kent, B. R.; Alonso, J. L.; Balonek, T. J.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Hoffman, G. L.; Koopmann, R. A.; Marr, J.; O'Donoghue, A.; Pantoja, C. A.; Salzer, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) project is an ongoing high sensitivity HI line survey with the 305m Arecibo telescope that will cover 7000 square degrees of sky and is expected to detect some 20,000 HI sources (Giovanelli et al. 2005, AJ in press, astro-ph/0508301). ALFALFA will make major contributions to the understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the local Universe. In July 2005 an Undergraduate Research Workshop was held at Union College, Schenectady (see poster by Koopmann et al.). Participants included 14 undergraduate students, 2 graduate students, and 9 faculty members from 7 universities, in addition to the Director of the Arecibo Observatory Visitor Center. In preparation for the meeting, the students worked as a team in preparing and submitting an observing proposal to the Observatory, thus experiencing the rigorous process of matching science goals to instrumentation and other realities of the time allocation process. In addition to a mini-course on science and technical issues, students engaged in an observing session with the Arecibo telescope, which was carried out remotely and interactively from the lecture room at Union College. The region observed included a nearby loose group of galaxies, LGG 362, dominated by NGC 5363/5364. The group is an example of an intermediate galaxy density environment. As part of the workshop, the data were processed and the scientific analysis started. This poster presents the results of those observations and analysis. This research was supported by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a management agreement with the National Science Foundation, and partially by NSF/AST-0307661, NSF/AST-0435697 and a Brinson Foundation grant. JA and CAP gratefully acknowledge the Arecibo Observatory and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation at the UPR for assistance for this research.

  8. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  9. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  10. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-01-01

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility. PMID:26985924

  11. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes. PMID:24518351

  12. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. PMID:27179697

  13. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase. PMID:27117847

  14. FK506 enhances reinnervation by regeneration and by collateral sprouting of peripheral nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Udina, Esther; Ceballos, Dolores; Gold, Bruce G; Navarro, Xavier

    2003-09-01

    We examined the effects of FK506 administration on the degree of target reinnervation by regenerating axons (following sciatic nerve crush) and by collateral sprouts of the intact saphenous nerve (after sciatic nerve resection) in the mouse. FK506-treated animals received either 0.2 or 5 mg/kg/day, dosages previously found to maximally increase the rate of axonal regeneration in the mouse. Functional reinnervation of motor, sensory, and sweating activities was assessed by noninvasive methods in the hind paw over a 1-month period following lesion. Morphometric analysis of the regenerated nerves and immunohistochemical labeling of the paw pads were performed at the end of follow-up. In the sciatic nerve crush model, FK506 administration shortened the time until target reinnervation and increased the degree of functional and morphological reinnervation achieved. The recovery achieved by regeneration was greater overall with the 5 mg/kg dose than with the dose of 0.2 mg/kg of FK506. In the collateral sprouting model, reinnervation by nociceptive and sudomotor axons was enhanced by FK506. Here, the field expansion followed a faster course between 4 and 14 days in FK506-treated animals. In regard to dose, while collateral sprouting of nociceptive axons was similarly increased at both dosages (0.2 and 5 mg/kg), sprouting of sympathetic axons was more extensive at the high dose. This suggests that the efficacy of FK506 varies between subtypes of neurons. Taken together, our findings indicate that, in addition to an effect on rate of axonal elongation, FK506 improves functional recovery of denervated targets by increasing both regenerative and collateral reinnervation. PMID:12957505

  15. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle: a consequence of prolonged feeding barley malt sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kul, O; Karahan, S; Basalan, M; Kabakci, N

    2006-04-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) in ruminants has been recognized as a consequence of excess sulphur intake. The present study describes clinical, gross and histopathological findings of PEM following an abrupt change of diet in two ranches housing 2750 dairy and 2300 beef cattle. As a result of severe PEM, 256 cattle died or were slaughtered. Clinical findings included circling, hypersensitivity, excessive salivation, hypermetria, incoordination, blindness and death. The first clinical signs occurred in beef calves (6-8 months old) at a holding facility. Clinical signs of the disorder continued intermittently during the 5-month period in both ranches and were more evident in calves and lactating dairy cows. The affected cattle did not respond to thiamine injections. Clinical signs disappeared gradually following removal of barley malt sprouts from the diet. Although macroscopic lesions were not apparent in the brain tissues of some animals, histopathology typical of PEM was found in most cases: spongiosis in the neuropil and neuronal necrosis, haemorrhage, capillary hyperplasia, fibrinoid degeneration in arterioles, multifocal liquefaction necroses in the grey matter and abundance of gitter cells with vacuolar large cytoplasm. Sulphide in rumen fluid of a clinically affected animal was measured as 1.55 mg/dl, which is considerably higher than that collected from two control cows (mean 0.21 mg/dl). The total sulphur content of the diet containing barley malt sprouts was estimated to be 0.45%, which is also higher than the National Research Council (NRC) maximum tolerable levels. In conclusion, PEM can result from excess barley malt sprout intake because of its higher sulphur content. Clinical signs may occur shortly after the intake of barley malt sprout as outbreaks with a higher number of deaths or as an ongoing periodic condition. PMID:16533327

  16. Embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies development in collagen gels recapitulates sprouting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feraud, O; Cao, Y; Vittet, D

    2001-12-01

    The formation of new blood vessels proceeds by both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The development of models, which fully recapitulate spatio-temporal events involved during these processes, are crucial to fully understand their mechanisms of regulation. In vitro differentiation of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells has been shown to be a useful tool to investigate factors and genes potentially involved in vasculogenesis (Hirashima et al, 1999; Risau et al, 1988; Vittet et al, 1996; Wang et al, 1992; Wartenberg et al, 1998). We asked here whether this model system can also recapitulate angiogenesis, which may offer new means to study mechanisms involved in this process. ES-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) obtained after 11 days of differentiation, in which a primitive vascular network had formed, were then subcultured into a type I collagen matrix. In the presence of angiogenic growth factors, EBs rapidly developed branching pseudopods. Whole mount immunostainings with a PECAM antibody revealed that more than 75% EBs displayed, within a few days, a large number of endothelial outgrowths that can give tube-like structures with concomitant differentiation of alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells, thus evoking sprouting angiogenesis. High expression levels of flk1 (VEGFR2), flt1 (VEGFR1), tie-1, and tie-2 are also found, indicating that budding endothelial cells displayed an angiogenic phenotype. The endothelial sprouting response was specifically induced by angiogenic factors with a major contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Known angiostatic agents, such as platelet factor 4 (PF4), angiostatin, and endostatin inhibited the formation of endothelial sprouts induced by angiogenic factors. Moreover, consistent with the in vivo phenotype, VE-cadherin deficient EBs failed to develop angiogenesis in this model. ES cell differentiation can then recapitulate, in addition to vasculogenesis, the early stages of sprouting angiogenesis. This model system

  17. Iron-Superoxide Dismutase Expression in Transgenic Alfalfa Increases Winter Survival without a Detectable Increase in Photosynthetic Oxidative Stress Tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    McKersie, Bryan D.; Murnaghan, Julia; Jones, Kim S.; Bowley, Stephen R.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether overexpression of Fe-superoxide (SOD) dismutase would increase superoxide-scavenging capacity and thereby improve the winter survival of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, two genotypes were transformed with the vector pEXSOD10, which contains a cDNA for Arabidopsis Fe-SOD with a chloroplast transit peptide and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. A novel Fe-SOD was detected by native PAGE in both greenhouse- and field-grown transgenic plants, but activity varied among independent transgenic plants. The increased Fe-SOD activity was associated with increased winter survival over 2 years in field trials, but not with oxidative stress tolerance as measured by resistance of leaves to methyl viologen, a superoxide generator. Total shoot dry matter production over 2 harvest years was not associated with Fe-SOD activity. There was no detectable difference in the pattern of primary freezing injury, as shown by vital staining, nor was there additional accumulation of carbohydrates in field-acclimated roots of the transgenic alfalfa plants. We did not detect any difference in growth of one transgenic plant with high Fe-SOD activity compared with a non-transgenic control. Therefore, the improvement in winter survival did not appear to be a consequence of improved oxidative stress tolerance associated with photosynthesis, nor was it a consequence of a change in primary freezing injury. We suggest that Fe-SOD overexpression reduced secondary injury symptoms and thereby enhanced recovery from stresses experienced during winter. PMID:10759538

  18. Effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber in whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains compared with alfalfa haylage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa NDF with NDF from whole, linted cottonseed or dried distillers grains. Low and high fiber control diets (13 and 19% of dietary DM from alfalfa haylage NDF, respectively) were compared with diets designed to contain 13% of DM from alfalfa haylage NDF plus 6% of DM from either cottonseed NDF or distillers grains NDF. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield were lower from the high fiber control diet. Milk fat percentage was lower for the low fiber control diet. The cottonseed diet was equal to the high fiber control diet in stimulating rumination. Rumen acetate to propionate ratio was higher for the high fiber control and cottonseed diets. Replacing alfalfa with either of these high fiber by-product feeds increased feed intake and yields of milk fat and protein. The effectiveness of the NDF in distillers grains and cottonseed was not significantly different from that of alfalfa NDF for maintaining milk fat yield. Whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains appear to be good sources of effective fiber for maintaining milk fat test when they are substituted for alfalfa haylage fiber in lactating cow rations. PMID:8227666

  19. Partial replacement of alfalfa fiber with fiber from ground corn cobs or wheat middlings.

    PubMed

    Depies, K K; Armentano, L E

    1995-06-01

    This trial examined the effect of using corn cobs or wheat middlings to replace alfalfa partially as the dietary fiber source for lactating cows. Multiparous midlactation cows were used in three 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A low fiber, basal diet contained 26.8 g of total NDF, including 14.7 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dietary DM. Dietary fiber was increased by addition of more alfalfa, corn cobs, or wheat middlings to obtain 27.4, 28.9, and 27.9%, respectively, of total dietary NDF. Intake (24.9 kg of DM/d) and milk yield (31.6 kg/d) were not different among treatments. Nonforage fiber sources raised milk fat concentration above basal amounts (3.1% to 3.4% fat) and decreased ruminating time below that of the high alfalfa diet (423 to 390 min/d). Fat test was raised approximately one-half as much per unit of NDF from these nonforage feeds as it was per unit of NDF from alfalfa. When additional dietary fiber came from nonforage sources, milk protein concentration (3.3%) was greater than when alfalfa provided the added fiber (3.2%). PMID:7673522

  20. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of the fiber in alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of alfalfa silage particle length on milk yield, milk composition, and chewing activity. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holsteins were used in each of two separate feeding trials over a 2-yr period providing two repetitions. Each trial was based on 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. All four diets (2-yr average, dry basis) contained a basal level of 10.7% neutral detergent fiber from corn silage and 2.3% neutral detergent fiber from chopped alfalfagrass hay. One of the diets served as a low forage, low fiber control and contained only the basal forages. The other three diets contained an additional 8.6% neutral detergent fiber from coarser alfalfa silage, finely rechopped alfalfa silage or an equal mixture ofthe two. An increase in the forage content above the basal amount using alfalfa silage increased 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat yield and concentration, eating time, and total chewing time. Dry matter intake was not influenced by diet. Linear increases in rumination and total chewing times were observed as the mean particle size of the alfalfa silage increased from finer to coarser. There was no linear effect of alfalfa silage particle size on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk composition. PMID:12487465

  1. Alfalfa varieties for biomass production. Task IId. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.; Lamb, J.

    1997-10-30

    The use of alfalfa for biomass production may require harvest schedules and alfalfa varieties with different traits than currently marketed varieties. A late flower (2-cut) system may have several advantages compared to more frequent cutting systems because it can result in high stem yield, result in less trips over the field, allow more schedule flexibility, provide greater wildlife habitat, and allow greater alfalfa persistence. However, modem alfalfa varieties have been developed for a frequent harvest system with 3-4 cuttings per season. The objectives of this study were to determine the total biomass yield; leaf and stem biomass yield; and leaf and stem composition of alfalfa varieties subject to diverse harvest regimes. Alfalfa varieties included those currently marketed in the biomass region as well as experimental entries developed for lodging resistance and leaf retention. Harvest regimes included conventional strategies based on harvests at bud or first flower and a non-conventional strategy with harvests at late flower. Harvest regime had the most consistent and greatest effect on the variables studied. Forage yields were greater for the early flower regime. Harvests at earlier maturity frequently result in leafier, higher quality forage than harvest at late flower. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  3. [Effects of hormone treatment, light and temperatures on sprouting characteristics of Bupleurum chinense].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Fei; Chen, Xing-Fu; Xu, Jin; Meng, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Xing-Wang

    2014-04-01

    Seeds of Bupleurum chinense cultivar, Zhongchai No. 1, were sowed in plastic pots which used the arable layer soil as the nursery bed and putted in the artificial climate incubator at various temperatures (15, 20, 25, 15-25 degrees C) and light (8,12 h) to germinate, respectively. The lower constant temperature (15 degrees ) and the higher constant temperature (25 "C) were not conducive to the sprouting characteristics of B. chinese. While they were able to enhance root activity to some extent; The seeding growth of B. chinese was significantly better in the variable temperature than correspondence in the constant temperature, significantly. The emergence speed, emergence index, vigor index and root activity of Bupleurum were improved under the 12 h of light-time, but the germination rate was not improved. The sprouting of Bupleurum's seeds could be improved to some extent by soaking with hormone, such as gibberellin, cytokinin, salicylic acid. Gibberellin promoted seeds' sprouting and seedings's root activity of Bupleurum, while salicylic acid increased the root activity of seeding. There is a significant influence of light, temperatures and hormone treatment on the germination of Zhongchai No. 1 seeds, and all three are remarkably interacted; It is beneficial to promote seed germination by the temperature (20 + 5) degrees C, lighting (8 h) and gibberellin concentration (10 x 10(-6)). PMID:25039172

  4. O-Glycosylation in sprouting neurons in Alzheimer disease, indicating reactive plasticity.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, B; Zenteno, R; Mena, R; Robitaille, Y; Zenteno, E; Guevara, J

    2001-05-01

    Reactive plasticity, including axonal and dendritic sprouting and reactive synaptogenesis, has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. This work was aimed at identifying the possible role of protein glycosylation in the brain from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), using lectin histochemistry, as determinants of reactive plasticity. Results indicate an increase in the production of cryptic O-glycosidically linked proteins (NeuAcalpha2,6 Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha1,0 Ser/Thr or sialyl-T-antigen) in neuritic sprouting in AD brains as determined by positive labeling with Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL, T-antigen-specific) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MRL, specific for NeuAc5,9Ac2) lectins. Immunohistochemistry indicated that lectin staining was specific for the synaptic sprouting process (meganeurites) in AD. These results were confirmed using anti-synaptophysin and anti-GAP 43 antibodies, which recognized meganeurites and dystrophic neurites around amyloid-beta deposits. In normal control brains, labeling with the aforementioned lectins was restricted to microvessels. Control experiments with neuraminidase-treated brain samples revealed positivity to the lectin from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), which is specific for galactose. Our results suggest specific O-glycosylation patterns of proteins closely related to neuronal plasticity in AD. PMID:11379819

  5. Chemical diversity in Mentha spicata: antioxidant and potato sprout inhibition activity of its essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shailendra S; Prakash, Om; Padalia, Rajendra C; Vivekanand; Pant, Anil K; Mathela, Chandra S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. collected from ten different natural habitats of Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by a combination of GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that monoterpenoids (46.1%-91.6%), mainly carvone (15.3%-68.5%), piperetenone oxide (24.0%-79.2%) and alpha-humulene (0.1%-29.9%), were the major constituents of the essential oils, but with significant qualitative and quantitative differences among the other constituents. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within different accessions collected from different natural habitats. The essential oils were also screened for their antioxidant activities by chelating properties of Fe2+, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and their reducing power. The essential oils of two chemo variants (viz. carvone and piperetenone oxide types) were also tested for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) sprout suppressant activity. The results showed that these oils exhibit good sprout inhibition activity in comparison to CIPC and iodine, the standard sprout suppressant. PMID:21941918

  6. Mouse intracerebral hemorrhage models produce different degrees of initial and delayed damage, axonal sprouting, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Harriet E; Lanman, Tyler A; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of delayed damage and recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain poorly defined. Two rodent models of ICH are commonly used: injection of the enzyme collagenase (cICH) and injection of autologous blood (bICH). In mice, we compared the effects of these two models on initial and delayed tissue damage, motor system connections, and behavioral recovery. There is no difference in lesion size between models. Injection of autologous blood causes greater mass effect and early mortality. However, cICH produces greater edema, inflammation, and cell death. Injection of the enzyme collagenase causes greater loss of cortical connections and secondary shrinkage of the striatum. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs within the motor system connections of the striatum. Mapping of the projections of the forelimb motor area shows a significant sprouting in motor cortex projections only in cICH. Both models of ICH produce deficits in forelimb motor control. Behavioral recovery occurs by 5 weeks in cICH and 9 weeks in bICH. In summary, cICH and bICH differ in almost every facet of initial and delayed stroke pathophysiology, with cICH producing greater initial and secondary tissue damage and greater motor system axonal sprouting than bICH. Motor recovery occurs in both models, suggesting that motor system axonal sprouting in cICH is not causally associated with recovery. PMID:24917041

  7. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  8. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Benjamin J; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M; Gage, Fred H; Johnson, Richard D; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C

    2015-12-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the "spared dermatome" model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact ("naïve") sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  9. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  10. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  11. Improving Sprouting Ability of White Yam Minisetts (Dioscorea alata Poir) Var Pona and Dente Using Different Disinfectants and Protectants in Sterilized Saw Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asare-Bediako, E.; Showemimo, F. A.; Opoku-Asiama, Y.; Amewowor, D. H. A. K.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different disinfectants and protectants in improving sprouting and controlling rotting of yam minisetts. Results revealed that disinfection of both the sprouting medium and yam minisetts increase significantly the percentage sprouting of the Pona minisetts. Benlate was more effective in reducing the incidence of minisett rot and enhanced sprouting of the minisetts in roasted sawdust than the other protectants or disinfectants. Benlate-treated Pona minisetts gave high percentage sprouting and low percentage rotting in the roasted sawdust compare to that of Dente minisetts. Quicklime and neem wood ash were also effective in reducing incidence of minisett rot and increased sprouting of yam minisetts significantly compared with sodium hypochlorite, aqueous neem leaf extract and untreated minisetts (control).

  12. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Świeca, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food. PMID:26150746

  13. Elicitation with abiotic stresses improves pro-health constituents, antioxidant potential and nutritional quality of lentil sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content and antioxidant potential of lentil sprouts may be enhanced by treatment of seedlings in abiotic stress conditions without any negative influence on nutritional quality. The health-relevant and nutritional quality of sprouts was improved by elicitation of 2-day-old sprouts with oxidative, osmotic, ion-osmotic and temperature stresses. Among the sprouts studied, those obtained by elicitation with osmotic (600 mM mannitol) and ion-osmotic (300 mM NaCl) shocks had the highest total phenolic content levels: 6.52 and 6.56 mg/g flour, respectively. Oxidative stress significantly enhanced the levels of (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A marked elevation of the chlorogenic and gallic acid contents was also determined for sprouts induced at 4 °C and 40 °C. The elevated phenolic content was translated into the antioxidant potential of sprouts, especially the ability to reduce lipid oxidation. A marked elevation of this ability was determined for seedlings treated with 20 mM, 200 mM H2O2 (oxidative stress) and 600 mM mannitol (osmotic stress); about a 12-fold, 8-fold and 9.5-fold increase in respect to control sprouts. The highest ability to quench free radicals was observed in sprouts induced by osmotic stress (IC50- 4.91 and 5.12 mg/ml for 200 mM and 600 mM mannitol, respectively). The highest total antioxidant activity indexes were determined for sprouts elicited with 20 mM H2O2 and 600 mM mannitol: 4.0 and 3.4, respectively. All studied growth conditions, except induction at 40 °C, caused a significant elevation of resistant starch levels which was also affected in a subsequent reduction of starch digestibility. Improvement of sprout quality by elicitation with abiotic stresses is a cheap and easy biotechnology and it seems to be an alternative to conventional techniques applied to improve the health promoting phytochemical levels and bioactivity of low-processed food. PMID:26150746

  14. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia. PMID:26344997

  15. Peripheral Facial Nerve Axotomy in Mice Causes Sprouting of Motor Axons Into Perineuronal Central White Matter: Time Course and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Makwana, Milan; Werner, Alexander; Acosta-Saltos, Alejandro; Gonitel, Roman; Pararajasingham, Abirami; Ruff, Crystal; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Cuthill, Dan; Galiano, Mathias; Bohatschek, Marion; Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Patrick N; Mayer, Ulrike; Behrens, Axel; Raivich, Gennadij

    2010-01-01

    Generation of new axonal sprouts plays an important role in neural repair. In the current study, we examined the appearance, composition and effects of gene deletions on intrabrainstem sprouts following peripheral facial nerve axotomy. Axotomy was followed by the appearance of galanin+ and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)+ sprouts peaking at day 14, matching both large, neuropeptide+ subpopulations of axotomized facial motoneurons, but with CGRP+ sprouts considerably rarer. Strong immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and retrogradely transported MiniRuby following its application on freshly cut proximal facial nerve stump confirmed their axotomized motoneuron origin; the sprouts expressed CD44 and alpha7beta1 integrin adhesion molecules and grew apparently unhindered along neighboring central white matter tracts. Quantification of the galanin+ sprouts revealed a stronger response following cut compared with crush (day 7–14) as well as enhanced sprouting after recut (day 8 + 6 vs. 14; 14 + 8 vs. 22), arguing against delayed appearance of sprouting being the result of the initial phase of reinnervation. Sprouting was strongly diminished in brain Jun-deficient mice but enhanced in alpha7 null animals that showed apparently compensatory up-regulation in beta1, suggesting important regulatory roles for transcription factors and the sprout-associated adhesion molecules. Analysis of inflammatory stimuli revealed a 50% reduction 12–48 hours following systemic endotoxin associated with neural inflammation and a tendency toward more sprouts in TNFR1/2 null mutants (P = 10%) with a reduced inflammatory response, indicating detrimental effects of excessive inflammation. Moreover, the study points to the usefulness of the facial axotomy model in exploring physiological and molecular stimuli regulating central sprouting. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:699–721, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20034058

  16. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings. PMID:21708553

  17. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage. PMID:24741164

  18. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nauta, Tessa D.; Duyndam, Monique C. A.; Weijers, Ester M.; van Hinsbergh, Victor M. W.; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Background During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. Objectives We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Methods and Results Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Conclusion Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:27490118

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  20. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin.

    PubMed

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A; Eckert, J W

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P alfalfa and 84.5, 51.0, and 41.0% for sainfoin, respectively. The increased virulence of P2 was again shown when means of plant species were combined (inoculation x week of count interaction). Plants inoculated with P2 had significantly higher mortality than either those inoculated with P1 or the uninoculated control beginning at week 7 and continuing through week 25. Plant stands over species at 25 weeks for the uninoculated control, P1, and P2 were 82.5, 29.0, and 18.0%, respectively. Sainfoin was significantly more susceptible to either population than alfalfa (plant species x week of count interaction). Separation between species first occurred after week 7 and continued until week 25. Percentages of plants remaining for alfalfa and sainfoin were 61.5 and 25.0 after 25 weeks. Significantly higher reproduction occurred in the alfalfa plants remaining after 25 weeks in P2 than in P1. Mean number of eggs per root system were 60,371 for P1 and 104,438 for P2, a difference of 42%. The results of this study indicate a need for breeders to adequately sample nematode populations present in the intended area of cultivar use and to design screening procedures to account for population pathogenicity variability. PMID:19287580