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Sample records for alfred lothar wegener

  1. Wegener, Alfred Lothar (1880-1930)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German climatologist and geophysicist who suggested the phenomena of continental drift and plate tectonics. His idea was that a super-continent he called Pangaea had broken up, the pieces drifting to their present positions. His evidence was the fit of South America and Africa, and similarities in climate, fossil record and geology across the join. His path had been prepared by ALEXANDER VON HUMB...

  2. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  3. Tracing the origin of Geodynamics: The Alfred Wegener Memorial Expedition 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    2012 marked the 100st anniversary of the seminal publications on Continental Drift Theory by Alfred Wegener. These publications (and Wegener's book "On the origin of the continents", published three years later) are widely accepted to be the fundamental breakthrough that opened the path to the Theory of Plate Tectoncis and ultimately the path to modern Geodynamics some 50 years later. In the same historic year of the 1912 publications, Alfred Wegener set off for what was to become the most dramatic of his three Greenland expeditions. On this expedition Wegener and Koch crossed the entire northern icecap of Greenland. In honour of the hundreds anniversary of Wegener's publications, the Austrian Academy of Sciences funded an expedition to trace the footsteps of the 1912 expedition in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, while also conducting modern Earth Science. This expedition that was conducted in summer 2014. For the expedition, a 1952 Cessna180 was acquired in Alaska, adapted with bush wheels, wing extensions and extra tanks and was flown by the author and one of the worlds most renown bush pilots from Alaska in a 10 day effort to Greenland. There, the entire NE Greenland Caledonides were covered and photographed. Field work for a masters projects was conducted and samples were collected from a series of some of the most remote locations in the Caledonides ever visited. Most spectacularly, the original sled of Wegeners 1912 expedition was found some 30 kilometers from its expected location in the Dove Bugt Region of northeastern Greenland.

  4. Retirement of Lothar Noethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyromilio, J.; Holzlöhner, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lothar Noethe retired in April after 33 years at ESO. An appreciation of his contributions is presented, in particular his pioneering work in active optics and his role in the commissioning of the NTT and VLT.

  5. Wegener revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdler, R. W.

    In his reply to the comment by Marotzke and Adcroft that “The connection between Mediterranean salinity and Ice Age initiation is only postulated but not substantiated through quantitative reasoning supported by data,” (Eos, Nov. 11, 1997, p. 507) R. G. Johnson states, “By these standards Alfred Wegener's ‘outlandish’ continental drift hypothesis would never have been published.”This is grossly unfair to Wegener. If welook at any edition of Wegener's famous book The Origin of Continents and Oceans, we find a large array of arguments supported by geodetic, geophysical, geological, paleontological, biological, and paleoclimatic data. Indeed, it is a remarkable example supporting Marotzke and Adcroft's comments! What we should be pondering is: Why did the scientific establishment reject such a large amount of evidence for so long?

  6. [Wegener and Wegener's disease].

    PubMed

    Knuistingh Neven, Arie

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the history and significance of the eponym 'Wegener'. After the American College of Chest Physicians awarded Wegener with the Master Clinician Award, discussion about his Nazi past arose. Should the eponym 'Wegener' be maintained?

  7. Alfred Gilman.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, K

    2001-08-01

    At the age of 10, Alfred Gilman wanted to go to the moon; on a visit to New York's Hayden Planetarium with his parents, he signed up to be an astronaut. Fifty years later, Gilman is preparing to take on a different, yet equally astronomical task. Instead of traveling to outer space, he is heading up a research program to detail the workings of cellular space.

  8. Alfred nobel.

    PubMed

    Holmin, L R

    1996-10-01

    Alfred Nobel never spoke publicly about his problems of ill health, but a detailed, subjective record has recently been published in the form of 216 letters written to his mistress during an 18-year period. His descriptions of constant pain, debilitating migraine, and "paralyzing" fatigue permit a hypothesis that he might have had a long struggle with fibromyalgia. This does not preclude his having suffered other illnesses as well. He thought he had heart disease, which his physicians denied until his final years, when he was diagnosed with angina pectoris. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1896 at the age of 63. His letters describe a 30-year search for diagnosis from the best physicians in Europe. He was ridiculed by many people as a hypochondriac, and he never received a diagnosis for "the pain that will not go away." This may well have contributed to the bitterness and depression of his final years. Increasing worldwide interest and research in this elusive syndrome will hopefully prevent a repetition of the Nobel story of a century ago.

  9. Indolent Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, D G; Bourne, J T; Dieppe, P A; Easty, D L

    1983-01-01

    Classical Wegener's granulomatosis is a relentlessly progressive and rapidly fatal disease. A pulmonary 'limited form' is associated with a much better prognosis. We report 3 cases of Wegener's granulomatosis which ran a prolonged indolent course despite major manifestations outside the lower respiratory tract and review the literature on survival. Images PMID:6882035

  10. The Wegener Memorial Expedition to the Greenland Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Piller, Werner

    2014-05-01

    2012 marked the 100 anniversary of the publication of Alfred Wegeners book: 'Die Entstehung der Kontinente' - which is often hailed as the discovery of continental drift theory in the advent of plate tectonics. Wegener was later appointed as professor for geophysics at the University of Graz in Austria - in part for this discovery. He held this position until his death in Greenland in 1930. In honor of the hundredth anniversary of the 1912 milestone publication, the University of Graz in Austria stages an expedition to Greenland in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The expedition aims predominantly to unravel secrets of the Caledonides of Northeastern Greenland using an extensive sampling program to some of the least explored corners of the orogenic belt. Particular emphasis will be placed on the Hager Bjerg allochthon and its relationship to the hanging wall and footwall units. The expedition will use the unparalleled flexibility of small aircraft that will be piloted by experienced Alaskan bush pilots and brought to Greenland from Alaska for this purpose.

  11. ENT manifestations of Wegeners granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpit; Deshmukh, Shraddha; Dabholkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis with multisystemic involvement. We present two cases of Wegener's presenting with otological manifestations as the first symptom. These symptoms are subtle and diagnosis may be easily overlooked. Hence a high index of suspicion is required. Early diagnosis and treatment goes a long way in improving the outcomes and in preventing further complications.

  12. Cerebral demyelination in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Brinar, Vesna V; Cikes, Nada; Petelin, Zeljka; Hlavati, Marina; Poser, Charles M

    2004-06-01

    A 38-year-old woman with a history of a granulomatous lesion of the nose, developed blurred vision, ataxic gait, and spastic tetraparesis. The presence of demyelination on the brain MRI led to the diagnosis of cerebral demyelination associated with Wegener's granulomatosis. Pulse cyclophosphamide administration resulted in some clinical of improvement of her condition. Demyelinating lesions seen in Wegener's have been ascribed to multiple sclerosis, but in this case, they are much more reminiscent of disseminated encephalomyelitis (DEM). The immunological challenge of the underlying disease, may, in the genetically susceptible person, presumably trigger the appearance of MS lesions. Wegener's granulomatosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of MS.

  13. The Canonical Alfred Hitchcock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Hitchcock is a major figure of popular culture. He was one of the founding fathers of the cinematic art and, together with Eisenstein and Murnau, helped define its visual language. So fruitful was he that a single film could spawn an entire genre, as "Psycho" helped create the modern horror film and "North by Northwest" the style and tone…

  14. The Other Alfred Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the major contributions of Alfred Binet. Explains why the fame of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale was so long lasting whereas that of his other contributions was so fleeting. Discusses implications of his contributions for current efforts to formulate unified theories of cognition and cognitive development. (Author/GLR)

  15. The Canonical Alfred Hitchcock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Hitchcock is a major figure of popular culture. He was one of the founding fathers of the cinematic art and, together with Eisenstein and Murnau, helped define its visual language. So fruitful was he that a single film could spawn an entire genre, as "Psycho" helped create the modern horror film and "North by Northwest" the style and tone…

  16. The Other Alfred Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the major contributions of Alfred Binet. Explains why the fame of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale was so long lasting whereas that of his other contributions was so fleeting. Discusses implications of his contributions for current efforts to formulate unified theories of cognition and cognitive development. (Author/GLR)

  17. [Neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kunihiko; Muto, Tatsuro

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare autoimmune disease associated with granulomatous inflammation and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small vessel vasculitis. Following the discovery of ANCA, ANCA-associated vasculitis is established as a disease entity of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Clinical and experimental studies have provided evidences that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which are major antigenic targets for ANCA in neutrophils, are not only disease markers but also involved in the pathogenesis. In addition, recent studies have revealed another potential antigen for ANCA, lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2). Though nervous system manifestations of Wegener's granulomatosis are less frequent than classical manifestations in the lungs and kidneys, 20-50% of patients demonstrate neurological involvements. Peripheral nervous system involvement (in generalized Wegener's granulomatosis) is more frequent than central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Multiple mononeuropathy and multiple cranial neuropathy are the most prevalent symptoms. CNS manifestations include cerebrovascular events, pachymeningitis, seizures, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Here we discuss the pathogenic mechanism of ANCA and review the literature regarding neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis.

  18. Wegener granulomatosis presenting as epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Miller, D Chris; Koss, Michael N

    2009-06-01

    Isolated epididymitis is a very rare presentation of Wegener granulomatosis (WG). Only 1 such case has been previously reported. We report a case of epididymitis in which WG was not suspected clinically or pathologically at orchiectomy, and the patient subsequently developed pulmonary involvement with WG. WG was ultimately diagnosed and treated after lung biopsy several months after the orchiectomy. The retrospective pathologic review of the orchiectomy specimen confirmed the presence of WG in the epididymis; the testicular tissue was not involved.

  19. Sinonasal Wegener's granulomatosis: CT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Benoudiba, F; Marsot-Dupuch, K; Rabia, M Hadj; Cabanne, J; Bobin, S; Lasjaunias, P

    2003-02-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a severe and potentially lethal granulomatosis. Even though no specific radiological criteria exist, CT may suggest the correct diagnosis at an early stage. Recent improvement in the prognosis is related to earlier diagnosis, allowing the initiation of efficient and specific treatment before any severe complications occur. We reviewed a series of WG cases in order to establish the CT diagnostic criteria.

  20. Modelling the wind damage probability in forests in Southwestern Germany for the 1999 winter storm 'Lothar'.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Dirk; Grebhan, Karin; Albrecht, Axel; Schönborn, Jochen

    2009-11-01

    The wind damage probability (P (DAM)) in the forests in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Southwestern Germany) was calculated using weights of evidence (WofE) methodology and a logistic regression model (LRM) after the winter storm 'Lothar' in December 1999. A geographic information system (GIS) was used for the area-wide spatial prediction and mapping of P (DAM). The combination of the six evidential themes forest type, soil type, geology, soil moisture, soil acidification, and the 'Lothar' maximum gust field predicted wind damage best and was used to map P (DAM) in a 50 x 50 m resolution grid. GIS software was utilised to produce probability maps, which allowed the identification of areas of low, moderate, and high P (DAM) across the study area. The highest P (DAM) values were calculated for coniferous forest growing on acidic, fresh to moist soils on bunter sandstone formations-provided that 'Lothar' maximum gust speed exceeded 35 m s(-1) in the areas in question. One of the most significant benefits associated with the results of this study is that, for the first time, there is a GIS-based area-wide quantification of P (DAM) in the forests in Southwestern Germany. In combination with the experience and expert knowledge of local foresters, the probability maps produced can be used as an important tool for decision support with respect to future silvicultural activities aimed at reducing wind damage. One limitation of the P (DAM)-predictions is that they are based on only one major storm event. At the moment it is not possible to relate storm event intensity to the amount of wind damage in forests due to the lack of comprehensive long-term tree and stand damage data across the study area.

  1. Wegener Granulomatosis: Otologic Manifestation as First Symptom.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla Fabiane da; Polanski, Jose Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Wegener granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels of the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Objective To describe a case of Wegener disease with atypical manifestation. Resumed Report We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss as the primary symptoms, without other manifestations. Conclusion In cases of acute ear manifestations with or without hearing loss and with poor response to usual treatments, Wegener granulomatosis should be included among the possible etiologies. After adequate diagnoses and treatment of this rare disease, there was favorable evolution.

  2. Wegener Granulomatosis: Otologic Manifestation as First Symptom

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carla Fabiane da; Polanski, Jose Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Wegener granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels of the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Objective To describe a case of Wegener disease with atypical manifestation. Resumed Report We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss as the primary symptoms, without other manifestations. Conclusion In cases of acute ear manifestations with or without hearing loss and with poor response to usual treatments, Wegener granulomatosis should be included among the possible etiologies. After adequate diagnoses and treatment of this rare disease, there was favorable evolution. PMID:26157503

  3. Fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Ankur; George, Ajith; Pfleiderer, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 63‐year‐old woman who presented to the emergency department with epistaxis and haemodynamic instability is reported. Subsequent investigation showed renal failure and multiple pulmonary nodules. A positive proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test supported the diagnosis of fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis, requiring urgent dialysis, plasma exchange and immunosuppression. This is the first report in the emergency literature of Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as acute epistaxis. Emergency physicians should consider Wegener's granulomatosis in patients with atypical epistaxis. In patients presenting with clinically severe, active disease early proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody testing is recommended. PMID:17351208

  4. Papers in Warlpiri Grammar: In Memory of Lothar Jagst. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M., Ed.

    Five papers on the grammar of Warlpiri, an Australian Aboriginal language, include: "A Tentative Description of Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Verbs" (Lothar H. Jagst); "Syntactic Structure of Warlpiri Clauses" (Stephen M. Swartz); "A Preliminary Description of Propositional Particles in Warlpiri" (Mary Laughren);…

  5. Papers in Warlpiri Grammar: In Memory of Lothar Jagst. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M., Ed.

    Five papers on the grammar of Warlpiri, an Australian Aboriginal language, include: "A Tentative Description of Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Verbs" (Lothar H. Jagst); "Syntactic Structure of Warlpiri Clauses" (Stephen M. Swartz); "A Preliminary Description of Propositional Particles in Warlpiri" (Mary Laughren);…

  6. Why turbulence dominates the atmosphere and hydrosphere? (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that in very stable stratifications, at Richardson numbers (Ri) exceeding the critical value Ric ~ 0.25, turbulence inevitably decays and the flow becomes laminar. This is so, indeed, in the low-Reynolds-number (Re) flows, e.g., in some laboratory experiments; but this is by no means always the case. Air flows in the free atmosphere and water currents in deep ocean are almost always turbulent in spite of the strongly supercritical stratifications, with typical values of Ri varying in the interval 10 < Ri < 102. Until recently, this paradox has remained unexplained. We demonstrate that the key mechanism of the seemingly paradoxical self-preservation of the very-high-Re geophysical turbulence as a loop including (i) conversion of the turbulent kinetic unto potential energy and (ii) self-control of the negative (down-gradient) turbulent heat flux through efficient generation of the positive (counter-gradient) heat transfer by the turbulent potential energy (Zilitinkevich et al., 2007, 2008, 2009, 2013). Thanks to this loop, turbulence is maintained in supercritical stratifications and, moreover, at Ri > Ric the familiar 'strong-mixing turbulence' regime, typical of boundary-layer flows and characterised by the practically invariable turbulent Prandtl number PrT ~ 1 (the so-called 'Reynolds analogy'), gives way to a previously unknown 'wave-like turbulence' regime, wherein PrT sharply increases with increasing Ri (rather than to the laminar regime as is often the case in lab experiments). It is precisely the wave-like turbulence that dominates the free flows in the atmosphere and ocean. Modellers have long been aware that the turbulent heat transfer in the free atmosphere/ocean is much weaker than the momentum transfer. Our theory gives authentic formulation for this heuristic rule and provides physically grounded method for modelling geophysical turbulence up to very stable startifications.

  7. The three lost millennia of the last deglaciation (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    Looking back more than thirty years, climate history over the last period of deglaciation was seen to portray a smooth transition between the last glacial maximum (LGM) centered around 18,000 years ago (based on radiocarbon), and the beginning of the Holocene at about 10,000 years before present. At that time, the renowned CLIMAP group used the stratigraphy available to reconstruct the glacial world by averaging paleothermometric data over a wide time window, ranging between at least 14,000 and 24,000 yr BP, over which period climate was assumed to be rather stable. Even if northern European pollen records showed several phases of vegetation shift, the exact duration and spatial coverage of these shifts was unknown and their climatic significance was not well-enough understood to be separated from other biological effects, such as plant migration following ice-sheet demise. Significant progress came from mass spectrometry developments applied to isotope geochronology in the mid- and late- 1980s. This allowed the precise analysis of radiocarbon on small samples such as foraminifera in marine sediments and enabled the measurement of U-Th ages for accurate dating of corals and speleothems. These technological improvements permitted meaningful comparisons between proxy records from the various archives originating from all latitudes and longitudes. Today, it is clear that the old LGM time window corresponds to a period of more than ten millennia during which there was significant climate variability, including a prominent cooling event at the beginning of the deglaciation. This cooling event is known as the 'Oldest Dryas' by palynologists, as 'Heinrich Event #1' (H1) by paleoceanographers, and has even been dubbed the 'Mystery Interval' by prominent authors as they puzzled while attempting to synthesize and interpret its records. The H1 drastic cooling, attributed to a pulse-like injection of ice and meltwater into the North Atlantic, was first evidenced in 1987 in sediments from the Iberian Margin. Three years later, significant improvements of the radiocarbon calibration demonstrated that about three millennia were missing from the deglaciation record. Accordingly, the LGM mean age was pushed from 18,000 to 21,000 yr BP, the midpoint of H1 was shifted from 13,500 to 16,000 yr BP, and the beginning of the Holocene was repositioned at about 11,500 yr BP. This new climate chronology was subsequently confirmed by counting 'cryovarves' within the GRIP and GISP2 Greenland ice cores. These studies have since been complemented by many other records from polar ice, marine and lacustrine sediments and cave speleothems. In addition to extending the chronology by three additional millennia, improvement also arose from the quality of the new geological archives. These archives have allowed studies at much higher resolution than was previously achieved in the framework of CLIMAP, which included many records based on deep-sea cores characterized by low sedimentation rate, and thus very susceptible to smoothing processes such as bioturbation. In addition, analytical geochemistry has only recently provided techniques adapted to the production of high-resolution time series of various proxies based on elemental ratios, on organic compounds or on stable and radiogenic isotopes. More than a dozen years after the H1 discovery, the same Iberian Margin sediments were used to show that H1 comprised at least two phases, H1a and H1b, based on ice rafted debris (IRD) and other proxies. It is now recognized that the entire H1 event (H1 sensu lato) is a three millennia-long period (ca. 17,500 to 14,500 yr BP). To illustrate the progress in this research field, I will review the key records that can be used to document the complex nature of this episode. The H1 (s.l.) included several phases of intense cooling, of precipitation changes - notably at low latitudes and in the Asian monsoon area, of retreat and decay of glacial ice-sheets - as evidenced in sediments collected in river mouths, and of sea-level rise as recorded in corals from Tahiti and Barbados. Various isotopic proxies of deep-sea ventilation have been used to identify variations during the H1 sub-phases of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), indicating that ocean heat transport was involved in the observed climate fluctuations. The various records documenting different climate parameters at many locations over the Earth can also be used in meaningful comparison with numerical model simulations performed in a transient mode. Collectively, these works allow to estimate the phase relationships between the causes (insolation and the greenhouse effect) and the often abrupt responses of the various components of the climate system, such as the atmosphere, oceans and ice sheets. Although these studies concern a naturally-occurring global warming that took place over a long time period, useful parallels will be drawn with the evolution of modern climate. In fact, the phase relationships between forcings (such as greenhouse gases and solar input) and changes in regional and global temperatures are also at the heart of modern global climate change. As for early deglaciation, the ocean can modulate warming regionally, thereby delaying, or even temporarily masking, long-term changes. Climate changes over the last century have been smaller in magnitude than those of the last deglaciation. Fortunately for us, there has been no recent collapse of gigantic ice masses such as the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, most climate models show a 20 to 40% reduction of the MOC during the 21st century. Even if this change exerts only a minor influence on the projected magnitude of global warming, such a slowdown in ocean circulation change is generally sufficient to reduce the simulated warming over the North Atlantic with a resulting impact on adjacent continents, including Europe.

  8. The Complex Physics of Climate Change and Climate Sensitivity: A Grand Unification (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent estimates of climate evolution over the coming century still differ by several degrees. This uncertainty motivates in part the work presented in this lecture. The complex physics of climate change arises from the large number of components of the climate system, as well as from the wealth of processes occurring in each of the components and across them. This complexity has given rise to countless attempts to model each component and process, as well as to two overarching approaches to apprehend the complexity as a whole: deterministically nonlinear and stochastically linear. Call them the Ed Lorenz and the Klaus Hasselmann approach, respectively, for short. We propose a "grand unification" of these two approaches that relies on the theory of random dynamical systems (RDS). In particular, we apply this theory to the problem of climate sensitivity, and study the random attractors of nonlinear, stochastically perturbed systems, as well as the time-dependent probability densities associated with these attractors. The random attractors so obtained are visually spectacular objects that generalize the strange attractors of the Lorenz approach. Results are presented for several simple climate models, from the classical Lorenz convection model to El Nino-Southern Oscillation models. Their attractors carry probability densities with nice physical properties. Implications of these properties for climate predictability on interannual and decadal time scales are discussed. The RDS setting allows one to examine the interaction of internal climate variability with the forcing, whether natural or anthropogenic, and to provide a definition of climate sensitivity that takes into account the climate system's non-equilibrium behavior. Such a definition is of the essence in studying systematically the sensitivity of global climate models (GCMs) to the uncertainties in tens of semi-empirical parameters; it is given here in terms of the response of the appropriate probability densities to changes in the parameters and compared with numerical results for a somewhat simplified GCM. This lecture is the result of recent collaborations with M. D. Chekroun, D. Kondrashov, J. C. McWilliams, J. D. Neelin, E. Simonnet, S. Wang, and I. Zaliapin; more broadly, it represents the fruition of all I learned from tens of Ph. D. students, post-docs and other colleagues over the years.

  9. [ENT diagnosis of Wegener's syndrome].

    PubMed

    López Amado, M; Arrojo Alonso, F; García Sarandeses, A; Herranz González, J; Martínez Vidal, J

    1994-01-01

    In spite of its rarity Wegener's granulomatosis is of great concern to be otolaryngologist because the malady may start in the territory of the speciality, challenging the actual diagnosis, owing to the inespecificity of the symptomatology, to its torpid evolution, as well as the potential harmfullness of process. This paper inform of the retrospective study done by the AA. in the last ten years, about 4 cases diagnosed and treated by them. All the possible diagnostic measures are contemplated: clinical and histopathological findings and the newly introduced tests for anticytoplasmatic antibodies against the neutrophiles. A review of the bibliography on the subject is adjoined. All the considered patients consulted at the beginning with the otolaryngologist. Diagnostic suspicion aroused only in patients with nasal complaints (50 percent) and were not under suspicion those with ear symptoms. Positive diagnosis were confirmed in all cases through renal biopsies. Nasal biopsies resulted negatives. When the syndrome started in low aged patients the evolutive course showed deleterious and the affected died after a short term of few months. In more aged a survival of 8-9 yeas was reached.

  10. Tracheal Stenosis Because of Wegener Granulomatosis Misdiagnosed as Asthma.

    PubMed

    O'Hear, Kelley E; Ingrande, Jerry; Brodsky, Jay B; Morton, John M; Sung, Chih-Kwang

    2016-05-15

    We describe a patient with Wegener granulomatosis whose complaint of wheezing was incorrectly attributed to asthma. Anesthesiologists must recognize that tracheal stenosis is extremely common in Wegener granulomatosis and can mimic other causes of wheezing.

  11. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, S N; Shah, V; Dillon, M J

    1998-09-01

    The prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) was studied in 12 children with Wegener's granulomatosis. The serum samples were taken in the active phase of disease and were screened for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence with normal neutrophils and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude neutrophil extract, proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G, lactoferrin, and elastase as antigens. Of these 12 patients, 10 wre positive for ANCA in the active phase of their illness, and they showed a predominantly cytoplasmic ANCA staining pattern on indirect immunofluorescence. There were high titres of ANCA directed against crude neutrophil extract, proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase, and cathepsin G. IgM isotypes occurred as commonly as IgG isotypes. Therefore, screening for ANCA is usually but not invariably positive in children with Wegener's granulomatosis. Specific diagnosis still relies on clinical and pathological features, and the value of ANCA in the diagnosis of paediatric Wegener's granulomatosis requires further study.

  12. [Primary cutaneous manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Bramsiepe, I; Danz, B; Heine, R; Taube, K-M; Holzhausen, H-J; Marsch, W C; Fiedler, E

    2008-07-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted with hemorrhagic papules and necrotising nodules on both elbows and upper legs. Recurrent arthralgia occurred. The skin biopsy showed a cutaneous necrotising vasculitis. Positive test results for c-ANCA and proteinase 3 antibodies and a slightly increased WBC and a mild proteinuria were noticeable. The diagnosis of an early systemic Wegener's granulomatosis was based on elevated proteinase 3-titres and cutaneous histologic findings as necrotising vasculitis and granulomatous inflammation. Treatment with prednisolone followed by methotrexate resolved the cutaneous symptoms and the arthralgia completely. Three months later the patient developed a progredient methotrexate toxicity caused by a glomerulonephritis. Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered if a cutaneous necrotising vasculitis is diagnosed. A cutaneous manifestation could be an early symptom. Methotrexate could be used for treatment of mild courses of Wegener's disease without renal involvement.

  13. Wegener's granulomatosis: current and upcoming therapies

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Carol A

    2003-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a complex multisystem disease that can be associated with morbidity and mortality. The introduction of cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids brought about the potential for long-term survival and provided the opportunity and impetus to explore treatment options that can reduce the toxicity of therapy and lessen the likelihood of relapse. With the growth of knowledge regarding disease pathophysiology and the increasing ability to selectively target the immune system, the potential options for therapeutic investigation have continued to expand. Careful study of new agents through rigorously designed trials is essential to answering questions of safety and efficacy in Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:12823849

  14. Wegener's granulomatosis of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1990-05-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is an uncommon systemic vasculitis with granuloma formation that has many manifestations in the head and neck. The otolaryngologist may be the first physician called upon to examine such a patient. Although this disease was previously fatal, treatment with cyclophosphamide and steroids has produced response rates of 93%.

  15. Wegener's granulomatosis and autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, D R; Maxwell, A P; Watt, L

    1988-01-01

    We report five cases of Wegener's granulomatosis all of whom had clinical and histological evidence of disease activity at presentation and in whom autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens were detected. This test may prove useful for the diagnosis of this serious condition and help to monitor disease activity during treatment. PMID:3068870

  16. Alfred Binet and higher education.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2002-08-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Alfred Binet sought teaching positions at the Collége de France and the Sorbonne. Binet wanted to develop experimental psychology in France, but the strong psychopathological orientation of French psychology blocked his ambition. The 1st part of this article relates the history of the introduction of psychology, via Théodule Ribot, to the Sorbonne and the Collège de France. Ribot's premature retirement from the Collège de France in 1901 triggered a battle that led to Binet's repeated failure to gain access to these institutions of highter education and the success in 1902 of Ribot's students: Pierre Janet at the Collège de France and George Dumas at the Sorbonne.

  17. Pulmonary giant bulla in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mouly, S; Brillet, G; Stern, M; Lesavre, P; Guillevin, L

    2000-01-01

    The association of lung emphysema with severe systemic antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-positive vasculitis, such as Wegener's granulomatosis is unusual since only four cases have been described previously. We report the first case of a 30 year-old smoker man presenting with biopsy-proven Wegener's granulomatosis, who developed a bullous emphysema during severe active lung vasculitis, in association with positive ANCA disclosing an anti-myeloperoxydase pattern. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, a known risk factor of lung emphysema recently found to be associated with anti-proteinase 3-positive vasculitis, was not present in this patient. Cigarette smoking, in association with severe lung vasculitis, might have contributed to the development of this emphysematous lesion.

  18. Alfred Russel Wallace deserves better.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David; Wimpenny, Julian; Venables, Alfred

    2010-09-01

    During 2009, while we were celebrating Charles Darwin and his The origin of species, sadly, little was said about the critical contribution of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the theory of evolution. Like Darwin, he was a truly remarkable nineteenth century intellect and polymath and, according to a recent book by Roy Davies (The Darwin conspiracy: origins of a scientific crime), he has a stronger claim to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection than has Darwin. Here we present a critical comparison between the contributions of the two scientists. Sometimes referred to as 'The other beetle-hunter' and largely neglected for many decades, Wallace had a far greater experience of collecting and investigating animals and plants from their native habitats than had Darwin. He was furthermore much more than a pioneer biogeographer and evolutionary theorist, and also made contributions to anthropology, ethnography, geology, land reform and social issues. However, being a more modest, self-deprecating man than Darwin, and lacking the latter's establishment connections, Wallace's contribution to the theory of evolution was not given the recognition it deserved and he was undoubtedly shabbily treated at the time. It is time that Wallace's relationship with Darwin is reconsidered in preparation for 2013, the centenary of Wallace's death, and he should be recognized as at least an equal in the Wallace-Darwin theory of evolution.

  19. Paranasal sinus obliteration in Wegener granulomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Roberts, R.L.; Fauci, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The authors report 14 cases of Wegener granulomatosis in which one or more paranasal sinuses were obliterated by bone. The maxillary antra were involved in all cases, with the other sinuses being affected less frequently. These changes are thought to result from chronic bacterial sinusitis superimposed on the granulomatous vasculitic process. Computed tomography dramatically demonstrated the bone changes, consisting of a combination of sinus wall thickening and trabeculated new bone formation within the sinuses.

  20. Massive intracerebral hemorrhage associated with Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ceri, Mevlut; Ortabozkoyun, Levent; Unverdi, Selman; Kirac, Mustafa; Duranay, Murat

    2012-06-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that predominantly affects airways and kidneys. But central nervous system involvement (7-11%) is an uncommon. Massive ICH may occur in the course of WG, and this serious condition is related with high risk of mortality. Therefore, the new treatment strategies may be considered in addition to classical practices in serious organ involvement and recurrent attack. Here, we present an adult patient with WG whose disease was complicated by a massive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which subsequently led to death.

  1. [Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Wieteska, Maria; Wawrzyńska, Liliana; Wiatr, Elzbieta; Chabowski, Mariusz; Bestry, Iwona; Kurzyna, Marcin; Torbicki, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic disease of unknown origin characterized by necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that involves primarily the upper and the lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys. A 44-year-old woman presenting with unusual neurological manifestation is reported. The patient with multiple pulmonary round shadows and hilar lymphadenopathy on the chest X-ray pictures, suffered from sudden hemiparesis episode. Computed tomography revealed ischemic stroke focus. A diagnosis of WG was confirmed by histological examination of specimen obtained during open lung biopsy. During the combination chemotherapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide, neurological symptoms decreased and clinical condition significantly improved.

  2. Diagnostic Consideration for Sinonasal Wegener's Granulomatosis Clinically Mistaken for Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Cristina; Emmanuele, Carmela; Tranchina, Maria Grazia; Ippolito, Massimo; Cosentino, Sebastiano; Saita, Vincenzo; Fraggetta, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Wegener's granulomatosis clinically mistaken for carcinoma in a 21-year-old girl presenting with an ulcerated mass of the nasopharynx associated with enlarged laterocervical nodes. The lesion was clinically suspected as malignant on the basis of clinical and radiological findings (namely, computed tomography scan and positron emission tomography). However, multiple biopsies were not conclusive for malignancy showing histological change suggestive of Wegener's granulomatosis. A serum determination of cANCA supported the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. Clinical findings and image studies suggested an erroneous diagnosis of malignancy whereas a definitive diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis was achieved only after repeated biopsies thus leading to a correct therapeutic approach. The Wegener granulomatosis must be added to the list of the differential diagnoses of the masses of the nasopharynx associated with or without enlarged laterocervical nodes. PMID:24106630

  3. Alfred North Whitehead: Plato's Lost Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Joseph Gerard

    1978-01-01

    The author reminisces about a course, Philosophy 3b at Harvard, taught by Alfred North Whitehead in 1934, where Whitehead moved from meditations on Plato, Epicurus, and Descartes to his own metaphysical speculations. He also discusses other philosophers at Harvard, calling the 1930s the Silver Age of the Harvard Philosophy Department. (KC)

  4. Alfred Hitchcock and the Art of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Draws an interesting and instructive parallel between the work of film director Alfred Hitchcock, a master craftsman and technician, and the process of academic research. Briefly identifies shared qualities of specific concepts clearly communicated: all of the parts serve the whole, and respect for the audience. (MJP)

  5. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  6. The Contributions of Dr. Alfred Gysi.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Rodney D; Engelmeier, Robert L

    2016-11-24

    This article is a historical overview of Dr. Alfred Gysi's contributions to the profession in the areas of denture tooth and articulator design. His understanding of occlusion and mandibular movement resulted in denture tooth designs and occlusal concepts still in widespread use.

  7. Alfred North Whitehead: Plato's Lost Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Joseph Gerard

    1978-01-01

    The author reminisces about a course, Philosophy 3b at Harvard, taught by Alfred North Whitehead in 1934, where Whitehead moved from meditations on Plato, Epicurus, and Descartes to his own metaphysical speculations. He also discusses other philosophers at Harvard, calling the 1930s the Silver Age of the Harvard Philosophy Department. (KC)

  8. 'A Berlin psychiatrist with an American passport': Lothar Kalinowsky, electroconvulsive therapy and international exchange in the mid-twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2015-12-01

    The emigration of Lothar Kalinowsky (1899-1992) might, at first glance, seem to be a history of coincidence and twists of fate, but it is shown to be a truly entangled and intertwined history and story. The international introduction of electroconvulsive therapy was not only closely involved with the political, scientific and economic conditions during World War II, but the story of Kalinowsky's relevance to it emerges from competing stories, told differently in Europe and the USA - and by Kalinowsky himself. Tracing these stories up to the end of the 1960s reveals Kalinowsky as an influential inheritor and patron of Berlin Biological Psychiatry, rather than telling the history of an émigré innovator of international neuropsychiatric research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Forced Migration as Public Relations Process? Lothar B. Kalinowsky and the Trans-Atlantic Transfer of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Research in biological psychiatry during the first half of the 20(th) century was based upon a wide range of interrelated disciplines, including neurology, neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and experimental biology. The work of German-American psychiatrist and neurologist Lothar B. Kalinowsky (1899-1992) is taken here as an example of how such fields could be combined to produce a highly innovative and multidimensional research program in clinical neuroscience. Kalinowsky functioned exceptionally well in both scientific and clinical cultures despite the marked contextual differences between the Charité in Berlin and his later workplace in New York's Columbia Medical School. The innovative ideas exemplified by Kalinowsky's efforts, however, sometimes amounted to a dubious advantage for émigré clinical neuroscientists: they easily led to incommensurable scientific views, and sometimes even resulted in the marginalization of the innovator from existing research programs.

  10. [Wegener's granulomatosis with pronounced kidney involvement].

    PubMed

    Heinicke, H J; Hensel, J

    1981-06-01

    It is reported on the course of histologically ascertained Wegeners' granulomatosis in 4 patients. After initial affection of the upper respiratory tract in form of necrotizing and granulomatous inflammations in all cases a generalisation of the disease with above all early and severe participation of the kidneys developed. Maximum acceleration of sedimentation, C-reactive protein, anaemia, leucocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, enlargement of the number of alpha 2-globulins, increase of creatinine, proteinuria, erythrocyturia and leucocyturia are the most frequent pathological laboratory findings, whereas LE-cells, ANF, rheumatoid factor and decrease of the complement never could be proved. By reason of a pathogenic immunoreaction a combined glucocorticoid therapy and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide may favourably influence the course of the disease which is otherwise prognostically infaust.

  11. Orbital Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener Granulomatosis)

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Karra; Lin, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    The pathology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly Wegener granulomatosis, typically features a granulomatous and sometimes necrotizing vasculitis targeting the respiratory tract and kidneys. However, orbital involvement occurs in up to 60% of patients and is frequently the first or only clinical presentation in patients with systemic or limited forms of GPA. Orbital GPA can cause significant morbidity and potentially lead to complete loss of vision and permanent facial deformity. Fortunately, GPA is highly responsive to medical treatment with corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide or, more recently, rituximab. Therefore, it is imperative for this disease to be accurately diagnosed on orbital biopsy and distinguished from other histologically similar orbital lesions. Herein, we review the clinical and pathologic findings of orbital GPA, focusing on the differentiation of this disease from other inflammatory orbital lesions. PMID:25076302

  12. Marathon of eponyms: 23 Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Langdon, J; Evans, J

    2012-03-01

    The use of eponyms has long been contentious, but many remain in common use, as discussed elsewhere (Editorial: Oral Diseases. 2009: 15; 185). The use of eponyms in diseases of the head and neck is found mainly in specialties dealing with medically compromised individuals (paediatric dentistry, special care dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, oral and maxillofacial pathology and oral, oral and maxillofacial radiology and maxillofacial surgery) and particularly by hospital-centred practitioners. This series has selected some of the more recognized relevant eponymous conditions and presents them alphabetically. The information is based largely on data available from MEDLINE and a number of internet websites as noted below: the authors would welcome any corrections. This document summarizes data about Wegener granulomatosis.

  13. Colitis: an unusual presentation of Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Joseph Dalby; Matthews, Paul; Fletcher, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) also known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive (ANCA) vasculitis which most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract, lungs and kidneys. It is uncommon for colitis to be the primary reason for the first hospital admission related to WG. This case represents one of the few in the literature where colitis is associated with WG and in particular, where colonic involvement was the presenting symptom. The patient presented to hospital with a 3-day history of bloody diarrhoea and was treated for colitis. The disease progressed and during the second admission renal and pulmonary involvement was found. A renal biopsy showed a crescentic change and a CT-confirmed inflammatory changes in the caecum and ascending colon. A diagnosis of WG was made and appropriate treatment initiated. The patient is now in remission. PMID:23436885

  14. Wegener's granulomatosis in a patient with a rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, H; Itoh, M; Ogawa, N; Sudo, Y; Endo, S; Okugawa, T; Ito, H; Mineta, H; Nozue, M

    1992-09-01

    A 38-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who developed Wegener's granulomatosis is described. Wegener's granulomatosis appeared with saddle nose, perforation in her nasal septum, and granuloma in the nasal cavity. Laboratory evaluation showed a positive rheumatoid factor and circulating immune complex. Radiographic examination revealed ankylotic changes in both wrist and elbow joints. Bilateral anosmia and other disease manifestations completely responded to treatment with oral cyclophosphamide and prednisolone.

  15. The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  16. From Engineering Hydrology to Earth System Science: Milestones in the Transformation of Hydrologic Science (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-04-01

    Hydrologic science has undergone almost transformative changes over the past 50 years. Huge strides have been made in the transition from early empirical approaches to rigorous approaches based on the fluid mechanics of water movement on and below the land surface. However, further progress has been hampered by problems posed by the presence of heterogeneity, especially subsurface heterogeneity, at all scales. The inability to measure or map subsurface heterogeneity everywhere prevented further development of balance equations and associated closure relations at the scales of interest, and has led to the virtual impasse we are presently in, in terms of development of physically based models needed for hydrologic predictions. An alternative to the mapping of subsurface heterogeneity everywhere is a new earth system science view, which sees the heterogeneity as the end result of co-evolutionary hydrological, geomorphological, ecological and pedological processes, each operating at a different rate, which have helped to shape the landscapes that we see in nature, including the heterogeneity below that we do not see. The expectation is that instead of specifying exact details of the heterogeneity in our models, we can replace it, without loss of information, with the ecosystem function they perform. Guided by this new earth system science perspective, development of hydrologic science is now guided by altogether new questions and new approaches to address them, compared to the purely physical, fluid mechanics based approaches that we inherited from the past. In the emergent Anthropocene, the co-evolutionary view is expanded further to involve interactions and feedbacks with human-social processes as well. In this lecture, I will present key milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science from Engineering Hydrology to Earth System Science, and what this means for hydrologic observations, theory development and predictions.

  17. [Jean Alfred Fournier: to 180th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Betekhin, M S

    2012-01-01

    Jean Alfred Fournier was professor in dermatology in Université de Paris and the director of the world-wide known venereology hospital of Saint Louisio. He is the author of many publications about clinical and social aspects of syphilidology. Fournier introduced the concept of "parasyphilis" (tabes dorsalis and general paralysis) and he was the first one who specified the relationship between these diseases and syphilis. He pointed out the significance of congenital syphilisio. In 1901 Fournier founded the French Society of sanitary and moral prevention. His ideas concerning syphilis control were implemented on the territories of many European countries.

  18. [Wegener granulomatosis - otologic, nasal, tracheobronchial and pulmonary involvement].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Leal, Laurentino Mendes; Morais, António; Magalhães, Adriana; Oliveira, Teresa; Hespanhol, Venceslau; Dias, Carlos; Fernandes, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Wegener granulomatosis is a rare systemic idiopathic disease characterized by involvement of small vessels - medium and small arteries, venules, arterioles and ocasionally large arteries. This disease has predilection for the upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidney, with granulomatous inflamation and necrosis. Clinical manifestations and organ involvement of the disease vary widely. Early diagnosis and treatment may lead to a full recovery. Without treatment, Wegener's granulomatosis can be fatal. The authors present a case of a 33 year-old female, with severe disease, but with good outcome, after adequate diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Centennial Presidential Perspective: Dr. Alfred Blalock

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Claude A.; George, Timothy J.; Conte, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Great men are not a common occurrence. Indeed, they are a rare find. Though respected and lauded in their time, it is only in retrospect that their true contributions can be adequately measured as a surgeon, an educator and a scientist. Such is the case of Dr. Alfred Blalock. Many have considered him the father of modern cardiac surgery. All consider his “blue baby” operation to be one of the landmarks of cardiac surgery and, as the chief of surgery at Johns Hopkins, he trained many who would become the leaders of our discipline. His continual reach for excellence helped him to not only affect, but revolutionize the paradigm of surgical research, an understanding of the physiology of shock and the surgical management of pulmonic stenosis/atresia. Dr. Blalock was the 30th president of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and his presidential address was given in 1951. PMID:22248679

  20. Alfred Russel Wallace's world of final causes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles H

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) is an important figure in the history of science, but there remain many questions about the nature of his world view, and how it developed. Here, Wallace's appreciation of the role of final causes in evolution is linked to some of its probable origins, with an emphasis on the influence of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859). The question is then asked whether a final causes-based scientific agenda might be possible, and answered by drawing attention to two current efforts in that direction by Adrian Bejan, and by the author. A sketch of the latter approach, adapted from Spinozian thinking, is given, with an empirical example involving drainage basin morphology that suggests structural influences of a final causes sort.

  1. The essential ingredients leading to the explosive growth stage of the European wind storm "Lothar" of Christmas 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, G.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.; Joly, A.

    2009-04-01

    The explosive growth stage of the first Christmas wind storm of 1999 (Lothar) is studied by performing different numerical sensitivity experiments using the Météo-France operational model (ARPEGE). Apart from its exceptional strength and the spectacular disasters that were generated along its trajectory, the storm is particularly interesting to study because of its unusual dynamical properties. It is a relatively small-scale extratropical cyclone that travelled across the Atlantic Ocean with moderate amplitude south of the upper-level jet and strongly deepened as it crossed it in its exit region. Note finally that no clear pre-existent upper-level precursor was detected before the explosive growth stage (Wernli et al., 2002). First of all, the model is shown to reproduce quite well the explosive growth stage of the storm by starting the forecasts 24 hours before the latter stage. Using the potential vorticity inversion algorithm developed by Arbogast et al. (2008), all the numerical experiments consists in modifying the initial conditions of the operational analysis precisely 24 hours before the explosive growth stage and to look at the impact of these modifications. The first set of experiments will check that upper-level high-frequency anomalies have only a weak impact on the rapid deepening of the surface cyclone. Other experiments are conducted to look at the sensitivity to the strength of the upper-level jet, to the low-level baroclinicity, and finally to the shape, amplitude and location of the low-level cyclone. An intercomparison will be finally made with the behavior of the second storm of Christmas 1999 usually called "Martin".

  2. Extensive gastrointestinal tract and thyroid involvement with Wegeners granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raja Shekhar; Biyyani, Sappati; Pauskar, Privi; Fahmy, Nabil M; King, James F

    2007-01-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) is a pauci-immune systemic vasculitis involving small to medium sized blood vessels of the respiratory tract and renal vasculature. We report a 34-year-old lady with extensive gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and thyroid involvement. Literature review revealed only two prior reports of esophageal involvement, two reports of pancreatic involvement and few cases of thyroid involvement.

  3. 38. 'DESIGN NO. 7,' Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 'DESIGN NO. 7,' Pencil drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, dated March 2, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. [Otomastoiditis as an initial clinical manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    De All, Jorge; Koutnouyan, Gabriel; Herrando, Sergio; Diez, Eduardo; Olmedo, Gloria; Gnocchi, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) forms part of a group of primary vasculitis of the small and medium-sized blood vessels, associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). This disease may affect any body organ, especially the upper and lower airways and the kidneys. Hardly ever is otomastoiditis the first and only clinical manifestation of generalized Wegener's granulomatosis. We present the case of a patient whose disease started with the inflammation of the middle ear, which was unresponsive to the usual treatment. Later he developed nasal, pulmonary and renal compromise. The determination of ANCA and a transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of WG. We report this case to express the view that otomastoiditis in adults, which is refractory to the usual treatment, may seldom be the first and only clinical manifestation of WG.

  5. Wegener's granulomatosis: description of a case with oral manifestation.

    PubMed

    Reboll-Ferrer, Rosa Maria; Zapater-Latorre, Enrique; Calabuig-Crespo, Consuelo; Basterra-Alegría, Jorge

    2010-07-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a multisystemic granulomatous vasculitis that predominantly affects the airways and the kidneys, but may affect any organ. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations may be oral ulcers, gingival swelling or septal perforations that can cause saddle nose deformities, rhinitis, sinusitis and hearing loss. The oral ulcers usually occur when the disease is advanced. Renal involvement is characterized by focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and determines the evolution. The diagnosis is made by clinical symptoms and signs, the presence of c-ANCA and a positive biopsy. The anatomic pathology is characterized by vasculitis, granulomatous inflammation with multinuclear giant cells and necrosis. The prognosis has improved as a result of treatment with immunosuppressants associated with corticosteroids. We report a case of a 53-year-old patient with Wegener's granulomatosis with oral manifestation, which began as chronic mastitis.

  6. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  7. [Wegener's granulomatosis. Three cases with different clinical courses].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Sawionek, I; Filipecki, S

    1996-01-01

    Three cases of Wegener's granulomatosis are presented. In every case the different clinical picture was observed. In the first case dominated the pulmonary changes and fingers necrosis. In that case the excellent therapeutic effect of etoposide was observed. In the second case the most important clinical sings illustrated severe renal insufficiency. The third case demonstrated pericardial and skin changes. The significance of early diagnosis and early institution of proper therapy was discussed.

  8. Diabetes insipidus as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis and its treatment with biologic agents.

    PubMed

    Cunnington, Joanna Rosalind; Jois, Ramesh; Zammit, Ivan; Scott, David; Isaacs, John

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis of the pituitary gland resulting in diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of the disease. Standard treatment for Wegener's granulomatosis involves a combination of prednisolone and cylophosphamide, however biologic agents are now being used in refractory cases. We report three cases of patients with diabetes insipidus as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis who were treated with biologic agents. All three cases showed clinical response to treatment with biologic agents including rituximab and alemtuzumab and two cases demonstrated improvement in pituitary gland abnormalities by MRI. Clinicians should be aware that diabetes insipidus can present as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis and that biologic therapies may be effective in refractory cases.

  9. An unusual case of multiple cranial nerve palsies in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Daderian, A. D.; Chayasirisobhon, S.

    2000-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of Wegener's granulomatosis, which initially caused fulminant palsies affecting cranial nerves II, V, VI, VII, and VIII during a brief episode of the disease. The patient was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Wegener's granulomatosis should be suspected when multiple cranial nerves are initially affected. PMID:11052460

  10. An unusual orbital localization of wegener granulomatosis detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Rossini, Pierluigi; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old male patient affected by Wegener granulomatosis and left exophthalmos who underwent F-FDG PET/CT during follow-up for rectal cancer. The study was negative for secondary lesions but revealed high uptake at the left orbital mass consistent with Wegener granulomatosis.

  11. [Wegener's granulomatosis with anti-MPO c-ANCA revealed by uveitis].

    PubMed

    Mbéthé, G L Gaundong; Diéval, C; Lafitte, A; Roger-Schmeltz, J; Longy-Boursier, M; Mercié, P

    2010-10-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare systemic necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis affecting small- to medium-sized vessels, associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA), mainly anti-proteinase 3. Rarely, ANCA may be directed against myeloperoxidase. We report a 58-year-old woman who developed an uveitis as the presenting manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis who highlight the usefulness of internist and ophthalmologist collaboration.

  12. [Wegener's granulomatosis with clinical manifestations of temporal arteritis].

    PubMed

    Astudillo, L; Pugnet, G; Bidegain, F; Delsol, M; Fortenfant, F; Arlet-Suau, E

    2008-10-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with crusting rhinitis, bilateral serous otitis, inflammatory arthralgias, fever, weight loss and signs of temporal arteritis. Temporal arteries were increased in size, painful, with inflammatory signs. There was microscopic hematuria and inflammatory parameters were increased. The renal function was normal. Anticytoplasmic neutrophils antibodies were detected (anti-PR3). Temporal artery biopsy did not show signs of giant cell arteritis. A diagnostic of Wegener's granulomatosis was established and steroid treatment allowed disappearance of clinical and biologic features.

  13. [Spontaneous hemothorax revealing Wegener's vasculitis in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Serhane, Hind; Yassine, Msougar; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition. Its causes are multiple but sometimes they remain unknown. In some patients, thoracotomy may be the only means to determine hemothorax origin. Vasculitis have not been reported as a common cause of spontaneous hemothorax. Pregnancy does not appear to have causal or aggravating effect on spontaneous hemothorax or on vasculitis. We here report the peculiar case of a young patient presenting during pregnancy with spontaneous hemothorax secondary to Wegener's vasculitis. The latter was diagnosed by pleural biopsy performed during exploratory thoracotomy and confirmed by ANCA assays.

  14. Kaposi's sarcoma following immune suppressive therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Deschênes, Isabelle; Dion, Louise; Beauchesne, Claude; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur

    2003-03-01

    The association between Kaposi's sarcoma and infection with human herpesvirus 8 is now well recognized. Immunologic impairment is associated with 2 forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, epidemic [associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] and iatrogenic (associated with immunosuppressive treatment); both forms have become more common during the last decade. We describe an HIV negative 54-year-old man who developed Kaposi's sarcoma 2 months after the beginning of immuno-suppressive therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). With tapering of medication, complete remission of Kaposi's sarcoma was achieved in one year. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with WG.

  15. Alfred of Wessex at a Cross-Roads in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first situates King Alfred in Winchester, in Wessex, in Anglo-Saxon England, and in the Christendom of the ninth century. Attention is drawn to Alfred's education, which included experience of court life in Wessex, Rome and Francia. The paper argues that Alfred prioritised vernacular literacy as a means of educating elites in a shared…

  16. Alfred of Wessex at a Cross-Roads in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first situates King Alfred in Winchester, in Wessex, in Anglo-Saxon England, and in the Christendom of the ninth century. Attention is drawn to Alfred's education, which included experience of court life in Wessex, Rome and Francia. The paper argues that Alfred prioritised vernacular literacy as a means of educating elites in a shared…

  17. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  18. Apostle of Freedom: Alfred Adler and His British Disciples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The psychology of Alfred Adler is traditionally considered to be one of the three so-called in-depth or psychoanalytic therapies, the other two being the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. This article demonstrates that Adler's Individual Psychology was especially influential on teachers in Vienna between the two world wars. There…

  19. Professor Alfred Jost: the builder of modern sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Josso, N

    2008-01-01

    Professor Alfred Jost (1916-1991) is famous for his discovery of the Mullerian inhibitor, now called anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) or Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS). Alfred Jost resolved the controversy surrounding the mechanism of somatic sex differentiation by proving that male characteristics must be imposed on the fetus by the testicular hormones testosterone and AMH, respectively responsible for the virilization of the Wolffian ducts, urogenital sinus and external genitalia and for the regression of Mullerian ducts. In the absence or inactivity of these hormones, the fetus becomes phenotypically female. Alfred Jost was also a pioneer through his work on testicular differentiation, in collaboration with Solange Magre. He was the first to show that testicular organization is heralded by the development of pre-Sertoli cells, which progressively surround germ cells to form seminiferous tubules. Alfred Jost did not rely only on his brilliant mind. He distrusted theories built on suboptimal experimental data and believed that intelligence was powerless without technical skill. His search for elegant, effective techniques led him to apply surgical methods to fetal endocrinology. He was also a fascinating teacher, particularly for pre-doctoral students. He died aged 75, having retired from the Collège de France, but still active as the Secrétaire Perpétuel of the French Science Academy.

  20. Apostle of Freedom: Alfred Adler and His British Disciples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The psychology of Alfred Adler is traditionally considered to be one of the three so-called in-depth or psychoanalytic therapies, the other two being the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. This article demonstrates that Adler's Individual Psychology was especially influential on teachers in Vienna between the two world wars. There…

  1. Prince Alfred College 1993 Study Tour to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marten; Lake, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a trip to China by students of Mandarin Chinese at Prince Alfred College, Australia, in order to learn about the language and culture of the host country. Some continuing features of the stay were shopping, food, and attitudes of the local populace toward the foreigners. (Author/CK)

  2. Prince Alfred College 1993 Study Tour to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marten; Lake, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a trip to China by students of Mandarin Chinese at Prince Alfred College, Australia, in order to learn about the language and culture of the host country. Some continuing features of the stay were shopping, food, and attitudes of the local populace toward the foreigners. (Author/CK)

  3. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness.

  4. Alpha 1-antitrypsin activity is markedly decreased in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ali; Sahebghadam Lotfi, Abbas; Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Najavand, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the most abundant proteinase inhibitor in plasma and the main inhibitor of Proteinase 3, the target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) that predominant in Wegeners' granulomatosis. Α1AT deficiency correlated with ANCA-associated vasculitis. This study explores the trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC), specific activity, and phenotypic deficiency of Α1AT in Wegener's granulomatosis. Twenty-seven WG patients were studied. ANCA was tested by IIF and ELISA. Serum a1-anti-trypsin levels were quantified in WG patients and healthy controls by immunoturbidimetric assay. Serum TIC was assessed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay. Phenotypes of A1AT were detected by Isoelectric Focusing. A1AT concentration was equivalent in patients and controls; however, serum TIC (P = 0.001) and specific activity of A1AT (P = 0.001) were dramatically lower in WG patients. Five patients had deficient phenotypes of A1AT: MZ (n = 3), MS (n = 1) and SS (n = 1). This was correlated with an increase in the prevalence of deficient phenotypes of A1AT in WG (P = 0.01). Trypsin inhibitory capacity and specific activity of A1AT were decreased in WG patients and may be involve in disease pathogenesis and can worsen the clinical manifestations. This A1AT deficiency probably resulted from oxidative inactivation and/or enzymatic degradation of A1AT. This could result in localized deficiency of A1AT in vessel wall interfaces and lead to severe disease.

  5. A typical Wegeners granulomatosis -- but not pauci-immune!

    PubMed

    Joerg, L; Kerstin, A; Niko, B; Dominik, A; Martin, K; Latus, J; Amann, K; Braun, N; Alscher, M D; Kimmel, M

    2012-06-01

    We present a the case of 58-year old man who was admitted to hospital with typical clinical features (bloody nasal discharge, arthralgia, acute kidney injury with a nephritic syndrome) consisting with Wegeners granulomatosis (WG). CT-scan showed pulmonary nodules and antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies (ANCA) were elevated. A kidney biopsy showed a crescentic glomerulonephritis, but not pauci-immune-immune with a histopathological staining of a mesangioproliferative IgA-glomerulonephritis. The patient was put on prednisolone and i.v. cyclophosphamid (CYCLOPS-protocol (1). The anti-proteinase-3 antibody titer decreased and the CT-scan showed decreased activity of Wegener's granulomatosis (BVAS 26 dropped to 2) and the patient`s serum creatinine level was stable. The exact nosological relation of mesangial IgA-nephropathy to WG is still unclear. This case underlines that knowledge of renal histology is essential in the management of patients with renal disease, especially in patients with hematuria and/or proeinuria with positive ANCA.

  6. Aortic aneurysm and orchitis due to Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Minnee, R C; van den Berk, G E L; Groeneveld, J O; van Dijk, J; Turkcan, K; Visser, M J; Vahl, A C

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) with involvement of the abdominal aorta, testis, peripheral nerve system, and skin. A 51-year-old man presented at our outpatient clinic with lower back pain. He had a history of smoking, hypertension, and an embryonal carcinoma of the left testis, treated 13 years ago with orchidectomy and chemotherapy. One month earlier, he underwent a partial orchidectomy of the right testis due to testicular swelling. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3.8 cm wide aneurysm of the distal part of the aorta with inflammation. One week later he was admitted to the hospital with numbness of his hands and feet. Physical examination showed signs of peripheral microemboli. Serological laboratory tests revealed elevated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers with positive reactions against proteinase-3, indicating Wegener's disease. The chest X-ray was normal. Pathological examination of the right testis showed necrotizing vasculitis of a small artery. He was treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. WG with extrapulmonary involvement occurs infrequently, and reports of manifestations of WG in aorta, testis, the peripheral nerve system, and skin are even more uncommon. Small- and medium-vessel vasculitis can precede large-vessel vasculitis or occur in the absence of small-vessel involvement. Therefore, WG should be included in the work-up of large-vessel vasculitis, which can give rise to periaortic inflammation.

  7. Wegener's granulomatosis: parotid involvement and associated pancreatitis with C.T. findings.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, S L; Smart, P J

    1992-11-01

    Parotid enlargement is an uncommon physical sign and even less commonly the reason for referral for computerised tomography (CT) as the aetiology is usually self-evident. In cases referred for CT examination Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered, particularly if the pathology appears bilateral. This diagnosis may be confirmed by biopsy and/or supported by Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA) assay. A case of Wegener's granulomatosis with parotid gland involvement and temporally related pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is reported. This is the second reported case of possible pancreatic involvement in Wegeners granulomatosis and approximately the tenth reported case of salivary gland involvement.

  8. Tumor of the heart in a young woman; a rare manifestation of Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Remmi; Rosen, Seymour

    2012-02-01

    Wegener granulomatosis may rarely present with tumor masses that are in areas not typically involved by the disease. Although some cases have an associated positive anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies, other cases do not, especially those of the limited form. To prevent misdiagnosis and ensure prompt treatment, it is extremely important to consider Wegener granulomatosis even in cases without the classic clinical findings. We report a case of a 19-year-old woman with no prior significant medical history who presented with persistent ventricular tachycardia and a papillary muscle mass in her left ventricle which upon excision and tissue evaluation demonstrated histologic changes of Wegener granulomatosis.

  9. Wegener's granulomatosis: clinico-radiological finding at initial presentation.

    PubMed

    Stević, Ruza; Jovanović, Dragana; Obradović, Ljudmila Nagorni; Milenković, Branislava; Skodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Stanković, Ivana

    2012-06-01

    Diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis at the early stage is difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms which mimic other disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and radiological features of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) in a Serbian population at initial presentation. A retrospective review of 37 patient's case records was carried out. All those patients were diagnosed with WG and they attended the Institute for lung diseases in Belgrade over the period of 15 years. There were 20 males and 17 females, ranging in age from 18 to 73 years (mean age 46.2 years). The mean period from the onset of the first symptoms to diagnosis of WG was 4.59 +/- 6.15 months. The criteria of American College of Rheumatology were fulfilled in all patients. Twenty-five of 37 patients had systemic, generalized form of WG and while 12 of them had a limited involvement of upper and lower respiratory system. The frequency of different system involvement was: upper respiratory tract 64.8%, lower respiratory tract 100%, kidneys 67.5%, musculoskeletal system 40.5%, skin 27.2%, eyes 8.1%, and nervous system two patients. ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) test was positive in 32 ((86.5%) patients, and negative in 5 (13.5%). All patients were ANA negative. Histological evidence of granulomatous vasculitis was obtained in 34 (91.9%), whereas in three patients the diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations and positive c-ANCA test. There are minor variations in our data when compared with those reported in literature.

  10. Wegener's thinking about the mechanism: Greenland and Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Wegener's early Arctic expeditions to Greenland (1906-08 and 1912-13 with a stop in Iceland) suggest a significant affect on his thinking about the mechanism of continental drift till his death in 1930. Beside his specialized work in meteorology and the Arctic, he had a broad general interest in science especially of the earth system as a whole. The drift idea occurred to him in 1910 on the basis of new data on geomorphology (Atlantic seafloor), supported by geophysics, geology and palaeontology. In his 1912 initial public talk and ensuing paper he mentioned something akin to seafloor spreading and refuted the continental relict hypothesis from break-up for the mid-Atlantic ridge. But 1912 he bypassed the tension fractures in Iceland and in Greenland (1912-13) he experienced the rheology of ice, brittle and viscous, when thinking about the drift of SIAL continents through the SIMA mantle (as documented in his diaries). When in 1915 rewriting his 1012 paper as the book "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" he had given up the early idea for that of floating continental rafts. It is tempting to speculate why. Rheology of rocks was clearly described. But some misconceptions distracted him from the correct relationships: (1) Data of the time suggested that sialic rock is more solid than mafic rock which would soften at lower temperature (contrary to present knowledge) and (2) convection in the atmosphere, well known to him, seemed to be no model for convection in the mantle, although rafting continents implied mantle flow. Did the rheologies appear too different to him? Not before the mid twenties (as documented in the 4th edition of his book, 1929) did Wegener admit that mantle convection might be the answer. A great spirit was misled but clearly saw that the phenomenon of drift, based on observations, is not refuted by the lack of an explanation.

  11. [Wegener's granulomatosis with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against anti-cathepsin G antigen].

    PubMed

    Ocaña Pérez, E; Peña Casas, A M; del Campo Muñoz, T; Avila Casas, A; Luque Barona, R

    2013-12-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis belongs to the group of small vessel vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies characterized by granulomatous inflammation and necrotising vasculitis in various organs with particular involvement of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare disorder in childhood and early diagnosis of this disease is critical to the long-term prognosis of the disease. The presence of positive cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody staining or a high titre of proteinase 3 antibodies were added as new criteria of vasculitis in childhood. This article presents a case of Wegener's granulomatosis, with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies with cytoplasmic pattern with absence of anti-proteinase 3 antibodies and presence of high levels of anti-cathepsin G antibodies, rarely described in Wegener's granulomatosis.

  12. A Case of Wegener's Granulomatosis Presenting with Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ujjawal, Roy; Koushik, Pan; Ajay, Panwar; Subrata, Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis or granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a necrotizing vasculitis affecting both arterioles and venules. The disease is characterized by the classical triad involving acute inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tracts with renal involvement. However, the disease pathology can affect any organ system. This case presents Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with facial nerve palsy as the first manifestation of the disease, which is rarely reported in medical literature. PMID:27110249

  13. Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace’s background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind. PMID:20350381

  14. Alfred Lee Loomis - last great amateur of science

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarex, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alfred Loomis may well be remembered as the last of the great amateurs of science. He had distinguished careers as a lawyer, as an Army officer and as an investment banker before he turned his full energies to the pursuit of scientific knowledge, first in the field of physics and later as a biologist. By any measure that can be employed, he was one of the most influential physical scientists of this century: he was elected to the National Academy when he was 53 years old; he received many honorary degrees from prestigious universities; and he played a crucial role as director of all NDRC-OSRD radar research in World War II.

  15. The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1985-02-01

    Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies.

  16. Urinary bladder cancer in Wegener's granulomatosis: risks and relation to cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A; Askling, J; Granath, F; Sparen, P; Ekbom, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess and characterise the risk of bladder cancer, and its relation to cyclophosphamide, in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Methods: In the population based, nationwide Swedish Inpatient Register a cohort of 1065 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis, 1969–95, was identified. Through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register, all subjects in this cohort diagnosed with bladder cancer were identified. Nested within the cohort, a matched case-control study was performed to estimate the association between cyclophosphamide and bladder cancer using odds ratios (ORs) as relative risk. In the cohort the cumulative risk of bladder cancer after Wegener's granulomatosis, and the relative prevalence of a history of bladder cancer at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis, were also estimated. Results: The median cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide among cases (n = 11) and controls (n = 25) were 113 g and 25 g, respectively. The risk of bladder cancer doubled for every 10 g increment in cyclophosphamide (OR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 4.9). Treatment duration longer than 1 year was associated with an eightfold increased risk (OR = 7.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 69). The absolute risk for bladder cancer in the cohort reached 10% 16 years after diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis, and a history of bladder cancer was (non-significantly) twice as common as expected at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. Conclusion: The results indicate a dose-response relationship between cyclophosphamide and the risk of bladder cancer, high cumulative risks in the entire cohort, and also the possibility of risk factors operating even before Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:15130900

  17. Proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen: from gene to antigen.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G

    2001-02-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is one of four serine protease homologues in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils and granules of monocytes. It is of importance that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) are mainly directed against PR3 only. Furthermore, PR3 is overexpressed in a variety of acute and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for a PR3-derived peptide have been shown to specifically lyse leukemia cells that overexpress PR3. This review will focus on PR3 and the characteristics of PR3 that might implicate this particular antigen in the pathogenesis of WG and as target for immunotherapy in myeloid leukemias. We will discuss the genetic localization and gene regulation of PR3, the processing, storage, and expression of the PR3 protein, and the physiological functions of PR3, and compare this with the three other neutrophil-derived serine proteases: human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, and azurocidin. Three main differences are described between PR3 and the other serine proteases. This makes PR3 a very intriguing protein with a large array of physiological functions, some of which may play a role in ANCA-associated vasculitidis and myeloid leukemia.

  18. Evaluation of smell and taste in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Fasunla, James A; Hundt, Walter; Lutz, Jens; Förger, Frauke; Thürmel, Klaus; Steinbach, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although a reduced olfactory/gustatory function affects patients in all parts of life, this problem has not received much attention in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The aim of this study was to assess the smell/taste function of WG patients. Demographic data of 16 WG patients (9 males, 7 females) were obtained. They all subjectively assessed their taste/smell function on visual analogue scale. Olfactory/gustatory functions of the patients were tested with 'Sniffin' Sticks and 'Taste' strips, respectively. The results were then compared with those from sex and age-matched control group (n = 16) and normative data. WG patients subjectively assessed their olfactory (p = 0.03) and gustatory (p = 0.02) function to be lower than control group. All the olfactory scores (odour identification, odour discrimination and threshold) in both genders were significantly below the scores in the control group. WG patients were hyposmic. For taste (total taste score, as well as scores for the qualities sweet, sour, salty and bitter), WG patients did not significantly differ from controls and were normogeusic. However, the gustatory scores showed the tendency of reduction as compared to the control group. In conclusion, WG patients truly suffer from olfactory/taste dysfunction, but this is worse with olfaction. It is, therefore, imperative that physicians should make their patients to be aware of these sensory dysfunctions and educate them on methods to cope with it for better quality of life.

  19. Interference of Wegener's granulomatosis autoantibodies with neutrophil Proteinase 3 activity.

    PubMed Central

    van de Wiel, B A; Dolman, K M; van der Meer-Gerritsen, C H; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Goldschmeding, R

    1992-01-01

    Classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCA) are disease-specific markers of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The possible pathogenetic role of these autoantibodies, which are directed against Proteinase 3 (PR3), is not yet clear. We studied the effect of C-ANCA on PR3 proteolytic activity and on the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). C-ANCA IgG from eight patients with active WG significantly inhibited PR3 proteolytic activity, particularly towards elastin (median 84.2% inhibition). C-ANCA IgG significantly inhibited the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1AT (median 58.8% inhibition). Moreover, addition of purified PR3 to C-ANCA-positive sera from WG patients yielded less complexes with alpha 1AT (median 44.8%) compared with sera containing perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (P-ANCA) or ANCA-negative sera. These findings indicate the existence of a hitherto unknown property of C-ANCA, which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of WG. PMID:1458677

  20. ALFRED: A Practical Method for Alignment-Free Distance Computation.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Sharma V; Chockalingam, Sriram P; Liu, Yongchao; Apostolico, Alberto; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-06-01

    Alignment-free approaches are gaining persistent interest in many sequence analysis applications such as phylogenetic inference and metagenomic classification/clustering, especially for large-scale sequence datasets. Besides the widely used k-mer methods, the average common substring (ACS) approach has emerged to be one of the well-known alignment-free approaches. Two recent works further generalize this ACS approach by allowing a bounded number k of mismatches in the common substrings, relying on approximation (linear time) and exact computation, respectively. Albeit having a good worst-case time complexity [Formula: see text], the exact approach is complex and unlikely to be efficient in practice. Herein, we present ALFRED, an alignment-free distance computation method, which solves the generalized common substring search problem via exact computation. Compared to the theoretical approach, our algorithm is easier to implement and more practical to use, while still providing highly competitive theoretical performances with an expected run-time of [Formula: see text]. By applying our program to phylogenetic inference as a case study, we find that our program facilitates to exactly reconstruct the topology of the reference phylogenetic tree for a set of 27 primate mitochondrial genomes, at reasonably acceptable speed. ALFRED is implemented in C++ programming language and the source code is freely available online.

  1. [Science and the scientist: opposing vues on Alfred Granadidier's explorations].

    PubMed

    Monnier, Jehanne-Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    This article embraces the different ways a scientist traveller and his fieldworks can be perceived through the case of Alfred Grandidier in South America, in India and in Madagascar (1857-1870). Our aim is to deal with various aspects of historical scientific exploration and to draw a picture of the erudite traveller by crossing various and complementary points of view. Scientific works can be received very differently, depending on the place and the nature of the addresses, whether they are authorities wishing to take advantage of it, native people fearing for their safety or disciples glorifying their idol. The concept of science itself and the status of the scientist raise the question of mutual understanding between the explorer and his contemporaries, in Paris or in a remote place. Alfred Grandidier's example is particularly relevant to reveal different visions of scientist traveller as promoted in the 19th century, as well as the various perceptions that a scientific work can have depending on the public it impacts.

  2. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  3. In A World Set Apart: The Dalton Dynasty at King Alfred School, 1920-62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Explains that Helen Parkhurst's Dalton Laboratory Plan disappeared quickly in many British schools but remained for over 40 years in the King Alfred School in London (England). Explores the development of the Dalton Plan at King Alfred, why this educational innovation thrived at the school, and the causes for its disappearance. (CMK)

  4. Clinical features of childhood granulomatosis with polyangiitis (wegener's granulomatosis).

    PubMed

    Bohm, Marek; Gonzalez Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Ozen, Seza; Pistorio, Angela; Dolezalova, Pavla; Brogan, Paul; Barbano, Giancarlo; Sengler, Claudia; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Quartier, Pierre; Fasth, Anders; Herlin, Troels; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Nielsen, Susan; van Rossum, Marion A J; Avcin, Tadej; Castell, Esteban Rodolfo; Foeldvari, Ivan; Foell, Dirk; Kondi, Anuela; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Kuester, Rolf-Michael; Michels, Hartmut; Wulffraat, Nico; Amer, Halima Ben; Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), belongs to the group of ANCA-associated necrotizing vasculitides. This study describes the clinical picture of the disease in a large cohort of GPA paediatric patients. Children with age at diagnosis ≤ 18 years, fulfilling the EULAR/PRINTO/PRES GPA/WG classification criteria were extracted from the PRINTO vasculitis database. The clinical signs/symptoms and laboratory features were analysed before or at the time of diagnosis and at least 3 months thereafter and compared with other paediatric and adult case series (>50 patients) derived from the literature. The 56 children with GPA/WG were predominantly females (68%) and Caucasians (82%) with a median age at disease onset of 11.7 years, and a median delay in diagnosis of 4.2 months. The most frequent organ systems involved before/at the time of diagnosis were ears, nose, throat (91%), constitutional (malaise, fever, weight loss) (89%), respiratory (79%), mucosa and skin (64%), musculoskeletal (59%), and eye (35%), 67% were ANCA-PR3 positive, while haematuria/proteinuria was present in > 50% of the children. In adult series, the frequency of female involvement ranged from 29% to 50% with lower frequencies of constitutional (fever, weight loss), ears, nose, throat (oral/nasal ulceration, otitis/aural discharge), respiratory (tracheal/endobronchial stenosis/obstruction), laboratory involvement and higher frequency of conductive hearing loss than in this paediatric series. Paediatric patients compared to adults with GPA/WG have similar pattern of clinical manifestations but different frequencies of organ involvement.

  5. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wegener's granulomatosis: morphology, therapy, outcome.

    PubMed

    Grotz, W; Wanner, C; Keller, E; Böhler, J; Peter, H H; Rohrbach, R; Schollmeyer, P

    1991-06-01

    Fourteen patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and severe renal and extrarenal involvement were studied (serum creatinine on admission 5.8 +/- 3.4 mg/dl). Renal histology showed a necrotizing, crescentic glomerulonephritis in all patients. Despite advanced renal disease on admission cyclophosphamide, steroids (in 13 patients) and plasma exchange (in 9 patients) caused a rapid and sustained improvement of renal function. Four patients required intermittent hemodialysis over a period of one week. After 2 weeks of treatment serum creatinine values below 2 mg/dl (n = 4) indicated a nearly complete recovery of renal function in the long-term follow up (mean serum creatinine achieved after 12 months therapy: 1.1 +/- 0.1 mg/dl (n = 4). Therefore serum creatinine values observed after 2 weeks of therapy, appear to be of prognostic value with regard to renal outcome. No relapse of active WG or progressive renal deterioration was observed during follow-up (22 +/- 13 months) except in one patient with persisting renal impairment. Three patients died (staphylococcus sepsis, intracerebral hemorrhage during hypertensive crisis, pulmonary embolism) during the first two months of therapy. The decline of serum creatinine seemed to be a better indicator of successful therapy than the decrease of anticytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and hematuria. On admission ANCA titer neither correlated with serum creatinine, the degree of renal involvement, nor was it of prognostic value. ANCA, serum creatinine and hematuria normalized within 2 to 8 months, whereas ESR and proteinuria remained elevated. Our data indicate a good prognosis of WG even with advanced renal involvement and generalized vasculitis provided aggressive treatment is performed early.

  6. Complete heart block in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis in remission--a case report.

    PubMed

    Suleymenlar, Gultekin; Sarikaya, Metin; Sari, Ramazan; Tuncer, Murat; Sevinc, Alper

    2002-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that usually affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts as well as the kidney. Cardiac involvement is rare, although electrocardiographic abnormalities, coronary artery vasculitis, cardiac arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported in the literature. A 27-year-old female patient with Wegener's granulomatosis in remission is described in whom complete heart block developed in the 13th month of treatment with cyclophosphamide. A temporary pacing was applied and pulse methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide were commenced. On the ninth day of treatment, normal sinus rhythm was achieved. In conclusion, cardiac rhythm abnormalities should always be kept in mind both in the diagnosis and follow-up of Wegener's granulomatosis.

  7. Strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare multi-system disease characterized by the classic triad of necrotizing granulomas affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Oral lesions as a presenting feature are only encountered in 2% of these cases. Hyperplastic gingival lesions or strawberry gingivitis, is a characteristic sign of Wegener's granulomatosis. The latter consists of reddish-purple exophytic gingival swellings with petechial haemorrhages thus resembling strawberries. Recognition of this feature is of utmost importance for timely diagnosis and definitive management of this potentially fatal disease. A case of strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of Wegener's granulomatosis affecting a 50-year-old Malay male is reported here. The differential diagnosis of red lesions that may present in the gingiva is discussed. PMID:21813375

  8. [Subglottic stenosis as the initial manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis in a teenager. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Rodríguez, Verónica; Doormann, Flavia; Pringe, Alejandra; Bellia Munzón, Patricio; Bellia Munzón, Gastón; Ortega, Carlos; Álvarez, Rubén

    2017-04-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of autoimmune origin that primarily affects the upper and lower airways and kidneys. It is very rare in children and adolescents. When started at a young age it is often associated with subglottic stenosis. Subglottic stenosis is a potentially fatal manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis. Its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion since it might develop in the absence of other signs of activity. Occasionally, subglottic stenosis may present as the initial manifestation of the disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic visualization of the lesion. The treatment is complex, and it often requires repeated interventions due to restenosis. We present a 13-year-old patient with subglottic stenosis secondary to Wegener's granulomatosis. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of this rare cause of respiratory distress in the pediatric population. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  9. Kaposi's sarcoma in an elderly man with Wegener's granulomatosis treated with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Erban, S B; Sokas, R K

    1988-05-01

    The association of Kaposi's sarcoma with malignant lymphoreticular diseases and immunosuppressive therapy is well documented. This report describes an elderly man who presented with fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis that responded to treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids. Rapidly progressing cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma developed ten weeks after the start of immunosuppressive therapy yet regressed on discontinuation of the corticosteroid therapy, despite continuation of cyclophosphamide therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring in association with Wegener's granulomatosis. The literature on Kaposi's sarcoma in immunosuppressed patients is reviewed.

  10. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage in granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener's) with coexistent rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Kavita Umesh; Bhatt, Chhaya; Desai, Aditi

    2012-08-08

    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is a serious manifestation of granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener's) with high morbidity and mortality. It is defined by the clinical triad of haemoptysis, anaemia and progressive hypoxaemia. The diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangitis is confirmed in an appropriate clinical setting by bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy or detection of C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. In this report, the patient was a known case of rheumatoid arthritis and presented with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage on CT scan; the underlying cause was found to be granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener's) with positive C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Despite aggressive treatment with immunosuppressants and steroids the patient died within a few days.

  11. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage in granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener's) with coexistent rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vaishnav, Kavita Umesh; Bhatt, Chhaya; Desai, Aditi

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is a serious manifestation of granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener's) with high morbidity and mortality. It is defined by the clinical triad of haemoptysis, anaemia and progressive hypoxaemia. The diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangitis is confirmed in an appropriate clinical setting by bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy or detection of C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. In this report, the patient was a known case of rheumatoid arthritis and presented with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage on CT scan; the underlying cause was found to be granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener's) with positive C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Despite aggressive treatment with immunosuppressants and steroids the patient died within a few days. PMID:22878986

  12. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed.

  13. Alfred P. Dachnowski and the scientific study of peats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Cohen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Botanist Alfred Paul Dachnowski (1875–1949) was a major contributor to efforts at mapping organic soils in the United States during the early 20th century. He began his career at The Ohio State University, and spent most of his professional life at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC. His work spanned a diversity of topics, including bog ecology and the ecosystem services provided by wetlands, the mapping and chemical characterization of peat, and the commercial applications of peat. We present a biography and overview of his work. Dachnowski is best known today for the peat sampler that bears his name. The details of its operation are described here, and its place in modern peat studies is discussed.

  14. Reporting hospital adverse events using the Alfred Hospital's morbidity data.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rhonda; McLean, Jenny; Walsh, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hospital morbidity data were analysed to determine their usefulness for reporting adverse events. The entire ICD-10-AM classification system was reviewed in conjunction with the Australian Coding Standards to identify external cause codes and code prefixes associated with adverse events. For the 50,712 separations registered at The Alfred from July 2000-June 2001, 4,740 external cause codes were associated with adverse events. Place of occurrence code CY92.22 was considered the best indicator of the number of separations associated with adverse events. Approximately 4% of all separations were associated with adverse events occurring during an episode of care. Results suggest that hospital morbidity data are useful for monitoring adverse events at hospital level. Reliable reporting across the health care industry requires consistent reporting requirements at state and national levels and the adoption of standard code prefixes nationally.

  15. [Alfred Kirstein (1863-1922)--pioneer in direct laryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Reinhard, M; Eberhardt, E

    1995-06-01

    On April 23rd 1895, in Berlin, Alfred Kirstein performed the first direct examination of the interior of the larynx. 23 days after his first view of larynx, he gave a comprehensive demonstration of autoscopy to the Berlin Medical Association. Until then laryngologists had been content with the technique of indirect laryngoscopy using mirrors, a method popularised by Garcia, Türck and Czermak. Kirstein named the combination of the electroscope and the oesophagoscope "The autoscope" and direct examination of the larynx he termed "autoscopy". Despite the infancy of autoscopy and the autoscope, Kirstein already recognised the potential of his new discovery. He reported that the removal of foreign bodies from the trachea must be easier through an autoscope then by means of a tracheostomy; furthermore, catheterisation of the bronchi should now present no great difficulties. The similarity between the blades he used and those described in the 1940s by Macintosh and Miller is remarkable.

  16. Alfred O.C. Nier (1911”1994)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldich, Samuel S.

    Alfred O.C. Nier was a friendly, helpful person who got along remarkably well with people from all walks of life. For the scientific community, his work opened new possibilities for discovery in many fields. His skill in designing and operating mass spectrometers and in interpreting the data brought him worldwide recognition.Nier was born in St. Paul, Minnesota on May 28, 1911, and lived most of his life in the state. He earned three degrees from the University of Minnesota: a Bachelor of Engineering, 1931; an M.S. in electrical engineering, 1933; and a Ph.D. in physics, 1936. For his doctoral research, Nier measured the relative abundance of the isotopes of Ar, K, Zn, Rb, Cd [Nier, 1936].

  17. Alfred Binet and the Concept of Heterogeneous Orders†

    PubMed Central

    Michell, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In a comment, hitherto unremarked upon, Alfred Binet, well known for constructing the first intelligence scale, claimed that his scale did not measure intelligence, but only enabled classification with respect to a hierarchy of intellectual qualities. Attempting to understand the reasoning behind this comment leads to an historical excursion, beginning with the ancient mathematician, Euclid and ending with the modern French philosopher, Henri Bergson. As Euclid explained (Heath, 1908), magnitudes constituting a given quantitative attribute are all of the same kind (i.e., homogeneous), but his criterion covered only extensive magnitudes. Duns Scotus (Cross, 1998) included intensive magnitudes by considering differences, which raised the possibility (later considered by Sutherland, 2004) of ordered attributes with heterogeneous differences between degrees (“heterogeneous orders”). Of necessity, such attributes are non-measurable. Subsequently, this became a basis for the “quantity objection” to psychological measurement, as developed first by Tannery (1875a,b) and then by Bergson (1889). It follows that for attributes investigated in science, there are three structural possibilities: (1) classificatory attributes (with heterogeneous differences between categories); (2) heterogeneous orders (with heterogeneous differences between degrees); and (3) quantitative attributes (with thoroughly homogeneous differences between magnitudes). Measurement is possible only with attributes of kind (3) and, as far as we know, psychological attributes are exclusively of kinds (1) or (2). However, contrary to the known facts, psychometricians, for their own special reasons insist that test scores provide measurements. PMID:22912619

  18. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Marshall A.

    2017-01-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare (“merchant of death”) and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel’s citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. PMID:28786809

  19. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Marshall A

    2017-07-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare ("merchant of death") and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel's citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  20. Alfred binet and the concept of heterogeneous orders.

    PubMed

    Michell, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In a comment, hitherto unremarked upon, Alfred Binet, well known for constructing the first intelligence scale, claimed that his scale did not measure intelligence, but only enabled classification with respect to a hierarchy of intellectual qualities. Attempting to understand the reasoning behind this comment leads to an historical excursion, beginning with the ancient mathematician, Euclid and ending with the modern French philosopher, Henri Bergson. As Euclid explained (Heath, 1908), magnitudes constituting a given quantitative attribute are all of the same kind (i.e., homogeneous), but his criterion covered only extensive magnitudes. Duns Scotus (Cross, 1998) included intensive magnitudes by considering differences, which raised the possibility (later considered by Sutherland, 2004) of ordered attributes with heterogeneous differences between degrees ("heterogeneous orders"). Of necessity, such attributes are non-measurable. Subsequently, this became a basis for the "quantity objection" to psychological measurement, as developed first by Tannery (1875a,b) and then by Bergson (1889). It follows that for attributes investigated in science, there are three structural possibilities: (1) classificatory attributes (with heterogeneous differences between categories); (2) heterogeneous orders (with heterogeneous differences between degrees); and (3) quantitative attributes (with thoroughly homogeneous differences between magnitudes). Measurement is possible only with attributes of kind (3) and, as far as we know, psychological attributes are exclusively of kinds (1) or (2). However, contrary to the known facts, psychometricians, for their own special reasons insist that test scores provide measurements.

  1. Alfred Nier and the sector field mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    De Laeter, John; Kurz, Mark D

    2006-07-01

    Science and technology are intimately related, and advances in science often become possible with the availability of new instrumentation. This has certainly been the case in mass spectrometry, which is used in so many scientific disciplines. Originally developed as an instrument for research in physics it was used in the discovery of isotopes, their recognition as the fundamental species comprising the elements, and the investigation of elemental isotopic composition. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry is a metrological technique of the highest order, and has been widely used in chemical, biochemical, cosmochemical, environmental, geological, physical, and nuclear research. Mass spectrometry presently plays a key role not only in scientific research, but also in industrial operations. This paper highlights the role that Alfred Otto Carl Nier played in bringing mass spectrometry into the mainstream of science. Nier's career spanned a remarkable period in science, and he made crucial contributions to atomic weights, geochronology, isotope geochemistry, nuclear physics, and space science. He is widely viewed as the 'father of modern mass spectrometry', because of his genius with instrumentation, his innovations, and the generosity with which he shared his ideas and designs. It is timely to remember his fundamental work in mass spectrometry, particularly the development of the sector field mass spectrometer, which is still the instrument of choice for many isotope scientists some 66 years after its first appearance in 1940.

  2. Alfred Binet and experimental psychology at the Sorbonne laboratory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Sanitioso, Rasyid Bo

    2012-11-01

    Between 1892 and 1904, Alfred Binet (1857-1911) produced, in the psychology laboratory of the Sorbonne, a whole set of original works that still remains little known today. He integrated the laboratory, directed by the psychophysiologist Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), in 1891. We describe the circumstances that led Binet to take the direction of this laboratory in 1895 and present scientific investigations that were conducted there by Binet and his collaborators. For Binet, the laboratory was not narrowly limited to a set of rooms where experiments were conducted by means of sophisticated devices (experimental psychology), it was also a working area, regularly organized, where all the psychological documents were classified, whatever their origin (descriptive psychology). We show that Binet was a pioneer who is still little recognized in various areas of experimental psychology. Binet suffered, at the time, from the indifference of his contemporaries, but he especially regretted not being able to attract students to his laboratory due to the absence of diploma-offering programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Alfred Adler, pioneer in prevention of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1990-09-01

    Alfred Adler (1870-1937) one of the four original members of what was to become the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, was the first to accept a humanistic-educational model of man in contrast to Freud's medical model of man. This was in line with his deep involvement with prevention; in fact his original interest was in medical prevention. The present paper describes how his work touched on all the points of the contemporary field of psychological prevention. He developed a personality theory most suitable for application in prevention, education and brief psychotherapy. He identified various categories of children at risk. He advocated the right to abortion partly to prevent the birth of a child severely at risk by being unwanted. He considered the then existing dominance of the male sex to be damaging to both sexes. He engaged in practical prevention work by addressing general audiences and especially teachers and by the establishment of and participation in Educational Counseling Centers. He felt that the honest psychologist for reasons of prevention is bound to social advocacy, and that a true psychology of mental health merges into a corresponding world philosophy. These points are fully documented with quotations and references.

  4. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years.

  5. Autoantibodies against neutrophils and monocytes: tool for diagnosis and marker of disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, F J; Rasmussen, N; Lobatto, S; Wiik, A; Permin, H; van Es, L A; van der Giessen, M; van der Hem, G K; The, T H

    1985-02-23

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies against extranuclear components of polymorphonuclear granulocytes were detected in 25 of 27 serum samples from patients with active Wegener's granulomatosis and in only 4 of 32 samples from patients without signs of disease activity. In a prospective study of 19 patients these antibodies proved to be better markers of disease activity than several other laboratory measurements used previously. The autoantibodies were disease specific and the titres were related to the results of an in-vitro granulocyte phagocytosis test, in which 7S IgG antibodies were internalised after specific binding to the cell, resulting in gradual formation of ring-like cytoplasmic structures. This autoantibody may have a pathogenetic role in Wegener's granulomatosis. The detection of this antibody is valuable for diagnosis and estimation of disease activity.

  6. Successful Management of Refractory Dialysis Independent Wegener's Granulomatosis with Combination of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange and Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sheetal; Dhawan, Hari Krishan; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Aman

    2016-06-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) is an autoimmune, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody mediated necrotizing vasculitis involving renal, and upper and lower respiratory systems. Treatment relies on a combination of immunosuppressive drugs and tapering regimen of glucocorticoids. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been recognized as a second line treatment. We report the successful use of TPE in combination with rituximab in achieving remission in a patient with WG (dialysis independent) not responding to conventional therapy.

  7. Progressive renal disease despite immunosuppressive therapy in a patient with Wegener s granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, I; Vervoort, G; Steenbergen, E; Wetzels, J

    2008-03-01

    We present a patient with Morbus Wegener and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone resulted in the disappearance of signs and symptoms of systemic inflammation. However, renal function deteriorated. Renal biopsy showed evidence of continuing capillary necrosis. Renal function improved with added plasmapheresis treatment. This case report illustrates that in patients with vasculitis necrotizing glomerulonephritis may remain active despite immunosuppressive therapy, even in the absence of extrarenal disease activity.

  8. Management Scheme for Cerebral Wegener Granulomatosis: An Unusual Pseudotumoral Skull Base Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Anne Laure; Lefevre, Etienne; Sène, Damien; Herman, Philippe; Biassette, Homa Adle; Froelich, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener disease) is a rare antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis that seldom involves brain and meninges. We present a case of a 35-year-old woman with granulomatosis with polyangiitis involving the brain and the meninges. The histologic diagnosis required a complete resection of the lesion. Despite the possibility of postoperative wound infection, surgery was mandatory to ascertain the diagnostic and to treat locally.

  9. Cytoplasmic-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies targeting myeloperoxidase in Wegener's granulomatosis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Bhavana M; Joshi, Sangeeta; Adhikary, Ranjeeta

    2014-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) patients can rarely have antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO), producing a cytoplasmic pattern on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). This has important implications in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of the disease. We present to you a report of three cases of WG, demonstrating a cytoplasmic-ANCA pattern on indirect IIF, but directed against MPO. It is necessary to diagnose a patient taking into account both the autoimmune test results and the clinical features.

  10. Limited Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as lung nodules in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sushma; Panda, Mukta

    2008-12-23

    Rheumatoid arthritis has varied pleuroparenchymal manifestations. Wegener's granulomatosis can develop in an established case of rheumatoid arthritis and this association although previously reported is very rare. A 60-year-old lady had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis on the basis of her clinical symptoms and serological tests which were positive RA factor and anti-CCP antibodies. Her rheumatoid arthritis activity had been mild and well controlled with hydroxychloroquine and low dose prednisone. She presented with a productive cough and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. CT scan of the chest showed three lung nodules with increased uptake on PET CT scan, raising concerns for an inflammatory or malignant process. The differential diagnosis included rheumatoid nodules, infections or malignancy. A CT-guided needle biopsy of the largest nodule was undertaken which showed vasculitis typical of Wegener's granulomatosis. Stains and cultures of the biopsy specimen were negative for bacteria, fungi and acid fast bacilli. A panel of serological tests for vasculitis were checked and showed elevated titers of cANCA and anti-proteinase 3 antibodies. Urine analysis and CT scan of paranasal sinuses was normal. Since the upper respiratory tract and the kidneys were spared a diagnosis of limited Wegener's granulomatosis affecting only the lungs was made. Due to the toxicity of cyclophosphamide, her relatively mild disease sparing the kidneys and the underlying rheumatoid arthritis, weekly methotrexate was started and low dose prednisone was continued. She had marked symptomatic improvement and complete resolution of the nodules was documented on subsequent imaging. Wegener's granulomatosis developing in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis is very rare but should be considered as it warrants a different and possibly more aggressive treatment approach.

  11. [The first clinical description of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (known before as Wegener's granulomatosis)].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2017-01-01

    Before 1950, cases of necrotizing vasculitis were commonly published in journals of pathology. Most of these cases were designated as polyarteritis nodosa. In 1952, the pathologist Pearl Zeek critically reviewed and summarized the literature dealing with polyarteritis nodosa and first grouped the different types of necrotizing vasculitis. But she omitted some types of not well-characterized vasculitis, among them granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis).

  12. The enduring legacy of Alfred Gilman senior (1908-1984) to pharmacology and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Ronald P

    2016-09-28

    Alfred Gilman was best known for his co-authorship with Louis Goodman of the seminal textbook on pharmacology The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics in 1941. The book made the discipline of pharmacology relevant to clinical medicine by providing a link between the basic medical sciences and the practice of medicine. Gilman was also instrumental in establishing the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and made important contributions in areas related to renal function, acid-base balance, and diuretics. During the 1960s, he created a first rate department at the newly formed Albert Einstein College of Medicine. A superb lecturer, he commented incisively on issues related to pharmacology, therapeutics, and pathophysiology. Dr Gilman also provided a key link between academia and the pharmaceutical industry by serving as a consultant to several drug firms. The legacy of Alfred Gilman senior was continued by his son, Alfred Goodman Gilman, who became a Nobel Laureate.

  13. Confessions of a serial entrepreneur: a conversation with Alfred E. Mann. Interview by Molly Joel Coye.

    PubMed

    Mann, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    In this wide-ranging interview, Alfred Mann describes the activities of several medical technology enterprises with which he is engaged. Several of them are companies that he formed; one is a nonprofit foundation, the Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering, founded to establish research-oriented institutes on a dozen university campuses and support their work in developing marketable innovations. Mann discusses the need to consider the cost implications of technology, in the context of U.S. health system reform, and describes several important innovations that have emerged from his companies over the years.

  14. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  15. Frank Buchman's Moral Re-Armament and Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics: A Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H. L.

    This paper hypothesizes that Frank Buchman and Alfred Korzybski were aware of each other and made some comments--written or orally--about each other's work. Support for this hypothesis was developed by concentrating on correspondence, documents, and interviews relative to the two men. The paper also provides documentation about Buchman and…

  16. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  17. Alfred E. Moss: 1924 Indy 500 race driver, British dentist and father of Sir Stirling Moss.

    PubMed

    Christen, Joan A

    2005-03-01

    Alfred Ethelbert Moss (1896-1972), a highly successful London dentist, was also a pioneer in English auto racing. In 1923, 27-year old Alfred (already a dentist), arrived in Indianapolis, Indiana, ostensibly to study "advanced dental practice" at the Indiana Dental College. However, his primary motive for coming to Indianapolis was to participate in the Indy 500 race. On Friday, May 30, 1924, 22 car racers started the 12th running of the Indy 500. Among them was Alfred, who finished respectably, in 16th place. Thus, he became the first dentist to compete in the famed Indianapolis 500 race. In 1925, after months of dirt-track running around the U.S., he returned to England. His initial plan was to continue racing in his own country. However, this goal vanished as his dental career began to flourish. Soon he had developed a large and prosperous dental practice in London. In 1927, Moss married Aileen Craufurd, who eventually became a champion female race car driver in England. In 1929, the couple had a son, Stirling. By the 1950s, Stirling Moss was hailed as Britain's best known sports star, and one of the world's fastest and most versatile race drivers of all time. This article follows the life and times of the Moss family, with an emphasis on Alfred's two life endeavors racing and dentistry, and on Stirling's famed racing career. In 1999, Stirling Moss was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

  18. Alfred Binet: Charcot's pupil, a neuropsychologist and a pioneer in intelligence testing.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Teive, Gladys M G; Dallabrida, Norberto; Gutierrez, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    The psychologist, Alfred Binet, who worked under the supervision of Prof. Charcot at the end of the 19th century, made several important contributions to neuropsychology, in partnership with Théodore Simon. Most notable among these was the development of intelligence testing scales.

  19. [Searching for the Lost Psychiatric Archive. History of the Alfred Binet's Archives Collections].

    PubMed

    Klein, Alexandre

    This paper examines the history of Alfred Binet's Archives. It precises the formation of its different collections. It shows and studies the dispersal which often qualifies psychiatric archives and enlightens the difficulties of the historical work relative to this kind of source.

  20. A Paradoxical Partnership in Higher Education: The Alliance between Alfred C. Kinsey and Herman B Wells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Herman B Wells served as president of Indiana University from 1938 to 1962--from the days of the Great Depression into the turbulent 1960s. Alfred C. Kinsey was a professor, zoologist, and human sexuality researcher at Indiana University from 1920 until his death in 1956. A unique and paradoxical professional relationship existed between these two…

  1. [Studying at École de pharmacie de Lille with Alfred Giard in the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Guerriaud, Mathieu

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology.

  2. Periodic Reactions: The Early Works of William C. Bray and Alfred J. Lotka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellati, Rinaldo; Greco, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Oscillating chemical reactions in the homogeneous phase have been studied intensively only since the mid-1960s, but they were known since 1920, having as forerunners the chemist William C. Bray and an "atypical" chemist Alfred J. Lotka. This contribution is the result of a careful reading of their literature and patient research into…

  3. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  4. [The social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and its contribution for the nursing].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Capalbo, Creusa; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deise Moura; Tocantins, Florence Romijn; Rodrigues, Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará; Ciuffo, Lia Leão

    2013-06-01

    Nursing care can be considered a social action that is set in the everyday world, where intersubjective relations are established and must be valued by the nurse in the different contexts in which it acts. It is a theoretical study which aimed to highlight the main concepts of the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz's and its contribution to Nursing as a knowledge and professional practice field. The following questions guided this study: what is the understanding of caring in Nursing from the perspective of the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz's? How to apply Alfred Schütz's theoretical concepts in the action of caring in Nursing? The theoretical concepts of the social phenomenology and their interface with Nursing were delimited. By incorporating the concepts of the t theory of social action developed by Alfred Schütz into Nursing, this study allows nurses to value and apply the aspects highlighted by this theoretical framework within healthcare, education and scientific research.

  5. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis as the sole renal lesion in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Salwa

    2010-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis usually presents with focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescents. We present here a 45-year old man who was treated for tuberculosis and later presented with bilateral ankle swelling. His serum creatinine was 2.4 mg/dL and urine analysis revealed hematuria and proteinuria. His 24-hour urine protein excretion was 1.9 g. Anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) test was positive with cytoplasmic florescence pattern. Renal biopsy revealed focal segmental sclerosis with no active vasculitis and lung biopsy revealed extensive breakdown with cavitations and scattered granulomas.

  6. [Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole++ in the treatment of a case of localized Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Villegas Fernández, F R; Callol Sánchez, L; Moreno Muro, M; Cuevas Ibáñez, A; Gómez de Terreros, F J

    1991-04-01

    A 50 year old man, affected by a Wegener's granulomatosis limited to lung, is presented. The indirect immunofluorescence test for "Anticytoplasmic Antibodies" (ACPA) was negative and we got the definitive diagnostic by the histological study from thoracotomy and biopsy samples. We started treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and a good evolution with an adequate clinical control, x-ray study and blood test was obtained. Some aspects of the value of the ACPA as diagnostic and activity markers of the disease and also the use of an antimicrobial agent on the treatment of this nosological entity are discussed.

  7. Wegener's granulomatosis complicated by central diabetes insipidus and peripheral neutrophy with normal pituitary in a patient.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Huaxiang; Jin, Qiaofei

    2009-08-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing systemic vasculitis that any organ system can be involved in. We report a patient who was hospitalized with recurrent nodules in pulmonary computed tomograph and symptoms such as intermitted fever, polydipsia, insensibility and pain on extremities. Laboratory investigation showed positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in a cytoplastic pattern. The histopathologic result of the lung nodule revealed multiloci necrosis of lung tissue accompanied with large amount of neutrophils. She was diagnosed as WG with multi-systemic involvements and almost recovered on 6 months' prednisone and cyclophosphamide treatment.

  8. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and micropolyarteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, G; Meroni, P L; Tincani, A; Sinico, A; Barcellini, W; Radice, A; Gregorini, G; Froldi, M; Borghi, M O; Balestrieri, G

    1990-01-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have been detected by cell surface radioimmunoassay in nine out of 15 patients with micropolyarteritis (MPA) and in two out of five patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. AECA mostly belonged to the IgG isotype and were present in the active phase of the diseases. These antibodies were not detectable in 10 sera from patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia, suggesting that they were not a mere epiphenomenon consequent to the inflammatory vascular injury. The binding activity was not related to ABH antigens or to HLA class I antigens displayed by resting human endothelial cells in culture and was not influenced by removing immune complexes. Absorption of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), present in MPA and Wegener's granulomatosis sera, did not affect the endothelial binding. AECA-positive sera did not display lytic activity against endothelial cells, neither alone nor after addition of fresh complement or normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although AECA are not cytolytic for endothelial cell monolayers in vitro, the reactivity against intact endothelial cells suggests their possible involvement in in vivo pathological processes affecting vascular structures in small vessel primary vasculitides. PMID:2302834

  9. Diversity of PR3-ANCA epitope specificity in Wegener's granulomatosis. Analysis using the biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Rarok, Agnieszka A; van der Geld, Ymke M; Stegeman, Coen A; Limburg, Pieter C; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2003-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic disease characterized by the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies specific for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA). The functional characteristics of PR3-ANCA differ between quiescent and active disease, suggesting changes in the properties of the autoantibodies in time. Using biosensor technology, we found that PR3-ANCA of different patients (n = 8) recognize a limited number of overlapping regions on PR3 at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. This area might cover an immunodominant epitope, common for PR3-ANCA from all patients, irrespective of the size of the total area recognized by an individual autoantibody. Experiments with sera (n = 4) collected at the moment of diagnosis and at the time of relapse showed that the individual epitope specificities of PR3-ANCA change during the course of the disease. These changes in epitope specificity of PR3-ANCA may be responsible for the differences in functional properties of these autoantibodies between various stages of the disease.

  10. Amphipathic variable region heavy chain peptides derived from monoclonal human Wegener's anti-PR3 antibodies stimulate lymphocytes from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Peen, E; Malone, C; Myers, C; Williams, R C; Peck, A B; Csernok, E; Gross, W L; Staud, R

    2001-01-01

    Amphipathic variable-region heavy chain 11-mer peptides from monoclonal human IgM antiproteinase-3 antibodies were studied for peripheral blood lymphocyte stimulation in 21 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), connective tissue disease controls and normal control subjects. Positive T-cell activation was observed in most experiments with WG patients' lymphocytes using amphipathic VH-region peptides from four different human monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies. Control peptides of the same length but without amphipathic characteristics along with other amphipathic peptides not derived from monoclonal anti-PR3 sequence were employed as controls. No significant lymphocyte stimulation was observed with normal controls, but positive stimulation with amphipathic VH peptides was also recorded in other connective tissue disease controls mainly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Amphipathic peptides not derived from anti-PR3 sequence did not stimulate WG lymphocytes. Our findings indicate that lymphocyte reactivity as an element of cell-mediated immunity may be activated by amphipathic VH-region amino acid sequences of autoantibodies which are themselves associated with diseases such as WG. PMID:11529926

  11. Dental surgery with minimal factor support in the inherited bleeding disorder population at the Alfred Hospital.

    PubMed

    Hewson, I; Makhmalbaf, P; Street, A; McCarthy, P; Walsh, M

    2011-01-01

    In oral surgery, patients with inherited bleeding disorders have historically had factor cover where possible. Factor support is expensive, time consuming to administer and places the patient at a potential risk of complications of therapy. A protocol employing rigorous local measures and minimal factor replacement was used to obtain haemostasis following simple and complex oral surgery on 50 consecutive patients with inherited bleeding disorders, referred to the Alfred Health Dental Unit from the Ronald Sawers Haemophilia Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne. Excellent haemostasis was achieved using standardized local measures of 5% tranexamic acid solution, surgicel and monocryl sutures. Oral surgery may be considered safe to perform in patients with inherited bleeding disorders using minimal factor support and meticulous local haemostatic measures. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Alfred Kastler et le développement du Groupement Ampère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béné, G. J.

    We show, in this paper, the decisive contributions of A. Kastler at the time of the foundation of the Ampere Group by René Freymann in the years 1950-51. Alfred Kastler contributes also to give, during the main steps of its development at the european level in the year 1956-57, to the meetings their particular physionomy : encounter of men for cooperation and mutual help. Nous montrons dans cette communication les contributions décisives de Alfred Kastler, soit au moment de la création, par René Freymann, du Groupement Ampère en 1950-51, soit lors de son développement au niveau européen dès 1956-57. A. Kastler a toujours voulu faire des colloques Ampère des rencontres d'hommes ayant le souci de coopérer et de s'entraider.

  13. Treatment of refractory retrobulbar granuloma with rituximab in a patient with ANCA-negative Wegener's granulomatosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Seido; Maeda, Akihiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Omata, Masami; Yamada, Hidehiro; Ozaki, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    Retrobulbar granuloma is one of the serious complications in Wegener's granulomatosis and often shows resistance to conventional therapy during long-term treatment. The outcome of this complication includes visual loss, orbital and facial deformity, fistula formation, as well as infection. There has been increasing evidence that shows the efficacy of rituximab, a chimeric anti-B cell mAb, for the treatment of autoimmune diseases including Wegener's granulomatosis. We present a 22-year-old Japanese woman who was diagnosed with Wegener's granulomatosis complicated by refractory retrobulbar granuloma. She was admitted to our hospital with pain of the right eye and right proptosis during treatment with monthly IVCY for Wegener's granulomatosis. We diagnosed refractory retrobulbar granuloma by computed tomography (CT) scan and biopsy. She showed a refractory growth of retrobulbar granuloma in spite of negative ANCA. She was also complicated with pulmonary granulomatous lesions in bilateral apices. After approval by an institutional ethical committee and informed consent of this patient, rituximab 375 mg/m2 was intravenously administered weekly four times. Concomitant prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg was also administered for 2 weeks and gradually tapered. Treatment of rituximab resulted in prompt relief of symptoms in this case and the reduction of the granuloma. BVAS score also improved from 6 to 0 at 3 months and was kept in remission for 12 months. Circulating CD19-positive cells were kept less than 0.1% during the follow-up. There were no serious adverse events. This case suggests that rituximab is effective for refractory retrobulbar granuloma complicated in Wegener's granulomatosis even when ANCA titers are negative.

  14. Wegener's Granulomatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... by itself is insufficient to arrest the disease. Respiratory tract disease usually progresses slowly, but renal disease can progress ... it effective for Wegener’s granulomatosis limited to the respiratory tract, and others not. In ... Disease Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, formerly Churg- ...

  15. Alfred Bentz - Erdölgeologe in schwieriger Zeit, 1938-1947

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, E.; Seibold, I.

    2002-12-01

    Alfred Bentz was the leading oil geologist in Germany during the Third Reich, the World War II and thereafter. His relevant activities are treated here mainly on the base of documents in the Geologenarchiv Freiburg. In spite of his prominent position during the Nazi Regime he can obviously not be blamed for personal guilt. As a loyal civil servant he was embedded in the tragic German fate in these years.

  16. "It Didn't Hurt a Bit" Kid: dental precursor to Mad Magazine's Alfred E. Neuman.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2000-07-01

    Since 1956, Mad Magazine has featured the same unique character on virtually every cover: a grinning, freckle-faced, red-headed boy with a missing central incisor and enormous protruding ears. Known as "Alfred E. Neuman," the "What--Me Worry?" Kid, he has become one of the most widely recognized images in the modern Western world. Capturing the imagination of Mad readers, he is portrayed as a comical figure with contradictory characteristics: he is a likeable, inept, inspiring, mischievous, quintessential nerd.

  17. Video Q&A: allergies and allergen immunotherapy--an interview with Alfred William Frankland.

    PubMed

    Frankland, A William

    2014-01-21

    In this video Q&A, we talk to Dr Alfred William Frankland about the highlights of his career, including working alongside Sir Alexander Fleming, co-founding the British Allergy Society, and introducing pollen counts to UK weather forecasts. We also discuss his opinions on why misconceptions about allergies and allergen immunotherapy still exist. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/255.

  18. Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: their dispute over the units of selection.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace independently discovered the mechanism of natural selection for evolutionary change. However, they viewed the working of selection differently. For Darwin, selection was always focused on the benefit for the individual. For Wallace, selection was as much something of benefit for the group as for the individual. This difference is traced to their different background political-economic views, with Darwin in favor of Adam Smith's view of society and Wallace following Robert Owen in being a socialist.

  19. Video Q&A: Allergies and allergen immunotherapy - an interview with Alfred William Frankland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this video Q&A, we talk to Dr Alfred William Frankland about the highlights of his career, including working alongside Sir Alexander Fleming, co-founding the British Allergy Society, and introducing pollen counts to UK weather forecasts. We also discuss his opinions on why misconceptions about allergies and allergen immunotherapy still exist. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/255. PMID:24447813

  20. Citation for presentation of the 2016 Alfred E. Treibs Award to Patrick G. Hatcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2017-03-01

    I am privileged and honored to introduce Patrick G. Hatcher as the recipient of the 2016 Alfred E. Treibs Award. I have known Pat for almost twenty years, over which time we have shared an interest in biomacromolecules, biodegradation, and the development of analytical methods. Pat is a true chemist at heart and we have all benefited greatly from his insights on the examination of complex macromolecular materials through state-of-the art spectroscopic analyses.

  1. [Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].

    PubMed

    Gilman, S L

    2002-01-01

    The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin.

  2. Preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky by Alfred Adler, MD.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    This is a previously unpublished work by Alfred Adler that was written in 1936 as a preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky. A theory of schizophrenia is described in which characteristic prepsychotic features, especially lack of social interest and oversensitivity to real and imagined slights, lead to increasing irrationalism and preoccupation with grandiose ideas. The establishment of a cooperative therapeutic relationship and the instilling of hope are presented as central factors for successful treatment.

  3. Airway Surgery in Tracheostomised Patients with Wegener Granulomatosis Leading to Subglottic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Sivrikoz, Nükhet; Çamcı, Emre

    2015-10-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a multisystemic disorder characterised by granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory system. The growing of proliferative tissue towards the larynx and trachea may cause airway obstruction on account of subglottic stenosis. In this situation, the surgical goal is to eliminate the airway obstruction by providing natural airway anatomy. While mild lesions do not require surgical intervention, in fixed lesions, surgical intervention is required, such as tracheostomy, laser resection and dilatation. In tracheostomised patients, granuloma formation surrounding the tracheostomy cannula may occur in the trachea. Inflammation and newly formed granulation tissue result in severe stenosis in the airways. During surgical treatment of such patients, airway management is important. In this case report, we will discuss gas exchange and airway management with jet ventilation (JV) during excision of the granulation tissue with endolaryngeal laser surgery, leading to subglottic stenosis in tracheostomised patients in WG.

  4. Limited-Form Wegener Granulomatosis Case: Anaesthetic Approach and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sarıtaş, Tuba Berra; Şahin, Osman; Borazan, Hale; Otelcioğlu, Şeref

    2014-12-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a kind of vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized arteries. Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and necrotizing glomerulonephritis of the kidneys are present. WG affects mainly Caucasian individuals between 15-75 years old, with a mean age of onset of 41 years. It affects both males and females equally. Kidney involvement is not present in the limited form of WG. Peripheral nerve blocks are good alternatives when general anaesthesia is risky. Popliteal block is blockade of the sciatic nerve at the popliteal region. Popliteal block is a kind of peripheral block for surgeries below the knee level. In this article, we report on the anaesthesia management of a 61-year-old limited-form WG patient for whom general anaesthesia was risky because of lung involvement.

  5. ANCA-negative Wegener's granulomatosis with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Jin; Bae, Jung Ho; Cho, Min-Sun; Park, Kee Duk; Jeong, Jee Hyang

    2013-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels with granulomatous formation. Though it is known for respiratory tract and kidney involvement, neurologic manifestation has been also reported. Herein we report a patient who suffered pansinusitis with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies but reached remission by immunosuppressant after the diagnosis of WG. A 54-yr-old female visited with headache, hearing difficulty, and progressive bulbar symptoms. She experienced endoscopic sinus surgeries due to refractory sinusitis. Neurologic examination revealed multiple lower cranial nerve palsies. Vasculitic markers showed no abnormality. Nasal biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis involving small vessels. Given cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, her symptoms were prominently improved. WG should be considered in the patient with multiple cranial nerve palsies, especially those with paranasal sinus disease. Because WG can be lethal if delayed in treatment, prompt immunosuppressant is warranted after the diagnostic tissue biopsy.

  6. Combined CNS and pituitary involvement as a primary manifestation of Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Spísek, Radek; Kolouchová, Elena; Jensovský, Jirí; Rusina, Robert; Fendrych, Pavel; Plas, Jaroslav; Bartůnková, Jirina

    2006-09-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis of small and medium vessels. It predominantly affects the upper and/or lower respiratory airway and kidneys. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. WG relatively frequently affects the nervous system (in 30-50% according to the different studies). Most frequently, it manifests as necrotizing vasculitis that leads to the peripheral neuropathies or to the cranial nerves palsy. Impairment of the central nervous system (CNS) is less frequent and occurs in 2-8% of patients. Three major pathogenetic mechanisms were described: CNS vasculitis, spreading of granulomas from the adjacent anatomical areas (paranasal cavities, orbit etc.), and new formation of granulomas in brain tissue. This case report describes patients in whom WG manifested in the form of localized skin involvement and combined CNS involvement that included pituitary gland. Atypical presentation of WG impedes and slows down the process of diagnosis and emphasizes the need for collaboration between medical specialists.

  7. Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Aortic aneurysm is not common in young patient. When a young patient presents with abdominal aortic aneurysm, there may be an underlying cause. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of a 33-year-old gentleman who presented with flu like illness, chest and abdominal pains following a tooth extraction. A chest X-ray and subsequent computerised tomogram of the chest and abdomen demonstrated lung nodules and an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm was repaired and his serology was positive for Wegener's granulomatosis. A nasal mucosal biopsy confirmed WG. He was treated with oral steroids and cyclophosphamide. His graft leaked and had to be replaced with a synthetic graft. Two months after his re-operation, he remains well. Conclusion Whenever a young patient presents with an abdominal aortic aneurysm, an underlying connective disease should be excluded because early steroid/immunosuppressive treatment may prevent the development of further aneurysms. PMID:20066062

  8. [C-ANCA positive necrotising scleritis and multiple sclerosis compatible with ocular Wegener: treatment with rituximab].

    PubMed

    Aldasoro-Cáceres, V; Aldasoro-Cáceres, I; Pérez-Moreiras, J V; Murié-Fernández, M; Ibáñez-Bosch, R

    2014-01-01

    A patient diagnosed with necrotizing scleritis, c-ANCA+ an orbital pseudotumour, and possible multiple sclerosis in 2003 was treated with oral cyclophosphamide and steroids with partial response. Between 2005-2010 she suffered self-limited episodes. In 2010 a first scleral transplant was performed with poor outcome. She was treated with rituximab, and a second graft was performed with good results. At 12 months there was no change in magnetic resonance and the second graft healed. Wegener's disease with limited involvement of the orbit and/or the eye is a rare condition. The histopathology, blood analysis, symptoms and good response to treatment are the key to its diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Rare presentation of Wegener's granulomatosis in the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Baird, Samantha M; Pratap, Upasna; McLean, Catriona; Law, Candice P; Maartens, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis that can affect a variety of organs including ear, nose and throat, lungs and kidneys. However WG is unusual in the pituitary and rare in the central nervous system. A 56-year-old male with likely WG presented with polyuria and polydipsia despite six months of conservative medical management. MRI scanning revealed an enlarging heterogeneously enhancing pituitary gland. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary biopsy and debulking, final tissue pathology was diagnostic for WG in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis remains difficult but most patients present with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) as well as varying degrees of hypopituitarism on a background of disease activity in other organs. Clinical judgment needs to balance the need for invasive surgical tissue diagnosis with increasing immunosuppressive therapy. It is important to consider this rare complication of WG to ensure timely diagnosis and management. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the Item Selection and Weighting in the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    MAHR, ALFRED D.; NEOGI, TUHINA; LAVALLEY, MICHAEL P.; DAVIS, JOHN C.; HOFFMAN, GARY S.; MCCUNE, W. JOSEPH; SPECKS, ULRICH; SPIERA, ROBERT F.; ST.CLAIR, E. WILLIAM; STONE, JOHN H.; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) with respect to its selection and weighting of items. Methods This study used the BVAS/WG data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial. The scoring frequencies of the 34 predefined items and any “other” items added by clinicians were calculated. Using linear regression with generalized estimating equations in which the physician global assessment (PGA) of disease activity was the dependent variable, we computed weights for all predefined items. We also created variables for clinical manifestations frequently added as other items, and computed weights for these as well. We searched for the model that included the items and their generated weights yielding an activity score with the highest R2 to predict the PGA. Results We analyzed 2,044 BVAS/WG assessments from 180 patients; 734 assessments were scored during active disease. The highest R2 with the PGA was obtained by scoring WG activity based on the following items: the 25 predefined items rated on ≥5 visits, the 2 newly created fatigue and weight loss variables, the remaining minor other and major other items, and a variable that signified whether new or worse items were present at a specific visit. The weights assigned to the items ranged from 1 to 21. Compared with the original BVAS/WG, this modified score correlated significantly more strongly with the PGA. Conclusion This study suggests possibilities to enhance the item selection and weighting of the BVAS/WG. These changes may increase this instrument's ability to capture the continuum of disease activity in WG. PMID:18512722

  11. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic anti body (ANCA)-negative limited form of Wegener's granulomatosis; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Tsubochi, H; Kishimoto, K; Imai, T; Kaimori, M

    2007-07-01

    A 54-year-old man, who was suspected to suffer from multi-drug resistant lung abcess, was admitted to our hospital. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed large cavitary mass in right S6 and nodules in left S1+2 and S10. No abnormal findings were detected without raised immunoglobulin E (IgE) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was repeatedly negative. We couldn't make a diagnosis by percutaneous biopsy. Finally we performed open lung biopsy of left lung, and Wegener's granulomatosis was diagnosed at last He improved immediately after treatment with prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. ANCA-negative Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered when we diagnose multiple pulmonary nodules.

  12. [A case of Wegener's granulomatosis with seronegative for PR-3 ANCA and seropositive for MPO-ANCA].

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kensuke; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Zaima, Mika; Kohno, Chiyoko; Yamada, Yoshihito; Murota, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Tamiko

    2009-07-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with low fever, dry cough and occult hematuria with abnormality on her chest X-ray film showing patchy shadows in the apices of both lungs. The patient was seronegative for PR-3 ANCA and seropositive for MPO-ANCA and transbronchial lung biopsy showed inflammatory granulation tissue. We performed an open lung biopsy to achieve a definitive diagnosis. The lung specimen showed the typical findings of Wegener's granulomatosis. Renal biopsy revealed necrotizing glomerulonephiritis. A systemic form of Wegener's granulomatosis was diagnosed. Initilal treatment combined oral prednisolone at 30 mg daily with oral cyclophosphamide at 50 mg daily improved not only the clinical course, but also the radiographic findings. Finally, she became seronegative for MPO-ANCA.

  13. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  14. [Doctor and poet as rivals. Sigmund Freud, Alfred von Berger and the narrative of female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a passage in the Dora case history where Freud suggests some differences between a literary and a clinical narrative of female homosexuality, this paper presents examples which he might have had in mind. Besides Balzac's "La fille aux yeux d'or" (1834/35) it is in particular Alfred v. Berger's novella "Die Italienerin [The Italian woman]" (1904) which may have served as a model and counterpoint to the literary strategies used in Freud's case history. Freud had a relationship of long standing with Berger. This newly discovered source may provide a clue for the date at which Freud finalized the Dora manscript which he had held back for years.

  15. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  16. Nuclear Planetology: Constraining the Driving Force in Wegener's Continental Drift Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, G.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear planetology [1] is a new research field, which aims at deciphering the nuclear physics processes responsible for the evolution of ultra-substellar objects and the driving force in Wegener's continental drift theory by means of Re-Os nuclear geochronometry [2]. Terrestrial Re/Os ratios observed within diamond sulphide inclusions [3], compatible with lunar r-process production ratios of Th/U≈1≈Au/Ir [4], drop from ≈0.8 to 0.2-0.05 for nucleogeochronometric ages between 2.3 Ga and 1.4 Ga [5]. It has therefore been argued [5,6] that the Re/Os fractionation is related to a change in oxygen fugacity due to the physics/chemistry of Earth's core after a possibly Fermi-pressure controlled core collapse [4]. Here, Pd/Ru, Pd/Pt, Pd/Ir, Pd/Os, Ru/Ir, Ru/Os, Pt/Ir or Pt/Os ratios from 24 published H chondrite components [7] are connected to their respective nucleogeochronometric ages to constrain an extended fossil fractionation record over 800 Ma. The following ranges are obtained: 0.06-1.04 (Pd/Ru), 0.06-0.79 (Pd/Pt), 0.06-1.76 (Pd/Os), 0.07-1.94 (Pd/Ir), 1.08-1.99 (Ru/Ir), 0.83-2.41 (Pt/Os), 0.82-2.64 (Pt/Ir). Comparing the Re/Os fractionation pattern of the diamond sulphide inclusions with these results and considering that Re is readily oxidized even at ultra-low oxygen fugacity, it may be concluded that (i) extremely reducing conditions within Earth's core basically preserve any unfractionated r-process element ratio until today; and (ii) nuclear/quantum physics processes leading to the observed ratios and fractionation pattern are ultimately the driving force in Wegener's continental drift theory. [1] Roller (2015), Abstract T34B-0407, AGU Spring Meeting. [2] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-17. [3] Smit et al. (2010), GCA 74, 3292. [4] Roller (2015), Abstract #5041, 78th Ann. Met. Soc. Meeting. [5] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-2399. [6] Roller (2015), Abstract PG34A-0283, AGU Spring Meeting. [7] Horan et al. (2009), GCA 73

  17. Sir Alfred Keogh--the years of reform 1899-1910.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sydney V

    2008-12-01

    History inevitably requires individuals to influence and change circumstances; men and women of principles, courage or power who influence events to such an extent they produce change, even to the extent of changing the course of history. Alfred Keogh was such a man. He possessed strong principles and the courage to convert a nineteenth-century attitude to the health of an army into the modern vision of Army Health we have today. Keogh was plucked from obscurity in India and plunged into a war, the outcome of which was never certain. The reputation of the Army had been tarnished by a government who had done next to nothing to prepare it for modern war or ameliorate the condition of the common soldier and the Boer War exposed the extent of that neglect to a shocked public. Ultimately the humiliation of the Army prompted radical reforms which converted a metaphorically red-coated army into a fighting force fit for the twentieth-century. During this time Keogh led the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) through a very painful rebirth. His meteoric rise from Major to Lt. General in a little less than five years was matched only by his vision of the future and the dynamic effect he had in effecting change. This essay looks at the influence Alfred Keogh had in the reform of the RAMC that occurred in Edwardian Britain.

  18. [Delayed diagnosis in a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) with initial predominance of joint involvement].

    PubMed

    Macri, Anca; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, Florin; Popa, Gabriela; Stoica, Radu

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 53-year-old female, initially admitted in a rheumatology department for fever and diffuse arthritis--being diagnosed with sero-positive rheumathoid arthritis. Although the chest X-ray and CT scan of thorax showed several abnormal features (medium lobe atelectasis, pseudo-cyst in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe with satellite milliary nodules, mediastinal lymph node enlargement), the investigations performed in our pneumology department couldn't establish the etiology of radiological abnormalities. With non-steroidal antiinflamatory treatment, the patient got worse, being readmitted in our hospital after 3 months for high fever, diffuse arthralgia with functional impairment, small hemoptysis, loss of hearing and left ear ache and on chest X-ray with bilateral macronodules, some of these with cavitation. The investigations showed a slight alveolar hemorrhagic syndrome, positive cANCA antibodies, negative antiCCP antibodies--the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis with lung and ENT involvement being established. Puls-therapy with Solumedrol and i.v. Cyclophosphamide was thereafter initiated with a favorable evolution. This case is special because of the initial misdiagnosis due to the atypical pulmonary manifestations and the non-specific paraclinical findings, in the context of diffuse arthritis with positive rheumatoid factor.

  19. A case of exorbitism in association with Wegener's granulomatosis with renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Beji, S; Fatma, L Ben; Chebbi, A; Rais, L; Krid, M; Smaoui, W; Maiz, H Ben; Zouaghi, K; Moussa, F Ben

    2012-03-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, lungs, and kidneys. Ocular involvement can occur in about 50% of cases. There are very few reports of WG with orbital inflammation and exorbitism. We report a case of a female patient who presented with exorbitism related to orbital inflammation secondary to WG, with renal involvement. A 29-year-old woman with a previous history of recurrent pan-sinusitis presented with bilateral exophthalmos and renal failure with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Computed tomography showed extensive bilateral soft tissue in the retro-orbital area. Immunologic tests showed the presence of type-C anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and renal biopsy revealed pauci immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and pulses of cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. After a follow-up of 10 months, the renal outcome was favorable with improvement of renal function but there was persistence of exorbitism and loss of visual function. Our case suggests that WG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent bilateral exophthalmos. Prompt recognition of this early manifestation is important for the institution of early treatment.

  20. Cocaine-induced midline destruction lesions with positive ANCA test mimicking Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Stahelin, Letícia; Fialho, Sonia Cristina de Magalhães Souza; Neves, Fabrício Souza; Junckes, Larissa; Werner de Castro, Gláucio Ricardo; Pereira, Ivânio Alves

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine by inhalation may induce midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), which can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the ear, nose and throat lesions of Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG). We describe the case of a 43-year-old female patient admitted with a two-year history of nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She had been diagnosed with WG for five months, being on prednisone and cyclophosphamide. On her physical examination, perforation of her nasal septum and palate was observed. Laboratory tests showed elevated acute phase proteins and a positive p-ANCA test. ELISA assays anti-proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase were negative. The paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) showed destruction of the nasal septum and palate, in addition to bilateral maxillary sinusitis. Chest CT was normal. Nasal mucosal biopsy revealed an inflammatory infiltrate, with neither granuloma nor vasculitis. When questioned, she admitted being a cocaine user for five years. Medical therapy and cocaine use were withdrawn. She has been followed up for six months and no other lesion or other organ symptoms occurred. Differential diagnosis in patients with midline destructive lesions can be very challenging. Evaluation should include enquiry about intranasal use of cocaine. Although ANCA testing does not clearly differentiate the ANCA found in some patients with CIMDL from those found in WG patients, the localized involvement and the biopsy findings non-characteristic of small vessel granulomatous vasculitis should be recognized as features for cocaine-induced lesions.

  1. c-ANCA-induced neutrophil-mediated lung injury: a model of acute Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hattar, K; Oppermann, S; Ankele, C; Weissmann, N; Schermuly, R T; Bohle, R M; Moritz, R; Krögel, B; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Sibelius, U; Grandel, U

    2010-07-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Fulminant disease can present as acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, a model of ALI in WG was developed using isolated rat lungs. Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were primed with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to induce surface expression of PR3. Co-perfusion of TNF-primed neutrophils and monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies induced a massive weight gain in isolated lungs. This effect was not observed when control immunoglobulin G was co-perfused with TNF-primed PMNs. The c-ANCA-induced oedema formation was paralleled by an increase in the capillary filtration coefficient as a marker of increased pulmonary endothelial permeability. In contrast, pulmonary artery pressure was not affected. In the presence of the oxygen radical scavenger superoxide dismutase and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, c-ANCA-induced lung oedema could be prevented. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase was equally effective in preventing c-ANCA-induced lung injury. In conclusion, anti-PR3 antibodies induced neutrophil mediated, elastase- and oxygen radical-dependent ALI in the isolated lung. This experimental model supports the hypothesis of a pathogenic role for c-ANCA in WG and offers the possibility of the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lung injury in fulminant WG.

  2. Lack of efficacy of rituximab in Wegener's granulomatosis with refractory granulomatous manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Aries, P M; Hellmich, B; Voswinkel, J; Both, M; Nölle, B; Holl‐Ulrich, K; Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of rituximab (RTX) in patients with refractory Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Patients and methods Eight consecutive patients with active refractory WG were included. In all patients disease activity had persisted despite standard treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, as well as tumour necrosis factor α blockade 3 months before inclusion in the study. Patients had particular granulomatous manifestations like retro‐orbital granulomata (n = 5), nodules of the lungs (n = 1), and subglottic stenosis (n = 2). RTX was given intravenously every 4th week in combination with the standard treatment in five patients and with methotrexate in two others. Disease extent and activity were monitored clinically by interdisciplinary care, immunodiagnostics (ANCA serology, B cells by flow cytometry), and magnetic resonance imaging. Results Beneficial response and a reduction in disease activity were seen in three patients, two of whom went into complete remission. In three other patients, disease activity remained unchanged while the disease progressed in the remaining two patients. In all patients peripheral blood B cells fell to zero during treatment with RTX. cANCA titres remained unchanged in all except one patient. Conclusion In this pilot study, B lymphocyte depletion was not associated with a change of the ANCA titres or obvious clinical improvement of refractory granulomatous disease in patients with WG. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of RTX in WG. PMID:16269425

  3. Erosive rhinitis resembling granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in an Anatolian shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Marlies; Basson, Sandra

    2015-04-21

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) is one of the idiopathicimmune-mediated small-vessel vasculitides described in humans which are characterised by the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. It most commonly involves capillaries, venules and arterioles of the ear, nose and throat, lungs and glomeruli. A case of destructive haemopurulent rhinitis associated with relapsing periods of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness as well as generalised pulmonary infiltrates in a young Anatolian shepherd dog is presented that closely resembles granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) as reported in humans. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were detected in the dog's serum. Signs resolved promptly and completely once immunosuppressive doses of prednisone were administered, and have not recurred. This is the first report onthe use of pANCA to investigate rhinitis in dogs. It is also, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of a relapsing haemopurulent lytic rhinitis in this species. The concurrent manifestations of erosive haemopurulent rhinitis, ground-glass opacities on pulmonary computed tomography, pyrexia and listlessness resemble GPA as described in humans.

  4. Goodpasture syndrome involving overlap with Wegener's granulomatosis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, R; Meyers, K; Mogyorosi, A; Madaio, M P; Neilson, E G

    1997-11-01

    A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the hospital with nodular pulmonary infiltrates and acute renal failure. Wegener's granulomatosis was initially considered to be most likely because of the presence of increased serum levels of c-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA). A consultation through the Internet after a renal biopsy demonstrated crescentic, necrotizing glomerulonephritis and linear deposits of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement C3, typical of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. Hemodialysis was instituted; however, the patient suddenly developed a massive cerebral hemorrhage and died before full therapy could take effect. Postmortem analysis of the patient's sera revealed high titers of IgG against the alpha 3 NC1 domain of type IV collagen. Serologic evidence of both p-ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies are becoming more frequently recognized in the setting of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The patient reported here had the unusual combination of c-ANCA antibodies with anti-GBM disease, and this association raises complex questions regarding the pathogenesis of this type of renal injury.

  5. 75 FR 30427 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is..., Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID, that meet the definitions of ``unassociated... Laboratory of Anthropology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the five cultural...

  6. The New Liberal Arts. An Exchange of Views. An Occasional Paper from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerner, James D., Ed.; And Others

    The position taken by Stephen White, of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (New York, New York), in the title article of this collection, states that the programs of many liberal arts colleges are moving toward incorporating applied mathematics and technological literacy into the curriculum. White also states that colleges should be adjusting their…

  7. Clinical value of gallium-67 scintigraphy in assessment of disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Slart, R; Jager, P; Poot, L; Piers, D; Cohen, T; Stegeman, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of active pulmonary and paranasal involvement in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) can be difficult. The diagnostic value of gallium-67 scintigraphy in WG is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the added diagnostic value of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with WG with suspected granulomatous inflammation in the paranasal and chest regions. Methods: Retrospectively, the diagnostic contribution of chest and head planar gallium scans in 40 episodes of suspected vasculitis disease activity in 28 patients with WG was evaluated. Scans were grouped into normal or increased uptake for each region. Histological proof or response to treatment was the "gold standard" for the presence of WG activity. Results: WG activity was confirmed in 8 (20%) episodes, with pulmonary locations in three, paranasal in four, and both in one (n=7 patients); all these gallium scans showed increased gallium uptake (sensitivity 100%). Gallium scans were negative for the pulmonary area in 23/36 scans (specificity 64%), and negative for paranasal activity in 13/16 scans (specificity 81%) in episodes without WG activity. Positive predictive value of WG activity for lungs and paranasal region was 24% and 63%, respectively, negative predictive value was 100% for both regions. False positive findings were caused by bacterial or viral infections. Conclusion: Gallium scans are clinically helpful as a negative scan virtually excludes active WG. Gallium scintigraphy of chest and nasal region has a high sensitivity for the detection of disease activity in WG. However, because of positive scans in cases of bacterial or viral infections, specificity was lower. PMID:12810430

  8. Expression of recombinant proteinase 3, the autoantigen in Wegener's granulomatosis, in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Van der Geld, Y M; Smook, M L F; Huitema, M G; Harmsen, M C; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G M

    2002-06-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is the major autoantigen for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Little is known about the major antigenic sites on PR3. To facilitate epitope mapping, PR3 was cloned in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. Four different sequences of the PR3 cDNA were amplified by PCR: two clones containing the pro-peptide of PR3 with or without a His-tag (rproPR3-his and rproPR3, respectively) and two clones without the pro-peptide and with or without a His-tag (rPR3-his and rPR3, respectively). The PR3 sequences were cloned behind the polyhedrin promoter and the honeybee melittin signal peptide enabling secretion of rPR3. Plasmids were transposed into the genome of baculovirus, and wild types as well as PR3-containing virus genomes were transfected into Sf21 insect cells. All four rPR3 variants were secreted into the medium and were recognized by anti-neutrophil PR3 rabbit serum and by at least two anti-PR3 monoclonal antibodies. Mature forms of PR3 were recognized by almost all patient sera, whereas the pro-forms of PR3 were recognized by 14 of 18 PR3-ANCA sera tested. On SDS-PAGE, the four rPR3 forms migrated at approximately 32 kDa. RPR3-his and rproPR3-his could be purified by means of this His-tag. In conclusion, especially the mature rPR3s are well recognized by PR3-ANCA sera. The presence of a C-terminal His-tag facilitated purification of His-tagged rPR3. Thus, rPR3 expressed in insect cells can be used as a tool for diagnostic tests as well as for epitope mapping studies.

  9. Results of endoscopic surgery and intralesional steroid therapy for airway compromise due to tracheobronchial Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nouraei, S A R; Obholzer, R; Ind, P W; Salama, A D; Pusey, C D; Porter, F; Howard, D J; Sandhu, G S

    2008-01-01

    Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life threatening condition. To assess the results of laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Records of 18 previously untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006, were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16) years (range 13-74). There were 13 patients with tracheal and five with tracheal and bronchial lesions. The average tracheal lesion height was 8 (3) mm, located 23 (9) mm below the glottis. There were 1, 10 and 7 Myer-Cotton grade I, II and III lesions, respectively. Mean intervention-free interval following minimally invasive treatment was 26 (2.8) months. Following endobronchial therapy, the median intervention-free interval was 22 months (p>0.8 vs tracheal lesions). No patient required a tracheostomy or endoluminal stenting. Intralesional steroid therapy and conservative endoluminal surgery is an effective strategy for treating airway compromise due to active tracheal and bronchial WG, obviating the need for airway bypass or stenting. We recommend the combination of endotracheal dilatation, conservative laser surgery and steroid therapy as the standard of care for treating airway compromise due to obstructive tracheobronchial WG.

  10. Using inpatient data to estimate the prevalence of Wegener's granulomatosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Cui, Yazhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Heng; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Summary China lacks a registry for most rare diseases, so specific epidemiological data on those diseases are lacking. A strategy involving the DISMOD II model was recently formulated to estimate the epidemiological parameters of rare diseases, and this strategy has been used to study several rare diseases. The current study used this strategy to estimate the prevalence of one such rare disease, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), in China based on its incidence, mortality, and rate of remission according to the software tool DISMOD II. The incidence of WG was calculated based on inpatient data from 100 hospitals throughout China. The cause-specific mortality from WG was estimated based on data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States and adjusted for the Chinese population. The rate of disease remission was based on the results of previous study. The current results indicated that the prevalence of WG in China is 1.94/100,000, which is slightly lower than that in Europe and the United States. The mean age at onset of WG in China was calculated to be 38.9 years for males and 39.3 years for females and the duration of disease was 28 years for both male and female patients. These figures are similar to published data from other countries. In conclusion, the DISMOD II model was used to estimate the prevalence of WG in China, providing a basis to evaluate the potential disease burden and orphan drug use by patients with WG. The DISMOD II model could be used to estimate the prevalence of other rare diseases. PMID:26989646

  11. [A patient with both cocaine-induced nasal septum destruction and antibodies against anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA); potential confusion with Wegener's disease].

    PubMed

    Scheenstra, R J; van Buren, M; Koopman, J P

    2007-10-27

    A 37-year-old male cocaine user presented with continual, sanguinolent nasal obstruction and persistant pain following a nasal operation one year ago. Examination showed crustae, granulations and exposed septal cartilage in the right nasal passage in addition to a considerable septal deviation to the left. No other physical abnormalities were found. A biopsy of the nasal mucosa showed acute necrotic inflammation. The serological examination revealed markedly elevated anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) titres with positive reactions against proteinase-3, indicating Wegener's disease. Additional testing also showed a positive ANCA reaction for human neutrophil elastase, which made cocaine use a more plausible cause for the nasal abnormalities than Wegener's disease. Treatment consisted of nasal flushing with saline and, for a short period, a nasal tampon with hydrocortisone-oxytetracycline-polymyxin B ointment. However, the patient did, ultimately, develop a septal perforation. Cocaine-induced nasal abnormalities can imitate symptoms that may fit Wegener's disease, including relevant serological ANCA findings.

  12. Cohort profile: the Welsh Geriatric Registrar-Led Research Network (WeGeN): rationale, design and description

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sara; Butler, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Medical trainees are required to undertake audit and quality improvement projects. They must also have an understanding of the principles of research and are encouraged to participate in research projects. However, the constraints of time, a lack of formal training and rotation between different training posts create barriers to audit cycle completion and pursuing research. This leads to trainees being reluctant to undertake research, facilitates poor quality research and risks incomplete audit. Participants The Welsh Geriatricians Network (WeGeN) has been created with the aims of facilitating collaborative, trainee-led research within Geriatric Medicine in Wales, promoting research engagement and improving the research evidence base for older patients. By coordinating collaborative research projects across different sites within Wales, trainees continue existing projects at new sites, allowing completion of projects and establishing the long-term infrastructure and experienced personnel needed for high-quality research data to be gathered. Findings WeGeN has facilitated 4 national audits, all of which are intended for peer review publication. The first project considers the service provision for the older person in the emergency department, the second Parkinson's disease, the third reviews delirium management and the fourth project considers epidemiology of surgical disease in older people. Future plans The objective of this project is to further establish and develop WeGeN as a group which facilitates high-quality research and provides the opportunity for geriatric trainees to engage in research activity. It is anticipated that the establishment of this research platform will provide a blueprint for the development of other such networks in the UK and beyond. PMID:28196947

  13. Cohort profile: the Welsh Geriatric Registrar-Led Research Network (WeGeN): rationale, design and description.

    PubMed

    Jelley, Benjamin; Long, Sara; Butler, John; Hewitt, Jonathan

    2017-02-14

    Medical trainees are required to undertake audit and quality improvement projects. They must also have an understanding of the principles of research and are encouraged to participate in research projects. However, the constraints of time, a lack of formal training and rotation between different training posts create barriers to audit cycle completion and pursuing research. This leads to trainees being reluctant to undertake research, facilitates poor quality research and risks incomplete audit. The Welsh Geriatricians Network (WeGeN) has been created with the aims of facilitating collaborative, trainee-led research within Geriatric Medicine in Wales, promoting research engagement and improving the research evidence base for older patients. By coordinating collaborative research projects across different sites within Wales, trainees continue existing projects at new sites, allowing completion of projects and establishing the long-term infrastructure and experienced personnel needed for high-quality research data to be gathered. WeGeN has facilitated 4 national audits, all of which are intended for peer review publication. The first project considers the service provision for the older person in the emergency department, the second Parkinson's disease, the third reviews delirium management and the fourth project considers epidemiology of surgical disease in older people. The objective of this project is to further establish and develop WeGeN as a group which facilitates high-quality research and provides the opportunity for geriatric trainees to engage in research activity. It is anticipated that the establishment of this research platform will provide a blueprint for the development of other such networks in the UK and beyond. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Before New Big Science: Alfred O. C. Nier and the Resurrection of Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The mass spectrometer found its first success as a means to determine the isotopic masses and constitutions of chemical elements. As the last known elements were analyzed, its future in physics and chemistry laboratories was in doubt. From the 1940s to the 1960s, however, the mass spectrometer transformed from an instrument built for a specific purpose into a flexible analytical tool that brought together researchers from disciplines across the natural sciences. This talk examines that transition through the career of Alfred Otto Carl Nier, the University of Minnesota mass spectroscopist who was instrumental in both finding new realms where his favored tool could be applied and in building an interdisciplinary community around it. It argues that the reinvention of the mass spectrometer that Nier helped effect prefigured a similar transition in accelerator laboratories, which Catherine Westfall and Robert P. Crease have called ``New Big Science,'' some decades later.

  15. Capturing the will: Imposture, delusion, and exposure in Alfred Russel Wallace's defence of spirit photography.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Benjamin David

    2014-06-01

    The co-discoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace, found himself deeply embroiled in a range of controversies surrounding the relationship between science and spiritualism. At the heart of these controversies lay a crisis of evidence in cases of delusion or imposture. He had the chance to observe the many epistemic impasses brought about by this crisis while participating in the trial of the American medium Henry Slade, and through his exchanges with the physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter and the psychical researcher Frederic Myers. These contexts help to explain the increasing value that Wallace placed on the evidence of spirit photography. He hoped that it could simultaneously break these impasses, while answering once and for all the interconnected questions of the unity of the psyche and the reliability of human observation.

  16. Alfred Russel Wallace's medical libertarianism: state medicine, human progress, and evolutionary purpose.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), naturalist and explorer of South America and the Malay Archipelago, secured his place in history by independently discovering the theory of natural selection. His letter outlining the theory was sent from Ternate in eastern Indonesia and received at Down House, according to Charles Darwin (1809-82), on June 18, 1858, prompting the now-famed evolutionist to rush his languishing manuscript to press. Wallace's contributions to evolutionary biology, biogeography, and anthropology are well known, but his medical views have received far less attention. Within the context of a strident populist antivaccination movement and an ominous elitist eugenics campaign, Wallace took his stand, which revealed itself in a libertarianism that defended traditional socialist constituencies (the working poor, the lumpenproletariat, and feminist reformers) against state-mandated medical interventions. Rather than viewing Wallace as a heterodox contrarian, this article argues that his positions were logical outgrowths of his medical libertarianism and evolutionary and social theories.

  17. Archival note: an inquiry into the relationshp between Alfred Binet and Cyril Burt.

    PubMed

    Faber, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Two recent archival items offer material for analysis of Alfred Binet's (1857-1911) and Cyril Burt's (1883-1971) relationship in the early twentieth century. Burt's letter to Binet's biographer Theta Wolf was an answer to her request for information about his contact with Binet. An analysis of Burt's account prompts more questions than it answers. His statements in the letter are compared with previous ones and are put into the context of the activities of the two men, but these do not enlighten us about his actual relations with Binet. The problem arises because of Burt's desciptive vagueness and lack of supporting evidence. Despite attacks against Burt's integrity made from 1976 onward, we found no conclusive evidence of false claims. The negative outcome of this analysis probably results from Burt's faulty memory, and herein lies the caveat that personal memories make unreliable material for historical accounts.

  18. Discussion of Alfred Alder's preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    In his preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky, Alfred Adler (1) found his theory of the dynamics of schizophrenia supported in the Diary, (2) alluded to Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, and (3) briefly touched on the possibility and conditions of recovery. To add to the understanding of Adler's "Preface," this discussion (1) expands his theory of schizophrenia, (2) gives some concrete data of Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, (3) describes two episodes of recovery subsequent to the "Preface," and (4) introduces an important aspect of Adler's theory, which he had to omit out of consideration for Nijinsky's wife, Romola-namely, her role in her husband's disorder. With the larger theoretical and historical context established. Adler's "Preface" can be appreciated for its predictive validity.

  19. Alfred P. Southwick, MDS, DDS: dental practitioner, educator and originator of electrical executions.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2000-11-01

    The search for a modern, humane method of criminal execution was triggered by a freak accident which occurred in Buffalo, New York in 1881. Dr. Alfred P. Southwick (a former steam-boat engineer, noted dentist and dental educator) happened to witness an intoxicated man die after he inadvertently touched a live generator terminal. Southwick's initial reaction was shock. Later, as he pondered this tragic event, he concluded that electrocution was, at least, a quick and seemingly painless way to depart from this earth. As his thoughts turned to common methods of capital punishment, Alfred concluded that death by electrocution could become a more humane alternative, as compared with the more grisly methods (e.g., hanging, beheading by guillotine, garroting, suffocation and flaying). Working through the governor of New York and the state legislature, Southwick originated and successfully promoted the passage of laws which mandated electrical executions in New York and in approximately 20 other states. During 1888-1889, Southwick served on the state's three-person Electrical Death Commission, a group who reported that electrical execution was superior to all other methods. On January 1, 1889, the world's first electrical execution law went into effect. On August 6, 1890, William Francis Kemmler, who had murdered his mistress, was the first person to die in the electric chair. However, this public event became an amateurish spectacle: the initial surge of current did not cause Kemmler's immediate death and a second jolt was needed. Those who witnessed this bungled execution were stunned. Graphic and detailed criticism from both the press and the general public ran high. However, Dr. Southwick vigorously continued to support and finally achieve his goal--to humanize capital punishment through the legal use of electrical execution.

  20. How Earth works 100 years after Wegener's continental drift theory and IGCP 648

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Evans, D. A.; Zhong, S.; Eglington, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    It took half a century for Wegener's continental drift theory to be accepted as a fundamental element of the plate tectonic theory. Another half a century on, we are still unsure of the driving mechanism for plate tectonics: is it dominated by thermal convection, gravitational forces, or by a combination of mechanisms? Nonetheless, breakthroughs in the past decades put us in a position to make a major stride in answering this question. These include: (1) widely accepted cyclic occurrences of supercontinent assembly and break-up (whereas random occurrence of supercontinents was an equal possibility in the 1990s); (2) the discovery of two equatorial and antipodal large low seismic velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that dominate the lower mantle and appear to have been the base for almost all mantle plumes since at the Mesozoic, and of subduction of oceanic slabs all the way to the core-mantle boundary, which together suggesting whole-mantle convection; (3) the recognition of true polar wander (TPW) as an important process in Earth history, likely reflecting Earth's major internal mass redistribution events; and (4) rapidly enhancing computer modelling power enabling us to simulate all aspect of Earth's dynamic inner working. Many new yet often controversial ideas have been proposed, such a possible coupling in time (with an offset) and space between supercontinent cycle and superplume (LLSVP) events which oppose to the idea of static and long-lived LLSVPs, and the orthoversion v.s. introversion or extroversion models for supercontinent transition. To fully utilise these advances as well as the rapidly expanding global geoscience databases to address the question of how Earth works, an UNESCO-IUGS sponsored IGCP project No. 648 was formed to coordinate a global cross-disciplinary effort. We aim to achieve a better understanding of the supercontinent cycle, and examine the relationship between supercontinent cycle and global plume events. We will establish a series of global

  1. Effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process to Black Carbon Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; He, Cenlin; Wang, Xin; Huang, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    We systematically investigated the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process to black carbon (BC) simulation by a global 3D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem constrained by measurements of BC scavenging efficiencies, concentration in air, deposition fluxes, concentration in snow and washout ratios. Including effect of WBF process reduces the annual mean BC scavenging efficiencies (the ratio of BC in cloud droplets to total BC) at all altitudes by 43-76% in the Arctic. For mid latitude BC scavenging efficiencies decrease by 8-22%, 23-39%, and 41-50% in lower (0-2 km), middle (2-5 km) and upper troposphere (5-10 km), respectively. Simulated BC in air in the Arctic and at mid altitude (˜4 km) in mid latitude increases by ˜40%, and the discrepancy reduces from -65% to -30%. Simulated median BC in snow decreases from 25.7 to 22.4 ng g-1, by 15% in mid latitude and increases from 8.7 to 11.0 ng g-1, by 26% in the Arctic and the comparison with observations improves. The model overestimates washout ratios (ratio of BC in fresh snow/rain to BC in surface air) at most of the sites by up to a factor of 165. With effect of WBF process included, the discrepancy decreases to a factor of 72. The simulated BC burden increases from 0.22 to 0.35 mg m-2 yr-1 when effect of WBF process is included, partly explains the scaled up of BC burden in Bond et al., 2013. Moreover, burden above 5 km increases from 22% to 27% when WBF process is included, indicating a higher forcing efficiency. We also found that BC simulation is insensitive to the temperature criteria between mixed phase clouds and ice clouds. The simulated BC burden is the same when the temperature is set as -15° C and -25° C. This study also suggests that more observations are needed to better distinguish riming dominated and WBF dominated conditions and better parameterize BC scavenging efficiency under the two conditions.

  2. The Dead Sea Transform as exemplary pattern for the quest of the Wegener Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Damm, V.; Piepjohn, K.; Tessensohn, F.; Neben, S.

    2006-12-01

    The northern Baffin Bay (BB) forms a tectonic system around a triple point which is similar to the northern Red Sea (RS) triple junction. The oceanic BB is supposed to have formed by sea floor spreading, although no marine magnetic anomalies have been found north of Davis Strait, so far. The spreading history is derived from the Labrador Sea, south of the BB. The supposed triple junction is located between Baffin and Ellesmere Islands, where the left-lateral Wegener Fault (WF) branches off, as well as the failed rift arm Lancaster Sound and/or Jones Sound. The area forms a key region in order to understand the late break-up development of Laurasia. There is an ongoing debate about the amount of left lateral displacement that was compensated along the WF between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Evidence for left lateral motion is found in most parts of the Nares Strait (NS). But, in the south, towards the triple junction (Smith Sound), evidence for the fault is lacking. A similar tectonic system is located in the northern Red Sea (RS) area. The Dead Sea Transform (DST)/Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) joins the RS-rift south of the Sinai Peninsula. The other arm of the triple junction extends into the Gulf of Suez. The RS-rift is active since the Middle Oligocene and the left lateral displacement of 105 km along the DST began about 18 Ma ago. The comparison between the BB/NS region and the northern RS/GoA could shed light onto the unknown processes of tectonic development of both systems. The DST and its accompanying structures are well known. Similar tectonic features and geophysical evidence are found along the WF. On the other hand, the actual stage of development of the northern RS is still unknown. The investigation of the transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading in the southern BB could provide evidence for the actual status quo in the northern RS. A compilation of recent marine seismic and bathymetric data of the NS (BGR 01) and the GoA and northern RS

  3. Persistent expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Abdulahad, W H; van der Geld, Y M; Stegeman, C A; Kallenberg, C G M

    2006-09-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is associated with an ongoing immune effector response, even in remission, we examined the distribution of peripheral naive and memory T-lymphocytes in this disease, and analyzed the function-related phenotypes of the memory T-cell population. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were freshly isolated from WG-patients in remission (R-WG, n=40), active WG-patients (A-WG, n=17), and age-matched healthy controls (HCs, n=21). Expression of CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CCR7, interleukin (IL)-18Ralpha, ST2L, and FoxP3 were determined by four-color flow cytometric analysis. CD45RO and CCR7 were used for distinction between naive and memory T cells, IL-18Ralpha, ST2L, and FoxP3 for the assessment of Type1, Type2, and regulatory T-cells, respectively. In R-WG, the CD4+CD45RO+CCR7- effector memory T-cell subpopulation (TEM) was relatively increased, whereas the CD4+CD45RO-CCR7+ naive T-cell population (TNaive) was decreased as compared to HC. The distribution of naive and memory CD8+T cells did not differ between R-WG, A-WG, and HC, nor did CD4+CD45RO+CCR7+ central memory T cells (TCM). In contrast to HC, the percentage of CD4+TNaive cells in R-WG correlated negatively with age, whereas CD4+TEM cells showed a positive correlation. In R-WG, a skewing towards Type2 T cells was observed in CD4+TEM cells. No differences were detected in FoxP3+CD4+TEM cells between R-WG and A-WG, whereas the FoxP3-CD4+TEM cells were increased in R-WG and decreased in A-WG as compared to HC. Collectively, peripheral blood homeostasis of CD4+T cells is disturbed in R-WG with the persistent expansion of non-regulatory CD4+TEM cells. These cells might be involved in relapse and may constitute a target for therapy.

  4. [A case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in the course of Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Idasiak-Piechocka, I; Oko, A; Łochyńska, K; Woźniak, A; Czekalski, S

    2000-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of the respiratory tract and glomerulonephritis (GN). Prognosis of this disease is poor and about 20% of untreated patients die after one year from the onset. WG was recognized in 45-year-old patient on the basis of: 1) clinical symptoms (joint pain and swollen, purpura on the skin which appeared one week after respiratory tract infection, ulceration of the tonsils and lingula), 2) results of additional testing (X-chest-ray-infiltrates of both lungs), positive results of the cANCA (titre 1:640) and rapidly progressive renal failure [the increase of serum creatinine level (Pcr) from 123.7 to 707 mumol/l (1.4 to 8.0 mg/dl) during one week]. Renal biopsy revealed extracapillary GN (cellular crescents in 7 out of 8 glomeruli and scattered foci of fibrinoid necrosis of capillary walls in all). At the beginning of the treatment Pcr raised to 884 mumol/l (10 mg/dl) and the patient required hemodialysis. He was treated with methylprednisolone (M) at flash doses of 1000 mg/24 h by three days followed by 125 mg/24 h i.v.--because of peptic ulcer, with cyclophosphamide (C-150 mg/24 h p.p.), with trimetoprim/sulphametoxazole, with pentoxifylline and omeprazol. After six weeks of the treatment in the control kidney biopsy sclerotic changes in 10 out of 13 glomeruli and diffuse interstitial fibrosis were found. However, during the same time, we observed clinical remission of the disease and the decrease of Pcr to 176.8 mumol/l (2 mg/dl). The M dosis was reduced by 5 mg every weeks and the C dosis--to 50 mg (because of the increase of aminotransferase levels) After six months of the treatment Pcr was 132.6 mumol/l (1.5 mg/dl) and CANCA titer was 1:16. In this case of RPGN, despite off the progression of the morphological changes in the kidney, we obtained the clinical remission of the disease and significant decrease of Pcr level. These results suggest that aggressive treatment of WG is justified even in

  5. The - 564 A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the proteinase 3 gene associated with Wegener's granulomatosis does not increase the promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Pieters, K; Pettersson, A; Gullberg, U; Hellmark, T

    2004-11-01

    Proteinase 3 is the major autoantigen in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Earlier studies have shown that circulating leucocytes from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis show elevated proteinase 3 surface expression and mRNA levels. Wegener's granulomatosis patients also have increased levels of proteinase 3 in plasma. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-564 A/G SNP) in the promoter region has been associated with disease. This SNP introduces a new potential Sp1 transcription factor binding site that may be responsible for the observed up-regulated expression of proteinase 3. To investigate this a 740 base pair long region of the promoter was cloned from genomic DNA. The disease-associated -564 A/G, as well as a control -621 A/G exchange, were introduced by polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis and cloned into a luciferase reporter vector. Endogenous expression levels of proteinase 3 mRNA and promoter activity of the cloned constructs were measured in three myeloid cell lines, HL-60, U937 and NB-4, and in epithelial HeLa cells. The results demonstrate a good correlation between the endogenous proteinase 3 mRNA expression and the promoter activity, as judged by luciferase activity. However, no significant differences in activity between the wild-type, polymorphic and the mutated control variant were found. In conclusion, the -564 A/G polymorphism is not responsible for the increased expression levels seen in myeloid cells from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

  6. The −564 A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the proteinase 3 gene associated with Wegener's granulomatosis does not increase the promoter activity

    PubMed Central

    PIETERS, K; PETTERSSON, Å; GULLBERG, U; HELLMARK, T

    2004-01-01

    Proteinase 3 is the major autoantigen in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Earlier studies have shown that circulating leucocytes from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis show elevated proteinase 3 surface expression and mRNA levels. Wegener's granulomatosis patients also have increased levels of proteinase 3 in plasma. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (− 564 A/G SNP) in the promoter region has been associated with disease. This SNP introduces a new potential Sp1 transcription factor binding site that may be responsible for the observed up-regulated expression of proteinase 3. To investigate this a 740 base pair long region of the promoter was cloned from genomic DNA. The disease-associated −564 A/G, as well as a control −621 A/G exchange, were introduced by polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis and cloned into a luciferase reporter vector. Endogenous expression levels of proteinase 3 mRNA and promoter activity of the cloned constructs were measured in three myeloid cell lines, HL-60, U937 and NB-4, and in epithelial HeLa cells. The results demonstrate a good correlation between the endogenous proteinase 3 mRNA expression and the promoter activity, as judged by luciferase activity. However, no significant differences in activity between the wild-type, polymorphic and the mutated control variant were found. In conclusion, the −564 A/G polymorphism is not responsible for the increased expression levels seen in myeloid cells from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:15498036

  7. Eminent Victorian dentistry. 1. John Ruskin and the patient experience of Victorian dentistry. Ruskin's dentist, Alfred James Woodhouse.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M G H

    2011-02-26

    This paper describes the relationship between John Ruskin [1819-1900] the Victorian artist, writer, and critic, and Alfred James Woodhouse [1824-1906], the dentist who cared for him from 1866 to 1883. Although Ruskin was perhaps not quite as eccentric as a recent television series has portrayed him, he was certainly not conventional, and the relationship with his dentist was also not entirely conventional.

  8. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    PubMed

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  9. Real-Time Measurements of Sediment Modification by Large Macrofauna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    to organism behaviors. Nils Volkenborn ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) and Lubos Polerecky (Microsensors Group, Max Planck...at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. We combined geochemistry, physics, and behavior studies of Arenicola marina using...infauna have been excluded so that the biogenic hydraulic head causing advection can be measured. Nils Volkenborn and Karsten Reise ( Alfred

  10. The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing. In 1909, Ernst Haeckel gave a talk in Jena, later published under the title The worldview of Darwin and Lamarck (Das Weltbild von Darwin und Lamarck), but not as the Darwin-Wallace concept. Haeckel mentions Wallace only once. In two important proceedings volumes from the 1959 anniversaries, Wallace was ignored. The only fair treatment of Wallace is given in another book, a collection of documents edited by Gerhard Heberer, for which the author selected nine key documents and reprinted excerpts (1959). Three of them were articles by Wallace, including the Sarawak- and Ternate-papers of 1855 and 1858, respectively. An analysis of the dominant themes during the celebrations of 2009 shows that none of the six topics had much to do with Wallace and his work. Thus, the tendency to exclude Alfred Russell Wallace is an international phenomenon, and largely attributable to the "Darwin industry".

  11. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Fabien L.; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A. H.; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace’s pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group. PMID:26133078

  12. Alfred Walter Campbell and the visual functions of the occipital cortex.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2014-07-01

    In his pioneering cytoarchitectonic studies of the human brain, Alfred Walter Campbell identified two structurally different areas in the occipital lobes and assigned two different kinds of visual functions to them. The first area, the visuosensory, was essentially on the mesial surface of the calcarine fissure. It was the terminus of nervous impulses generated in the retina and was where simple visual sensations arose. The second area, the visuopsychic, which surrounded or invested the first, was where sensations were interpreted and elaborated into visual perceptions. I argue that Campbell's distinction between the two areas was the starting point for the eventual differentiation of areas V1-V5. After a brief outline of Campbell's early life and education in Australia and of his Scottish medical education and early work as a pathologist at the Lancashire County Lunatic Asylum at Rainhill near Liverpool, I summarise his work on the human brain. In describing the structures he identified in the occipital lobes, I analyse the similarities and differences between them and the related structures identified by Joseph Shaw Bolton. I conclude by proposing some reasons for how that work came to be overshadowed by the later studies of Brodmann and for the more general lack of recognition given Campbell and his work. Those reasons include the effect of the controversies precipitated by Campbell's alliance with Charles Sherrington over the functions of the sensory and motor cortices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction of enhancement technologies into the intensive care service, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Angela; Patrick, Jon; Herkes, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve the full potential of information technology in healthcare, information systems must have the ability to share and exchange data, which requires the support of standardised medical terminology, such as Systematised Nomenclature of Medicine--Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT). The Royal Prince Alfred Intensive Care Service and the School of Information Technologies, University of Sydney have been collaborating for over two years, developing pioneering software initiatives for clinical information systems (CIS). More recently, the collaboration resulted in the development of two prototype systems. The Ward Round Information System (WRIS) has been designed to convert clinicians' clinical notes into the formal medical encoding ontology SNOMED-CT, thus enabling more consistent descriptions of patient conditions and allowing large-scale retrieval and analysis from the narrative part of the patient record. In addition, a Clinical Data Analytics Language (CDAL) system has also been developed and is designed to answer questions of the data stored in the CIS. It will assist clinicians in the management of vast amounts of complex information generated during an ICU admission and ultimately improve the quality and efficiency of care. CDAL provides clinicians with the ability to frame any question about their data in their database and get the answer almost immediately. Both systems went live in October 2007, and this report summarises the background, purpose, and progress thus far.

  14. The ornithologist Alfred Russel Wallace and the controversy surrounding the dinosaurian origin of birds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Over many years of his life, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) explored the tropical forests of Malaysia, collecting numerous specimens, including hundreds of birds, many of them new to science. Subsequently, Wallace published a series of papers on systematic ornithology, and discovered a new species on top of a volcano on Ternate, where he wrote, in 1858, his famous essay on natural selection. Based on this hands-on experience, and an analysis of an Archaeopteryx fossil, Wallace suggested that birds may have descended from dinosaurian ancestors. Here, we describe the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis" that originated with the work of Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895). We present the strong evidence linking theropod dinosaurs to birds, and briefly outline the long and ongoing controversy around this concept. Dinosaurs preserving plumage, nesting sites and trace fossils provide overwhelming evidence for the dinosaurian origin of birds. Based on these recent findings of paleontological research, we conclude that extant birds indeed descended, with some modifications, from small, Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. In the light of Wallace's view of bird origins, we critically evaluate recent opposing views to this idea, including Ernst Mayr's (1904-2005) arguments against the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis", and document that this famous ornithologist was not correct in his assessment of this important aspect of vertebrate evolution.

  15. The Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein Signaling Then and Now: A Tribute to Alfred G. Gilman.

    PubMed

    Sunahara, Roger K; Insel, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    The recent, unfortunate death of Alfred G. ("Al") Gilman, M.D., Ph.D., represents a sad signpost for an era spanning over 40 years in molecular pharmacology. Gilman's discoveries, influence, and persona were dominant forces in research and training in pharmacology. Here, we review the progression of ideas and knowledge that spawned early work by Gilman and collaborators (among them, one of the authors) and later efforts (including those of the other author) that have recently yielded a comprehensive and precise structural understanding of fundamental topics in pharmacology: the binding of ligands to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the interaction of GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins and effector molecules. Those data provide new and important insights into the molecular basis that underlies affinity and efficacy, two of the most important features of drug action, which represent the latest chapter in the saga that Al Gilman's work helped launch. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Why did Alfred Blalock and Helen Taussig not receive the nobel prize?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schlich, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    From the 1940s to the 1960s, the number of cardiac surgeons nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine grew rapidly. These nominations pinpoint major developments ranging from the first closed extracardiac operations to the era of complete intracardiac repair and treatment of congenital heart diseases. The aim of this article is to present the motivations for the numerous Nobel Prize nominations for the cardiac surgeon Alfred Blalock and the pediatric cardiologist Helen B. Taussig, and to show why the Nobel committee finally chose not to award them for the development of the Blalock-Taussig shunt. The authors have gathered and analyzed files on Blalock and Taussig from the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology and Medicine in Solna, Sweden. More than forty scholars, primarily from the United States and Europe, nominated Blalock and Taussig for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Such a strong transatlantic support is rare for nominated surgeons. The authors discuss why the number of Nobel Prize nominations for cardiac surgeons in general reached a climax around the 1950s and formulate open research questions on why relatively few surgeons have received the prestigious prize for the development of surgical procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stereochemistry of coordination compounds. From alfred werner to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    von Zelewsky, Alex

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the scientific symposium, November 22nd, 2013, commemorating the Nobel Prize awarded to Alfred Werner in 1913, a presentation of the development of stereochemistry of coordination compounds during the past 120 years was given. Stereochemistry was fundamental to Werner's theory of coordination compounds. After Werner's death in 1919, stereochemistry in this field did not progress much further for almost 20 years, but then developed continuously. It was realized that stereochemical features of elements showing coordination numbers larger than four are responsible for an almost unlimited number of stereochemical possibilities, thus opening a molecular world of new structures. In the beginning of the 21st century, interest in the field rose again considerably, mainly due to the potential of stereoselective catalysis, and the self-assembly of supramolecular structures. An end of these developments is not in sight. Here an abbreviated version of the lecture is given. A PowerPoint(®) file, or a video of the presentation, can be downloaded.

  18. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A H; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-07-02

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace's pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group.

  19. Alfred Russel Wallace and the destruction of island life: the Iguana tragedy.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Kleinhans, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), but Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. In contrast to Darwin, Wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. Here, we outline two case studies pertinent to Wallace's prediction. First, we summarize the behavior of the predator-naive marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands, which are threatened by feral dogs and cats imported by humans. We also describe the unique life cycle of the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura bakeri) from the island of Utila (Honduras), a rare species whose populations are declining because of habitat destructions. In contrast to these threatened, endemic island species, the Green iguana (Iguana iguana) is still widely distributed, although, as a result of de-forestation, in some areas of South America local populations have disappeared. We conclude that Wallace was correct in his prediction that, because of human activities, numerous species of animals and plants will be driven to extinction, notably on islands.

  20. Implementation of damage detection algorithms for the Alfred Zampa Memorial Suspension Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebinejad, I.; Sedarat, H.; Emami-Naeini, A.; Krimotat, A.; Lynch, Jerome

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated a number of different damage detection algorithms for structural health monitoring of a typical suspension bridge. The Alfred Zampa Memorial Bridge, a part of the Interstate 80 in California, was selected for this study. The focus was to implement and validate simple damage detection algorithms for structural health monitoring of complex bridges. Accordingly, the numerical analysis involved development of a high fidelity finite element model of the bridge in order to simulate various structural damage scenarios. The finite element model of the bridge was validated based on the experimental modal properties. A number of damage scenarios were simulated by changing the stiffness of different bridge components including suspenders, main cable, bulkheads and deck. Several vibration-based damage detection methods namely the change in the stiffness, change in the flexibility, change in the uniform load surface and change in the uniform load surface curvature were employed to locate the simulated damages. The investigation here provides the relative merits and shortcomings of these methods when applied to long span suspension bridges. It also shows the applicability of these methods to locate the decay in the structure.

  1. [Alfred Binet and the first 'measures' of intelligence (1905-1908)].

    PubMed

    Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is considered the most representative exponent of the second generation of French experimental psychologists. His scientific work was inspired both by the experimentalism that Théodule Ribot and Hippolyte Taine introduced in France at the end of the 1870s, and by that of Wundt. Drawing from numerous sources, Binet was able to elaborate a psychology that focused on experiments and a controlled observation of pathological phenomena, with the objective of differentiating them from normal phenomena. His scientific production was moreover characterized by the emphasis placed upon the experimental study of "superior" psychic phenomena and, in particular, on their measurement. The aim of this paper is to describe the stages and sources of the "psychological" study of intelligence, which constituted precisely the fil rouge that had indispensably to be followed in order to fully understand the originality of all of Binet's research, whose most mature product was undoubtedly represented by the development of the Echelle métrique de l'intelligence, the first intelligence test in the history of psychology.

  2. Politics and naturalism in the 20th century psychology of Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-11-01

    Alfred Binet is internationally recognized as the "father" of the first intelligence test as well as the most faithful French representative of laboratory experimentalism. A historical analysis of his work is therefore necessary to get to a thorough comprehension of 20th century psychology. The present article, starting from Binet's intellectual path and from the suggestions of the previous historical literature, aims at providing fresh insights into Binet's work by trying to capture the intersections between Binet, his naturalistic culture and the political context in which he worked in the early 20th century, when he actively tried to apply experimental psychology to the pedagogical area. In fact, it is possible to underline, with reference to those years, an evident turn towards applications in Binet's psychological production. The article reconstructs the political and institutional background of Binet's research and shows how the naturalism and experimentalism he promoted were complementary to the solidarist conceptions that were particularly prevalent among those who supported his work during the Third Republic.

  3. Effects of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process on global black carbon distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; He, Cenlin; Wang, Xin; Huang, Jianping

    2017-06-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process (hereafter WBF) on black carbon (BC) scavenging efficiency, surface BCair, deposition flux, concentration in snow (BCsnow, ng g-1), and washout ratio using a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). We differentiate riming- versus WBF-dominated in-cloud scavenging based on liquid water content (LWC) and temperature. Specifically, we implement an implied WBF parameterization using either temperature or ice mass fraction (IMF) in mixed-phase clouds based on field measurements. We find that at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, and Abisko, Sweden, where WBF dominates in-cloud scavenging, including the WBF effect strongly reduces the discrepancies of simulated BC scavenging efficiency and washout ratio against observations (from a factor of 3 to 10 % and from a factor of 4-5 to a factor of 2). However, at Zeppelin, Norway, where riming dominates, simulation of BC scavenging efficiency, BCair, and washout ratio become worse (relative to observations) when WBF is included. There is thus an urgent need for extensive observations to distinguish and characterize riming- versus WBF-dominated aerosol scavenging in mixed-phase clouds and the associated BC scavenging efficiency. Our model results show that including the WBF effect lowers global BC scavenging efficiency, with a higher reduction at higher latitudes (8 % in the tropics and up to 76 % in the Arctic). The resulting annual mean BCair increases by up to 156 % at high altitudes and at northern high latitudes because of lower temperature and higher IMF. Overall, WBF halves the model-observation discrepancy (from -65 to -30 %) of BCair across North America, Europe, China and the Arctic. Globally WBF increases BC burden from 0.22 to 0.29-0.35 mg m-2 yr-1, which partially explains the gap between observed and previous model-simulated BC burdens over land. In addition, WBF significantly increases BC lifetime from 5.7 to ˜ 8 days. Additionally

  4. Hémothorax spontané révélant une vascularite de Wegener chez une femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Serhane, Hind; Yassine, Msougar; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    L’hémothorax spontané demeure une pathologie rare. Ses étiologies sont multiples mais restent parfois inconnues. Chez certains patients, la thoracotomie peut être le seul recours pour déterminer son origine. Les vascularites n’ont pas été rapporté comme cause habituelle des hémothorax spontanés. La grossesse ne semble pas avoir d’effet causal, ni aggravant des hémothorax spontanés, ni des vascularites. Nous rapportons une observation assez particulière d’une jeune patiente, présentant au cours de sa grossesse un hémothorax spontané secondaire à une vasularite de type Wegener, diagnostiquée par la biopsie pleurale faite au cours d’une thoracotomie exploratrice et confirmée par le dosage des ANCA. PMID:28154726

  5. Pathways to ANCA production: from differentiation of dendritic cells by proteinase 3 to B lymphocyte maturation in Wegener's granuloma.

    PubMed

    Csernok, Elena; Moosig, Frank; Gross, Wolgang L

    2008-06-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome are idiopathic systemic vasculitides in which circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) are commonly found. Within the last 25 years, these antibodies were subject of intensive studies, and a growing body of evidence arose for a distinct role of ANCA in the pathogenesis of the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Yet, the evidence derived from clinical observations and in vitro studies remains circumstantial. The various animal models have provided substantial support for a pathogenic role of MPO-ANCA in vivo, but the debate if ANCA play a primary role in the pathogenesis of these diseases is still open. The aim of this review was to update current basic and clinical research on ANCA in the pathophysiology of AAV and to point out and discuss limitations and inconsistencies of the clinical and experimental evidence.

  6. Intense FDG uptake on PET/CT in the upper and lower respiratory system indicative of Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M; Akkoyunlu, M E; Yakar, F; Ergul, N; Sezer, M

    2014-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an uncommon systemic vasculitis, which involves the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys. Because the patients generally present with clinical manifestations that are similar to common diseases, WG may be initially misdiagnosed as infection or malignancy. We report the case of a 55-year-old male presenting with weight loss, cough, hemoptysis, low-grade fever, and pulmonary nodules detected on the thoracic CT scan. Malignancy was initially suspected, so a PET/CT was performed. It demonstrated intense FDG uptake in the upper and lower respiratory system. The diagnosis of WG was based on PET findings, elevated serum levels of inflammatory markers, and the presence of c-ANCA. We consider that the knowledge of FDG-PET/CT findings may help to make an easier and earlier diagnosis of WG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Recombinant proteinase 3 (Wegener's antigen) expressed in Pichia pastoris is functionally active and is recognized by patient sera.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, M C; Heeringa, P; van der Geld, Y M; Huitema, M G; Klimp, A; Tiran, A; Kallenberg, C G

    1997-11-01

    The open reading frame of human proteinase 3 (PR3) without the prepro-peptide was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (rcPR3) and in Pichia pastoris (rpPR3). The 6-histidine tagged rpPR3 was efficiently secreted into culture supernatant from which it could be purified by immobilized metal chelate chromatography. Purified rpPR3 migrated as a single 32-kD band on SDS-PAGE and harboured protease activity that could be inhibited with inhibitors specific for serine-proteases. By indirect antigen-capture ELISA using rpPR3, 60% of sera from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis bound to the recombinant product, although it was not recognized in ELISA with directly coated rpPR3.

  8. C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis induces lung vasculitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    WEIDEBACH, W; VIANA, V S T; LEON, E P; BUENO, C; LEME, A S; ARANTES-COSTA, F M; MARTINS, M A; SALDIVA, P H N; BONFA, E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse in rats the ability of C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction in triggering inflammatory response on pulmonary tissue. Wistar rats (n = 18) were injected via the the internal jugular vein with 20 mg of total C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction isolated from serum of three different Wegener's granulomatosis patients obtained before therapy. Similarly, control rats were treated with IgG fraction from two rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 7), IgG from six normal human sera (n = 15) or saline (n = 18), respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24h of injection for histological analysis of the lungs. Vasculitis and inflammatory infiltrate were consistently absent in rats injected with rheumatoid arthritis IgG or saline and in 14/15 of normal IgG treated animals. In contrast, marked vasculitis was observed in all 18 animals injected with C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction. The histological features were characterized by the presence of a perivascular pleomorphic cellular sheath, particularly around small vessels, endothelial adherence and diapedesis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and presence of granuloma-like lesions. A dose–response relationship was observed between protein concentration of C-ANCA IgG sample and the intensity of the inflammatory response in the animals. In addition, IgG fraction with undetectable C-ANCA, obtained from one patient in remission after treatment, was not able to reproduce the pulmonary tissue alterations induced by its paired IgG that was positive for C-ANCA taken before therapy. The experimental model described herein may be useful to characterize more effectively the pathogenic mechanism of C-ANCA in Wegener's disease. PMID:12100022

  9. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  10. The new WegenerNet climate station network web portal - A gateway to over 10 years of high-resolution precipitation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchsberger, Jürgen; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Bichler, Christoph; Kabas, Thomas; Lenz, Gunther; Leuprecht, Armin

    2017-04-01

    The Feldbach region in southeast Austria, characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns, has been selected as the focus area for a pioneering weather and climate observation network at very high resolution: The WegenerNet comprises 153 meteorological stations measuring temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other parameters, in a tightly spaced grid within an area of about 20 km × 15 km centered near the city of Feldbach (46.93°N, 15.90°E). With its stations about every 2 km2, each with 5-min time sampling, the network provides regular measurements since January 2007. Detailed information is available in the recent description by Kirchengast et al. (2014) and via www.wegcenter.at/wegenernet. As a smaller "sister network" of the WegenerNet Feldbach region, the WegenerNet Johnsbachtal consists of eleven meteorological stations (complemented by one hydrographic station at the Johnsbach creek), measuring temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, wind, and other parameters in an alpine setting at altitudes ranging from below 700 m to over 2100 m. Data are available partly since 2007, partly since more recent dates and have a temporal resolution of 10 minutes. The networks are set to serve as a long-term monitoring and validation facility for weather and climate research and applications. Uses include validation of nonhydrostatic models operated at 1-km-scale resolution and of statistical downscaling techniques (in particular for precipitation), validation of radar and satellite data, study of orography-climate relationships, and many others. Quality-controlled station time series and gridded field data (spacing 200 m × 200 m) are available in near-real time (data latency less than 1-2 h) for visualization and download via a data portal (www.wegenernet.org). This data portal has been undergoing a complete renewal over the last year, and now serves as a modern gateway to the WegenerNet's more than 10 years of high

  11. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history.

  12. Real-Time Measurements of Sediment Modification by Large Macrofauna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    pressure pulses due to organism behaviors. 2 Nils Volkenborn (formerly of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and now a...Volkenborn and Karsten Reise ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) allowed us to use their long term exclusion experiments (20 m by 20 m...Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology and Nils Volkenborn at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research we have now confirmed that

  13. Real-Time Measurements of Sediment Modification by Large Macrofauna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    pressure pulses due to organism behaviors. Nils Volkenborn ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) and Lubos Polerecky (Microsensors...Reise ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) have allowed us to use their long term exclusion experiments (20 m by 20 m) involving...and Nils Volkenborn at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. We combined geochemistry, physics, and behavior studies of

  14. The color of complexes and UV-vis spectroscopy as an analytical tool of Alfred Werner's group at the University of Zurich.

    PubMed

    Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Two PhD theses (Alexander Gordienko, 1912; Johannes Angerstein, 1914) and a dissertation in partial fulfillment of a PhD thesis (H. S. French, Zurich, 1914) are reviewed that deal with hitherto unpublished UV-vis spectroscopy work of coordination compounds in the group of Alfred Werner. The method of measurement of UV-vis spectra at Alfred Werner's time is described in detail. Examples of spectra of complexes are given, which were partly interpreted in terms of structure (cis ↔ trans configuration, counting number of bands for structural relationships, and shift of general spectral features by consecutive replacement of ligands). A more complete interpretation of spectra was hampered at Alfred Werner's time by the lack of a light absorption theory and a correct theory of electron excitation, and the lack of a ligand field theory for coordination compounds. The experimentally difficult data acquisitions and the difficult spectral interpretations might have been reasons why this method did not experience a breakthrough in Alfred Werner's group to play a more prominent role as an important analytical method. Nevertheless the application of UV-vis spectroscopy on coordination compounds was unique and novel, and witnesses Alfred Werner's great aptitude and keenness to always try and go beyond conventional practice.

  15. Alfred Donné and Léon Foucault: the first applications of electricity and photography to medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Tobin, William

    2006-03-01

    The first electric projecting microscope and the first published photomicrographs harnessed recent technological developments to provide improved methods of medical illustration for educational purposes. Both projects were the work of two Frenchmen. The impetus came from the microscopist Dr Alfred Donné (1801-78), discoverer of trichomonas vaginalis and leukaemia. Implementation was primarily by his medical-student assistant, Léon Foucault (1819-68), who later gained fame as a physicist, especially with his pendulum demonstration of the Earth's rotation.

  16. Alfred Pischinger (1899-1983): An Austrian career in anatomy continuing through National Socialism to postwar leadership.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine; Czarnowski, Gabriele

    2017-02-20

    Despite intensified research efforts on the history of anatomy during National Socialism (NS), many aspects of this story still need further investigation. This study explores the life, work and politics of Alfred Pischinger, Chairman of the Institute for Embryology and Histology in Graz from 1936 to 1945, and in Vienna from 1958 to 1970, and is an addition to previous reports on careers in anatomy continuing through the Third Reich to the postwar period. Pischinger was an illegal NSDAP member in Austria, joined the SA in 1938, served as expert in racial hygiene, and as judge on the Genetic Health High Court of Graz. His research focus was histochemistry, but he became part of a scientific network at the University of Graz, which from 1939 on experimented on the bodies of pregnant women and their fetuses under the leadership of gynecologist Karl Ehrhardt. The researchers were among the many who took actively part in the complete exploitation and physical destruction of those considered to be "the enemy" by the NS regime. After the war, Pischinger received publicity for his work on the "scientific basis" of alternative and holistic approaches of medicine. His NS past and fetal experiments seem to have vanished from public knowledge. As systematic studies of the influence of the NS period on postwar medical education and the science of anatomy itself are still missing, this critical investigation of Alfred Pischinger's life within the relevant historic background aims to contribute to this body of knowledge.

  17. A portrait of prefrontal lobotomy performed at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney by Dr Rex Money.

    PubMed

    White, Richard T; McGee-Collett, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a portrait of prefrontal lobotomy performed at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney by the Head of Neurosurgery Dr Rex Money and to describe Dr Money's role in the promotion of psychosurgery in Sydney. We draw attention to an oral presentation by Dr Rex Money in 1951, a journal article written by Money, archival information held at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, including Dr Money's accounts of his travels and his reports regarding neurosurgery - both internationally and in Australia. Dr Rex Money performed a series of 13 prefrontal lobotomies between 1945 and 1951, and presented the theoretical basis for his series, his operative procedures and the outcomes at the annual meeting of its medical officers' association. Notwithstanding various deficiencies in his clinical research, Money's descriptions give a relatively comprehensive account of one of the first series of prefrontal lobotomies performed in Australia. The current article also describes Dr Money's contributions to the promotion of psychosurgery in Sydney, and illustrates the participation of a senior neurosurgeon and of a major Sydney teaching hospital during the psychosurgery saga. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Imaging findings of pulmonary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis): lesions invading the pulmonary fissure, pleura or diaphragm mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ceylan, Naim; Bayraktaroglu, Selen; Gucenmez, Sercan; Aksu, Kenan; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Acar, Turker; Savas, Recep; Alper, Hudaver

    2016-11-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), in which pulmonary involvement often predominates, is a multisystem granulomatous, necrotizing vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized vessels. In this study we evaluated various radiological findings of pulmonary GPA and focused on spiculated pulmonary lesions invading the pulmonary fissure, pleura or diaphragm mimicking malignancy. This retrospective study included 48 patients, aged 28-73 (mean, 47.3) years, who showed either histopathological diagnosis of GPA (n = 39) or elevated levels of the cytoplasmic anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody serum marker (n = 9) between January 2003 and December 2013. All patients received a chest computed tomography (CT), and the types of pulmonary lesions were defined and evaluated. Among the 48 patients, 33 had abnormal pulmonary findings on CT. The most commonly detected pulmonary lesion types were nodules and masses (n = 126) observed in 24 patients. Cavitation, necrosis, spiculation and invasion of the fissure, pleura or diaphragm were observed in 14, 9, 10 and 6 patients, respectively. Consolidation was found in 14 patients and thickening of bronchial wall in 8 patients. Pulmonary lesion types of GPA have a wide spectrum, potentially mimicking a high number of diseases including malignancy, infection and noninfectious inflammatory diseases. A spiculated lung lesion invading the fissure, pleura or diaphragm is mostly present in malignancy, but it can be also seen in GPA.

  19. [A case of ANCA negative Wegener's granulomatosis with pulmonary giant bulla showing high level of soluble ICAM-1].

    PubMed

    Motoya, S; Tsujisaki, M; Ibayashi, Y; Bekki, E; Kusumoto, K; Sawada, Y; Hashimoto, I; Hinoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-06-01

    This paper reports a rare case of the limited form of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) with pulmonary giant bulla, which was pathologically identified only in the lung and showed a high level of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but not anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). A 46 year-old male was admitted for the further examination of right anterior chest pain and dyspnea. Chest X-ray and CT examination showed giant bulla accompanied with the invasive lesions in upper lobe of right lung. Partial lobectomy was done. Granulomatous and necrotizing vasculitis characteristics of WG were confirmed by the histopathology of resected tissues. Immunological analysis on admission showed a high level of soluble ICAM-1 and ANCA negative, but that of soluble ICAM-1 was reduced after surgical operation and remained within normal range during an administration of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that soluble ICAM-1 may be one of the useful parameters for a diagnosis of WG and for an estimation of its treatments, especially in the cases of ANCA negative WG.

  20. B-lymphocyte activating factor levels are increased in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and inversely correlated with ANCA titer.

    PubMed

    Bader, Lucius; Koldingsnes, Wenche; Nossent, Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Circulating autoantibodies against neutrophils (ANCA) are a distinctive finding in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). B-lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) promotes autoantibody production by increasing B cell survival and proliferation. We investigated serum BAFF levels (s-BAFF) in a WG patient cohort in relation to ANCA titers and disease activity. Baseline data were obtained in twenty-two WG patients (55% female, age 44 years, disease duration 1 year). S-BAFF was determined by capture ELISA and associations between s-BAFF, clinical (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) and Disease Extent Index (DEI)) and biochemical (C-reactive protein (CRP), IgG and ANCA) disease measures were analysed in a cross sectional as well as longitudinal analysis. S-BAFF was increased in WG patients compared to healthy controls (1.8 vs. 0.55 ng/ml, p < 0.01). S-BAFF was higher in ANCA negative than ANCA-positive WG sera (2.16 vs. 1.29 ng/ml, p < 0.01), correlated independently and inversely with ANCA levels (Rs -0.48, p < 0.01) but did not correlate with CRP, BVAS, DEI or VDI scores. Individual s-BAFF profiles were stable over time in 68% of patients. The finding of a negative correlation between ANCA levels and s-BAFF that is independent of steroid treatment indicates that BAFF does not directly drive ANCA production in WG.

  1. Prevalence of hearing impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's granulomatosis), or systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rahne, Torsten; Clauß, Franziska; Plontke, Stefan K; Keyßer, Gernot

    2017-07-01

    Hearing loss in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's granulomatosis), or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is controversial. Many studies lack measurements of bone-conduction thresholds to sufficiently differentiate between sensorineural hearing loss and conductive hearing loss. In addition, many studies lack control groups or comparisons to an age-related normal hearing threshold. This study investigates hearing performance with an extended audiological battery using psychoacoustic and objective measures. A total of 22 adults with RA, 16 with GPA, 20 with SLE, and two age- and gender-matched control groups (n = 34 for GPA and RA and n = 42 for SLE) were included. Pure-tone hearing thresholds, speech perception in quiet and noise, tympanometry, and high-resolution otoacoustic emissions were assessed. GPA patients exhibited impaired pure-tone hearing compared to the control group, whereas SLE and RA patients did not. In GPA patients, a larger air-bone gap indicated conductive hearing loss. In addition, speech perception was reduced exclusively in GPA patients. A significant correlation was found between hearing loss and both the cumulative steroid dose and number of organ manifestations in GPA and SLE patients. Our data indicate that GPA and SLE patients are at moderate-to-high risk of conductive hearing loss. In contrast, RA patients are at low risk of disease-associated hearing loss.

  2. Epidemiology and etiology of wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, churg-strauss syndrome and goodpasture syndrome: vasculitides with frequent lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Gibelin, Aude; Maldini, Carla; Mahr, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiological characteristics and etiologies of four primary systemic vasculitides with frequent lung involvement, namely Wegener granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), and Goodpasture syndrome (GPS). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these vasculitides with frequent lung involvement is complicated by their rarity, which hampers the undertaking of large-scale studies; difficulties in classification; and their multifaceted clinical presentations, which infer the existence of several etiologic pathways. Notwithstanding, epidemiological research showed some evidence for international, interethnic, and temporal variations of the frequencies of these four vasculitides; led to the identification of several genetic and environmental risk factors; and provided insight on the extent to which genes and environment might contribute to their development. Available data support the concept that WG, MPA, CSS, and GPS have unique and shared risk determinants. Although the precise causes of these vasculitides are not yet fully understood and the development of prevention strategies is out of our reach at present, current knowledge enables the formulation of etiologic hypotheses to provide caregivers and their patients with valuable information on the nature of these rare entities. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  3. Examining the Extent and Nature of Online Learning in American K-12 Education: The Research Initiatives of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picciano, Anthony G.; Seaman, Jeff; Shea, Peter; Swan, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 1992, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation began its "Anytime, Anyplace Learning Program", the purpose of which was to explore educational alternatives for people who wanted to pursue an education via Internet technology. Part of this grant activity was a research award to the Babson College Survey Research Group to examine online learning in…

  4. Solar is Saving Energy for the Alfred A. Arraj U.S. Courthouse: Achieving Results with Renewable Energy in the Federal Government Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Solar is Saving Energy for the Alfred A. Arraj U.S. Courthouse is a case study that describes how building-integrated photovoltaic systems can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated.

  6. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which

  7. Infectious serologies and autoantibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis and other vasculitides: novel associations disclosed using the Rad BioPlex 2200.

    PubMed

    Lidar, Merav; Lipschitz, Noga; Langevitz, Pnina; Barzilai, Ori; Ram, Maya; Porat-Katz, Bat-Sheba; Pagnoux, Christian; Guilpain, Philippe; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Radice, Antonella; Bizzaro, Nicola; Damoiseaux, Jan; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Martin, Javier; Guillevin, Loïc; Bombardieri, Stefano; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-09-01

    In this study we assess the presence of antibodies against infectious agents as well as for a variety of autoantibodies in an attempt to establish associations between various vasculitides and infections in order to shed light on the etiopathogenesis of these diseases and perhaps implicate a potential cure. Sera from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg Strauss, and giant cell arteritis were compared to healthy control sera. Serum samples were assessed, using the Bio-Rad BioPlex 2200, for the presence of Toxoplama gondii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Treponema pallidum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies were assessed by ELISA. In addition, sera were tested for a panel of antibodies associated with thrombophilia as well as various autoantibodies. The prevalence of antibodies toward HCV and H. pylori was significantly higher among patients with WG. IgG antibodies toward T. gondii and IgM antibodies toward CMV were significantly more common among WG patients than among controls. WG patients exhibited more antibodies toward EBV viral capsid antigen IgG and EBV early antigen IgG compared to sera from healthy controls. In WG, positive associations were disclosed between CMV IgG antibodies and the presence of gastrointestinal manifestations and renal involvement, and there was a higher Birmingham vasculitis activity score in association with elevated titers of EBV viral capsid antigen IgG antibodies. Otorhinolaryngeal manifestations were more common in those with positive IgG antibodies for EBV early antigen. Our results unveil novel associations between WG and various infectious agents, including HCV, H. pylori, T. gondii, CMV, and EBV. In addition to putative roles in initiation and exacerbation of the vasculitic process, it seems that these infectious agents also modulate the clinical phenotype of the

  8. Image analysis: a novel approach for the quantification of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Maarten M; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Patnaik, Meeta; Peter, James B; Tervaert, Jan W Cohen

    2003-03-01

    Rises in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) have predictive potential for a relapse of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). To assess the value of image analysis for monitoring ANCA levels, we measured PR3-ANCA in a cohort of PR3-ANCA positive patients with WG that were prospectively followed in our clinic and compared findings with other techniques. ANCA levels were measured serially by quantitative image analysis, titration in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), two different directly coated antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and a capture ELISA using a PR3-specific monoclonal antibody in 16 consecutive WG patients prior to a renal relapse, and in 16 age- and sex-matched patients with inactive WG. The positive predictive value (PPV) of an increase in ANCA titers by image analysis for relapse was 69% (11 of 16). The PPV of an increase in ANCA was 61% (11 of 18) by IIF, 71% (12 of 17) by a commercial direct ELISA, 63% (12 of 19) by in-house direct ELISA, and 75% (12 of 16) by capture ELISA. The negative predictive value (NPV) of the absence of an increase in ANCA titers by image analysis for relapse was 69% (11 of 16). The NPV of the absence of an increase in ANCA was 64% (9 of 14) by IIF, 73% (11 of 15) by a commercial direct ELISA, 63% (9 of 13) by in-house direct ELISA, and 75% (12 of 16) by capture ELISA. In conclusions, quantitative image analysis is a novel technique based on the principle of IIF to quantify ANCA levels in a single dilution in a patient sample. No major differences were observed between image analysis and the other techniques in their capacity to predict relapses of disease activity.

  9. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody in the absence of Wegener's granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis: implications for the surgical pathologist.

    PubMed

    Gal, Anthony A; Velasquez, Alvaro

    2002-03-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are useful serologic markers for the diagnosis and management of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). However, problems in diagnosis and classification may occur when patients with other disorders develop ANCA. A 7-year review (1993-1999) disclosed 247 patients whose sera tested positively for ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence method: 166 patients for cytoplasmic-ANCA (C-ANCA) and 81 patients for perinuclear-ANCA (P-ANCA) Twenty-seven patients had active pulmonary disease and underwent open-lung biopsy or transbronchial biopsy. Eight patients (30%) had a disease other than WG or MPA, and their clinical, pathological, and serological findings were reviewed. The patients, all women, ranged in age from 28 to 77 years (median, 37 y). Dyspnea (n = 6), cough (n = 6), chest pain (n = 2), and/or hemoptysis (n = 2) were present. The duration of symptoms lasted from 3 weeks to 6 years (median, 6 mo). ANCA titers were C-ANCA (n = 4; range, 1:40-1280) or P-ANCA (n = 4; range, 1:40-640). The lung biopsies disclosed nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n = 4), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n = 1), diffuse alveolar damage (n = 1), organizing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage without capillaritis (n = 1), and necrotic granuloma (n = 1). No cases showed characteristic histology for WG or MPA. The final diagnoses were various connective tissue disorders (n = 5), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia (n = 1), postinfectious bronchitis/bronchiectasis (n = 1), and ulcerative colitis-related lung disease (n = 1). Surgical pathologists should be aware that significantly elevated ANCA titers may be associated with diverse forms of pulmonary disease. ANCA positivity alone, in the absence of appropriate clinical or pathologic findings, should not be used to substantiate a diagnosis of WG or MPA.

  10. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies target sequential functional proteinase 3 epitopes in the sera of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, B F; Vista, E S; Wynn, D M; Harley, J B; James, J A

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA). Aside from being a diagnostic marker, these autoantibodies may play roles in disease pathogenesis. Proteinase 3 (PR3) is the primary target of c-ANCA in WG patient sera. Of 60 c-ANCA-positive patients, 10 patients were selected for detailed humoral epitope analysis, contingent upon serum availability, using samples with positive levels of anti-PR3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sequential epitope specificities of anti-PR3 antibodies detected by screening the maximally overlapping solid-phase octapeptides of PR3 showed seven major common antigenic targets bound by WG patient sera. These include novel and previously identified sequential PR3 epitopes bound by c-ANCA. B cell epitope prediction algorithms identified all or part of the seven defined epitopes. Several epitopes share sequence and structural proximity with functional sites, including the catalytic triad and proposed binding sites of other potential proteins [PR3 complementary peptide and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR)]. Epitope 4 (VVLGAHNVRTQ) had the highest binding prevalence (90%) and epitope 2 (AQPHSRPYMAS) has the highest average reactivity of the antigenic regions. Epitope 4 includes the interaction site between sEPCR and PR3 which may serve as an important interaction to down-regulate inflammation. Epitopes 3, 5 and 7 are in direct proximity to amino acids that form the catalytic triad of the protein. c-ANCA targets both unique and previously known sequential PR3 peptides. This information may prove useful in understanding anti-PR3-mediated disease pathogenesis in systemic vasculitides. PMID:21077276

  11. One More Step Toward a Warmer Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-09

    Seattle, WA 98105, USA. A. Beszczynska, E. Fahrbach, R. Gerdes, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, and References U, Schauer, Alfred - Wegener Institut fur Polar...speed of -25 cm/s, with a sampling2Alfred- Wegener Institut fur Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerha- period of 0.5s. The MMP measures temperature

  12. Discrimination and variable impact of ANCA binding to different surface epitopes on proteinase 3, the Wegener's autoantigen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco; Hummel, Amber M; Jenne, Dieter E; Specks, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are highly specific for the autoimmune small vessel vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). PR3-ANCA have proven diagnostic value but their pathogenic potential and utility as a biomarker for disease activity remain unclear. PR3-ANCA recognize conformational epitopes, and epitope-specific PR3-ANCA subsets with variable impact on biological functions of PR3 have been postulated. The aims of this study were to identify specific PR3 surface epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) and to determine whether the findings can be used to measure the functional impact of epitope-specific PR3-ANCA and their potential relationship to disease activity. We used a novel flow cytometry assay based on TALON-beads coated with recombinant human (H) and murine (M) PR3 and 10 custom-designed chimeric human/mouse rPR3-variants (Hm1-5/Mh1-5) identifying 5 separate non-conserved PR3 surface epitopes. Anti-PR3 moAbs recognize 4 major surface epitopes, and we identified the specific surface location of 3 of these with the chimeric rPR3-variants. The ability of PR3-ANCA to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PR3 was measured indirectly using a capture-ELISA system based on the different epitopes recognized by capturing moAbs. Epitope-specific PR3-ANCA capture-ELISA results obtained from patient plasma (n=27) correlated with the inhibition of enzymatic activity of PR3 by paired IgG preparations (r=0.7, P<0.01). The capture-ELISA results also seem to reflect disease activity. In conclusion, insights about epitopes recognized by anti-PR3 moAbs can be applied to separate PR3-ANCA subsets with predictable functional qualities. The ability of PR3-ANCA to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PR3, a property linked to disease activity, can now be gauged using a simple epitope-based capture-ELISA system.

  13. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology.

  14. Engaging with Lyell: Alfred Russel Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers as reactions to Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology.

    PubMed

    Costa, J T

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) are honored as the founders of modern evolutionary biology. Accordingly, much attention has focused on their relationship, from their independent development of the principle of natural selection to the receipt by Darwin of Wallace's essay from Ternate in the spring of 1858, and the subsequent reading of the Wallace and Darwin papers at the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. In the events of 1858 Wallace and Darwin are typically seen as central players, with Darwin's friends Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) playing supporting roles. This narrative has resulted in an under-appreciation of a more central role for Charles Lyell as both Wallace's inspiration and foil. The extensive anti-transmutation arguments in Lyell's landmark Principles of Geology were taken as the definitive statement on the subject. Wallace, in his quest to solve the mystery of species origins, engaged with Lyell's arguments in his private field notebooks in a way that is concordant with his engagement with Lyell in the 1855 and 1858 papers. I show that Lyell was the object of Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers through a consideration of the circumstances that led Wallace to send his Ternate paper to Darwin, together with an analysis of the material that Wallace drew upon from the Principles. In this view Darwin was, ironically, intended for a supporting role in mediating Wallace's attempted dialog with Lyell.

  15. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  16. Biochar and Glomus caledonium influence Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance).

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-14

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  17. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (−62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENT MAKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: THE CASE OF ALFRED BINET AT THE SORBONNE LABORATORY.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology.

  19. Keeping the fire burning: Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the one of the world's leading physicians during the final third of the 19th century. Rewarded in 1882 with the creation of the first chair in the diseases of the nervous system, he was extremely successful at recruiting loyal and talented students. Charcot himself never produced a general treatise on hysteria, but instead encouraged his pupils to write their own books. Here, we describe how the work on hysteria of Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet was closely associated with Charcot, and how they remained faithful to their mentor. We will highlight the unusual personality of G. Gilles de la Tourette and the tragic end to his life, the exceptional artistic talent of P. Richer (writer and painter of his magnificently illustrated thesis), the prolific writing capacity of C. Féré (bearing witness to his broad fields of interest) and A. Binet (blessed with an extraordinary capacity for work, and author of The Psychology of Reasoning, before presenting his metric scale of intelligence).

  20. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walk Test (SMWT) Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) Fracture Risk ... Investigators Resources for Doctoral Students/Post-Doctoral Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in ...

  1. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Researchers Six Minute Walk Test (SMWT) Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Fibromyalgia Impact ... Health in Rheumatic Diseases Rheumatoid Arthritis Vasculitis Quality Measurement ACR Endorsed Measures Disease Activity & Functional Status Assessments ...

  2. Un mode de révélation rare de la maladie de Wegener: une myocardite associée a une endocardite fibroblastique

    PubMed Central

    Arous, Salim; Bensahi, Ilham; Noureddine, Malika; Habbal, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons à travers cette observation le cas rare d'une maladie de Wegener révélée par une myocardite associée à une endocardite fibroblastique. Le patient a été admis initialement dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque globale, avec un trouble du rythme type flutter auriculaire à l'ECG. A l’échocardiographie le ventricule gauche était non dilaté, siège d'une dysfonction sévère, avec un dosage des troponines positif. Une insuffisance rénale sévère a été découverte fortuitement nécessitant une hémodialyse, associée à une anémie inflammatoire confirmée par la férritinémie et le myélogramme. Le dosage des c-ANCA était fortement positif confirmant le diagnostic. La TDM thoracique avait objectivé une pneumopathie basale droite. Après avoir démarré un traitement adapté comprenant une corticothérapie et un traitement immunosuppresseur, l’évolution a été favorable avec normalisation de la fonction systolique du ventricule gauche. Bien que les manifestations cardiaques cliniques évidentes soient rares, l'atteinte cardiaque au cours de la maladie de Wegener est décrite, nécessitant une orientation diagnostic rapide et une connaissance rigoureuse de cette maladie grave. PMID:27279960

  3. Mourning Dr. Alfred G. Knudson: the two-hit hypothesis, tumor suppressor genes, and the tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Hino, Okio; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    On July 10, 2016, Alfred G. Knudson, Jr., MD, PhD, a leader in cancer research, died at the age of 93 years. We deeply mourn his loss. Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, published in 1971, has been fundamental for understanding tumor suppressor genes and familial tumor-predisposing syndromes. To understand the molecular mechanism of two-hit-initiated tumorigenesis, Knudson used an animal model of a dominantly inherited tumor, the Eker rat. From the molecular identification of Tsc2 germline mutations, the Eker rat became a model for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a familial tumor-predisposing syndrome. Animal models, including the fly, have greatly contributed to TSC research. Because the product of the TSC2/Tsc2 gene (tuberin) together with hamartin, the product of another TSC gene (TSC1/Tsc1), suppresses mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), rapalogs have been used as therapeutic drugs for TSC. Although significant activity of these drugs has been reported, there are still problems such as recurrence of residual tumors and adverse effects. Recent studies indicate that there are mTORC1-independent signaling pathways downstream of hamartin/tuberin, which may represent new therapeutic targets. The establishment of cellular models, such as pluripotent stem cells with TSC2/Tsc2 gene mutations, will facilitate the understanding of new aspects of TSC pathogenesis and the development of novel treatment options. In this review, we look back at the history of Knudson and animal models of TSC and introduce recent progress in TSC research.

  4. Lothar Jaenicke (1923-2015) zum Gedächtnis.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, Simone S

    2017-07-26

    Among the post-war European biochemists, L. Jaenicke (1923-2015) stands out as a distinctive character with bright ideas and professional elegance, yet with personal modesty. His contributions to diverse fields such as C1 metabolic pathways, signal compounds (aquatic sex attractants) of brown algae and chemotaxis appear as distinctive features not covered by his peers. His rich scientific œuvre is documented in 291 journal articles, nine books, and a huge number of almost 570 book reviews, recensions, biographies and commentaries on the politics of science and the history of biochemistry. A quantitative approach is attempted here to make his diversified life's work more transparent through graphical analysis by the novel method of ergography. At a glance, his different strands of activities stand out clearly and speak for themselves, without the need for excessive verbal interpretation.

  5. Naval Classical Thinkers and Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    operational warfare today or in the future. Blue-Water School Thinkers: American Rear Admiral Alfred T. Mahan (1840–1914) and the British... Wegener (1875–1956). Castex, whose ideas on naval strategy were broader and more universal, was a more methodical and deeper thinker than Wegener ...firmly believed that naval strategy must acknowledge both historical principles and materiel conditions. 76 Vice Admiral Wegener : Wegener was the

  6. [The contribution of Alfred K. Graefe to surgical treatment of paretic squint in the second half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Weidlich, R

    1996-01-01

    Alfred Graefe is one of the three important ophthalmologists of the Graefe family in the nineteenth century, who were engaged scientifically with squint. He dealt with disorders of ocular motility in twenty publications. In: "The indication of operative treatment of paretic eye deviations" Graefe suggested three operative principles: Resection of the paretic muscle, tenotomy of the ipsilateral antagonist and tenotomy of the contralateral synergist. Depending on the amount of the motility disturbance Graefe recommended one or several of these methods. Concerning the vertical muscles Graefe emphasized the importance of parallelism of the retinal meridians. Hence, in the case of superior oblique palsy he favoured a tenotomy of the contralateral inferior rectus.

  7. [From Swiss herbs to the global plant system and individual use--a biographic approach to Alfred Vogel].

    PubMed

    Melzer, J

    2003-04-01

    Even 100 years after the birth of Alfred Vogel there is a lack of reliable data about his life as a non-doctoral therapist in the fields of naturopathy and phytotherapy. Which documents about A. Vogel do exist, which facts do they prove about his career and which interpretations of his point of view of phytotherapy do they allow. With the methods in medical history (heuristic, critic, interpretation) video, audio and written documents from the A. Vogel Museum and A. Vogel publisher in Teufen, the A. Vogel collection in the Museum in Aesch and the Bioforce AG in Roggwil have been examined. From 1923 to 1932 A. Vogel runs a grocer's shop or a herb and health-food store in Basel and later Bern, Zürich and Solothurn. The economic success of his health-food stores and his interest in the field of naturopathy enable him to take part in a training to become a 'natural doctor' and in 1933 he is registered by the 'Natural Doctors Association of Switzerland'. From 1935 on he is working as a nutritionalist in his own spa pension in Trogen and produces plant extracts in his 'Laboratory Bioforce'. From 1937 to 1957 he has a spa hotel in Teufen and is producer of extracts from fresh plants. He is able to travel all continents of the world from 1958 on, in order to observe customs and medical habits of different tribes. He writes about his findings in his own magazine and books. His knowledge about the usage of herbs in different cultures inspires his production of herbal extracts in his company. In 1963, to meet the increasing sales of his products, he founds the where he, until the early 1990s, takes part in the adjustment of the recipes to the new pharmaceutic-medical standards. Because of his work as a 'natural doctor' A. Vogel becomes one of Switzerland's best known non-doctoral therapists in the 20th century. The publication of his collected wisdom in a lay-like language is a contribution to the tradition and popularity in this field through which, as well as

  8. Proteinase-3 as the major autoantigen of c-ANCA is strongly expressed in lung tissue of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Brockmann, Holger; Schwarting, Andreas; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Petrow, Peter; Gaumann, Andreas; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Galle, Peter Robert; Mayet, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Proteinase-3 (PR-3) is a neutral serine proteinase present in azurophil granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and serves as the major target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with a cytoplasmic staining pattern (c-ANCA) in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The WG disease appears as severe vasculitis in different organs (e.g. kidney, nose and lung). Little is known about the expression and distribution of PR-3 in the lung. We found that PR-3 is expressed in normal lung tissue and is upregulated in lung tissue of patients with WG. Interestingly, the parenchymal cells (pneumocytes type I and II) and macrophages, and not the neutrophils, express PR-3 most strongly and may contribute to lung damage in patients with WG via direct interaction with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antobodies (ANCA). These findings suggest that the PR-3 expression in parenchymal cells of lung tissue could be at least one missing link in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary pathology in ANCA-associated disease. PMID:12010574

  9. Influence of disease manifestation and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titer on the response to pulse cyclophosphamide therapy in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Reinhold-Keller, E; Kekow, J; Schnabel, A; Schmitt, W H; Heller, M; Beigel, A; Duncker, G; Gross, W L

    1994-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of pulse cyclophosphamide (CYC) in the treatment of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and to identify the patients who are responsive to the treatment. The prospective study included 43 patients with biopsy-proven WG. Clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and immunologic data were evaluated for predictive values regarding the outcome of pulse CYC therapy. Only 42% of the patients showed complete or partial remission that lasted at least 6 months after cessation of pulse CYC therapy. These responders had a higher frequency of disease activity limited to the upper and lower respiratory tract (39%, versus 8% in the nonresponder group; P < 0.05) and had lower titers of classic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (cANCA) prior to treatment (< 1:64 42%, versus 6% in the nonresponder group; P < 0.05). In the 58% of patients who did not respond to pulse CYC treatment, there was both systemic disease involving more than 4 organ systems (mainly, the heart, nervous system, eye, and skin) and constitutional symptoms. Serious side effects induced by pulse CYC occurred in only 1 patient. Based on these findings, pulse CYC therapy appears to be effective in WG patients with moderate disease activity and low titers of cANCA, but of little benefit in patients with severe WG. Pulse CYC should therefore not be used as first-line therapy in patients with severe and rapidly progressing forms of WG associated with high titers of cANCA.

  10. A case of simultaneous, biopsy-proven, classic, ANCA-positive Wegener's granulomatosis and anti-GBM disease, but without detectable circulating anti-GBM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gmurczyk, Aleksandra; Ahya, Shubhada N; Goldschmidt, Robert; Kim, George; Ho, L Tammy; Nash, Kevin

    2010-06-15

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic, necrotizing, granulomatous vasculitis of unknown etiology. Approximately 75% of cases present as classic WG with both pulmonary and renal involvement, while the remaining 25% of patients present with a limited form with either predominantly upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms. Ninety percent of WG patients have circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and approximately 10% have both circulating ANCA antibodies and concomitant anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease on renal biopsy. Virtually all of these patients also have circulating anti-GBM antibodies. While it has been reported that some patients with ANCA vasculitis have circulating anti-GBM antibodies, and patients with anti-GBM disease may have positive ANCA, review of the literature does not demonstrate other cases of biopsy-proven, simultaneous, ANCA-associated vasculitis and anti-GBM disease. We report a case of simultaneous, biopsy-proven, classic, ANCA-positive WG and anti-GBM disease, but without detectible circulating anti-GBM antibodies. We present findings characteristic of both WG and linear IgG deposition along the GBM suggesting concurrent anti-GBM disease, in the absence of detectable circulating anti-GBM antibodies. Possible theories to explain the absence of these antibodies are discussed.

  11. Alfred E. Bergeat (1866-1924): a distinguished volcanologist and ore deposit researching scientist at the mining academies of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains) in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2010-06-01

    Alfred E. Bergeat, originated from a family, who produced gold-glance in a factory (porcelain painting), studied mineralogy and geology at the University of Munich from 1886 to 1892. Due to the results of his habilitation work on the volcanism of island arcs, especially of the Stromboli volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, he became a recognized volcanologist and specialist in volcanic petrography. He further became an explorer of syngenetic, epigenetic and deuterogenic ore deposits at the mining academies (Bergakademien) of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains). He described these ore deposits in a two-volume manual (1904-1906) which was summarized again in 1913. After his early death in 1924, the two manuals “Die Vulkane” (1925) and “Vulkankunde” (1927) were posthumously published by his colleague and friend Karl Sapper (1866-1945).

  12. Swedenborg, Linnaeus and brain research--and the roles of Gustaf Retzius and Alfred Stroh in the rediscovery of Swedenborg's manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Gordh, Torsten E; Mair, William G P; Sourander, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at the end of his long life became famous as a visionary mystic and founder of a new religion. However, at younger age, he was recognized as a prominent mining engineer and natural philosopher, particularly interested in geology, mineralogy, cosmology, paleontology and last but not least physiology of the brain. In his Oeconomica regni animalis (1740) and in several posthumously published extensive manuscripts, he described and analyzed e.g. the structural and functional organization of the cerebral cortex, the hierarchical construction of the nervous system, the localization of the cerebrospinal fluid and the secretory functions of the pituitary gland. In these fields, he presented remarkable insights and far reaching conclusions which in some cases have been experimentally verified in modern times. In spite of family relations Swedenborg rarely met the 19 years younger Linnaeus. Linnaeus was not only the founder of the systemic botany but as physician a keen and to some extent original observer of neurological symptoms; one of the first who adequately described motor aphasia. To regard these two men, among the few Swedish authors of the 18th century whose names are still internationally well known, as early precursors of neurological research, seems justified. The young Canadian, Alfred H. Stroh (1878-1922), had a crucial importance for the research on the works of Swedenborg, and the rediscovery of his manuscripts. His work was supported and financed to a large extent by professor Gustaf Retzius, at that time the most prominent Swedish researcher in anatomy and histology. There are many reasons to be thankful for the important contributions made by Alfred Stroh and Gustaf Retzius to stimulate the interest for Emanuel Swedenborg in Sweden and internationally.

  13. A substrate-based approach to convert SerpinB1 into a specific inhibitor of proteinase 3, the Wegener's granulomatosis autoantigen.

    PubMed

    Jégot, Gwenhael; Derache, Chrystelle; Castella, Sandrine; Lahouassa, Hichem; Pitois, Elodie; Jourdan, Marie Lise; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Kellenberger, Christine; Gauthier, Francis; Korkmaz, Brice

    2011-09-01

    The physiological and pathological functions of proteinase 3 (PR3) are not well understood due to its close similarity to human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and the lack of a specific inhibitor. Based on structural analysis of the active sites of PR3 and HNE, we generated mutants derived from the polyvalent inhibitor SerpinB1 (monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor) that specifically inhibit PR3 and that differ from wt-SerpinB1 by only 3 or 4 residues in the reactive center loop. The rate constant of association between the best SerpinB1 mutant and PR3 is 1.4 × 10⁷ M⁻¹ · s⁻¹, which is ∼100-fold higher than that observed with wt-SerpinB1 and compares with that of α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI) toward HNE. SerpinB1(S/DAR) is cleaved by HNE, but due to differences in rate, inhibition of PR3 by SerpinB1(S/DAR) is only minimally affected by the presence of HNE even when the latter is in excess. SerpinB1(S/DAR) inhibits soluble PR3 and also membrane-bound PR3 at the surface of activated neutrophils. Moreover, SerpinB1(S/DAR) clears induced PR3 from the surface of activated neutrophils. Overall, these specific inhibitors of PR3 will be valuable for defining biological functions of the protease and may prove useful as therapeutics for PR3-related inflammatory diseases, such as Wegener's granulomatosis.

  14. Representation of Arctic Mixed-Phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process in Climate Models: Perspectives from a Cloud-Resolving Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Ghan, Steven J.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Korolev, Alexei

    2011-09-20

    Two types of Arctic mixed-phase clouds observed during the ISDAC and M-PACE field campaigns are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with size-resolved cloud microphysics. The modeled cloud properties agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements and surface-based retrievals. Cloud properties such as the probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity (w), cloud liquid and ice, the regime of ice growth at the expense of liquid water (i.e., Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process), and the inherent relationships among cloud properties/processes in the mixed-phase layers are examined to gain insights for improving the representation of the mixed-phase processes in General Circulation Models (GCMs). We find that, the WBF process only occurs in about 50% of the mixed-phase regime with the vast majority occurring in the downdrafts. In updrafts both liquid and ice grow simultaneously. But in GCMs, it is not necessary to treat the WBF process at the subgrid scale. Our CRM results produce a w distribution well represented by a Gaussian normal function, validating, at least for arctic clouds, the subgrid treatment used in GCMs. Our CRM results also support the assumption frequently used in GCMs that mixed phase clouds maintain water vapor very near liquid saturation. A Gamma function with a fixed variance does not accurately represent the subgrid variability of cloud liquid. The PDFs of cloud liquid and cloud ice can be fitted with Gamma functions, and a normal function can be used for total water, but the variance should not be fixed. The relationship between the ice depositional growth rate and cloud ice strongly depends on the capacitance of ice particles. The assumption for the capacitance of ice particles (e.g., 1.0 for spheres) used in GCMs could lead to a large deviation in ice depositional growth. At large sales, the maximum overlap assumption looks appropriate.

  15. Representation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process in climate models: Perspectives from a cloud-resolving study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Ghan, Steven; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Korolev, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of Arctic mixed-phase clouds observed during the ISDAC and M-PACE field campaigns are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with size-resolved cloud microphysics. The modeled cloud properties agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements and surface-based retrievals. Cloud properties such as the probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity (w), cloud liquid and ice, regimes of cloud particle growth, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process, and the relationships among properties/processes in mixed-phase clouds are examined to gain insights for improving their representation in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The PDF of the simulated w is well represented by a Gaussian function, validating, at least for arctic clouds, the subgrid treatment used in GCMs. The PDFs of liquid and ice water contents can be approximated by Gamma functions, and a Gaussian function can describe the total water distribution, but a fixed variance assumption should be avoided in both cases. The CRM results support the assumption frequently used in GCMs that mixed phase clouds maintain water vapor near liquid saturation. Thus, ice continues to grow throughout the stratiform cloud but the WBF process occurs in about 50% of cloud volume where liquid and ice co-exist, predominantly in downdrafts. In updrafts, liquid and ice particles grow simultaneously. The relationship between the ice depositional growth rate and cloud ice strongly depends on the capacitance of ice particles. The simplified size-independent capacitance of ice particles used in GCMs could lead to large deviations in ice depositional growth.

  16. Interference of PR3-ANCA with the enzymatic activity of PR3: differences in patients during active disease or remission of Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Tool, A T J; Videler, J; de Haas, M; Tervaert, J W Cohen; Stegeman, C A; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G M; Roos, D

    2002-09-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) against proteinase 3 (PR3) are strongly associated with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and are thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. Levels of PR3-ANCA do not always correspond to clinical disease activity. To investigate the relationship between functional effects of PR3-ANCA and disease activity, we tested the effect of IgG samples from sera of 43 WG patients, taken during active disease or remission, for their capacity to interfere with the proteolytic activity of PR3. Furthermore, longitudinal sera of seven WG patients were included. The enzymatic activity of PR3 was determined (1) with casein or with a small synthetic substrate and (2) by complexation of PR3 with alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT). With a fixed concentration (100 microg/ml) of IgG, PR3-ANCA from patients during an active phase of WG had a higher inhibitory capacity towards the proteolytic activity of PR3 and complexation of PR3 with alpha1-AT than did PR3-ANCA from WG patients during remission. However, the number of PR3-ANCA units that gave 50% inhibition of the PR3 enzymatic activity and its complexation with alpha1-AT was lower for patients during remission than for patients during an active phase of WG, indicating a stronger inhibitory capacity at a molar base. In conclusion, PR3-ANCA from patients during remission had a relatively higher inhibitory capacity towards the enzymatic activity of PR3 than PR3-ANCA from patients during an active phase. This may indicate that during active disease the ANCA titre is increased, but the number of active ANCA molecules that recognize the enzyme-inhibiting epitopes is not increased.

  17. Characteristics and Outcomes of Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener) and Microscopic Polyangiitis Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy: Results From the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry.

    PubMed

    Hruskova, Zdenka; Stel, Vianda S; Jayne, David; Aasarød, Knut; De Meester, Johan; Ekstrand, Agneta; Eller, Kathrin; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries; Martos Jimenéz, Carmen; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Tesar, Vladimir; Jager, Kitty J

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the incidence and outcomes of European patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) for kidney failure due to antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Cohort study. 12 renal registries providing individual RRT patient data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry in 1993-2012 participated. Cause of primary kidney disease: AAV (ie, granulomatosis with polyangiitis [Wegener] and microscopic polyangiitis) versus 3 separate matched control groups without AAV: (1) primary glomerulonephritis, (2) diabetes mellitus, and (3) disease other than diabetes mellitus as the cause of primary kidney disease, including glomerulonephritis (termed "nondiabetes"). Incidence, causes of death, and survival. ERA-EDTA primary renal disease codes. 2,511 patients with AAV (1,755, granulomatosis with polyangiitis; 756, microscopic polyangiitis) were identified, representing an incidence of 1.05 per million population (pmp) for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (predominating in Northern Europe) and 0.45 pmp for microscopic polyangiitis (prevailing in Southern Europe). Kidney transplantation was performed in 558 (22.2%) patients with vasculitis. The 10-year probability for survival on RRT after day 91 was 32.5% (95% CI, 29.9%-35.1%) in patients with vasculitis. Survival on RRT after day 91 did not differ between AAV and matched nondiabetes patients. Patient and transplant survival after kidney transplantation, adjusted for time period and country, was better in AAV than in matched nondiabetes patients (HRs of 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.99] and 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.96], respectively). No data for extrarenal manifestations, treatment, and relapses. Geographical differences in the incidence of RRT for kidney failure due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis copied their distribution in the general population. Overall survival on RRT after day 91 for patients

  18. Comparing Presenting Clinical Features in 48 Children With Microscopic Polyangiitis to 183 Children Who Have Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's): An ARChiVe Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cabral, David A; Canter, Debra L; Muscal, Eyal; Nanda, Kabita; Wahezi, Dawn M; Spalding, Steven J; Twilt, Marinka; Benseler, Susanne M; Campillo, Sarah; Charuvanij, Sirirat; Dancey, Paul; Eberhard, Barbara A; Elder, Melissa E; Hersh, Aimee; Higgins, Gloria C; Huber, Adam M; Khubchandani, Raju; Kim, Susan; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Kostik, Mikhail M; Lawson, Erica F; Lee, Tzielan; Lubieniecka, Joanna M; McCurdy, Deborah; Moorthy, Lakshmi N; Morishita, Kimberly A; Nielsen, Susan M; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Reiff, Andreas; Ristic, Goran; Robinson, Angela B; Sarmiento, Angelyne; Shenoi, Susan; Toth, Mary B; Van Mater, Heather A; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Weiss, Jennifer E; White, Andrew J; Yeung, Rae S M

    2016-10-01

    To uniquely classify children with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), to describe their demographic characteristics, presenting clinical features, and initial treatments in comparison to patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA). The European Medicines Agency (EMA) classification algorithm was applied by computation to categorical data from patients recruited to the ARChiVe (A Registry for Childhood Vasculitis: e-entry) cohort, with the data censored to November 2015. The EMA algorithm was used to uniquely distinguish children with MPA from children with GPA, whose diagnoses had been classified according to both adult- and pediatric-specific criteria. Descriptive statistics were used for comparisons. In total, 231 of 440 patients (64% female) fulfilled the classification criteria for either MPA (n = 48) or GPA (n = 183). The median time to diagnosis was 1.6 months in the MPA group and 2.1 months in the GPA group (ranging to 39 and 73 months, respectively). Patients with MPA were significantly younger than those with GPA (median age 11 years versus 14 years). Constitutional features were equally common between the groups. In patients with MPA compared to those with GPA, pulmonary manifestations were less frequent (44% versus 74%) and less severe (primarily, hemorrhage, requirement for supplemental oxygen, and pulmonary failure). Renal pathologic features were frequently found in both groups (75% of patients with MPA versus 83% of patients with GPA) but tended toward greater severity in those with MPA (primarily, nephrotic-range proteinuria, requirement for dialysis, and end-stage renal disease). Airway/eye involvement was absent among patients with MPA, because these GPA-defining features preclude a diagnosis of MPA within the EMA algorithm. Similar proportions of patients with MPA and those with GPA received combination therapy with corticosteroids plus cyclophosphamide (69% and 78%, respectively) or both drugs in combination with

  19. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  20. The excluded philosophy of evo-devo? Revisiting C.H. Waddington's failed attempt to embed Alfred North Whitehead's "organicism" in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    Though a prominent British developmental biologist in his day, a close friend of Theodosius Dobzhansky, and a frequent correspondent with Ernst Mayr, C.H. Waddington did not enter the ranks of "architect" of the Modern Synthesis. By the end of his career, in fact, he recognized that other biologists reacted to his work "as though they feel obscurely uneasy"; and that the best that some philosophers of biology could say of his work was that he was not "wholly orthodox" (Waddington 1975c, 11). In this essay, I take Waddington's self-assessments at face value and explore three potential reasons why his work did not have more of a direct impact: Waddington's explicit support for the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead; a lack of institutional support; and Waddington's occasional marginalization from the core network of American neo-Darwinians. Though excluded from the Modern Synthesis in the mid-20th century, it now appears that Waddington's work does undergird the emerging evo-devo synthesis. Whether this indicates concomitant, if implicit, support for Whiteheadian philosophy is an interesting question not explored here.

  1. Resister's logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907.

    PubMed

    Fichman, Martin; Keelan, Jennifer E

    2007-09-01

    In the 1880s, Alfred Russel Wallace, the celebrated co-discoverer of natural selection, launched himself into the centre of a politicised and polarised debate over the unpopular compulsory vaccination laws in England. Wallace never wavered in his belief that smallpox vaccination was useless and likely dangerous. Six years before his death, the anti-vaccinationists successfully secured a conscience clause that effectively dismantled the compulsory vaccination laws. Several other important Victorian scientists joined Wallace in the fight to repeal compulsory vaccination arguing that widely held views on the effectiveness of vaccination and evidence for immunity were inconclusive in the light of (then) contemporary standards of evidence. This article situates Wallace's anti-vaccination logic within the broader matrix of sociopolitical and cultural reform movements of the late Victorian era. Additionally it provides the first detailed analysis of his critique of vaccination science, in particular the role statistics played in his arguments. In this period, both pro-vaccinationists and anti-vaccinationists invested great efforts in collating and analysing statistical data sets that either supported or refuted the claims of vaccination's effectiveness. While each side presented 'controlled' case studies to support their assertions, without an unambiguous test to measure or demonstrate vaccination's effectiveness, the anti-vaccinationists continued to mount credible statistical critiques of vaccination science.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induced differential Cd and P phytoavailability via intercropping of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance): post-harvest study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Li, Jintian; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Ye, Zhihong; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-01

    A post-harvest experiment was conducted further to our previous greenhouse pot study on upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) intercropping system in Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Previously, four treatments were established in the intercropping experiment, including monoculture of kangkong (control), intercropping with stonecrop (IS), and IS plus inoculation with Glomus caledonium (IS+Gc) or Glomus versiforme (IS+Gv). Both kangkong and stonecrop plants were harvested after growing for 8 weeks. Then, the tested soils were reclaimed for growing post-harvest kangkong for 6 weeks. In the post-harvest experiment, there were no significant differences between the IS and control treatments, except for a significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil available P concentration with IS treatment. Compared with IS, both IS+Gc and IS+Gv significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations, but not total Cd, by elevating soil pH, causing significantly lower (p<0.05) Cd concentrations in both the root and shoot of kangkong. In addition, both Gc and Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) soil acid phosphatase activities and available P concentrations and hence resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) plant P acquisitions. However, only Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) kangkong yield, while Gc only significantly elevated (p<0.05) the shoot P concentration. It suggested that AM fungi have played key roles in Cd stabilization and P mobilization in the intercropping system, and such positive responses seemed to be sustainable and valuable in post-harvest soils.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P < 0.05) root mycorrhizal colonization rates, soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P < 0.05) the phytoextraction efficiency of Cd by 78%. In addition, both Gc and Gm significantly decreased (P < 0.05) phytoavailable Cd concentrations by 21-38% via elevating soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The Essen-based steel producer Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) as a reader of the flora and fauna of the Gulf of Naples. A look at the relationship of Anton Dohrn (1840-1909) to the house Krupp].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    A unfavourable notice written by industrial magnate Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) has been discovered on the posterior cover sheet of the first volume of the monumental series Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, edited by the Zoological Station at Naples (1880) Krupp's handwritten statement affords the opportunity to discuss in more detail the intricate relationship between the founder of the first marine biology station, Anton Dohrn (1840-1909), and the owner of the greatest steel factory in Europe, the Krupp-family at Essen. Although Anton Dohrn did not know about Krupp's disapproving comment he had a fine unerring instinct for the mentality of his negotiating partner, whose way of thinking rather aimed at the practical success and completion of armament factory, preventing thus a the serious rapprochement between the two personalities. Even when the Krupp-heir, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, later devoted to questions about marine biology in his new built house at Capri, and was willing to support the Zoological Station with high sponsoring, Anton Dohrn maintained a reserved attitude towards the Krupp's offer to support the marine research financially. Likewise, he remained unimpressed, when the steel magnate was shook by the smear campaign in Capri that ultimately led to Krupp's death in November 1902.

  5. Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing Debashis Chanda1, Kazuki Shigeta1, Sidhartha Gupta1, Tyler Cain1, Andrew Carlson1, Agustin Mihi1, Alfred J. Baca3...2008). 11. Dolling, G., Enkrich, C. & Wegener , M. Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths. Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006...metamaterials. Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007). 13. Dolling, G., Wegener , M. & Linden, S. Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic

  6. Precambrian crustal evolution in relation to geodynamics and supercontinents: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2016-10-01

    More than a century ago, Alfred Wegener explored the origin of continents in his work: "Die Entstehung der Kontinente" (Wegener, 1912, 1915) which provided the core idea of plate tectonics. However, significantly before this work, the idea of "continental drift" was hypothesized by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 with the suggestion that the Americas were torn away from Europe and Africa by earthquakes and floods, and that these continents were once united.

  7. Sea Control: The Role of Land-Based Air Power.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-20

    maneuverability and 9 probably do enough damage to sink it. Similarly, the cruise missile has proven to be extremely difficult to defeat. CDR. Bernard Wegener ...through. CDR. Wegener concludes: "No defensive system available today can guarantee a naval vessel 100 percent survival against ASMs. Every defensive...Norman Polmar, Aircraft Carriers (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1969), p. 294. 3. Alfred F. Hurley, Billy Mitchell: Crusader for

  8. WegenerNet 1km-scale sub-daily rainfall data and their application: a hydrological modeling study on the sensitivity of small-catchment runoff to spatial rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sungmin; Hohmann, Clara; Foelsche, Ulrich; Fuchsberger, Jürgen; Rieger, Wolfgang; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2017-04-01

    WegenerNet Feldbach region (WEGN), a pioneering experiment for weather and climate observations, has recently completed its first 10-year precipitation measurement cycle. The WEGN has measured precipitation, temperature, humidity, and other parameters since the beginning of 2007, supporting local-level monitoring and modeling studies, over an area of about 20 km x 15 km centered near the City of Feldbach (46.93 ˚ N, 15.90 ˚ E) in the Alpine forelands of southeast Austria. All the 151 stations in the network are now equipped with high-quality Meteoservis sensors as of August 2016, following an equipment with Friedrichs sensors at most stations before, and continue to provide high-resolution (2 km2/5-min) gauge based precipitation measurements for interested users in hydro-meteorological communities. Here we will present overall characteristics of the WEGN, with a focus on sub-daily precipitation measurements, from the data processing (data quality control, gridded data products generation, etc.) to data applications (e.g., ground validation of satellite estimates). The latter includes our recent study on the propagation of uncertainty from rainfall to runoff. The study assesses responses of small-catchment runoff to spatial rainfall variability in the WEGN region over the Raab valley, using a physics-based distributed hydrological model; Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM), developed at ETH Zurich (Schulla, ETH Zurich, 1997). Given that uncertainty due to resolution of rainfall measurements is believed to be a significant source of error in hydrologic modeling especially for convective rainfall that dominates in the region during summer, the high-resolution of WEGN data furnishes a great opportunity to analyze effects of rainfall events on the runoff at different spatial resolutions. Furthermore, the assessment can be conducted not only for the lower Raab catchment (area of about 500 km2) but also for its sub-catchments (areas of about 30-70 km2

  9. EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for Henoch-Schönlein purpura, childhood polyarteritis nodosa, childhood Wegener granulomatosis and childhood Takayasu arteritis: Ankara 2008. Part I: Overall methodology and clinical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Ozen, Seza; Pistorio, Angela; Dolezalova, Pavla; Brogan, Paul; Cabral, David A; Cuttica, Ruben; Khubchandani, Raju; Lovell, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Quartier, Pierre; Ravelli, Angelo; Iusan, Silvia M; Filocamo, Giovanni; Magalhães, Claudia Saad; Unsal, Erbil; Oliveira, Sheila; Bracaglia, Claudia; Bagga, Arvind; Stanevicha, Valda; Manzoni, Silvia Magni; Pratsidou, Polyxeni; Lepore, Loredana; Espada, Graciela; Kone-Paut, Isabella; Paut, Isabelle Kone; Zulian, Francesco; Barone, Patrizia; Bircan, Zelal; Maldonado, Maria del Rocio; Russo, Ricardo; Vilca, Iris; Tullus, Kjell; Cimaz, Rolando; Horneff, Gerd; Anton, Jordi; Garay, Stella; Nielsen, Susan; Barbano, Giancarlo; Martini, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    To report methodology and overall clinical, laboratory and radiographic characteristics for Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), childhood polyarteritis nodosa (c-PAN), c-Wegener granulomatosis (c-WG) and c-Takayasu arteritis (c-TA) classification criteria. The preliminary Vienna 2005 consensus conference, which proposed preliminary criteria for paediatric vasculitides, was followed by a EULAR/PRINTO/PRES - supported validation project divided into three main steps. Step 1: retrospective/prospective web-data collection for HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA, with age at diagnosis

  10. Zur Geschichte der Geophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, Klaus

    1980-07-01

    Alfred Wegener's most important work, the theory of continental drift, has a key position in the history of geophysics and has crucially advanced the discussion of this central problem of geodynamics amongst supporters and adversaries. The aim of this paper is to paint a portrait of Wegener's personality, of his stations of life, and of his interests and research work. The conceptions of the origin of continents and oceans prior to Wegener, and the further development of his ideas after his death on the ice cup of Greenland 50 years ago are discussed.

  11. Topographic Stress in the Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-20

    tilt witnd stress, Itldeed, ilves ’s, takmla- 0 A AQ 1 1) - rb tions described by D. Olbcrs of the Alfred 6 similar to the zonal momentum budget...issue Wegener Institut. Bremerhaven. Federal Re- ’ r’ , in ACC channel geometry.:.L~:-b- "T qg)"-7 in channel.geometry public of Germany, suggest that

  12. Space Strategy: A Call to Arms for the Sea Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    environment of operations— including the strategic positions within it—affects means. See Wolfgang Wegener , The Naval Strategy of the World War (Berlin...Strategy (London: Longmans, Green, 1911; reprint, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988), 91–93. 7 Alfred T. Mahan, The Problem of Asia and Its

  13. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    In the About AGU article "AGU Union Fellows elected for 2014," published in the 29 July 2014 issue of Eos (95(30), 272, doi:10.1022/ 2014EO300008), a joint research group affiliation was inadvertently omitted for one Fellow. Antje Boetius is with the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany, and the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

  14. Eberhard Fahrbach (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut; Schauer, Ursula; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Rintoul, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Eberhard Fahrbach, an internationally known oceanographer, died on 21 April 2013 at age 65 after battling a brain tumor. He had retired 1 year earlier from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, where he directed research on observational oceanography.

  15. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth sciences in the last 10 years. The theory of plate tectonics combines many of the ideas about continental drift (originally proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener in Germany) and sea-floor spreading (suggested originally by Harry Hess of Princeton University). 

  16. Frank Bursley Taylor - Forgotten Pioneer of Continental Drift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, George W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Frank B. Taylor was an American geologist who specialized in the glacial geology of the Great Lakes. This article discusses his work on the Continental Drift theory, which preceeded the work of Alfred Wegener by a year and a half. (MA)

  17. Frank Bursley Taylor - Forgotten Pioneer of Continental Drift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, George W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Frank B. Taylor was an American geologist who specialized in the glacial geology of the Great Lakes. This article discusses his work on the Continental Drift theory, which preceeded the work of Alfred Wegener by a year and a half. (MA)

  18. A New NATO (Or, Maybe Just an Improved One).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1987), 57-64, for a review of these issues during General Alfred Gruenther’s tenure as SACiUR (1953-1956...34Primed for Peace: Europe After the Cold War." International Security 15 (Winter 1990/91): 7-57. Wegener , Henning. "The Transformed Alliance." NATO Review

  19. Fowler, William Alfred [`Willy'] (1911-95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    American nuclear physicist, born in Pittsburgh, PA, worked at CalTech. Nobel prizewinner (1983). While at the Kellogg Laboratory studied the nuclear reactions of protons with the isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, the very reactions in the CN cycle identified at that time by HANS BETHE as occurring in the stars. Established the science of nuclear astrophysics. Found that there was a gap in the sequ...

  20. William Alfred Fowler (1911-1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific career of W. A. Fowler enduringly enriched astronomy by providing us with a systematic treatment of nuclear reaction rates in stars. I clarify how and why this achievement earned him both the 1979 Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics (jointly with S. Chandrasekhar). I attempt to share my understanding and experience of this great man, what he was like personally, and the larger context of his life. (SECTION: Obituary)

  1. Lovell, Alfred Charles Bernard [Sir Bernard] (1913-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist and astronomer, born in Oldland Common, Gloucestershire, England. Worked on cosmic rays at Manchester, researched radar in the Second World War, and afterwards with J S HEY procured an ex-army mobile radar unit used to detect V-2 rockets and attempted to detect cosmic ray showers with it. Interference from the electric trams at Manchester displaced the work to the university's botanical...

  2. The Alfred Hospital Lung Transplant Experience.

    PubMed

    Paraskeva, Miranda A; Westall, Glen P; Pilcher, David; McGiffin, David; Levvey, Bronwyn J; Williams, Trevor J; Snell, Gregory I

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients undergoing lung transplantation has continued to evolve, leading to improvements in 90-day and 1-year survival. The significant advancements in donor management and utilization at our center have led to significant increases in lung transplant activity without any compromise in recipient outcomes. Through the use of a patient-centered multidisciplinary model of care involved in all aspects of recipient management, from assessment and waitlisting to pre-, peri- and post-operative care, our lung transplant outcomes represent 2015 world's best lung transplant practice.

  3. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Report for 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, NY.

    This Sloan Foundation report for 1976 discusses foundation activities in the three facets of the General Program--(1) Education for the Public Service, (2) Economics and Management, and (3) Science and Technology--as well as in three Particular Programs--(1) Minority Engineering Education, (2) Technology in Education, and (3) Neuroscience. The…

  4. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  5. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  6. [Sigmund Freud's ambition and Alfred Adler].

    PubMed

    Lebzeltern, G

    1984-11-09

    Freud never admitted to himself that he possessed a greater-than-average sense of ambition, which manifested itself in dreams, malachievement and priority problems. A completely new picture of Freud arises from such a perspective. Freud experienced childhood trauma in the form of his relationship with his nephew, John, in whom both an intimate friend and hated enemy were incorporated. This experience left a life-long impression which predetermined the neurotic element in Freud's relationship with men. Freud's own interpretation being that he had been betrayed by Breuer, Fliess, Adler and Jung. That is why the sentencing of his Uncle Joseph to a term of imprisonment had such far-reaching consequences for Freud. A further noteworthy observation is the close connection between ambition and death wishes and also between ambition and guilt feelings. Who, after all, likes to admit to harbouring such feelings? It appeared necessary to investigate the extent to which Freud's excessive ambition influenced his relationships with Breuer, Fliess and Adler. Freud was never prepared to recognize that Adler's contribution consisted of revealing the importance of the natural laws governing those layers of the psyche nearer to the conscious. The picture of the whole person emerges only by a combination of psychoanalysis and individual psychology.

  7. Alfred Thayor Mahan and Space: A Necessary Unity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Tycho Brahe and Johanne Keppler laid the foundations of orbital mechanics as we know it [Ref. 28:pp. 1-23. Tycho , the noble aristocratic Dane, was...Strateau, and Maritime Power", ed. Simpson, B.M., Rutgers University Press, pp. 63-65, 1977. 42. Corbett, J., S ., "Some Principles of Naval Stratequ...NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) % 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval

  8. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  9. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  10. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational…

  11. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-03-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational ideas have now come full circle, and it is time to bring Gage and his texts and ideas to 21st-century physics teachers.

  12. The notion of "double consciousness" in Alfred Binet's psychological experimentalism.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Between 1889 and 1892, Binet published two remarkable essays, On Double Consciousness and Les alterations de la personnalité, which marked the end of a period of researches and interests closely linked to the doctrines on hypnosis and hysteria elaborated by the Ecole de la Salpêtrière. Later on, Binet was to abandon the utilization of hypnosis as a technique of experimentation, after he realized that the suggestibility of the "subjects" of these experiences had led to major experimental mistakes. However, during the years of his work at the Salpêtrière, he elaborated the notion of "double consciousness," which can be considered an alternative both to Ribot's idea of dissociation and to Janet's idea of disaggregation. The notion of double consciousness reveals both the originality of Binet's psychology--which was elaborated at the end of the nineteenth century--and its verifiable link to twentieth-century psychology. Unlike Janet, in fact, Binet did not support a theory of psychological deficiency or "misery," or of the retraction of the sphere of consciousness, which a normal capacity for psychological synthesis would oppose. On the contrary, Binet's psychology resulted in a theory stating that the duality of consciousness works in a perfect and autonomous way within the individual and, thanks to hypnosis, can be investigated in a laboratory.

  13. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational…

  14. Social background of the discovery and the reception of the periodic law of the elements: recognizing the contributions of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Masanori

    2003-05-01

    The favorable and relatively rapid reception of Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements can be attributed, in part at least, to his social connections. These connections were evident in the recently organized Russian Chemical Society. In addition, Mendeleev enjoyed the support of the editorial board of the journal of the German Chemical Society.

  15. Imaging the plate boundary between Greenland and North America within the Kane Basin by means of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Axel; Schnabel, Michael; Damm, Volkmar; Piepjohn, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The Nares Strait is a waterway separating NW Greenland and North America. The nature of the Nares Strait has been subject of discussion for decades, especially if it represents a transform fault that compensated the opening of the Baffin Bay in the Paleogene as Alfred Wegener supposed in 1912. The Kane Basin in the central part of Nares Strait provides an opportunity to cross the proposed fault. Geophysical data were acquired in 2001 and 2010, including among others multichannel and wide-angle seismic data. The eastern part of the Kane Basin is characterized by a solid platform most likely representing a continuation of the Paleoproterozoic Inglefield-Mobile-Belt (Greenland). In the western part, a sedimentary basin with northwestward tilted and eroded layers of Cretaceous age can be resolved. The transition between those two units shows the plate boundary between Greenland and North America and can be considered as a relic of the Wegener Fault.

  16. The Ny-Alesund aerosol and ozone measurements intercomparison campaign 1997/1998 (NAOMI-1998)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuber, R.; Beyerle, G.; Beninga, I.; VonderGathen, P.; Rairoux, P.; Schrems, O.; Wahl, P.; Gross, M.; McGee, Th.; Iwasaka, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Shibata, T.; Klein, U.; Steinbrecht, W.

    1998-01-01

    An intercomparison campaign for Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and aerosol has been conducted at the Primary Station of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) in Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen during January-February 1998. In addition to local instrumentation, the NDSC mobile ozone lidar from NASA/GSFC and the mobile aerosol lidar from Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) participated. The aim is the validation of stratospheric ozone and aerosol profile measurements according to NDSC guidelines. This paper briefly presents the employed instruments and outlines the campaign. Results of the blind intercomparison of ozone profiles are given in a companion paper and temperature measurements are described in this issue.

  17. Continental drift under the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public. Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other hand, continental drift received official support under the Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by most earth scientists outside Germany.

  18. The Forster Magnetic Anomaly: reading between the lines to better understand a major suture crossing central Dronning Maud Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Eagles, Graeme; Jacobs, Joachim; Jokat, Wilfried; Läufer, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Combined aeromagnetic and geological investigations in the area of Dronning Maud Land have led to several hypotheses regarding the assembly of East Antarctica as an integral part of Gondwana. One hypothesis suggests that a prominent NE-SW trending magnetic lineament in central Dronning Maud Land, the Forster Magnetic Anomaly (FMA), represents a major suture between rocks with African affinities and Archean to Mesoproterozoic ages in the West and junvenile Early Neoproterozoic rocks of the recently defined TOAST (Tonian Oceanic Arc Super Terrane) in the East. Consistent with this idea, satellite gravity data have recently revealed that a major change in lithospheric thickness coincides with the FMA. The FMA was first identified during aerogeophysical surveys carried out by the Alfred Wegener Institute between 2001 and 2005, and lies well to the south of isolated mountainous outcrops that do not directly help to identify the anomaly source. The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources collected aerogeophysical data in 2015-17 from Neumayer III and Kohnen stations, with the objective to densify existing coverage of the FMA from a line spacing of 10 km up to a line spacing of 5 km. We will present preliminary aerogeophysical data that provide a better image of the FMA itself, and with it an interpretation of the transition from an African continental plate margin to Early Neoproterozoic accretionary rocks.

  19. Surfaces and interfaces of glass and ceramics; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Special Topics in Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, N.Y., August 27-29, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, V. D. (Editor); Lacourse, W. C.; Burdick, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characterization of surfaces and interfaces is considered along with the infrared spectra of several N-containing compounds absorbed on montmorillonites, applications of surface characterization techniques to glasses, the observation of electronic spectra in glass and ceramic surfaces, a method for determining the preferred orientation of crystallites normal to a surface, and the friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics. Attention is given to the wear behavior of cast surface composites, an experimental investigation of the dynamic and thermal characteristics of the ceramic stock removal process, a dynamic elastic model of ceramic stock removal, and the structure and properties of solid surfaces. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  20. School Psychology: Prospective and Retrospective Views of the Field. Proceedings of the Annual Alfred University School Psychology Symposium (20th, Alfred, New York, November 1, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward, Ed.; Faherty, Ellen, Ed.

    Five contributors, viewing the field from divergent phenomenological spaces, provide a variety of viewpoints on the status of the field of school psychology. In "Glimpses of the Future in Current Practice?" Randy W. Kamphaus discusses the changing nature of school psychology, its two identities today, and the need to adapt a core value for…

  1. [Cyclophosphamide versus bolus in Wegener's granulomatosis and other ANCA-related vasculitides: advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Reinhold-Keller, E; Warnatz, K

    2009-06-01

    Cyclophosphamide remains the therapy of choice in severe ANCA positive vasculitis. In order to avoid the considerable side effects of high cumulative doses sometimes manifesting themselves years later, induction therapy with a low cyclophosphamide dose and an early switch to cyclophosphamide-free maintenance regimens should be aimed for. This can be achieved by an induction therapy of 3--6 months of intravenous pulse therapy (pCYC) or oral therapy (oCYC). The metaanalysis of therapeutic trials in ANCA vasculitis demonstrates a slightly higher induction rate of remission, but an increased relapse rate of pCYC compared to oCYC. The incidence of adverse events seems to be higher in oCYC compared to pCYC. The results of the first controlled prospective multicenter trial (CYCLOPS) directly comparing pCYC and oCYC treatment of ANCA-positive vasculitis are eagerly awaited. It will be important to extend the follow-up over several years in order to reach a valid estimate of the incidence of secondary malignancies due to CYC therapy.

  2. WEGENER: Solid Body Dynamics Investigation of Venus. Results from Summer School Alpbach 2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, A.; Coyle, S.; Czeluschke, A.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Donohoe, A.; Hu, H.; Koopmans, R.-J.; Lucchetti, A.; Mannel, T.; Nachon, M.; Nilsson, D.; Shelakhaev, N.; Suer, A.; Timoney, R.

    2015-10-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by the Orange Team during Summer School Alpbach 2014, which mainly concerns about geophysics of terrestrial planets. A mission is designed to investigate the past and current tectonic and volcanic activity on Venus. During the mission, a simultaneous observations from topographic, magnetic and gravitational measurements will be performed and the combination of the information has the potential to provide an improved understanding of the formation and evolution of the planet.

  3. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies should not be used to guide treatment in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, C A

    2004-01-01

    WG can be associated with serious consequences that can occur as a result of active disease or from the side effects of treatment. If the medications used to treat WG were safe, the risk of exposing even a significant proportion of individuals to unwarranted treatment might be a reasonable approach in light of the nature of the disease process. In the setting of toxic medications though, the use of preemptive treatment based on ANCA alone and the potential for unnecessary exposure to side effects cannot be justified in the absence of compelling evidence. Unfortunately, the medical literature does not support that the benefits of preemptive treatment determined by ANCA outweigh the risks. To treat solely on the basis of ANCA potentially exposes an unacceptably high number of patients to the toxicities of treatment that they would not have needed. It is for these reasons that treatment decisions in WG should not be based on ANCA alone in the absence of clinical evidence of disease activity.

  4. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's disease): An updated review of ocular disease manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Kubaisi, Buraa; Abu Samra, Khawla; Foster, C. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a potentially lethal systemic disorder that is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small arteries and veins. The respiratory system is most commonly affected in limited forms of the disease, however upper and lower respiratory system, systemic vasculitis, and necrotizing glomerulonephritis are the characteristic components of the disease triad. The peak incidence is observed at 64–75 years of age, with a prevalence of 8–10 per million depending on geographic location. In this review we focus on the ocular manifestations of the disease which occur in nearly in one third of the patients. In addition we describe the neuro-ophthalmic complications which occur in up to half of cases. We also discuss the current systemic treatment options including corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and the available biologic response modifiers including rituximab. The disease remains difficult to diagnose due to the generalized symptomatic presentation of patients with GPA. As a result, several sets of diagnostic criteria have been developed which include clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to varying extents. Early diagnosis and multi-specialty collaboration among physicians is necessary to adequately manage the disease and the potential complications that may result from drugs used in the treatment of the disease. Despite recent advances, more research is necessary to prevent the high rates of mortality from the disease itself and from therapeutic side effects. PMID:27195187

  5. Acceptance of the 2016 Alfred E. Treibs Award by Patrick G. Hatcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2017-03-01

    It is with great humility that I accept the 2016 Treibs Medal awarded by the Organic Geochemistry Division of The Geochemical Society. I am honored and thank Tom Bianchi and others who nominated me as well as the members of the selection committee. I also thank all my associates over the more than 30 years of continuous research who are part of this award. Without the collaboration of these associates, my career would not have developed to the stage it is now.

  6. 76 FR 17672 - Alfred E. Boyce, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Judge (ALJ) John J. Mulrooney, II, issued the attached recommended decision. The Respondent did not file... Disposition and Recommended Decision John J. Mulrooney, Administrative Law Judge. The Deputy Assistant... (2009); John B. Freitas, D.O., 74 FR 17524, 17525 (2009); Roger A. Rodriguez, M.D., 70 FR 33206, 33207...

  7. The Marketing of Education in a Coordinated Decentralised Context: Alfred P. Sloan Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter E.

    This paper argues that a useful way of analyzing the current moves to locate education within a decentralized framework of schools competing for educational consumers is to return to the founders of managerialism. In particular, this paper suggests that by returning to the point of production, the "mutilated rationality" (Habermas) of…

  8. 78 FR 19009 - Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D.; Decision And Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Decision of the Administrative Law Judge Procedural History Christopher B. McNeil, Administrative Law Judge... apply the principle of law that holds such a motion may be granted in an administrative proceeding if no... taken in this administrative proceeding conform to constitutional requirements. Although he cites no...

  9. "Gulliver's Travels" by Alfred Silver with Music by Stephen Naylor. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Milde; Flynn, Rosalind, Ed.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a musical adaptation of Jonathan's Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" (performed by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia), this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. Beginning with an illustration of…

  10. Project Update: Alfred Kiger Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    21st Century School Fund, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location project is designed to meet a number of important goals for Washington, D.C. Public Schools (DCPS) and the District of Columbia. It will improve the teaching and learning conditions for Savoy Elementary School so that they are in excellent condition, can support a high quality curriculum,…

  11. Learning How to See and Feel: Alfred Lichtwark and His Concept of Artistic and Aesthetic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priem, Karin; Mayer, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on Lichtwark's concept of museology, this article shows what role he envisaged for art in public life at a time when the rise of mass consumption and popular culture created new lifestyles. Lichtwark's concept of artistic and aesthetic education did not only extend to museums and classrooms but also to dilettantism as a basis for…

  12. Citation for presentation of the 2010 Alfred Treibs Award to John Volkman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Jan W.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decades, Dr. John Volkman has established himself as a world authority on the discovery and application of biomarkers in organic geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, petroleum geochemistry and palaeoclimatology. His work has laid the foundation on which much modern biomarker research is based and his studies of lipids in microalgae, in particular, have had a considerable influence and is widely cited. He has identified many new compounds including sterols, alcohols, diols and hydrocarbons. He has written a large number of review papers which are commonly used by younger organic geochemists to become acquainted with the field and as reference work by many others. John Volkman is truly exceptional in the breadth of expertise, his ability to integrate different sub-disciplines and his openness for young organic geochemists to act as a sparring-partner in scientific discussions. John has achieved this very impressive record even though he has not been employed as a “hard-core” organic geochemist for the last two decades but has nevertheless remained active in organic geochemistry in his “free” time. In addition, John's contributions to more applied fields of research are also numerous.

  13. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  14. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-02

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry.

  15. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  16. Operational tsunami modelling with TsunAWI - recent developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, N.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Harig, S.; Immerz, A.; Danilov, S.; Hiller, W.; Schröter, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this article, the tsunami model TsunAWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) and its application for hindcasts, inundation studies, and the operation of the tsunami scenario repository for the Indonesian tsunami early warning system are presented. TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and simulates all stages of a tsunami from the origin and the propagation in the ocean to the arrival at the coast and the inundation on land. It solves the non-linear shallow water equations on an unstructured finite element grid that allows to change the resolution seamlessly between a coarse grid in the deep ocean and a fine representation of coastal structures. During the GITEWS project and the following maintenance phase, TsunAWI and a framework of pre- and postprocessing routines was developed step by step to provide fast computation of enhanced model physics and to deliver high quality results.

  17. Transport Pathways of Pollution Plumes into the Canadian Arctic during RACEPAC and NETCARE 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoor, P. M.; Bozem, H.; Koellner, F.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Burkart, J.; Willis, M. D.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC and NETCARE 2014. The measurements were performed in May and July 2014 out of Inuvik and Resolute Bay with the POLAR 6 DC-3 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and focused on cloud processes in the Canadian Arctic as well as transport processes of pollution. CO and CO2 measurements indicate that long range transport from various sources affected the arctic lower troposphere during spring /summer 2014. Whereas the high latitudes were relatively unaffected by pollution plumes from lower latitudes, the more southern parts of the arctic regions were strongly perturbed by pollution from various sources. These events are likely connected to biomass burning. We also performed measurements of local emissions from shipping, to investigate their potential to penetrate the arctic boundary layer and affect the arctic free troposphere thereby becoming part of the large scale flow.

  18. On solving the momentum equations of dynamic sea ice models with implicit solvers and the elastic-viscous-plastic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losch, Martin; Danilov, Sergey

    Experiments with idealized geometry are used to compare model solutions of implicit VP- and explicit EVP-solvers in two very different ice-ocean codes: the regular-grid, finite-volume Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and the Alfred Wegener Institute Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM). It is demonstrated that for both codes the obtained solutions of implicit VP-and EVP-solvers can differ significantly, because the EVP solutions tend to have smaller ice viscosities ("weaker" ice). EVP solutions tend to converge only slowly to implicit VP solutions for very small sub-cycling time steps. Variable resolution in the unstructured-grid model FEOM also affects the solution as smaller grid cell size leads to smaller viscosity in EVP solutions. Models with implicit VP-solvers can block narrow straits under certain conditions, while EVP-models are found to always allow flow as a consequence of lower viscosities.

  19. Instability Rules: The Ten Most Amazing Ideas of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Charles

    2002-03-01

    World-altering discoveries that reveal a universe of uncertainty and constant change Whether probing the farthest reaches of the vast universe or exploring the microscopic world of genetics and the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, Instability Rules is a remarkably informative and engaging look at ten milestone discoveries and their discoverers-a wide range of very human personalities whose insights have dramatically altered our most basic assumptions about human existence during the last century. The stories include Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe, Alfred Wegener and continental drift, Neils Bohr and quantum mechanics, Alan Turing and artificial intelligence, and James Watson and Francis Crick and DNA. Also covering discoveries of the twenty-first century that are already refining these and other ideas, Instability Rules is an exhilarating, sometimes amusing encounter with the defining scientific discoveries of our age.

  20. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  1. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  2. ESSReS-PEP, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Promoting young researchers is a major priority of the German Helmholtz Association. Since more than five years graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science has been established in Bremen and Bremerhaven, north-western Germany. Using the network and collaboration of experts and specialists on observational and paleoclimate data as well as on statistical data analysis and climate modelling from two Universities and the Helmholtz research institute on Polar and Marine Research, master and PhD students are trained to understand, decipher and cope with the challenges of recent climate change on an highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional level. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. At the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar

  3. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  4. Th17 expansion in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's): the role of disease activity, immune regulation and therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In autoimmune diseases, IL-17 producing T-cells (Th17), a pro-inflammatory subset of T-cells, are pathophysiologically involved. There is little knowledge on the role of Th17 cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). In the present study, we investigated Th17 cells, Tregs and subsets of circulating Th17 cells in GPA and related results to disease activity. Methods 42 GPA patients in remission, 18 with active disease and 14 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Th17 cells, their subsets and regulatory T-cells were determined by intracellular fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Data are given as mean percentage ±SD of total T-helper-cells. Results Th17 cells are expanded in active and quiescent GPA as compared to HC (1.7±1.4% vs. 0.7 ±0.3%, P = 0.006 and 1.9 ±1.5% vs. 0.7 ±0.3%, P<0.0001). Th17 expansion is stable over time and does not decline when remission is achieved. However, a negative association of Th17 cells and steroid dosage is observed (r=-0.46, P = 0.002). The Th17 expansion was not balanced by Tregs as indicated by skewed Th17/Treg ratios in active and quiescent GPA. Th17 subsets co-producing IFNγ or IL-10 are significantly increased in GPA. GPA patients in remission not receiving maintenance therapy have significantly more IL-10/IL-17A double positive T-cells than HC (0.0501 ±0.031% vs. 0.0282 ±0.016%, P = 0.007). Conclusions We provide evidence for a persistent, unbalanced expansion of Th17 cells and Th17 subsets which seems to be independent of disease activity. Maintenance therapy reduces -but does not normalize- Th17 expansion. PMID:23079279

  5. Peripheral T cell lymphoma with a high titer of proteinase-3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies that resembled Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Reiko; Tajima, Yumi; Kohata, Katsura; Yamamoto, Joji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takasawa, Naruhiko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present a 54-year-old man with proptosis and swelling below the left eyelid. Laboratory findings showed high levels of PR3-ANCA and histological examination of the first biopsy revealed acute inflammation. Together with the findings of MRI, a diagnosis of WG was made. However, the disease progressed rapidly and histological examination of the second biopsy revealed infiltration of neoplastic T lymphocytes with aberrant loss of CD7. A final diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (WHO) was made, and complete remission was achieved by chemotherapy. This is a very rare case of T cell lymphoma with a high titer of PR3-ANCA.

  6. Symbiogenesis, natural selection, and the dynamic Earth.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, U

    2009-08-01

    One century ago, Constantin S. Mereschkowsky introduced the symbiogenesis theory for the origin of chloroplasts from ancient cyanobacteria which was later supplemented by Ivan E. Wallin's proposal that mitochondria evolved from once free-living bacteria. Today, this Mereschkowsky-Wallin principle of symbiogenesis, which is also known as the serial primary endosymbiosis theory, explains the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic cells and hence the emergence of all eukaryotes (protists, fungi, animals and plants). In 1858, the concept of natural selection was described independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred R. Wallace. In the same year, Antonio Snider-Pellegrini proposed the idea of shifting continents, which was later expanded by Alfred Wegener, who published his theory of continental drift eight decades ago. Today, directional selection is accepted as the major cause of adaptive evolution within natural populations of micro- and macro-organisms and the theory of the dynamic Earth (plate tectonics) is well supported. In this article, I combine the processes and principles of symbiogenesis, natural selection and the dynamic Earth and propose an integrative 'synade-model' of macroevolution which takes into account organisms from all five Kingdoms of life.

  7. Beyond Courseware: A Report and Bibliography Prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation on Computing Technology in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantz, David; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is based on a literature search which was commissioned to complement the report on a conference hosted by Dartmouth University (New Hampshire) in October 1988. An introductory essay describes the conference, which brought together 30 educators from a wide variety of institutions for 3 days to reflect on the…

  8. Beyond Courseware: A Report and Bibliography Prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation on Computing Technology in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantz, David; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is based on a literature search which was commissioned to complement the report on a conference hosted by Dartmouth University (New Hampshire) in October 1988. An introductory essay describes the conference, which brought together 30 educators from a wide variety of institutions for 3 days to reflect on the…

  9. The Eye of the Storm. The Seventh Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Survey of Broadcast Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Marvin; Sklar, Zachary

    This book, the seventh in a series surveying broadcast journalism, provides behind-the-scenes details of news coverage during 1978-79, evaluating the growth and sophistication of the news media. The first section of the book discusses the treatment of major issues and news events, including the "odd couple" of politics and broadcasting,…

  10. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs...] [FR Doc No: 2011-18987] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2011-3752, FRL-9444-5...: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the...

  11. New Horizons: Higher Education Academic Link between King Alfred's College, Winchester and the Universities of Dhaka and Khulna, Bangledesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentki, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Explains the Higher Education Academic link, which promotes Theatre for Development in both the university and non-governmental organization sectors in Bangladesh. Highlights some of the most important and innovative issues which emerged from the link. Describes activities in the university sector which engaged students in practical workshops…

  12. The Eye of the Storm. The Seventh Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Survey of Broadcast Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Marvin; Sklar, Zachary

    This book, the seventh in a series surveying broadcast journalism, provides behind-the-scenes details of news coverage during 1978-79, evaluating the growth and sophistication of the news media. The first section of the book discusses the treatment of major issues and news events, including the "odd couple" of politics and broadcasting,…

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  14. Glider observations of oceanic conditions in the Fram Strait, 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Latarius, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    The Fram Strait is the deepest gateway to the Arctic Ocean (2600 m sill depth), and a crucial pathway for exchange of heat and freshwater between the Arctic and the rest of the world ocean. The region is important for studying changes in the Arctic Ocean and possible feedback mechanisms between the ocean and sea ice. In order to monitor volume, heat and freshwater exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, the Alfred Wegener Institute and the North Polar Institute have been maintaining an oceanographic mooring array along 78°50'N since 1997. The Fram Strait is characterized by strong variability in temperature, salinity and currents on time and spatial scales corresponding to oceanic mesoscale phenomena. This makes estimation of long-term fluxes difficult. In order to improve monitoring the Fram Strait ocean observing system was extended by a multi-purpose acoustic system for thermometry, passive acoustics, and glider navigation between 2008 and 2012 as part of the ACOBAR project. Acoustic thermometry provides depth range averaged ocean temperature at a high temporal resolution. To improve the spatial resolution of the monitoring system Seagliders were deployed in Fram Strait for a few months at a time following a quasi-zonal transect and profiling down to 1000 m. We present analysis of hydrographic data from the Seagliders operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Fram Strait between 2008 and 2012. During eight glider missions physical oceanography data were collected along repeated sections south of the mooring array. In addition to the directly measured hydrographic data (conductivity, temperature, and pressure), depth-averaged current velocities are derived from glider displacements. Data from the five summer (July-September) and three autumn (September-November) glider missions are used to make year-to-year comparisons of vertical temperature and salinity profiles in the upper 1000 m of the water column. Glider section data show a high

  15. Increased frequency of CCR4+ and CCR6+ memory T-cells including CCR7+CD45RAmed very early memory cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's).

    PubMed

    Fagin, Ursula; Pitann, Silke; Gross, Wolfgang L; Lamprecht, Peter

    2012-04-10

    Chemokine receptors play an important role in mediating the recruitment of T cells to inflammatory sites. Previously, small proportions of circulating Th1-type CCR5+ and Th2-type CCR3+ cells have been shown in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Wondering to what extent CCR4 and CCR6 expression could also be implicated in T cell recruitment to inflamed sites in GPA, we investigated the expression of CCR4 and CCR6 on T cells and its association with T cell diversity and polarization. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to analyze CCR4, CCR6, and intracellular cytokine expression of T cells from whole blood of GPA-patients (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 20). CCR7 and CD45RA were included for phenotypic characterization. We found a significant increase in the percentages of circulating CCR4+ and CCR6+ cells within the total CD4+ T cell population in GPA. In contrast, there was no difference in the percentages of CD8+CCR4+ and CD8+CCR6+ T cells between GPA and healthy controls. CCR4 and CCR6 expression was largely confined to central (TCM) and effector memory T cells (TEM, TEMRA). A significant increase in the frequency of CCR4+ and CCR6+ TEMRA and CCR6+ TCM was shown in GPA. Of note, we could dissect CCR4 and CCR6 expressing CCR7+CD45RAmed very early memory T cells (TVEM) from genuine CCR7+CD45RAhigh naïve T cells lacking CCR4 and CCR6 expression for peripheral tissue-migration within the CCR7+CD45RA+ compartment. The frequencies of CCR4+ and CCR6+ TVEM were also significantly increased in GPA. An increased percentage of IL-17+ and IL-22+ cells was detected in the CCR6+ cell subsets and IL-4+ cells in the CRR4+ cell subset when compared with CD4+ cells lacking CCR4 and CCR6 expression. Increased frequencies of circulating CCR4+ and CCR6+ memory T cell subsets including hitherto unreported TVEM suggest persistent T cell activation with the accumulation of CCR4+ and CCR6+ cells in GPA. CCR4 and CCR6 could be involved in the recruitment of T cells including cytokine-producing subsets to inflamed sites in GPA.

  16. In vitro T lymphocyte responses to proteinase 3 (PR3) and linear peptides of PR3 in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG).

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Huitema, M G; Franssen, C F; van der Zee, R; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G

    2000-12-01

    T cell-mediated immunity is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of WG. In previous studies a minority of WG patients as well as some healthy controls showed in vitro proliferation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to PR3, the main autoantigen in WG. The relevant peptides responsible for this in vitro proliferation have not been identified. In order to define immunogenic peptides, PBMC of 13 WG patients in remission and 10 healthy controls were tested for proliferation to linear peptides of PR3 and to whole PR3. Fifty overlapping peptides spanning the whole PR3 sequence were synthesized. Peptides were tested in pools of five peptides and as single peptide. PBMC of two WG patients and one healthy control proliferated to whole PR3 and to peptide pools. In addition, 10 WG patients and eight healthy controls that did not proliferate to whole PR3 did proliferate to pools of PR3 peptides. Although more WG patients tended to react to particular peptide pools, no significant difference was seen between lymphocyte proliferation to PR3 peptides of WG patients and that of healthy controls. The pools of peptides recognized were mainly located at the N- and C-terminus of PR3. No correlation was observed between HLA type and proliferation on particular peptide pools. No proliferation of PBMC was observed to single peptides. In conclusion, T cells of WG patients proliferate in vitro more frequently to PR3 peptides than to the whole PR3 protein. Peptides derived from the signal sequence, the propeptide or peptides located at the C-terminus of PR3 induce highest levels of proliferation. No specific PR3 sequence could be identified that was preferentially recognized by PBMC of WG patients compared with controls.

  17. A multi-satellite concept in support of high latitude permafrost modelling and monitoring - The ESA DUE Permafrost project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Duguay, Claude; Schmullius, Christiane; Strozzi, Tazio; Heim, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    A number of remotely sensed products have been developed in the past which provide information relevant to permafrost distribution on circumpolar scale. They comprise parameters such as land surface temperature, land cover, soil moisture, disturbances, snow and terrain. A monitoring system of high latitude permafrost requires regular and multiscale observation of all these parameters. Further on, the datasets need to meet requirements of permafrost models as well as support related research in geomorphology, botany and hydrology. Such a comprehensive database is setup within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) program. The ESA DUE Permafrost project establishes a monitoring system on local to pan-boreal/arctic scale based on satellite data. Within this project permafrost relevant remotely sensed products are assessed and eventually provided to users. The complexity of the phenomenon permafrost requires the close cooperation with the scientific community working in this field. The consortium is led by I.P.F, Vienna University of Technology and supported by four partners: Gamma Remote Sensing, University of Waterloo, Jena University and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost

  18. Climate Change at the Poles: Research Immersion Experience at Bellingshausen, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Repina, I. A.; Baeseman, J. L.; Fernandoy, F.; Bart, S.

    2010-12-01

    We brought a party of 15 scientists, graduate students, and educators to King George Island, the largest of the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula, for an international workshop on Antarctica and global climate change in January 2010. Participants included professors, young scientists and graduate students from the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin, and the Michigan Technological University. Lindsay Bartholomew, an education and outreach specialist at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago connected the workshop via video and Internet with an audience of museum visitors. Scientists living and working at Bellingshausen, including Hans-Ulrich Peter, an eminent ecologist from Jena University (Germany), and Bulat Movlyudov (Institute of Geography, Moscow), a distinguished glaciologist, participated in the workshop. Field trips led by Peter and Movlyudov and others were made by day and lectures were held by night. Professors and graduate students made cutting-edge presentations on such subjects as permafrost, glaciology, and global climate models. Three workshop teams conducted field research projects at the foot of the Bellingshausen Dome icecap - two on carbon cycling and one on permafrost. Major funding sources for the workshop included the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russia), Wilderness Research Foundation (USA), NSF, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Museum for Science and Industry (Chicago). INACH, the Chilean Antarctic Institute, and IAU, the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, provided air charter services. On King George Island, our group was billeted at Russia’s Bellingshausen science station.

  19. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots.Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes.Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  20. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots. Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes. Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  1. Conception and realisation of educational models for an exhibition explaining the plate tectonics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerghi, S.; Harchi, M.; Riadh chebbi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Alfred Wegener suggested in 1915 that the seven continents were once one large land mass that broke apart creating the continents, which then drifted to their current locations. The Atlantic Ocean was created by this process. The mid-Atlantic Ridge is an area where new sea floor is being created. The sea floor continues to spread and the plates get bigger and bigger. Therefore, when plates diverge and form new crust in one area, the plates must converge in another area and be destroyed. When two continental plates meet each other this results in the formation of a mountain. As the subducting oceanic crust melts as it goes deeper into the Earth, the newly-created magma rises to the surface and forms volcanoes. So, the plates move towards each other. The amount of crust on the surface of the earth remains relatively constant. In this context, the aim of this study is to elaborate some educational models to facilitate the comprehension of plate tectonics and there results for pupils and science city visitors.

  2. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  3. Supercycles, Wilson cycles and the future of Earth's oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Rosas, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    At the dawn of the 20th Century Alfred Wegener proposed the existence of a supercontinent - Pangaea - gathering all the continental masses on Earth. Five decades later, while seeding the theory of plate tectonics, Tuzo Wilson introduced a new concept that would become known as Wilson cycles, which describes the evolution of oceans: 1) opening and spreading, 2) foundering of the passive margins and development of new subduction zones and 3) consumption and closure. Later on, in the 70's evidences for the existence of a number of other supercontinents and ancient oceans on Earth's history started to emerge. Today, concepts like supercycles, supercontinents, superoceans and Wilson cycles are loosely used. However, several important questions remain. How do subduction zones initiate in pristine oceans? Which major ocean on Earth will close to form the next supercontinent? The Atlantic (introversion), the Pacific (extroversion), or both? Are Wilson cycles of lower order than Supercycles? Are we in an abnormally long supercycle? Is there any cyclicity at all? These are some of the questions that we will tentatively address together with the proposal of several future scenarios for the evolution of Earth's oceans and continents.

  4. The local environment of ice particles in arctic mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenczek, Oliver; Fugal, Jacob P.; Schledewitz, Waldemar; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    During the RACEPAC field campaign in April and May 2014, research flights were made with the Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Arctic clouds near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. One flight with the Polar 6 aircraft, done on May 16, 2014, flew under precipitating, stratiform, mid-level clouds with several penetrations through cloud base. Measurements with HALOHolo, an airborne digital in-line holographic instrument for cloud particles, show ice particles in a field of other cloud particles in a local three-dimensional sample volume (~14x19x130 mm3 or ~35 cm^3). Each holographic sample volume is a snapshot of a 3-dimensional piece of cloud at the cm-scale with typically thousands of cloud droplets per sample volume, so each sample volume yields a statistically significant droplet size distribution. Holograms are recorded at a rate of six times per second, which provides one volume sample approx. every 12 meters along the flight path. The size resolution limit for cloud droplets is better than 1 µm due to advanced sizing algorithms. Shown are preliminary results of, (1) the ice/liquid water partitioning at the cloud base and the distribution of water droplets around each ice particle, and (2) spatial and temporal variability of the cloud droplet size distributions at cloud base.

  5. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized community earth system models (COSMOS) and document the procedures which we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo and preindustrial (PI) time-slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene as simulated with our COSMOS-setup and PRISM boundary conditions is both warmer and wetter than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  6. Variations of ion concentrations in the deep ice core and surface snow at NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Azuma, K.; Wegner, A.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Miyake, T.; Motoyama, H.; NEEM Aerosol Consortium members

    2012-04-01

    Discrete samples were collected from the CFA (Continuous Flow Analysis) melt fractions during the field campaign carried out at NEEM, Greenland in 2009-2011, and were distributed to different laboratories. Ionic species were analyzed at National Institute of Polar Research (Japan) and Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany). Here we present and compare the ion concentration data obtained by both institutes. Most of the ions show good agreement between the two institutes. As is indicated with the CFA data (Bigler and the NEEM Aerosol Consortium members, EGU 2012), ion chromatograph data also display that calcium and sodium, mainly originated from terrestrial dust and sea-salt, respectively, show large variations associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, sodium, potassium and magnesium also show such variations, as has been already reported for other Greenland ice cores. New ion data obtained from the NEEM deep core also show large variability of oxalate and phosphate concentrations during DO events. Acetate, which is thought to be mainly derived from biomass burning, as is oxalate, appears to show variability associated with DO events, but to a lesser extent. On the other hand, nitrate, ammonium and methanesulfonate do not show such variations. Together with ion data from the deep ice core, we present those from the pits dug during the NEEM field campaign to discuss seasonal variations of ionic species. The seasonal and millennial scale variations of ions are thought to be caused by changes in atmospheric circulation and source strength.

  7. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  8. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009) and document the procedures that we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo- and preindustrial (PI) time slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene, as simulated with our COSMOS setup and PRISM boundary conditions, is both warmer and wetter in the global mean than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  9. Preliminary results of a radio echo sounding survey of the Recovery Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Angelika; Kleiner, Thomas; Steinhage, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The Recovery Glacier is draining about 8% of the East Antarctic ice sheet and feeds into the Filchner Ice Shelf. This ice shelf might be subjected in future to increasing basal melting (Hellmer et al., 2012) forcing potentially grounding line retreat. Compared to other areas in Antarctica this glacier is been surveyed very sparse and hence does not allow modeling studies yet. As many large and small subglacial lakes are present underneath this ice stream at different locations along the flow, the question of the influence of the lakes on ice stream genesis and ice stream dynamics arose. For investigating this influence by observation and subsequent modelling, an airborne campaign of the Alfred Wegener Institute was carried out in January 2014, covering the Recovery Ice Stream and two smaller glaciers merging with it, the Ramp Glacier and the Blackwall Glacier. The radar system uses a carrier frequency of 150MHz and a 600ns pulse. The survey includes several flights along flow lines in order to assess the basal roughness of the ice stream. Here we present the first preliminary data analysis.

  10. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  11. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  12. Acoustic monitoring in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using hydrophone of the Ocean Bottom Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sukyoung; Lee, Won Sang; Kuk Hong, Jong; Yoo, Hyun Jae; Park, Yongcheol; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Geissler, Wolfram H.

    2016-04-01

    Although a number of active source seismic experiments have been conducted over the last few decades to investigate the crustal structure in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, long-term observation to monitor underwater tectonic activities and changes in the cryospheric environment still remains challenging due to existence of sea ice in the study region. Korea Polar Research Institute has accomplished successful deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the Ross Sea collaborating with Alfred Wegener Institute during the period of 2011-2012 and 2014 by Korean icebreaker RV Araon. The OBS system manufactured by K.U.M. contains a hydrophone sensor that allow us to monitor underwater acoustics generated by tectonic and ice-related events. We present spectrograms of the continuous hydroacoustic data and various types of signals, e.g. seismic T-waves, iceequakes, and tremors. There are periodic and harmonic tremors that might be related with tidal modulation, and the seasonal variation of the background noise seems to be related with sea ice concentration.

  13. Major Ion concentrations in the new NEEM ice core in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, A.; Azuma, K. G.; Hirabayashi, M.; Schmidt, K.; Hansson, M.; Twarloh, B.

    2012-12-01

    The drilling of the new deep ice core in NEEM (77.45°N 51.06°W) was terminated in 2010. Using a continuous flow analysis system (CFA), discrete samples were filled and analyzed for major ion concentrations (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, SO_4 and NO_3) using Ion Chromatography (IC). The samples were measured at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany) and National Institute of Polar Research (Japan). Here we present preliminary results of the major Ion concentrations. We found highest variations in concentrations of Calcium and Magnesium which are mainly originating from terrestrial sources with concentrations between 5-10 ppb and 4 ppb during the Holocene compared to 800 ppb and 80 ppb during the LGM. This is in line with measurements of particulate dust concentrations. Sulphate concentrations closely follow DO events and vary between 25 ppb during the Holocene and ~400 ppb during the LGM. Sodium concentrations vary between ~ 8 ppb during the Holocene and up to 100 ppb during the LGM. We discuss influences of changes in the source areas and atmospheric transport intensity on the different time scales.

  14. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  15. The geometry of continental displacement and its application to Arctic geology: Eugen Wegmann's early approaches published in the Geologische Rundschau in 1943

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsch, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    Plate tectonics developed around 1965 as a powerful tool to describe the tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. The article demonstrates that basically four already existing theoretical concepts—subduction, seafloor spreading, the application of Euler's theorem and transform faults—had to be combined to arrive at the modern theory. Alfred Wegener, father of the theory of continental displacement, is often credited as the most direct forerunner of plate tectonics. However, none of the aforementioned concepts had been developed by him. The present article deals with the hitherto not duly credited contributions of the Swiss geologist Eugen Wegmann (1896-1982). He developed in a series of highly original papers published between 1943 and 1948 (one of them in the Geologische Rundschau), a critical test of the theory of continental displacement based on the regional geology of the Arctic. Furthermore, he gave a very concise account on the geometrical principles of drift movements. As a result, he developed for the first time—25 years before McKenzie and Parker's Nature 216:1276-1280, landmark paper on the Pacific (1967)—the geometrical basis to graphically test plate motion directions. However, his work has not yet received the credit it deserves, neither by scientist nor by historians of science.

  16. First results from the aerosol lidar and backscatter sonde intercomparison campaign STRAIT'1997 at table mountain facility during February-March 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Gross, M. R.; Haner, D. A.; Kjome, N. T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Schaefer, H. - J.; Schrems, O.

    1998-01-01

    First results of an intercomparison measurement campaign between three aerosol lidar instruments and in-situ backscatter sondes performed at Table Mountain Facility (34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg E, 2280 m asl) in February-March 1997 are presented. During the campaign a total of 414 hours of lidar data were acquired by the Aerosol-Temperature-Lidar (ATL, Goddard Space Flight Center) the Mobile-aerosol-Raman-Lidar (MARL, Alfred Wegener Institute), and the TMF-Aerosol-Lidar (TAL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and four backscatter sondes were launched. From the data set altitude profiles of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization of stratospheric background aerosols at altitudes between 15 and 25 km and optically thin high-altitude cirrus clouds at altitudes below 13 km are derived. On the basis of a sulfuric acid aerosol model color ratio profiles obtained from two wavelength lidar data are compared to the corresponding profiles derived from the sonde observations. We find an excellent agreement between the in-situ and ATL lidar data with respect to backscatter and color ratio. Cirrus clouds were present on 16 of 26 nights during the campaign. Lidar observations with 17 minute temporal and 120-300 m spatial resolution indicate high spatial and temporal variability of the cirrus layers. Qualitative agreement is found between concurrent lidar measurements of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization.

  17. ESA Cryovex 2011 Airborne Campaign for CRYOSAT-2 Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourup, H.; Einarsson, I.; Sandberg, L.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Davidson, M.

    2011-12-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA's CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar and laser measurements, as the laser reflects on the surface, and by overflight of laser reflectors. In the spring of 2011 the DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar-5 carrying an EM-bird. We present an overview of the 2011 airborne campaign together with first results of the CryoSat-2 underflights.

  18. Simulation of Coastal Polynyas in the Western Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal polynyas play a prominent role in the formation and modification of water masses in the polar oceans. A coastal polynya is usually kept open mechanically, primarily by winds, and the ocean surface is at freezing point. Thus a major fraction of the annual ice production of the high-latitude oceans occurs in polynyas and hence the duration and extent of their appearance has a substantial effect on bottom water formation. In the western Weddell Sea, recurring coastal polynyas are formed in front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and in the area of the decayed Larsen A/B Ice Shelf. Simulations to study polynya formation and their impact on ice production and bottom water formation in the western Weddell Sea were performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). FESOM is a fully coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. The simulations were conducted on a global grid with a resolution varying between roughly 300 km in tropical latitudes and <5 km along the coast of the southwestern Weddell Sea. In vertical direction, the grid uses terrain-following coordinates. The model results give insight into the mechanisms governing the formation of transient and persistent polynyas and their influence on ice production and deep water formation. Water mass formation and ice export rates are quantified and compared to observation-based estimates.

  19. AMALi - the Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar for Arctic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Neuber, R.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Wehrle, G.

    2010-03-01

    The Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) is an instrument developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research for reliable operation under the challenging weather conditions at the Earth's polar regions. Since 2003 the AMALi has been successfully deployed for measurements in ground-based installation and zenith- or nadir-pointing airborne configurations during several scientific campaigns in the Arctic. The lidar provides backscatter profiles at two wavelengths (355/532 nm or 1064/532 nm) together with the linear depolarization at 532 nm, from which aerosol and cloud properties can be derived. This paper presents the characteristics and capabilities of the AMALi system and gives examples of its usage for airborne and ground-based operations in the Arctic. As this backscatter lidar normally does not operate in aerosol-free layers special evaluation schemes are discussed, the nadir-pointing iterative inversion for the case of an unknown boundary condition and the two-stream approach for the extinction profile calculation if a second lidar system probes the same air mass. Also an intercomparison of the AMALi system with an established ground-based Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) is given.

  20. Ground-based lidar measurements from Ny-Ålesund during ASTAR 2007: a statistical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Shiobara, M.; Lampert, A.; Maturilli, M.; Orgis, T.; Neuber, R.; Herber, A.

    2009-07-01

    During the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR) in March and April 2007, measurements obtained at the AWIPEV Research station in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (operated by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the Institut polaire français Paul-Emile Victor), supported the airborne campaign. This included Lidar data from the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), located in the atmospheric observatory as well as photometer data and the daily launched radiosonde. The MPL features nearly continuous measurements; the KARL was switched on whenever weather conditions allowed observations (145 h in 61 days). From 1 March to 30 April, 71 meteorological balloon soundings were performed and compared with the corresponding MPL measurements; photometer measurements are available from 18 March. For the KARL data, a statistical overview based on the optical properties backscatter ratio and volume depolarization can be given. The altitudes of the occurrence of the named features (subvisible and visible ice and water as well as mixed-phase clouds, aerosol layers) as well as their dependence on different air mass origins are analyzed. Although the spring 2007 was characterized by rather clean conditions, diverse case studies of cloud and aerosol occurrence during March and April 2007 are presented in more detail, including temporal development and main optical properties as backscatter, depolarization and extinction coefficients. Links between air mass origins and optical properties can be presumed but need further evidence.

  1. On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Ritter, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Two-Stream technique employes simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars aiming at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a few Alfred-Wegener-Institute's (AWI) campaigns dedicated to the Arctic research, the AWI's Polar 2 aircraft with the integrated onboard nadir-aiming Airborne Mobile Merosol Lidar (AMALi) overflew a vicinity of Ny Ålesund on Svalbard, where the zenith-aiming Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) has been located. This experimental approach gave a unique opportunity to retrieve the extinction profiles with rather rarely used Two-Stream technique against the well established Raman technique. Both methods were applied to data obtained for a clean Arctic conditions during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric clouds and Radiation (ASTAR 2004) campaign and a slightly polluted Arctic conditions during the Svalbard Experiment (SvalEx 2005) campaign. Successful intercomparison of both evaluation tools in a different measurement conditions demonstrates sensitivity and feasibility of the Two-Stream method to obtain particle extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles without assumption of their relationship (lidar ratio). The method has a potential to serve as an extinction retrieval tool for KARL or AMALi simultaneous observations with the spaceborne CALYPSO lidar taken during the ASTAR 2007.

  2. On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Ritter, C.

    2010-03-01

    The Two-Stream technique employs simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars pointing at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a number of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) campaigns dedicated to Arctic research, the AWI's Polar 2 aircraft with the integrated onboard nadir-pointing Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) was utilised. The aircraft flew over a vicinity of Ny Ålesund on Svalbard, where the zenith-pointing Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) has been located. This experimental approach gave the unique opportunity to retrieve the extinction profiles with a rarely used Two-Stream technique against a well established Raman technique. Both methods were applied to data obtained for clean Arctic conditions during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric clouds and Radiation (ASTAR 2004) campaign, and slightly polluted Arctic conditions during the Svalbard Experiment (SvalEx 2005) campaign. Successful comparison of both evaluation tools in different measurement conditions demonstrates sensitivity and feasibility of the Two-Stream method to obtain particle extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles without assumption of their relationship (lidar ratio). The method has the potential to serve as an extinction retrieval tool for KARL or AMALi simultaneous observations with the space borne CALIPSO lidar overpasses during the ASTAR 2007.

  3. Cirrus Clouds, Equatorial Kelvin Waves and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrems, O.; Immler, F.; Krueger, K.; Rex, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    2007-12-01

    A number of field-campaigns in the tropics have been conducted in the past years with the mobile LIDAR systems MARL and ComCAL of the Alfred Wegener Institute aboard the research vessel Polarstern in the tropical Atlantic and at Paramaribo in Suriname. The lidars detect particles in the atmosphere with high vertical and temporal resolution and are capable of detecting extremely thin cloud layers which frequently occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We investigated the occurrence of clouds in the TTL with a newly developed trajectory model and found that ice particles form in slow ascent and efficiently dehydrate the air. The Lagrangian temperature history thus defines the water vapour transported to the stratosphere in the tropics. Radiosonde as well as ECMWF operational analysis data show a strong influence of eastward moving equatorial Kelvin waves on the temperature at the tropical cold point tropopause (CPT). We find a clear correlation between the temperature anomalies introduced by these waves and the occurrence of thin cirrus. This finding suggests an influence of Kelvin wave activity on the dehydration characteristics of the TTL

  4. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    PubMed Central

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  5. The observed Surface Energy Balance of ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobs, Stan; Reijmer, Carleen; van den Broeke, Michiel; König-Lango, Gert

    2017-04-01

    The Surface Energy Balance of ice sheets is important in understanding atmosphere-surface interactions. Investigating its individual components allows us to identify their separate contributions to surface melt as well as the effect on the structure of the firn layer. In a broader sense, we can study the atmospheric contribution to ice shelf melting. In addition, observations of the surface energy balance are crucial for evaluating climate models and satellite products. In this presentation, we will present observed annual, seasonal and diurnal variations in the surface energy balance at Neumayer Station (Ekström ice shelf, Antarctica; operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany). The components are calculated based on meteorological observations covering a 25-year period, combined with a surface energy balance model. The station location experiences a very short melt season with on average 10.9 melt days, spanning only December and January in most years. Furthermore, we combine these results from Neumayer station with observations from three additional sites on ice shelves, one relatively close to Neumayer on the Riiser-Larsen ice shelf, and two on the Larsen C ice shelf, in order to investigate the spatial variability of surface melt on Antarctic ice shelves. It also allows us to look for recent trends: is there any evidence for atmospheric changes affecting the amount of surface melt that is observed?

  6. Accumulation rates from 38 ka and 160 ka radio-echo sounding horizons in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Anna; Steinhage, Daniel; Creyts, Timothy; Eisen, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    The internal layering architecture of ice sheets, as detected with radio-echo sounding (RES), contains clues to past ice-flow dynamics and mass balance and supplies flow models with starting and boundary conditions. In comparison to the Greenland Ice Sheet, the coverage of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet with information on internal ice structure is still sparse. This hampers the constraining or initialization of ice-flow models with geometry and surface mass balance data in adequate resolution. We traced two RES horizons, 38 ka and 160 ka, over great parts and in the most remote areas of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. We dated the horizons at the EPICA Dome C Ice Core and followed them along RES lines of the Alfred Wegener Institute to Vostok and Dome A. There, they could be connected to the RES grid, covering the Gamburtsev mountains, that was collected as part of the AGAP (Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province) project, and continued to South Pole. From this widespread age-depth distribution we reconstruct mean accumulation rates and analyze spatial variations in surface mass balance, as well as differences between the two time periods.

  7. Characterizing Arctic aerosol in the high an low Arctic during NETCARE 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Hoor, Peter; Schulz, Hannes; Herber, Andreas; Hannah, Sarah; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic aerosol is well known to show distinct seasonal variations with a maximum in aerosol mass concentrations during late winter and early spring referred to as Arctic haze. To characterize the Arctic haze phenomenon and related processes extensive aerosol measurements (particle number and size, aerosol composition and black carbon, and trace gases) were conducted from the Polar 6 aircraft (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany) in April 2015. The campaign covered locations in the high Arctic (Alert and Eureka) and low Arctic (Inuvik). Flights focused on vertical profiles from 60m agl up to 6 km. We present the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentrations in different size ranges (5nm to 1µm), black carbon mass concentrations and CO mixing ratios at these three locations. Differences between the high and low Arctic will be highlighted and discussed together with 10 days FLEXPART back trajectories. Air masses in the low Arctic were dominated by a distinct pollution layer tracing back to sources in Northern China, while air masses observed in the high Arctic were less polluted and exhibited a longer residence time (up to 10 days) within the Arctic. We show that there is evidence for black carbon deposition in the high Arctic boundary layer. A decrease in black carbon mass concentrations was frequently observed within the lowest 1000m of the high Arctic atmosphere.

  8. Ship-borne wind LIDAR measurements in the Arctic and Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther; Kohnemann, Svenja

    2017-04-01

    During the two cruises of RV Polarstern (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany) a wind LIDAR was installed on the upper deck of the ship. The measurements in the Arctic were taken over two weeks (June 2014) in the Fram Strait and in the Antarctic over six weeks (December/January 2015/2016) in the Weddell Sea. Measurements included horizontal and vertical scan programs that allow for the computation of different wind profiles. Since the LIDAR was not motion-stabilized, motion correction was done during post processing. Depending on weather condition data up to 1 km (and in single cases up to 2 km) height was collected. An evaluation of the derived vertical wind profiles was done by comparing them to on board surface measurements and radio soundings. The RMSD of wind speed between the LIDAR and the radiosonde measurements was found as 0.7 - 1.2 m/s depending on data selection and height. Overall, the wind LIDAR is an excellent tool for the measurement of wind profiles with high spatial (10m) and temporal resolution (15min).

  9. Radio-echo sounding at Dome C, East Antarctica: A comparison of measured and modeled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Anna; Eisen, Olaf; Steinhage, Daniel; Zirizzotti, Achille; Urbini, Stefano; Cavitte, Marie; Blankenship, Donald D.; Wolff, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The internal layering architecture of ice sheets, detected with radio-echo sounding (RES), contains clues to past ice-flow dynamics and mass balance. A common way of relating the recorded travel time of RES reflections to depth is by integrating a wave-speed distribution. This results in an increasing absolute error with depth. We present a synchronization of RES-internal layers of different radar systems (Alfred Wegener Institute, Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, British Antarctic Survey and University of Texas Institute for Geophysics) with ice-core records from the Antarctic deep drill site Dome C. Synthetic radar traces are obtained from measurements of ice-core density and conductivity with a 1D model of Maxwell's equations. The reflection peaks of the different radar systems' measurements are shifted by a wiggle-matching algorithm, so they match the synthetic trace. In this way, we matched pronounced internal reflections in the RES data to conductivity peaks with considerably smaller depth uncertainties, and assigned them with the ice-core age. We examine the differences in shifts and resolution of the different RES data to address the question of their comparability and combined analysis for an extensive age-depth distribution.

  10. The Influence of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan upon the United States Navy through the United States Naval Institute’s Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    quite at a loss to know to whom to turn for the advice and information that I used to get from him, in matters of theological rather than religious...and commerce destroying, as a principal mode of warfare, may be more seriously considered than it has been by the navy. If I am right in my opinion...provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid

  11. Determination and Use of the Local Recovery Factor for Calculating the Effectiveness Gas Temperature for Turbine Blades / Jack B. Esgar and Alfred L. Lea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Lea, Alfred L

    1951-01-01

    In an in experimental investigation of local recovery factors for a blade having a pressure distribution similar to that of a typical reaction-type turbine blade, it a was found that the recovery factors were essentially independent of Mach number, Reynolds number, pressure gradient, and position on the blade surface except for regions where the boundary layer was probably in the transition range from laminar to turbulent. The recommended value of local subsonic recovery factor for use in calculating the effective gas temperature for gas turbine blades was 0.89.

  12. GIS-based Reconstruction of Pangaea with Recent Progresses in Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.-H.; Cheong, H.-B.; Lee, Y.-W.

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that the continents or land masses are constantly, slowly moving, or drifting over the asthenosphere as the sea floors spread in response to the mantle convection. These continents were joined together at one time, some 250 million years ago, in a single giant landmass called Pangaea. Alfred Wegener, who proposed originally the hypothesis of continental drift, succeeded in reconstructing the Pangaea in early 20th century, by gathering evidences such as land features, fossils, and climate change. The shape of Pangaea shown by Wegener is a huge landmass which is in rounded shape close to an oval. The Pangaea of Wegener was found to be in good agreement with the supercontinent which was reconstructed by modern scientists in late 1960s based on concrete and sophisticated sciences such as the plate tectonics. There are a couple of shapes describing the Pangaea by now, other than the Wegener's, that are recognized by the geological community. In spite of profound geological data and development of related-area sciences, uncertainties still remains on the precise shape of Pangaea before the stage of breaking up and drifting apart. In this study, the Pangaea is reconstructed taking the recent progresses of plate tectonics into full consideration with the use of an elaborate Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping technique. For a better visualization of the shape of the supercontinent the equidistant map projection is incorporated to display the Pangaea, where the central point of Pangaea is placed on the center of the map. The Pangaea reconstructed in this way appears in an almost circular shape, which has never been seen in previous studies (Fig. 1). The radius of the circle which circumscribes the Pangaea is about 9 000 km, giving the total area slightly above that of continents and lands of present day, because some of the continental margins were considered as a part of continents. This result suggests us that the Pangaea might have

  13. The ANCA Vasculitis Questionnaire (AAV-PRO©)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA); Wegener Granulomatosis (WG); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV); Vasculitis

  14. Origin of Second-Harmonic Generation Enhancement in Optical Split-Ring Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-15

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 201403(R) (2012) 12M. W. Klein, M. Wegener , N. Feth, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 15, 5238 (2006). 13M. McMahon, R. Lopez, R. Haglund...Enkrich, M. Wegener , and S. Linden, Science 313, 502 (2006). 20F. B. P. Niesler, N. Feth, S. Linden, and M. Wegener , Opt. Lett. 36, 1533 (2011). 21R. Ruppin

  15. Kane Basin, Nares-Strait: Strike-slip induced sediment deformation along the coastline of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Nares-Strait (NS), a seaway between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, is important to understand the plate tectonic history of the Arctic region. As it is clear that rifting and seafloor spreading took place between Greenland and Baffin Island, it is unclear how the extension was compensated between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Already Alfred Wegener suggested some kind of left lateral transform fault along the NS, a straight seaway separating the Greenland Plate from the North American Plate, nowadays proposed as the Wegener-Fault. Plate tectonic reconstruction models require a transform fault for the compensation of several hundred km of extension and seafloor spreading from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. However, land geological data do not support this thesis and let assume that no lateral displacement occurred between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. With the formation of the recent Midatlantic Ridge System between Greenland and Europe since the early Eocene, the western branch became inactive and consequently the proposed transform fault, too. Northeast motion of Greenland replaced the left lateral transform and caused compression. The inactive transform fault was overprinted and as a consequence it was altered, probably displaced and is difficult to recognize. The Kane Basin is one of a series of basins that are aligned along the NS. It resembles probably a pull-apart basin following the approach that NS developed as transform fault. This paper presents insight into the Kane Basin by means of 2D seismic data, sonobuoy data, gravity and magnetic data acquired during surveys of BGR in 2001 and 2010. The eastern Kane Basin is characterized by a deeper rim and a more shallow central part. Most of it is floored by Proterozoic crust without any sediment on top of it. Only in the western part of the Kane Basin a sedimentary infill can be recorded which terminates with an erosional truncation on to the seafloor. Because of the mapped sediment and

  16. ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Hanfland, Claudia; Sprengel, Claudia; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bijma, Jelle; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2014-05-01

    Postgraduate education is gaining increasing importance and has been identified as one instrument to foster quality and promote networking, both in research and in education. Exchange and co-operation between graduate programmes that have related topics produce added value for all. Students have access to a range of research facilities, course offers, and a broad scientific community from which they can start building their individual scientific network. Larger events like PhD conferences, career symposia or cost-intensive trainings are more easily tackled by joining forces of various players. The postgraduate programmes ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR are part of a larger network of marine and climate science programmes in the north-western region of Germany and together host up 180 (23 ESSReS, 130 POLMAR, 30 PEP) PhD/Master students in their respective programmes. Here, we will present a number of joint activities from this collaboration. Today, the PhD education is completely different to that from 15 years ago due to a variety of different scientific offerings including e.g. excursions, soft skill courses and special seminars. In the framework of the ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR concept the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Two different ways to further graduation are currently possible at the Alfred Wegener Institute. The Helmholtz Graduate School for Polar and

  17. RTOPO-1: A consistent dataset for Antarctic ice shelf topography and global ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry (i.e. ice-shelf draft and ocean bathymetry). Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-minute bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. Locations of the merging line have been carefully adjusted in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves and for Pine Island Glacier have been carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam ship survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and again carefully merged into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-minute data set contains consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The Ice Shelf Cavern Geometry Team: Anne Le Brocq, Tara Deen, Eugene Domack, Pierre Dutrieux, Ben Galton-Fenzi, Dorothea Graffe, Hartmut Hellmer, Angelika Humbert, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Astrid Lambrecht, Keith Makinson, Fred Niederjasper, Frank Nitsche, Ole Anders Nøst, Lars Henrik Smedsrud, and Walter Smith

  18. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  19. Surface energy balance measurements and modeling on the ice cap of King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Braun, M.; Sala, H.; Menz, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield for the austral summers November 2010 to March 2011 and January to February 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures in profile. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for an entire year. Repeat measurements of surface lowering at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the inland ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Jubany, King George Island) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute (German).

  20. Results of the NY-Alesund ozone measurements intercomparison NAOMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Gross, M.; McGee, T.; Neuber, R.; Gathen, P. V. D.; Wahl, P.; Klein, U.; Langer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, about ten Differential Absorption Lidars are used for long-term monitoring of stratospheric ozone. These systems are an important component of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. Although DIALs are self-calibrating in principle, regular intercomparisons with other ozone-lidars, microwave radiometers or ozone-sondes are highly desirable to ensure high data quality at a well known level. The Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) validation policy suggests that such intercomparisons be "blind", meaning all participants submit their data to an impartial referee, without seeing results from the other participants. Here we report on the "blind" intercomparison taking place from January 20th to February 10th 1998 at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen (78.92 deg N, 11.95 deg E). Participating groups were from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, operating the NDSC DIAL system at Ny-Alesund, from the University of Bremen operating the NDSC microwave radiometer for ozone profiling at Ny-Alesund, and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center group with the "NDSC travelling standard" STROZ-LITE. The first author acted as the impartial referee. Also used for the intercomparison were data from ECC-6A/Vaisala RS80 ozone sondes routinely launched at Ny-Alesund by the AWI group. A 1% KI solution (3 ml) and the 1986 ECC pump correction (1.092 at 5 hPa) are used. The ECC-data were available to all participants during the campaign and thus were not "blind". Table 1 summarizes the expected performance of the instruments participating in the ozone intercomparison reported in this paper.

  1. Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankylä the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

  2. FRAM - FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring: Permanent Observations in a Gateway to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwedel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to understand the complex interactions of biological, chemical, physical, and geological processes in the ocean is still limited by the lack of integrative and interdisciplinary observation infrastructures. The main purpose of the open-ocean infrastructure FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) is permanent presence at sea, from surface to depth, for the provision of near real-time data on climate variability and ecosystem change in an Arctic marine environment. The Alfred-Wegener-Institut I Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), together with partner institutes in Germany and Europe, aims at providing such infrastructure for the polar ocean as a major contribution to international efforts towards comprehensive Global Earth Observation. The FRAM Ocean Observing System targets the gateway between the North Atlantic and the Central Arctic, representing a highly climate-sensitive and rapidly changing region of the Earth system. It will serve national and international tasks towards a better understanding of the effects of change in ocean circulation, water mass properties and sea-ice retreat on Arctic marine ecosystems and their main functions and services. FRAM integrates and develops already existing observatories, i.e. the oceanographic mooring array HAFOS (Hybrid Arctic/Antarctic Float Observing System) and the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site HAUSGARTEN. It will implement existing and next-generation sensors and observatory platforms, allowing synchronous observation of relevant ocean variables, as well as the study of physical, chemical and biological processes in the water column and at the seafloor. Experimental and event-triggered platforms will complement observational platforms. Products of the infrastructure are continuous long-term data with appropriate resolution in space and time, as well as ground-truthing information for ocean models and remote sensing.

  3. The Face of the Earth and those of her sisters: why are they so different?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celal Sengor, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    The terrestrial planets, Mercury (uncompressed density: 5.3 g/cm3) Venus (4.4), the earth (4.4), and Mars 3.8) and the Moon, the rocky satellite of the earth (3.3), have formed some 4500 to 4600 million years ago through gravitational accretion about individual centres of attraction around the Sun. Yet all five have very different "faces" to use Eduard Suess' happy expression (adopted by Alfred Wegener for the Moon also). The earth looks blue when viewed from space because of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere. Venus looks yellowish due to its clouds of sulfuric acid and Mars is buff because of its dusty atmosphere. The earth's hypsometric curve is double-peaked; Mars' approaches the earth's. The others have single-peaked curves. Mercury and the Moon are very similar-looking, but this is deceptive: we now recognise that Mercury has extensive thrust faulting resulting from planetary contraction; the Moon probably has contractional structures, but on an incomparably smaller scale. Venus has an active interior albeit incapable of dividing its surface into horizontally-moving plates. Mars has a less active interior, but it seems nevertheless active with volcanism as recently as 2 Ma ago. Venus and Mars have plume-dominated tectonics. The earth gets its heat out by plate tectonics (but also by plumes) creating its most distinctive facial features: the orogenic belts and the oceans. The differences among the sisters seem to be due to distance from the sun, accretion history and final size. So far, the most thrilling results concerning their geology have been gained as soon as we obtained the capability of looking at their faces and knock on their rocks.

  4. Paleomagnetism and Pangea: The road to reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mathew; Van der Voo, Rob; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2012-01-01

    Outside the realm of paleomagnetic studies, it has been a long held tenet that Pangea amalgamated into and disseminated from essentially the same paleogeography, the conventional Pangea reconstruction of Alfred Wegener. There is widespread geologic and geophysical support for this continental configuration during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, but global paleomagnetic data have been repeatedly shown to be incompatible with this reconstruction for pre-Late Triassic time. This discrepancy, which has endured from the late 1950s to the present day, has developed into a fundamental enigma of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetism. The problem stems from a large disparity in the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are restored to the conventional fit. If the APWPs are forced to coincide while some semblance of this fit is maintained, a substantial crustal overlap (1000 + km) results between Laurussia and Gondwana. To resolve this problem, alternative Pangea reconstructions have been built to accommodate the paleomagnetic data, but these invariably require large-scale shearing between Laurussia and Gondwana to reach the conventional configuration, from which it is unanimously agreed that the Atlantic Ocean opened in the Jurassic. Evidence for a megashear between these landmasses is critically lacking. Another proposed solution invokes time-dependent non-dipole fields, but challenges the common assumption that the geomagnetic field has effectively been a geocentric axial dipole through the Phanerozoic. The remaining alternative is that the problem is a manifestation of artifacts/contamination in the paleomagnetic data. Here we review the historical development of this problem and conduct an up-to-date re-analysis. Using the most recent late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, we examine the influence of data-quality, refined continental fits, and theoretical inclination shallowing corrections, and confirm that

  5. RTopo-2: A global high-resolution dataset of ice sheet topography, ice shelf cavity geometry and ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph; Schaffer, Janin

    2016-04-01

    The RTopo-1 data set of Antarctic ice sheet/shelf geometry and global ocean bathymetry has proven useful not only for modelling studies of ice-ocean interaction in the southern hemisphere. Following the spirit of this data set, we introduce a new product (RTopo-2) that contains consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arc seconds resolution. We used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. To achieve a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry around the Greenland continent, we corrected data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ and Helheim Glacier assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79°N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model including all available multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for ice surface and ice base topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centers of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA/NSF) and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). For the Antarctic ice sheet/ice shelves, RTopo-2 largely relies on the Bedmap-2 product but applies corrections for the geometry of Getz, Abbot and Fimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available in full and in regional subsets in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database.

  6. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds during VERDI and RACEPAC: Combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in sea-ice covered areas the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) were initiated by a collaboration of German and French research institutes. The aircraft operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany were based in Inuvik, Canada from where the research flights of in total 149 flight hours (62 h during VERDI, 87 h during RACEPAC) were able to cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort. The aim of both campaigns was to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. Remote sensing instrumentation contained a backscatter lidar and spectral solar radiation measurements including a hyperspectral camera. In-situ sampling was highlighted by a suit of comprehensive cloud particle probes, aerosol particle counters and mass spectroscopy as well as trace gas detectors. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft (Polar 5) subsequently, for RACEPAC two identical aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) were coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In this way not only the combined analysis of radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably, also remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of both projects including instrumentation and flight patterns of the research flights. Beside flight missions dedicated to sample low level clouds by remote sensing and in situ probing, flights were also coordinated with satellite overpasses and ground based stations. Exemplary results will be highlighted.

  7. Arctic and Antarctic Sea-Ice Freeboard and Thickness Retrievals from CryoSat-2 and EnviSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Schwegmann, Sandra; Helm, Veit; Rinne, Eero

    2016-04-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is now in the 6th year of data acquisition. With its synthetic aperture radar altimeter, CryoSat-2 achieves great improvements in the along track resolution compared to previous radar altimeter missions like ERS or Envisat. The latitudinal coverage contains major parts of the Arctic marine ice fields where previous missions left a big data gap around the North Pole and especially over the multiyear ice zone north of Greenland. With this unique data set, changes in sea-ice thickness can be investigated in the context of the rapid reduction of the Arctic sea-ice cover which has been observed during the last decades. We present the current state of the CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness retrieval that is processed at the Alfred Wegener Institute and available via seaiceportal.de (originally: meereisportal.de). Though biases in sea-ice thickness may occur due to the interpretation of waveforms, airborne and ground-based validation measurements give confidence that the retrieval algorithm enables us to capture the actual distributions of sea-ice regimes. Nevertheless, long time series of data retrievals are essential to estimate trends in sea-ice thickness and volume. Today, more than 20 years of radar altimeter data are potentially available and capable to derive sea ice thickness. However, data originate from satellites with different sensor characteristics. Therefore, it is crucial to study the consistency between single sensors to derive long and consistent time series. We present results from the tested consistency between Antarctic freeboard measurements of the radar altimeters on-board of Envisat and CryoSat-2 for their overlap period in 2011.

  8. Surface energy balance and turbulence measurements on Warszawa Icefield, King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Sala, H.; Braun, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat of glaciers, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield over 1.5 years from November 2010 to 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for one and a half years. Repeat measurements of snow accumulation and surface lowering along transects on the glacier and at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer within the source area of the ground measurements. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Carlini station, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute of Marine and Polar Research (Germany).

  9. Critical Fracture Toughness Measurements of an Antarctic Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Webber, Kyle; Isaia, Daniel; Schader, Florian; Kippstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Humbert, Angelika

    2014-05-01

    Fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a pre-existing defect in a body to further crack extension. The fracture toughness of glacial ice as a function of density is important for modeling efforts aspire to predict calving behavior. In the presented experiments this fracture toughness is measured using an ice core from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The samples were sawed in an ice lab at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven at -20°C and had the dimensions of standard test samples with thickness 14 mm, width 28 mm and length 126 mm. The samples originate from a depth of 94.6 m to 96 m. The grain size of the samples was also identified. The grain size was found to be rather uniform. The critical fracture toughness is determined in a four-point bending approach using single edge V-notch beam samples. The initial notch length was around 2.5 mm and was prepared using a drilling machine. The experimental setup was designed at the Institute of Materials Science at Darmstadt. In this setup the force increases linearly, until the maximum force is reached, where the specific sample fractures. This procedure was done in an ice lab with a temperature of -15°C. The equations to calculate the fracture toughness for pure bending are derived from an elastic stress analysis and are given as a standard test method to detect the fracture toughness. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to determine the ice core densities. The tests cover densities from 843 kg m-3 to 871 kg m-3. Thereby the influence of the fracture toughness on the density was analyzed and compared to previous investigations of this material parameter. Finally the dependence of the measured toughness on thickness, width, and position in the core cross-section was investigated.

  10. Air and shipborne magnetic surveys of the Antarctic into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, A.; Bell, R.; Blankenship, D.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Masolov, V.; Riedel, S.; von Frese, R.; Young, D.

    2013-02-01

    The Antarctic geomagnetics' community remains very active in crustal anomaly mapping. More than 1.5 million line-km of new air- and shipborne data have been acquired over the past decade by the international community in Antarctica. These new data together with surveys that previously were not in the public domain significantly upgrade the ADMAP compilation. Aeromagnetic flights over East Antarctica have been concentrated in the Transantarctic Mountains, the Prince Charles Mountains - Lambert Glacier area, and western Dronning Maud Land (DML) — Coats Land. Additionally, surveys were conducted over Lake Vostok and the western part of Marie Byrd Land by the US Support Office for Aerogeophysical Research projects and over the Amundsen Sea Embayment during the austral summer of 2004/2005 by a collaborative US/UK aerogeophysical campaign. New aeromagnetic data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (120,000 line-km), acquired within the IPY Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province project reveal fundamental geologic features beneath the East Antarctic Ice sheet critical to understanding Precambrian continental growth processes. Roughly 100,000 line-km of magnetic data obtained within the International Collaboration for Exploration of the Cryosphere through Aerogeophysical Profiling promises to shed light on subglacial lithology and identify crustal boundaries for the central Antarctic Plate. Since the 1996/97 season, the Alfred Wegener Institute has collected 90,000 km of aeromagnetic data along a 1200 km long segment of the East Antarctic coast over western DML. Recent cruises by Australian, German, Japanese, Russian, British, and American researchers have contributed to long-standing studies of the Antarctic continental margin. Along the continental margin of East Antarctica west of Maud Rise to the George V Coast of Victoria Land, the Russian Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition and Geoscience Australia obtained 80,000 and 20,000 line-km, respectively, of

  11. CryoSat-2 Arctic Sea-Ice Thickness: Uncertainties and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Haas, C.; Davidson, M.

    2014-12-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is in the 4th year of its mission. It has collected a unique altimetry dataset with higher spatial resolution and a better coverage of Arctic sea ice than any previous radar altimeter mission. The along-track sharpened footprint allows resolving fine-scale features of the ice pack and the examination of retrievable information from the SAR waveforms is a field of ongoing research. Different methods can be applied to CryoSat-2 data: threshold retrackers that use the leading edge; or fitted forward models, which are applied to full waveforms. The uncertainty of these methods propagates into the uncertainty of the final sea-ice thickness estimate via the freeboard to thickness conversion. Theoretical considerations show that the magnitude of uncertainties in the radar retracking may be a major if not dominating contribution to the uncertainty budget of sea-ice thickness retrieval from CryoSat-2. We present a break-down of the uncertainty budget of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness of the threshold retracker based sea-ice thickness data product of the Alfred Wegener Institute. We discuss the differences in the radar waveform properties and the identification of leads in first-year and multi-year ice covered areas with the aim to mitigate ice type dependent biases. Though threshold retrackers are prone to a simplistic interpretation of the SAR waveforms we investigate the potential of this fast and robust method to retrieve additional physical properties at the sea ice surface.

  12. Sediment structures and sediment ages of the Chukchi region, Amerasia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegewald, A.; Jokat, W.

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multichannel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-79°N and 170°E-165°W), namely the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Shelf, - Plateau, and - Abyssal Plain, and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an air gun array with up to six air guns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) was used. With a 3000 m long streamer including 240 active channels and a 600 m long streamer including 96 active channels the seismic signals were recorded. Obtaining the ages of the sediments, the information of five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were correlated into the new seismic lines. For this correlation an existing network of more than 200 seismic reflection lines on the East Siberian Shelf and Chukchi Shelf from the USGS, TGS-NOPEC and ION-GX Technology were used. The research area is dominated by two different sediment packages ranging from the Paleocene to the Jurassic. The upper part is an undisturbed unit with low amplitudes and flat-lying reflections. In contrast, the lower package is dominated by an undulated stratification with many fractures and faults. Moreover, the lower unit consists of higher amplitudes with strong reflection bands. The sedimentary thickness varied from the East Siberian Shelf to the Chukchi Plateau from more than 8 km to 4 km. In the basin between the Chukchi Plateau and the Mendeleev Ridge the sedimentary thickness is about 2 km. Furthermore, a series of prograding sequences at the continental margin of the Chukchi Shelf with ages of 65 Ma and younger were analysed. These sequences are the result of an enormous sediment influx from Siberia and Alaska and can be explained by variations in the sedimentation rate over time.

  13. Study on the location and fit of continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ohyeok; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Since Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift more than a century ago, continuous effort to reconstruct the super continent Pangea has been carried out paleo-geographically during past several decades. Although a remarkable success has been achieved, there remains still a great uncertainty on the precise location and fits of the continents that constitute the Pangea. While the fits are recognized as quite complete for Gondwana, the northern part of Pangea, the fits for Laurasia which contains North Ameraica and Eurasia, are left with a lot of improvement. What the two giant continents look like when they were fitted to form the Pangea is also a unsolved question. Several hypothesis for the fits of Laurasia and Gondwana have been raised, and the scenarios of Pangea A1, Pangea A2, Pangea B, and Pangea C were proposed hitherto. Recently, an updated version very close to Pangea A2 was suggested by authors including Van der Voo, Trond H. Torsvik, which have improved several deficiencies of the Pangea A2. However, it was found that the new scenario cannot be fully supported by the paleomagnetism data. Furthermore, it is not in complete agreement with previous paleogeological surveys on major geological features such as Variscan and Caledonian orogenic belt, indicating that a more sophisticated scenario is needed still for the Pangea. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean. A new fit of continents to form the Pangea is proposed, where the continents are fitted with enhanced accuracy compared to other models of Pangea particularly for the Mediterranean Sea, central America, Iran Plateau etc.. The results suggest that the continents were not distorted significantly on the process of drifting and merging during the past 200 million years.

  14. A study of the stable boundary layer in strong gap flows in northwest Greenland using a research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.

  15. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  16. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  17. Aircraft observations of ultrafine particles and CCN from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in the Arctic summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Brauner, Ralf; Konrad, Christian; Herber, Andreas; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is one of the regions most sensitive to climate change. The shrinking extent of sea ice during the Arctic summertime increases the area covered by open ocean, which likely impacts Arctic aerosol, cloud properties, and thus climate. In this context extensive aerosol measurements (aerosol composition, particle number and size, cloud condensation nuclei, and trace gases) have been made during the NETCARE 2014 summer campaign from the Polar 6 aircraft. The Polar 6 is an adopted DC-3 aircraft owned by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany. In July 2014 eleven flights were conducted out of Resolute Bay. Flights included vertical profiles from as low as 60 m up to 3 km, as well as several low-level flights covering diverse terrains such as open ocean, fast ice, melt ponds, and polynyas. Here we discuss the vertical distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP, dp: 5 - 20 nm), size distributions of larger particles (dp: 20 nm to 1 μm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in relation to different meteorological conditions and terrains. UFPs have been observed predominantly within the boundary layer, where concentrations reached several hundreds and occasionally even a few thousand particles per cubic centimeter. Highest concentrations were observed above open ocean and at the top of low-level clouds. During such events, the dominant mode of the size distribution was below 20 nm. However, in a few cases this ultrafine mode extended to sizes larger than 40 nm, suggesting that these UFP can grow into the CCN size range and thereby impact cloud properties and become climatically relevant.

  18. Ground-based lidar measurements from Ny-Ålesund during ASTAR 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Shiobara, M.; Lampert, A.; Maturilli, M.; Orgis, T.; Neuber, R.; Herber, A.

    2009-11-01

    During the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR) in March and April 2007, measurements obtained at the AWIPEV Arctic Research Base in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen at 78.9° N, 11.9° E (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research - AWI and the Institut polaire français Paul-Emile Victor - IPEV), supported the airborne campaign. This included lidar data from the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), located in the atmospheric observatory as well as photometer data and the daily launched radiosonde. The MPL features nearly continuous measurements; the KARL was switched on whenever weather conditions allowed observations (145 h in 61 days). From 1 March to 30 April, 71 meteorological balloon soundings were performed and compared with the concurrent MPL measurements; photometer measurements are available from 18 March. For the KARL data, a statistical overview of particle detection based on their optical properties backscatter ratio and volume depolarization can be given. The altitudes of the occurrence of the named features (subvisible and visible ice and water as well as mixed-phase clouds, aerosol layers) as well as their dependence on different air mass origins are analyzed. Although the spring 2007 was characterized by rather clean conditions, diverse case studies of cloud and aerosol occurrence during March and April 2007 are presented in more detail, including temporal development and main optical properties as depolarization, backscatter and extinction coefficients. Links between air mass origins and optical properties can be presumed but need further evidence.

  19. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  20. Cirrus clouds, humidity, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer observed at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immler, Franz; Krüger, Kirstin; Tegtmeier, Susann; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Fortuin, Paul; Verver, Gé; Schrems, Otto

    2007-02-01

    In the framework of the European Project STAR the Mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar (MARL) of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) was operated in Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W), and carried out extensive observations of tropical cirrus clouds during the local dry season from 28 September 2004 to 16 November 2004. The coverage with ice clouds was very high with 81% in the upper troposphere (above 12 km). The frequency of occurrence of subvisual clouds was found to be clearly enhanced compared to similar observations performed with the same instrument at a station in the midlatitudes. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of thin tropical cirrus is with 26 ± 7 sr significantly higher than that of midlatitude cirrus (16 ± 9 sr). Subvisual cirrus clouds often occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above an upper tropospheric inversion. Our observations show that the ice-forming ability of the TTL is very high. The transport of air in this layer was investigated by means of a newly developed trajectory model. We found that the occurrence of clouds is highly correlated with the temperature and humidity history of the corresponding air parcel. Air that experienced a temperature minimum before the measurement took place was generally cloud free, while air that was at its temperature minimum during the observation and thus was saturated contained ice. We also detected extremely thin cloud layers slightly above the temperature minimum in subsaturated air. The solid particles of such clouds are likely to consist of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) rather than ice.

  1. Microphysical and optical properties of precipitating drizzle and ice particles obtained from alternated lidar and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayet, J.-F.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Jourdan, O.; Shcherbakov, V.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Neuber, R.

    2007-07-01

    During the international ASTAR experiment (Arctic Study of Aerosols, Clouds and Radiation) carried out from Longyearbyen (Spitsbergen) from 10 May to 11 June 2004, the AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) Polar 2 aircraft was equipped with a unique combination of remote and in situ instruments. The airborne AMALi lidar provided downward backscatter and Depolarisation ratio profiles at 532 nm wavelength. The in situ instrumental setup comprised a Polar Nephelometer, a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) as well as a Nevzorov and standard PMS probes to measure cloud particle properties in terms of scattering characteristics, particle morphology and size, and in-cloud partitioning of ice/water content. The objective of the paper is to present the results of a case study related to observations with ice crystals precipitating down to supercooled boundary-layer stratocumulus. The flight pattern was predefined in a way that firstly the AMALi lidar probed the cloud tops to guide the in situ measurements into a particular cloud formation. Three kinds of clouds with different microphysical and optical properties have therefore been quasi-simultaneously observed: (i) water droplets stratiform-layer, (ii) drizzle-drops fallstreak and (iii) precipitating ice-crystals from a cirrus cloud above. The signatures of these clouds are clearly evidenced from the in situ measurements and from the lidar profiles in term of backscatter and Depolarisation ratio. Accordingly, typical lidar ratios, i.e., extinction-to-backscatter ratios, are derived from the measured scattering phase function combined with subsequent particle shapes and size distributions. The backscatter profiles can therefore be retrieved under favourable conditions of low optical density. From these profiles extinction values in different cloud types can be obtained and compared with the direct in situ measurements.

  2. The Dark Side of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Henry

    1986-10-01

    Wood's The Dark Side of the Earth is another addition to the growing list of books on the recent revolution in the earth sciences. Wood rightly points out that any new book on the topic should break new ground. In the preface, he writes of himself and his book that he has benefited from previous accounts by saving himself research time, and that his book, unlike others, “attempts to tell one complete story of the study of the Earth, geologists, geophysicists, dreamers and all” (p. vi). Wood is ambitious, for his work covers much of 19th-century geology as well as the development, reception, rejection, and eventual acceptance of mobilist ideas. Before discussing the work of the German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred L. Wegener, American glacial geomorphologist Frank Taylor, and several of their predecessors who proposed “mobilist” ideas, he manages to string together brief descriptions of the contributions of (among others) German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner, British geologists James Hutten and John Playfair, British engineer William Smith, British geologist Charles Lyell, American geologists James Hall and James Dwight Dana, British volcanologist William Lowthian Green, American geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, French geologist Elie de Beaumont, British geologist and mathematician Osmond Fisher, American geologist Clarence Dutton, British mathematician and physicist Lord Kelvin, Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, French geologist Marcel Bertrand, and American geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin. Moreover, Wood offers an interesting thesis about the revolution in the earth sciences. He claims that the real revolution was not the replacement of fixist views with the mobilist ones of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, but rather the replacement of geology with the new discipline of the earth sciences in which geophysics and geochemistry play the central role.

  3. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.

  4. Simulation of the minor tsunami generated by the September 30 2009 earthquake near Padang, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, C.; Harig, S.; Pranowo, W.; Behrens, J.; Androsov, A.; Schroeter, J.; Hiller, W.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude 7.6 earthquake (USGS) on September 30, 2009 at 10:16 UTC close to the city of Padang in West Sumatra generated a minor tsunami. Earthquakes in this region however have the potential to generate destructive waves as it was shown in historical and recent events. Taking into account the large number of casualties due to this earthquake it is important to prepare for possible future events which might be accompanied by a tsunami. Due to the geographical setting of Padang a tsunami might have disastrous impact. An effective early warning system is crucial. The tsunami modeling group of Alfred Wegener Institute is part of the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) and is responsible for creating a database of pre-calculated tsunami scenarios of various magnitudes and epicenter locations covering the Sunda Trench. These scenarios are calculated with the newly developed model TsunAWI. It is based on the nonlinear shallow water equations and employs the finite element method in unstructured meshes. In case of a tsunamigenic earthquake, sensor data (comprising seismometers, GPS instruments, tide gauges, buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors) will be evaluated. The most probable scenario will be selected and used to forecast arrival times and estimated wave height along the coast. The unstructured discretisation employed in TsunAWI allows for a high resolution around the city of Padang. In this presentation we show preliminary examples of the results of the GITEWS simulation system. We evaluate our pre-computed scenarios and analyze their deficiencies. Additional simulations based on diverse source models are performed to analyze the predictability of near-field tsunamis within short time. We compare simulation results to tide gauge data from Padang harbor and find good agreement.

  5. News from the GITEWS project The German contribution to the Indian Ocean tsunami early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterjung, J.; Rudloff, A.

    2006-12-01

    First milestones on the road to an effective Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean have been achieved. A couple of seismological broadband sensors have been installed throughout Indonesia, on the Islands of Nias, Sumatra, Java, and Kalimantan. Another five will be set up until the end of the year. First GPS stations and tide gauges have also been installed. The further development of the marine equipment benefits from test experiences with GPS buoys and ocean bottom sensors, between November 2005 and April 2006. A new deployment is planned for late 2006. New bathymetric data has been collected through several research vessel cruises. Together with integrated images from earlier collections all data covers an area of more than 100.000 square kilometres, mainly off coast Sumatra. The bathymetric builds the basis for the unstructured grid of the tsunami modelling group. First sensitivity analysis and wave propagations have been calculated and a simplified run-up was integrated. The capacity building branch has started by selecting first PhD candidates from the Indian Ocean region for a sandwich-programme, working at their home institutes and at German partners institutes. Since the project and its activities address nearly all Indian Ocean rim countries, cooperation with some states are underway or already realized. The project is carried out through a large group of scientists and engineers from GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) and its partners from German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), GKSS Research Centre, Leibniz-Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), United Nations University (UNU), Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Geman Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), as well as from Indonesian and other international partners.

  6. Relative sea-level variations in the Amerasia Basin since the Lower Cretaceous (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokat, W.; Hegewald, A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multi-channel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-78°N and 170°E-170°W), namely across the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Plateau and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an airgun array with up to six airguns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) and a 3000 m long streamer with 240 active channels were used. One of the profiles, collected from the Chukchi Shelf towards the north into deep water, shows the paleo-shelf break structures over 250 km length as prograding, retrograding and aggrading sequences with a total thickness of 3500 m. To receive the ages of these sequences, five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were used. An existing network of 194 seismic reflection lines from the United States Geological Service (USGS), collected between 1977 and 1993, from the Norwegian company TGS-NOPEC (2006), and the American HOTRAX Expedition (2005) were used to correlate the well logging information into the AWI data. With the help of this network, it was possible to correlate tentatively four prominent horizons with ages between the Paleocene and Lower Cretaceous into the new data. The interpreted sequence boundaries in the seismic reflection profile were used to determine its chronostratigraphic significance, and concluded from that, the relative sea-level changes. Finally, in this presentation the Arctic Ocean sea-level changes will be compared with the global sea-level curve.

  7. A Query Language for Handling Big Observation Data Sets in the Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autermann, Christian; Stasch, Christoph; Jirka, Simon; Koppe, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The Sensor Web provides a framework for the standardized Web-based sharing of environmental observations and sensor metadata. While the issue of varying data formats and protocols is addressed by these standards, the fast growing size of observational data is imposing new challenges for the application of these standards. Most solutions for handling big observational datasets currently focus on remote sensing applications, while big in-situ datasets relying on vector features still lack a solid approach. Conventional Sensor Web technologies may not be adequate, as the sheer size of the data transmitted and the amount of metadata accumulated may render traditional OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) unusable. Besides novel approaches to store and process observation data in place, e.g. by harnessing big data technologies from mainstream IT, the access layer has to be amended to utilize and integrate these large observational data archives into applications and to enable analysis. For this, an extension to the SOS will be discussed that establishes a query language to dynamically process and filter observations at storage level, similar to the OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) and it's Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) extension. This will enable applications to request e.g. spatial or temporal aggregated data sets in a resolution it is able to display or it requires. The approach will be developed and implemented in cooperation with the The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research whose catalogue of data compromises marine observations of physical, chemical and biological phenomena from a wide variety of sensors, including mobile (like research vessels, aircrafts or underwater vehicles) and stationary (like buoys or research stations). Observations are made with a high temporal resolution and the resulting time series may span multiple decades.

  8. On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different

  9. Physical and ecological processes at a moving ice edge in the Fram Strait as observed with an AUV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulff, T.; von Appen, W. J.; Bauerfeind, E.

    2016-02-01

    The marginal ice zone (MIZ) and the meltwater front of a moving ice tongue in the Fram Strait were investigated using the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) "PAUL" of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. PAUL was equipped with physical and biogeochemical sensors to study the complex interaction between physical processes and ecological responses along an ice edge. PAUL covered two cross-front sections of 9 km length each and recorded high resolution vertical profiles of the physical and biogeochemical properties. In both physical and biogeochemical terms, the measurements revealed a complex structure of the water column. The distribution of phytoplankton and nutrients was highly inhomogeneous. Phytoplankton concentrations of 5 µg·l-1 were detected at the frontal interface in a small corridor just 2 - 4 km wide and only 5 m deep. Nutrients at the surface were depleted, yet, compared to previous studies of this region, elevated levels were still present in the euphotic zone. Below the euphotic zone, nitrate concentrations and oxygen saturation values resulted in a "dome-like" pattern - suggestive of vertical transport processes. Based on these measurements, four different zones featuring individual biogeochemical characteristics could be identified in the cross-front sections. The atmospheric forcing and the evolution of the ice cover contributed to the complexity of the MIZ. Large scale upwelling as well as more localized upwelling and downwelling events seem to have occurred. Furthermore, submesoscale frontogenesis could have taken place at the melt water front. All of the processes had an effect on the ecological conditions along the observed ice tongue.

  10. First results from a new interdisciplinary robotic vehicle for under-ice research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, M.; Katlein, C.; Schiller, M.

    2016-12-01

    Research at the ice-water interface below drifting sea-ice is crucial for the investigation of the fluxes of energy, momentum and matter across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary. Transmission of solar energy through the ice and snow layers causes warming of the upper ocean and melting of the ice itself. It is also a key factor for in and under-ice primary production, supplying the ice associated food-chain and causing carbon export to deeper water layers and the sea floor. The complex geometry of sea ice does not only cause a large spatial variability in optical properties of the ice cover, but also influences biomass accumulations and especially the hydrodynamic interaction between the ice cover and the uppermost layers of the ocean. Access to the ice underside is however still sparse, as diving operations are risky and logistically challenging. In the last decade, robotic underwater technologies have evolved significantly and enabled the first targeted large-scale observations by remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles. A new remotely operated vehicle was commissioned for under ice research at the Alfred Wegener Institute supported by the FRAM infrastructure program of the Helmholtz-Society. Apart from proven under-ice navigation and operation capabilities, the vehicle provides an extended interdisciplinary sensor platform supporting oceanographic, biological, biogeochemical and physical sea-ice research. Here we present the first preliminary data obtained with the new vehicle during the PS101 expedition of the German icebreaker RV Polarstern to the Central Arctic in September and October 2016. Apart from measurements of spectral light transmittance of sea ice during the autumn freeze-up, we show vertical profiles of the bio-optical and oceanographic properties of the upper water column. This data is combined with under-ice topography obtained from upward-looking multibeam sonar, still imagery and HD-video material.

  11. A comparison of four estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R.; Ridout, A.; Shepherd, A.

    2016-12-01

    In April 2010 the European Space Agency (ESA) CryoSat-2 satellite was launched, providing unprecedented sampling of the Arctic Ocean with a region of coverage extending to 88°N. The first estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 were produced in 2013 [Laxon et al., 2013] by the Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM). Since then, a number of other teams have developed alternative CryoSat-2 sea ice processing systems, including NASA [Kurtz et al., 2014], and the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) [Ricker et al., 2014]. In addition, the Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modelling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) model also provides an estimate of Arctic sea ice thickness. These four data records of Arctic sea ice thickness differ in their methods and spatial extent. In this paper, we compare and contrast estimates of sea ice thickness and volume derived from these four data records - the CPOM, NASA, AWI, and PIOMAS systems. We also investigate the sensitivity of each dataset to the application of a time-varying snow load instead of the climatology that is conventionally employed. To facilitate the comparison, sea ice thickness and concentration data are posted on to the same monthly grid to produce equivalent estimates of Arctic sea ice volume. An initial comparison is shown in Figure 1. All of the datasets display, qualitatively, many of the same aspects of the observed variability in volume, including seasonal progression and the step increases in sea ice volume recorded in the autumns of 2013 and 2014. However, CPOM estimates of volume are generally lower than those from AWI in October, similar in November, and higher through the remainder of the growth season. PIOMAS estimates of Arctic sea ice volume are more variable.

  12. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  13. Emerging German Security Policy - The Dispute on ’Out of Area’ Employments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-12

    nationalen Tugend", Die Welt. (12 March 1991). Also: Ronald D. Asmus. "Fragen unter Freunden". Die Zeit. (Nr 8, 15 February 1991), 4, 7 Joachim Sobotta ...January 1992. Ruehl, Lothar. "Wie halten es die Deutschen mit der Buendnispflicht?". Die Welt. 28 December 1991. 41 Sobotta . % achim. "Schluss mit dem

  14. West Europe Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-12

    37 ff., J. Galtung , ibid., S.19/210 ff. 11. Cf. A. von Buelow (footnote 7). 12. Cf. Lothar Ruehl, "Europe Would be Subjugated to Soviet Rule," in... Galtung et al. At the same time it should be remembered that the Warsaw Pact doctrine starts out completely as a matter of course from attack and

  15. Interview with Christine Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  16. Interview with Christine Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  17. Receptivity of a Cryogenic Coaxial Gas-Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Gas-Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wegener , Forliti, Leyva...of a Cryogenic Coaxial Gas-Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference Jeff Wegener , UCLA David Forliti...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Previous injectors (Sophonias, 2012) New injector ( Wegener , 2013) 13Place

  18. Impact of Vasculitis on Employment and Income

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-26

    Vasculitis; Systemic Vasculitis; Behcet's Disease; CNS Vasculitis; Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis; Eosinophilic Granulomatosis; Temporal Arteritis; Wegener Granulomatosis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN); Takayasu's Arteritis; Urticarial Vasculitis

  19. Educational Needs of Patients With Systemic Vasculitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-11

    Behcet's Disease; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Vasculitis, Central Nervous System; Giant Cell Arteritis; Wegener Granulomatosis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu's Arteritis

  20. Proceedings for the Alaska Meeting on Fundamental Optical Processes in Semiconductors (AMFOPS 󈧅) Held in Girdwood, Alaska on August 5-10, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    o . I (L MM ( La. M2 L I 478 8 i4 N 6 i:& e From Quantum Kinetics to the Carrier-Wave Regime Martin Wegener Institut fir Angewandte Physik...Steinbach, M.U. Wehner, M. Wegener , T. Marschner, and W. Stolz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2188 (1995). [2] M.U. Wehner, M.H. Ulm, D.S. Chemla, and M. Wegener ...Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1992 (1998). [3] W.A. Hhlgel, M.F. Heinrich, M. Wegener , Q.T. Vu, L. Bdnyai, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3313 (1999). [4

  1. Pediatric Vasculitis Initiative

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-01

    Wegeners Granulomatosis (Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis); Microscopic Polyangiitis; Churg Strauss Syndrome (Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis); Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu Arteritis; Primary CNS Vasculitis; Unclassified Vasculitis

  2. Induction of Regulatory t Cells by Low Dose il2 in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-12

    Rheumatoid Arthritis; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Psoriasis; Behcet's Disease; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Takayasu's Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Autoimmune Hepatitis; Sclerosing Cholangitis; Gougerot-sjögren

  3. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    smaller scale surveys - getting close to industry standards - targeted specific geological questions, the reconnaissance type of aerogeophysical projects continued in Dronning Maud Land, now in close cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). This very successful cooperation between the two German institutions - both working continuously in the polar regions - was already established in Arctic projects, namely in northern Greenland. Also, since the late 1990's BGR conducted together with Canada airborne surveys as part of PMAP (Polar Margins Aeromagnetic Program), thematically linked to the predominantly geological CASE (Circum Arctic Structural Events) program of BGR. A joint project of GSC (Geological Survey of Canada) and BGR in the Nares Strait was a highlight of combined geological and aeromagnetic research addressing the still widely discussed Wegener fault between Greenland and Ellesmere Island and the extent of tertiary basins in the Nares Strait itself. BGR intends to continue its successful combined geological-geophysical work in both polar regions. The increasing logistic and financial challenges to work in these extreme areas will demand not only a continuation but an intensification of national and international collaboration.

  4. Development of a Facility for Combustion Stability Experiments at Supercritical Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    at Supercritical Pressure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wegener , Leyva, Forliti, Talley...Force Research Laboratory Jeff Wegener , Ivett Leyva, David Forliti, and Doug Talley Air Force Research Laboratory Combustion Devices Branch - Combustion

  5. Contrasts between American and Afghan Warriors, a Comparison between two Martial Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    successful in resisting outside invasions ( Wegener 2007). The British fought three wars, seized Kabul twice, retreated twice, and never managed to...and US coalition interventions. Lieutenant Wegener describes these reactions as a complex political social function that reflected the cultural

  6. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On-going activities of the NASA special consultant to WEGENER (Working group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research) program are reported. Topics cover include: the WEGENER 2002 conference in Greece and the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS).

  7. Three-Dimensional Medical Image Registration Using a Patient Space Correlation Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    to which a tumor has invaded a particular portion of the brain , or when assessing stroke induced cerebral damage (6). A variation of this method...Pelizzari, C . A. et al. "Accurate Three-Dimensional Registration of CT, PET and/or MR Images of the Brain ," J. Computer Assisted Tomography, 13(1):20-26...Lothar R. et al. "Three Dimensional inage Correlation of CT, MR, and PET Studies in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning of Brain Tumors ," J. Computer

  8. Triterpenoids and Prevention of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    adipogenic differentiation of mouse 3T3 -L1 fibroblasts . CDDO inhibits proliferation of many human tumor cell lines. CDDO blocks de novo synthesis of inducible...of Highly Active Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Production in Mouse Macrophages" by Tadashi Honda, BarbieAnn V. Rounds, Lothar Bore, Frank G. Favaloro...Synthetic Oleanane Triterpenoids: A series of Highly Active Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Production in Mouse Macrophages" by Tadashi Honda, BarbieAnn V

  9. Germany and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    European leaders can contemplate how to spend peace dividends . So goes the common view.’ The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the unification of...Coulisses de la politique dtrang~re sous la Ve Rdpublique (Paris: Hachette, 1986); quoted in Yost, Strategic Culture, 25. 76 been respected to date.󈧒 The...Lothar Ruihl, La politique militaire de la cinqui~me rdpublique (Paris: Foundation Nationale des Sciences Politiques , 190-191; quoted in David S. Yost

  10. An Analysis of the Wyngaard-LeMone Model of Refractive Index and Micrometeorological Structure Functions at the Top of a Turbulent Mixed Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    summary is given here. i) Mean temperature, T: platinum resistance sensor with standard aircraft mount. ii) Mean humidity, 0: cooled mirror dew cell . iii...12. Dr. A. Weinstein 1 Director of Research Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility Monterey, California 93940 13. CAPT K. Van Sickle Naval...Lothar Ruhnke, Code 8320 Naval Research Laboratory Washington, D.C. 20375 19. Mr. Herb Hitney, Code 532 Naval Ocean Systems Center San Diego, California

  11. From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. However, the evolution of phenotypic features is not predictable, and biologists no longer use terms such as "primitive" or "perfect organisms". Despite these insights, the Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae, i.e., the idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists until ca. 1850 (Charles Bonnet, Jean Lamarck and others). Charles Darwin is usually credited with the establishment of a branched evolutionary "Tree of Life". This insight of 1859 was based on his now firmly corroborated proposals of common ancestry and natural selection. In this article I argue that Darwin was still influenced by "ladder thinking", a theological view that prevailed throughout the 19th century and is also part of Ernst Haeckel's famous Oak tree (of Life) of 1866, which is, like Darwin's scheme, static. In 1910, Constantin Mereschkowsky proposed an alternative, "anti-selectionist" concept of biological evolution, which became known as the symbiogenesis-theory. According to the symbiogenesis-scenario, eukaryotic cells evolved on a static Earth from archaic prokaryotes via the fusion and subsequent cooperation of certain microbes. In 1929, Alfred Wegener published his theory of continental drift, which was later corroborated, modified and extended. The resulting theory of plate tectonics is now the principal organizing concept of geology. Over millions of years, plate tectonics and hence the "dynamic Earth" has caused destructive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. At the same time, it created mountain ranges, deep oceans, novel freshwater habitats, and deserts. As a result, these geologic processes destroyed numerous

  12. A Generic Framework for Enabling the Flow of Sensor Observations to Archives: O2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchow, Peter; Koppe, Roland; Macario, Ana; Haas, Antonie; Shäfer-Neth, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) has been continuously committing to develop and sustain an e-Infrastructure for coherent discovery, visualization, dissemination and archival of scientific information in polar and marine regions. Most of the data originates from research activities being carried out in a wide range of AWI-operated research platforms: vessels, land-based stations, ocean-based stations and aircrafts. Archival and publishing in PANGAEA repository along with DOI assignment to individual datasets is a typical end-of-line step for most data owners. Within AWI, a workflow for data acquisition from vessel-mounted devices along with ingestion procedures for the raw data into the institutional archives has been well-established for many years. However, the increasing number of ocean-based stations and respective sensors along with heterogeneous project-driven requirements towards satellite communication, sensor monitoring, QA/QC control and validation, processing algorithms, visualization and dissemination has recently lead us to build a more generic and cost-effective framework. This framework, hereafter named O2A, has as main strength its seamless flow of sensor observation to archives and the fact that it complies with internationally used OGC standards and thus assuring interoperability in international context (e.g. SOS/SWE, WPS, WMS WFS,..). O2A is comprised of several extensible and exchangeable modules (e.g. controlled vocabularies and gazetteers, file type and structure validation, aggregation solutions, processing algorithms, etc) as well as various interoperability services. At the first data tier level, not only each sensor is being described following SensorML data model standards but the data is being fed to an SOS interface offering streaming solutions along with support to O&M encoding. Project administrators or data specialists are now able to monitor the individual sensors displayed in a map by simply clicking

  13. Reconciling Paleomagnetism and Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, M. M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Outside of the realm of paleomagnetic studies, it has been a long held tenet that Pangea amalgamated into and disseminated from essentially the same paleogeography, the conventional Pangea reconstruction of Alfred Wegener. There is widespread geologic and geophysical support for this re-assembly during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, but global paleomagnetic data have been repeatedly shown to be incompatible with this reconstruction for pre-Late Triassic time. This discrepancy, which has endured from the late 1950's to the present day, has developed into a fundamental enigma of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetism. The problem stems from a large disparity in the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are restored to the conventional paleogeography. If the APWPs are made to coincide while the conventional fit is maintained, a substantial crustal misfit results; a continental overlap of approximately 10° latitude (1000+ km) occurs between Laurussia and Gondwana. To resolve this problem, alternative Pangea reconstructions have been built to accommodate the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, but these invariably require large-scale shearing between Laurussia and Gondwana to reach the conventional Pangea re-assembly, from which it is unanimously agreed that the Atlantic Ocean opened in the Jurassic. Evidence for a megashear between these landmasses is critically lacking. Another proposed solution invokes time-dependent non-dipole fields, but challenges the working assumption that the geomagnetic field has effectively been a geocentric axial dipole through the Phanerozoic. The final alternative is that the problem is a manifestation of artifacts/contamination in the paleomagnetic data. Previous investigations of this last hypothesis have demonstrated its theoretical plausibility, but lacked the exhaustive analysis of global paleomagnetic data necessary to assuredly dispel the problem as an enduring data

  14. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Eliseev, A. V.; Evgrafova, S.; Fedorova, I.; Glagolev, M.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H. W.; Knoblauch, C.; Kunitsky, V.; Kutzbach, L.; Reichstein, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Wagner, D.; Zimov, S. A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 2.5-times the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg

  15. Pollution in the Summertime Canadian High Arctic observed during NETCARE 2014: Investigation of origin and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The clean and sensitive Arctic atmosphere is influenced by transport of air masses from lower latitudes that bring pollution in the form of aerosol particles and trace gases into the Arctic regions. However, the transport processes causing such pollution events are yet not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on results from the aircraft campaign NETCARE 2014 that took place in July 2014 in Resolute Bay, Nunavut (Canada) as part of the "Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environment" (NETCARE). These airborne measurements add to only a very few of such measurements conducted in the Arctic during the summertime. The instrumentation on board the research aircraft Polar 6 (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) included a large set of physico-chemical aerosol analysis instruments, several trace gas measurements and basic meteorological parameters. Here we focus on observed pollution events that caused elevated trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the summertime Canadian High Arctic between 50 and 3500 m. In order to better understand the chemical composition and the origin of those polluted air masses, we use single particle aerosol composition obtained using the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA), combined with aerosol size distributions and number concentrations from an Optical Particle Counter as well as trace gas measurements of CO and CO2. CO and CO2 are important tracers to study pollution events, which are connected to anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic combustion processes, respectively biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The ALABAMA provides a detailed single particle aerosol composition analysis from which we identify different particle types like soot-, biomass burning-, organics-, diesel exhaust- and metallic particles. The measurements were compared to Lagrangian models like FLEXPART and LAGRANTO to find the pollution sources

  16. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help

  17. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Centre Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (HZG). Further participating centres are: the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Research Centre Jülich (FZJ), the Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Sciences (GEOMAR), the Karlsruher Institute for Technology (KIT) and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). The webpage will be accessible at www.eskp.de.

  18. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    years as suggested by the radiocarbon dating of the upper centimeter of the sediment in PS87/030-2 (7792 ± 59 14C years BP), PS87/055-1 (3897 ± 41 14C years BP), and PS87/099-4 (1421 ± 66 14C years BP). Reference Stein, R. (Ed.), 2015. The Expedition PS87 of the Research Vessel Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean in 2014, Reports on Polar and Marine Research 688, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 273 pp (http://epic.awi.de/37728/1/BzPM_0688_2015.pdf).

  19. Amphibian Seismological Studies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Kuk Hong, Jong; Lee, Won Sang; Geissler, Wolfram; Yun, Sukyoung; Gohl, Karsten; Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014

  20. An aircraft-based investigation of the turbulent stable boundary layer over the North Water polynya (Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens; Kramer, Daniel; Ernsdorf, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Atmosphere/sea-ice/ocean exchange processes over the NOW (North Water) polynya in northwest Greenland were studied during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. While a polynya is associated with a convective boundary layer during winter, the situation in early summer is quite different. With the surface temperature at the melting point of ocean water, warm air advection leads to the formation of a stable boundary layer. Over the NOW in June, a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were found in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects at Smith Sound a well-pronounced low-level jet system was documented. These channeling effects lead to an increased wind-induced sea-ice export from the Nares Strait through Smith Sound. Cross-sections of mean quantities over the polynya are presented. The multiresolution decomposition is used to identify the spectral gap for the computation of turbulent fluxes. For the NOW polynya flights gap scales are between 500 m - 1000 m. Sensible heat fluxes are around -30W/m² in the area of highest wind speed at Smith Sound. Accordingly, the momentum flux shows also a maximum caused by the channeling, which is an important factor for the process of NOW formation. The experimental data

  1. PANGAEA® - Research Data enters Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, U.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.

    2012-04-01

    publication workflow used by PANGAEA®, the technical background of the dynamic linking approach done between conventional publishers and the data repository, and the further steps for integrating editorial processes on both sides. PANGAEA® is operated as a joint long term facility by MARUM at the University Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (47 International, 46 European and 37 national projects since the last 12 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  2. Variability of Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean from summer hydrographic observations in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Walczowski, Waldemar; Fahrbach, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Before reaching the Arctic Ocean, warm and salty water masses, originating from the North Atlantic, pass the eastern rims of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and continue farther to the north through Fram Strait. During its northward advection the Atlantic water (AW) is continuously transformed and its temperature, salinity and heat content changes significantly. A part of the AW heat is released to the atmosphere while a major share is lost due to lateral exchanges and mixing with adjacent water masses. This study addresses summer-to-summer variability, transformation, and circulation patterns of the Atlantic water in the region between the northern Norway and northern Fram Strait. We will present results of the long-term summer measurements in the Norwegian-Atlantic and West Spitsbergen Currents, carried in 1996-2013 by Institute of Oceanology PAS, and compare them to continuous observations from the moored array maintained by Alfred Wegener Institute in the northern Fram Strait, to estimate the impact of seasonal variations on long-term changes in the AW properties. Significant variability over different time scales has been observed in the properties of the AW over the studied period with the warmest AW inflow in late 90s and 2005-2006 and a significant positive trend in AW salinity. Time series of temperature and salinity at the standard hydrographic section at 76°30'N reveal a presence of three 5-6 years long cycles. Spatial distributions of AW properties and geostrophic velocities in the studied region show alternating phases of intensified AW inflow into the Barents Sea and periods of increased northward volume and heat transport through Fram Strait. Using available reanalysis data and meteorological measurements from Svalbard area we will attempt to explain possible links between observed changes and atmospheric forcing. The hydrographic measurements, continued by IO PAS for nearly two decades in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait, have been strongly

  3. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  4. Estimation of Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness Using CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanggyun; Im, Jungho; yoon, Hyeonjin; Shin, Minso; Kim, Miae

    2014-05-01

    data were used to identify leads. Rule-based machine learning approaches such as random forest and See5.0 and human-derived decision trees were used to produce rules to identify leads. With the freeboard height calculated from the lead analysis, sea ice thickness was finally estimated using the Archimedes' buoyancy principle with density of sea ice and sea water and the height of freeboard. The results were compared with Arctic sea ice thickness distribution retrieved from CryoSat-2 data by Alfred-Wegener-Institute.

  5. Fully automatic adjoints: a robust and efficient mechanism for generating adjoint ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.; Rognes, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of generating and maintaining adjoint models is sufficiently difficult that typically only the most advanced and well-resourced community ocean models achieve it. There are two current technologies which each suffer from their own limitations. Algorithmic differentiation, also called automatic differentiation, is employed by models such as the MITGCM [2] and the Alfred Wegener Institute model FESOM [3]. This technique is very difficult to apply to existing code, and requires a major initial investment to prepare the code for automatic adjoint generation. AD tools may also have difficulty with code employing modern software constructs such as derived data types. An alternative is to formulate the adjoint differential equation and to discretise this separately. This approach, known as the continuous adjoint and employed in ROMS [4], has the disadvantage that two different model code bases must be maintained and manually kept synchronised as the model develops. The discretisation of the continuous adjoint is not automatically consistent with that of the forward model, producing an additional source of error. The alternative presented here is to formulate the flow model in the high level language UFL (Unified Form Language) and to automatically generate the model using the software of the FEniCS project. In this approach it is the high level code specification which is differentiated, a task very similar to the formulation of the continuous adjoint [5]. However since the forward and adjoint models are generated automatically, the difficulty of maintaining them vanishes and the software engineering process is therefore robust. The scheduling and execution of the adjoint model, including the application of an appropriate checkpointing strategy is managed by libadjoint [1]. In contrast to the conventional algorithmic differentiation description of a model as a series of primitive mathematical operations, libadjoint employs a new abstraction of the simulation

  6. SMILES zonal and diurnal variation climatology of stratospheric and mesospheric trace gasses: O3, HCl, HNO3, ClO, BrO, HOCl, HO2, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Kasai, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    We present a climatology of the diurnal variation of short-lived atmospheric compounds, such as ClO, BrO, HO2, and HOCl, as well as longer-lived species: O3, the hydrogen chloride isotopes H35Cl and H37Cl, and HNO3. Measurements were taken by the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES). This spectrally resolving radiometer, with very low observation noise and altitude range from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere (20-100km), was measuring vertical profiles of absorption spectra along a non-sun-synchronous orbit, thus observing at all local times. We used the retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles to compile climatologies that are a function of pressure, a horizontal coordinate (latitude or equivalent latitude), and a temporal coordinate (solar zenith angle or local solar time). The main product presented are climatologies with a high resolution of the temporal coordinate (diurnal variation climatologies). In addition, we provide climatologies with a high resolution of the horizontal coordinate (zonal climatologies).The diurnal variation climatologies are based on data periods of 2 months and the zonal climatologies on monthly data periods. Consideration of the SMILES time-space sampling patterns with respect to the averaging coordinates is a key issue for climatology creation, especially in case of diurnal variation climatologies. Biases induced by inhomogeneous sampling are minimized by carefully choosing the size of averaging bins. The sampling biases of the diurnal variation climatology of ClO and BrO are investigated in a comparison of homogeneously sampled model data versus SMILES-sampled model data from the stratospheric Lagrangian chemistry and transport model Alfred Wegener Institute Lagrangian Chemisrty/Transport System. In most cases, the relative sampling error is in the range of 0-20%. The strongest impact of sampling biases is found where the species' temporal gradients are strongest (mostly at sunrise and sunset

  7. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German scientific and technological cooperation project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 3-times the carbon within the atmosphere. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, a 4.5 million Euro project for scientific and technological cooperation, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and

  8. Retrospect on the tsunami simulation efforts for the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2005, the GITEWS project (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) established from scratch a fully operational tsunami warning system at BMKG in Jakarta. GITEWS was succeeded in 2011 by the smaller project PROTECTS for training the Indonesian staff and consolidating the technical system. With the official end in March 2014, it is time to draw a balance and evaluate the approach. This presentation focuses on the contribution of the tsunami modelling group at the Alfred Wegener Institute. We will give a short overview on the developments of the numerical tsunami simulation model TsunAWI, of the scenario database built with TsunAWI, and of the simulation module SIM that interfaces the database to the decision support system. Some distinctive experiences will be highlighted. Topics include the modeling part as well as the matching process after the database is already set up. On the modeling side, unstructured mesh generation with focus on local bathymetric features and inclusion of precise coastline position as well as numerical parametrization and post processing are covered. The matching of pre calculated scenarios with incoming data in case of a tsunamigenic earthquake is performed in the simulation system SIM, which processes the data of multiple sensors and employs various metrics to limit the choice of possible scenarios from the database. One challenge was that the development of the matching algorithm had to start without having access to real sensor data except seismic information on epicenter and magnitude. Therefore, the algorithm is designed with robustness in mind. Still, the conservative approach allows to narrow down the scenario selection even with limited sensor information. Given more experience in the typical behaviour of sensor data in real events, the algorithm parameters can easily be calibrated towards a more restrictive scenario selection. Another challenge was to ensure the quality control of the data products derived from

  9. From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2011-06-30

    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. However, the evolution of phenotypic features is not predictable, and biologists no longer use terms such as "primitive" or "perfect organisms". Despite these insights, the Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae, i.e., the idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists until ca. 1850 (Charles Bonnet, Jean Lamarck and others). Charles Darwin is usually credited with the establishment of a branched evolutionary "Tree of Life". This insight of 1859 was based on his now firmly corroborated proposals of common ancestry and natural selection. In this article I argue that Darwin was still influenced by "ladder thinking", a theological view that prevailed throughout the 19th century and is also part of Ernst Haeckel's famous Oak tree (of Life) of 1866, which is, like Darwin's scheme, static. In 1910, Constantin Mereschkowsky proposed an alternative, "anti-selectionist" concept of biological evolution, which became known as the symbiogenesis-theory. According to the symbiogenesis-scenario, eukaryotic cells evolved on a static Earth from archaic prokaryotes via the fusion and subsequent cooperation of certain microbes. In 1929, Alfred Wegener published his theory of continental drift, which was later corroborated, modified and extended. The resulting theory of plate tectonics is now the principal organizing concept of geology. Over millions of years, plate tectonics and hence the "dynamic Earth" has caused destructive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. At the same time, it created mountain ranges, deep oceans, novel freshwater habitats, and deserts. As a result, these geologic processes destroyed numerous

  10. A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik; Savstrup Kristensen, Steen; Mayer, Christoph; Morlighem, Mathieu; Steinhage, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    /NSF), and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). For the Antarctic ice sheet/ice shelves, RTopo-2 largely relies on the Bedmap-2 product but applies corrections for the geometry of Getz, Abbot, and Fimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available in full and in regional subsets in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.856844.

  11. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  12. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    infancy, the initial methodologies and protocols will undoubtedly continue to need further development and regular revision - making continued collaboration and communication between the polar and space communities mutually beneficial and advisable. NRC Study Committee members: 1 John E. Hobbie (Chair), Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts; 2 Amy Baker, Technical Administrative Services, Littleton, Colorado; 3 Garry Clarke, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 4 Peter T. Doran, University of Illinois at Chicago, Earth and Environmental Sciences; 5 David Karl, University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Honolulu; 6 Barbara Methé, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland; 7 Heinz Miller, Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany; 8 Samuel B. Mukasa, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; 9 Margaret Race, SETI Institute, Mountain View, California; 10 Warwick Vincent, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; 11 David Walton, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 12 James White, University of Colorado, Boulder, 13 Maria Uhle (Study Director), National Research Council.

  13. Development and First Results of a new Airplane Based Fixed Wing Electromagnetic Induction Sea Ice Thickness Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenstein, L.; Lobach, J.; Haas, C.

    2007-12-01

    Regular observation of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice thickness is of high importance for a better understanding of processes of climate change in polar regions. For regular and accurate observations of polar sea ice thickness a long range airborne device is necessary. Airborne electromagnetic induction (AEM) sounding was found to be an ideal method for accurate and wide area sea ice thickness measurements. As a consequence of five years of successful helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) sea ice thickness measurements and to overcome helicopter range restrictions, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) constructed a new airplane based fixed wing EM system. The first test flights were carried out in 2006 over the North Sea and in April 2007 in Svalbard, where the system's performance was proven under arctic conditions. The system operates in frequency domain with 1990 Hz and a vertical coplanar coil configuration. Thus the system produces a horizontal dipole. The coils are mounted beneath the wings with a separation of 11.6 meters. The airplane, a Dornier 228, is also equipped with a laser altimeter to determine the altitude of the instrument with an accuracy of 2cm. The compensation of the transmitter signal at the receiver coil is done electronically. Flights over open sea are used for the calibration of the system, because the ocean functions as a homogeneous half space with well known conductivity. A data acquisition computer records four voltages with a sample rate of 10 Hz. These are the reference voltage of the transmitter, the compensated and raw receiver voltages and the compensation signal. The laser height is recorded with a sample rate of 100 Hz to account for surface roughness. EM instruments for sea ice thickness sounding should have a vertical resolution of 10cm but due to the electrical noise caused by the airplane engines this was not easy to achieve. To account for the noise a time average filter is used. Alternatively, in order to keep the original

  14. Seabed images from Southern Ocean shelf regions off the northern Antarctic Peninsula and in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepenburg, Dieter; Buschmann, Alexander; Driemel, Amelie; Grobe, Hannes; Gutt, Julian; Schumacher, Stefanie; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in underwater imaging technology allow for the gathering of invaluable scientific information on seafloor ecosystems, such as direct in situ views of seabed habitats and quantitative data on the composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of epibenthic fauna. The imaging approach has been extensively used within the research project DynAMo (Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems) at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI), which aimed to comparatively assess the pace and quality of the dynamics of Southern Ocean benthos. Within this framework, epibenthic spatial distribution patterns have been comparatively investigated in two regions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the shelf areas off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, representing a region with above-average warming of surface waters and sea-ice reduction, and the shelves of the eastern Weddell Sea as an example of a stable high-Antarctic marine environment that is not (yet) affected by climate change. The AWI Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery during two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. Here, we report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. During PS81, OFOS was successfully deployed at a total of 31 stations at water depths between 29 and 784 m. At most stations, series of 500 to 530 pictures ( > 15 000 in total, each depicting a seabed area of approximately 3.45 m2 or 2.3 × 1.5 m) were taken along transects approximately 3.7 km in length. During PS96, OFOS was used at a total of 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 754 m, yielding series of 110 to 293 photos (2670 in total) along transects 0.9 to 2.6 km in length. All seabed images taken during the two cruises

  15. PANGAEA® - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science - Research data enters scholarly communication and big data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Riedel, Morris; Huber, Robert

    2014-05-01

    and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (more than 160 International to national projects since the last 15 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  16. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  17. The IAOOS arctic network project, status and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelon, J.; Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Calzas, M.; Blouzon, F.; Gascard, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    intensive tests were very timely. The first IAOOS array deployment will start in August 2015 from R/V Araon during the Korean cruise organized by the KOPRI in the Canadian Basin and from R/V Polarstern during the German cruise TRANSARC II organized by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Eurasian Basin. First results obtained in the frame of IAOOS will be presented and discussed.

  18. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  19. Characterization of Transport Regimes and the Polar Dome During NETCARE 2014 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Franziska, Koellner; Daniel, Kunkel; Johannes, Schneider; Andreas, Herber; Richard, Leaitch; Megan, Willis; Julia, Burkart; Jennie, Thomas; Jon, Abbatt

    2017-04-01

    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from Spitsbergen to Alaska (134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N). Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic during spring (NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). During the summer two different meteorological regimes over the course of the measurements in July are observed. The first part of the campaign (4.-12.7.2014) was dominated by a high pressure area over Resolute Bay with weak northerly flow whereas a cyclonic regime was prevalent during the second phase (17.-21.7.2014). During the first part of the campaign only 15% of trajectory origins were located south of the Arctic circle (66.5°N). This fraction increases to 55% during the second period with the North American continent being the dominant source region of the air masses. Especially the influence of active biomass burning in the Northwestern Territories alters the composition of the lower Arctic troposphere resulting in an increase of mean CO mixing ratios from 78 ppbv for the first period to 95.0 ppbv for the second period. In spring 2015 the origin of air masses shows a strong dependence on the measurement region. Alert (35% of trajectories originate south of Arctic circle) and Eureka (35%) are more isolated from mid-latitudinal influence compared to Longyearbyen (70%) and Inuvik (96%). This suggests the transport barrier known as the "polar dome" preventing mid-latitude air masses to penetrate the high Arctic lower troposphere. Based on the distribution of CO and CO2 and the back trajectories we identify the effect of the transport barrier associated with the "polar dome" on the composition of the air masses.

  20. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  1. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Climate Research / CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR), Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia, (5) MetAir AG, 6313 Menzingen, Switzerland, (6) Svertsov Institute for Evolutionary and Ecological Problems (IPEE), 117071 Moscow, Russia, (7) Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany, (8) Environment Canada, Climate Research Division / CCMR, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada, (9) Cherskii, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia

  2. A three-dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne Sun photometer observations: PAM-ARCMIP, April 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. S.; Herber, A.; Vitale, V.; Mazzola, M.; Lupi, A.; Schnell, R. C.; Dutton, E. G.; Liu, P. S. K.; Li, S.-M.; Dethloff, K.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Neuber, R.; Maturilli, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Arctic climate is modulated, in part, by atmospheric aerosols that affect the distribution of radiant energy passing through the atmosphere. Aerosols affect the surface-atmosphere radiation balance directly through interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and indirectly through interactions with cloud particles. Better quantification of the radiative forcing by different types of aerosol is needed to improve predictions of future climate. During April 2009, the airborne campaign Pan-Arctic Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (PAM-ARCMIP) was conducted. The mission was organized by Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research of Germany and utilized their research aircraft, Polar-5. The goal was to obtain a snapshot of surface and atmospheric conditions over the central Arctic prior to the onset of the melt season. Characterizing aerosols was one objective of the campaign. Standard Sun photometric procedures were adopted to quantify aerosol optical depth AOD, providing a three-dimensional view of the aerosol, which was primarily haze from anthropogenic sources. Independent, in situ measurements of particle size distribution and light extinction, derived from airborne lidar, are used to corroborate inferences made using the AOD results. During April 2009, from the European to the Alaskan Arctic, from sub-Arctic latitudes to near the pole, the atmosphere was variably hazy with total column AOD at 500 nm ranging from ˜0.12 to >0.35, values that are anomalously high compared with previous years. The haze, transported primarily from Eurasian industrial regions, was concentrated within and just above the surface-based temperature inversion layer. Extinction, as measured using an onboard lidar system, was also greatest at low levels, where particles tended to be slightly larger than at upper levels. Black carbon (BC) (soot) was observed at all levels sampled, but at moderate to low concentrations compared with

  3. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching

  4. Insights into aerosols, chemistry, and clouds from NETCARE: Observations from the Canadian Arctic in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (or NETCARE) was established in 2013 to study the interactions between aerosols, chemistry, clouds and climate. The network brings together Canadian academic and government researchers, along with key international collaborators. Attention is being given to observations and modeling of Arctic aerosol, with the goal to understand underlying processes and so improve predictions of aerosol climate forcing. Motivation to understand the summer Arctic atmosphere comes from the retreat of summer sea ice and associated increase in marine influence. To address these goals, a suite of measurements was conducted from two platforms in summer 2014 in the Canadian Arctic, i.e. an aircraft-based campaign on the Alfred Wegener Institute POLAR 6 and an ocean-based campaign from the CGCS Amundsen icebreaker. NETCARE-POLAR was based out of Resolute Bay, Nunavut during an initial period of little transport and cloud-free conditions and a later period characterized by more transport with potentially biomass burning influence. Measurements included particle and cloud droplet numbers and size distributions, aerosol composition, cloud nuclei, and levels of gaseous tracers. Ultrafine particle events were more frequently observed in the marine boundary layer than above, with particle growth observed in some cases to cloud condensation nucleus sizes. The influence of biological processes on atmospheric constituents was also assessed from the ship during NETCARE-AMUNDSEN, as indicated by high measured levels of gaseous ammonia, DMS and oxygenated VOCs, as well as isolated particle formation and growth episodes. The cruise took place in Baffin Bay and through the Canadian archipelago. Interpretation of the observations from both campaigns is enhanced through the use of chemical transport and particle dispersion models. This talk will provide an overview of NETCARE Arctic observational and

  5. Nereid Under Ice (NUI): A Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle for Under Ice Telepresence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakuba, M.; Bowen, A.; German, C. R.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D.; Mayer, L.; McFarland, C.; Suman, S.; Bailey, J.; Judge, C.; Elliott, S.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Machado, C.; Taylor, C. L.; Katlein, C.; Arndt, S.; Singh, H.; Maksym, T.; Laney, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Boetius, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Nereid Under Ice (NUI) Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle (HROV) is a 2000 m rated robotic underwater vehicle that allows for direct real-time human supervision of mapping, inspection, and intervention tasks beneath ice and unconstrained by the motions of a support vessel. The vehicle employs a unique unarmored communications only fiber-optic tether that enables putative standoff distances of up to 20 km from an ice-edge boundary while under direct human control. Designed and built at WHOI's Deep Submergence Laboratory, along with colleagues at Johns Hopkins University and the University of New Hampshire, NUI enables exploration, detailed examination, and sample retrieval from ice-margin and under-ice environments through the use of high-definition video coupled with a seven-function hydraulic manipulator in addition to a range of acoustic, chemical, and biological sensors tailored to suit the needs of an individual expedition. We summarize the technological and scientific outcomes of under ice sea trials in the High Arctic and capability enhancements undertaken since the successful completion of trials. In July, 2014, NUI successfully completed its first under-ice field expedition from aboard the Alfred Wegener Institute's ice-breaker Polarstern. In addition to conducting engineering trials, the vehicle was equipped with various mission-specific biological sensors for studying near-ice primary productivity - a comprehensive pumped fluorometry system SUNA nitrate, Eco Triplet FL/BB/CDOM, SBE25+ CTD, FRRF, PAR), hyperspectral radiance and irradiance sensors (RAMSES ACC, ARC). We present an overview of results from four dives traveling up to 3.7 km under moving sea ice to a maximum depth of 45 m and ranging up to 800 m distant from Polarstern. We also report continued development aimed at enhancing NUI's capabilities. During the 2014 trials the vehicle was not equipped with a manipulator for sample retrieval. Funding has been secured and design studies are

  6. The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, M.; Rex, M.; Dethloff, K.; Shupe, M.; Sommerfeld, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) is a key international flagship initiative under the auspices of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The main aim of MOSAiC is to improve our understanding of the functioning of the Arctic coupled system with a complex interplay between processes in the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem coupled through bio-geochemical interactions. The main objective of MOSAiC is to develop a better understanding of these important coupled-system processes so they can be more accurately represented in regional- and global-scale weather- and climate models. Observations covering a full annual cycle over the Arctic Ocean of many critical parameters such as cloud properties, surface energy fluxes, atmospheric aerosols, small-scale sea-ice and oceanic processes, biological feedbacks with the sea-ice ice and ocean, and others have never been made in the central Arctic in all seasons, and certainly not in a coupled system fashion. The main scientific goals focus on data assimilation for numerical weather prediction models, improved sea ice forecasts and climate models, ground truth for satellite remote sensing, energy budget and fluxes through interfaces, sources, sinks and cycles of chemical species, boundary layer processes, habitat conditions and primary productivity and stakeholder services. The MOSAiC Observatory will be deployed in, and drift with, the Arctic sea-ice pack for a full annual cycle, starting in fall 2019 and ending in fall 2020. Initial drift plans are to start in the newly forming fall sea-ice in the East Siberian Sea and follow the Transpolar Drift. The German Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research will made a huge contribution with the icebreaker Polarstern to serve as the central drifting observatory for this year long drift, and the US Department of Energy has committed a comprehensive atmospheric measurement suite. Many other

  7. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  8. Ice-tethered measurement platforms in the Arctic Ocean: a contribution by the FRAM infrastructure program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Katlein, Christian; Scholz, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been in the focus of many studies during recent years, investigating the state, the causes and the implications of the observed rapid transition towards a thinner and younger sea-ice cover. However, consistent observational datasets of sea ice, ocean and atmosphere are still sparse due to the limited accessibility and harsh environmental conditions. One important tool to fill this gap has become more and more feasible during recent years: autonomous, ice-tethered measurement platforms (buoys). These drifting instruments independently transmit their data via satellites, and enable observations over larger areas and over longer time periods than manned expeditions, even throughout the winter. One aim of the newly established FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) infrastructure program at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute is to realize and maintain an interdisciplinary network of buoys in the Arctic Ocean, contributing to an integrated, Arctic-wide observatory. The additional buoy infrastructure, ship-time, and developments provided by FRAM are critical elements in the ongoing international effort to fill the large data gaps in a rapidly changing Arctic Ocean. Our focus is the particularly underrepresented Eurasian Basin. Types of instruments range from snow depth beacons and ice mass balance buoys for monitoring ice growth and snow accumulation, over radiation and weather stations for energy budget estimates, to ice-tethered profiling systems for upper ocean monitoring. Further, development of new bio-optical and biogeochemical buoys is expected to enhance our understanding of bio-physical processes associated with Arctic sea ice. The first set of FRAM buoys was deployed in September 2015 from RV Polarstern. All datasets are publicly available on dedicated web portals. Near real time data are reported into international initiatives, such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). The

  9. Topographic effect in marine magnetotelluric data and implications to the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle beneath the Tristan da Cunha hotspot area in southern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, K.; Chen, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Utada, H.; Kammann, J.; Geissler, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Kiyoshi Baba1,2, Jin Chen2, Marion Jegen2, Hisashi Utada1, Janina Kammann3, and Wolfram H. Geissler4 1. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo2. GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel3. University of Hamburg4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchTristan da Cunha Island is one of the hot spots in the Atlantic Ocean. The discussion about its source have not reached consensus yet whether it is in shallow asthenosphere or deeper mantle, because of lack of the geophysical observations in the area. A marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted together with seismological observations in the area in 2012-2013 by collaboration between Germany and Japan, in order to give further constraints on the physical state of the mantle beneath the area. A total of 26 seafloor stations were deployed around the Tristan da Cunha islands and available data were retrieved from 23 stations. The MT responses were estimated for those available sites. The detailed data processing will be presented by Chen et al. in this meeting. In this study, we report on the topographic effect on the observed MT responses. During the cruises for seafloor instruments deployment and recovery, detailed bathymetry data were collected around the stations by onboard multi-narrow beam echo sounding (MBES) system. We compiled the MBES data and ETOPO1 data to incorporate the local and regional topography. Then, we applied iterative topographic effect correction and one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity structure inversion. The MT responses of each station were simulated by three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling. Preliminary results show the overall feature of the observed MT responses at some stations were qualitatively well explained by the seafloor topography included in the conductivity structure model over the 1-D mantle structure. An extreme example is the station near the Tristan da Cunha Island. The impedance phases varies ~300 degrees in

  10. Improvement to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO): Updating the Data Base and the Grid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.

    2001-12-01

    The project to develop the IBCAO grid model was initiated in 1997 with the objective of providing to the Arctic research community an improved portrayal of the seabed north of 64-deg N, in a form suitable for digital manipulation and visualization. The model was constructed from a compilation of all single-beam and multibeam echo soundings that were available for the polar region, complemented where appropriate by newly released contour information. The grid features a cell size of 2.5 x 2.5 km on a polar stereographic projection; it is constructed on the WGS 84 datum, with true scale at 75-deg N. Designated the Beta Version, a preliminary implementation of IBCAO was introduced to the geophysical community in December 1999, and released four months later as a digital grid that could be downloaded from a project website hosted by the National Geophysical Data Center in Boulder, CO. Since that release, the Beta Version has seen widespread use in Earth Science applications, with the website continuing to garner between 500 and 1000 visitors per week; this reportedly makes it one of the most heavily-visited of all NGDC websites. IBCAO has since been updated with the development of Version 1.0, which incorporates new information and formats, along with an expanded range of bathymetric products that will be released for public use through the same project website. Improvements include corrections to errors that were identified off Svalbard, in Canada Basin, and in Barrow Strait, as well as contributions of significant new data sets that were collected by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the Alfred Wegener Institute off Norway and Svalbard, in Fram Strait, and over the Lomonosov Ridge. In addition, the portrayal of the Alaskan landmass was enhanced with a new topographic model extracted from NGDC's GLOBE data set. New formats include downloadable Cartesian grids that can be imported directly into ArcInfo and Intergraph's module Terrain Analyst. A geographic grid

  11. Earth System Science - Bridging the gaps between disciplines; Perspectives from a multi-disciplinary Helmholtz Research School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bracher, Astrid; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Unnithan, Vikram; Buschmann, Matthias; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Notholt, Justus

    2015-04-01

    Post-graduate education in Germany has changed a lot over the past decades. Formerly, PhD students generally did not have the option to attend formal classes and lectures and were expected to conduct their independent research, including occasionally teaching courses for students. Since the introduction of bachelor and masters studies with the Bologna Process in the late 90th, the higher education in Europe has been harmonized, leading to more structured and focused studies at the expense of a broad and universal disciplinary education. At this same time, special fields such as Earth System Science became more interdisciplinary. In consequence, universities and research institutes have established so-called research schools and/or graduate schools, offering specific courses and training alongside the doctorate. Especially, Earth System Science has developed from an interesting concept in Earth Sciences education to a fully integrative Science focussed on understanding the complex system Earth. This evolution is partially due to the radical and far reaching anthropogenic changes and the general feeling of helplessness with regards to the possible consequences and future impacts on the Earth System. The Helmholtz "Earth System Science Research School" (ESSReS) is a small unit of PhD students co-organized by three educational and research institutions in the city state Bremen: University of Bremen (Institute for Environmental Physics, IUP), Jacobs University (School of Engineering and Science (JU)), and Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven (AWI). ESSReS aims at the integration of research at the interface of Geology, Biology, Physics, Geophysics, Mathematics and Informatics. It is therefore multi- and interdisciplinary in every aspect. The training, curriculum, and PhD research subjects are closely located at the interfaces between the participating disciplines. This is guaranteed by interdisciplinary supervision of

  12. Numerical Aspects of Nonhydrostatic Implementations Applied to a Parallel Finite Element Tsunami Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, A.; Androsov, A.; Harig, S.; Hiller, W.; Rakowsky, N.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the jeopardy of devastating tsunamis and the unpredictability of such events, tsunami modelling as part of warning systems is still a contemporary topic. The tsunami group of Alfred Wegener Institute developed the simulation tool TsunAWI as contribution to the Early Warning System in Indonesia. Although the precomputed scenarios for this purpose qualify for satisfying deliverables, the study of further improvements continues. While TsunAWI is governed by the Shallow Water Equations, an extension of the model is based on a nonhydrostatic approach. At the arrival of a tsunami wave in coastal regions with rough bathymetry, the term containing the nonhydrostatic part of pressure, that is neglected in the original hydrostatic model, gains in importance. In consideration of this term, a better approximation of the wave is expected. Differences of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic model results are contrasted in the standard benchmark problem of a solitary wave runup on a plane beach. The observation data provided by Titov and Synolakis (1995) serves as reference. The nonhydrostatic approach implies a set of equations that are similar to the Shallow Water Equations, so the variation of the code can be implemented on top. However, this additional routines cause a lot of issues you have to cope with. So far the computations of the model were purely explicit. In the nonhydrostatic version the determination of an additional unknown and the solution of a large sparse system of linear equations is necessary. The latter constitutes the lion's share of computing time and memory requirement. Since the corresponding matrix is only symmetric in structure and not in values, an iterative Krylov Subspace Method is used, in particular the restarted Generalized Minimal Residual Algorithm GMRES(m). With regard to optimization, we present a comparison of several combinations of sequential and parallel preconditioning techniques respective number of iterations and setup

  13. Analysis and Forecast of Two Storms Characterized by Extreme Deepening Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, Oreste; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Between 25 and 27 December 1999 two very intense cyclones, named Lothar and Martin, swept across northern and western France causing substantial life and property loss. In this work, the finite volume general circulation model and data assimilation system (fvDAS) developed at the Data Assimilation Office of the NASA Goddard Space and Flight Center is being used to investigate these storms. In the first part of this article the dynamics of the storms is analyzed, and some important mechanisms are unveiled. The second part describes a set of eleven data assimilation experiments to study the impact of different data types on the automated analyses. Cloud-track winds provided by EUMETSAT and surface winds from QuikSCAT are being used. These data are assimilated with a range of different parameter settings of the forecast error covariance model. The results show that generally the additional wind data set have positive impacts on the analyses: particularly, the analysis of Lothar can be slightly improved by using the Eumetsat winds, and the analysis of Martin can be strongly improved by using the full-resolution QuikSCAT winds with a more localized influence. The third part of this article is focused on the forecast of Lothar which is very well predicted in the 1-5 day range by the fvDAS system.

  14. CONARC Training Workshop, Fort Gordon, Georgia 5-7 October 1971. Volume VI. Quality Control Specialty Workshop.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-01

    Bliss, Texas W. James Popham credits Alfred Binet with launching what is now known as norm-referenced testing, but it is perhaps more significant that...Speciality Workshop Summary . . . . . . . . . .... VI-2 3. Speciality Workshop Schedule . . . . ........ V1-5 4. Biographic Sketch - Dr. Alfred S. Drew...Army Adjutant General School Mr. Earl Carr US Army South- eastern Signal School Dr. Alfred A. Drew Purdue University Lafayette, Indiana VI-l EXEaCTIVE

  15. Interwar Period Leavenworth Student Papers: Perceptions of Airpower and Implications Regarding Effectiveness of the Leavenworth Schools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    Report of the Chief of Air Service, AEF,” Sir Alfred Rawlinson’s The Defence of London, Charles Turner’s The Struggle in the Air, Liman von...DC: Government Printing Office, 1978); Alfred Rawlinson, The Defence of London 1915-1918 (London: Andrew Melrose, 1924); Charles C. Turner, The...by Alfred Rawlinson, chronicled the efforts to defend London from air attack.7 Another common reference is Charles Turner’s The Struggle in the Air

  16. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Human Factors Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Lindsay, Cory Overby, Angela Jeter, Petra E. Alfred , Gary L. Boykin, Carita DeVilbiss, and Raymond Bateman ARL-TN-0440 July 2011...Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Human Factors Assessment Valerie J. Rice, Petra E. Alfred , Gary L. Boykin...Angela Jeter*, Petra E. Alfred , Gary L. Boykin, Carita DeVilbiss, and Raymond Bateman 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  17. Terrestrial Ice Sheets: Studies of Climate History, Internal Structure, Surface, and Bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsteinsson, Th.; Kipfstuhl, J.; Nixdorf, U.; Oerter, H.; Miller, H.; Fritsche, D.; Jung-Rothenhaeusler, F.; Mayer, C.; Schwager, M.; Wilhelms, F.; Steinhage, D.; Goektas, F.

    1998-01-01

    Recently drilled deep ice cores from Central Greenland (GRIP and GISP2) provide the most detailed results available on climatic variation in the northern hemisphere during the last 100,000 years, a period that includes the Holocene (0-11.5 ka) and most of the Wisconsin glacial period. Summer-winter variation in various physical and chemical properties of polar ice allows dating of ice cores by annual layer counting. Several such methods are currently being employed on an ice core drilled by the new North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP), which is aimed at extending the Greenland ice palaeoclimatic record through the last interglacial, the Eemian. Two examples will be presented: (1) visual and photographic studies of seasonal variation in stratigraphic layering, crystal size, air bubble and clathrate concentration, and (2) studies of electric stratigraphy, using the method of dielectric profiling (DEP). This method records the AC conductivity of ice cores, which is negatively correlated with the concentration of airborne dust in the ice but positively correlated with volcanic and marine aerosols. Comprehensive surface traverse programs, which include shallow coring and ice velocity measurements, have recently been carried out by the Alfred Wegener Institute in previously little-investigated regions of Greenland and Antarctica. Serving partly as reconnaissance prior to deep drilling projects, such studies also help to reduce considerable uncertainties in the mass balance of the two large polar ice sheets and thus in their estimated response to climate change. Main results of a recent traverse in North Greenland include the following: (1) A new map of the accumulation distribution on the ice sheet indicates a large low-accumulation region in Northeast-Greenland; (2) North Greenland records show significantly greater climatic variability during the last 500 yr than corresponding records from the southern part of the ice sheet; and (3) data on variation in

  18. 77 FR 18259 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Grove, Shaw, Alfred, Magnolia, Kingshighway, & Vandeventer Aves., St. Louis (Independent City), 12000207... Junction Historic District, Roughly bounded by W. Berkley St., Roberts, Germantown, & Wayne Aves...

  19. 41. PENCIL DRAWING OF SELECTED DESIGN Drawn by project architect ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PENCIL DRAWING OF SELECTED DESIGN Drawn by project architect Alfred Eichler, undated. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. The Resolution of a Completely Inorganic Coordination Compound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Takaji; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a technique used by Alfred Werner to resolve inorganic coordination compounds. The materials, procedures and analysis necessary for undergraduates to repeat this procedure are described. (CW)