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Sample records for alfred wegener 1880-1930

  1. Wegener, Alfred Lothar (1880-1930)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German climatologist and geophysicist who suggested the phenomena of continental drift and plate tectonics. His idea was that a super-continent he called Pangaea had broken up, the pieces drifting to their present positions. His evidence was the fit of South America and Africa, and similarities in climate, fossil record and geology across the join. His path had been prepared by ALEXANDER VON HUMB...

  2. Greenland Expeditions by Alfred Wegener - A photographic window to past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M.; Tschürtz, S.; Kirchengast, G.; Kranzelbinder, H.; Prügger, B.; Krause, R. A.; Kalliokoski, M.; Thórhallsdóttir, E.

    2012-04-01

    On several expeditions to Greenland, Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) took pictures on glass plates from landscapes and glaciers, the expedition equipment, the people and animals taking part on the expeditions as well as physical phenomena as dust storm, clouds or spherical light phenomena. Chronologically the plates show the Danmark Expedition 1906-1908, the crossing of Greenland expedition with stop in Iceland 1912-1913, and the German Greenland Expedition 1929-1930. Until the tragic end of the expedition in 1930, Wegener was professor at the University of Graz, and such a stock of about 300 glass plates stayed there. The aim of our work is to digitize all plates for further studies. We present a first selection of Wegener's Greenland expedition pictures. For those made at Iceland in 1912 we will present a comparison of the past with pictures from the same viewing point made in 2011.

  3. Tracing the origin of Geodynamics: The Alfred Wegener Memorial Expedition 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    2012 marked the 100st anniversary of the seminal publications on Continental Drift Theory by Alfred Wegener. These publications (and Wegener's book "On the origin of the continents", published three years later) are widely accepted to be the fundamental breakthrough that opened the path to the Theory of Plate Tectoncis and ultimately the path to modern Geodynamics some 50 years later. In the same historic year of the 1912 publications, Alfred Wegener set off for what was to become the most dramatic of his three Greenland expeditions. On this expedition Wegener and Koch crossed the entire northern icecap of Greenland. In honour of the hundreds anniversary of Wegener's publications, the Austrian Academy of Sciences funded an expedition to trace the footsteps of the 1912 expedition in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, while also conducting modern Earth Science. This expedition that was conducted in summer 2014. For the expedition, a 1952 Cessna180 was acquired in Alaska, adapted with bush wheels, wing extensions and extra tanks and was flown by the author and one of the worlds most renown bush pilots from Alaska in a 10 day effort to Greenland. There, the entire NE Greenland Caledonides were covered and photographed. Field work for a masters projects was conducted and samples were collected from a series of some of the most remote locations in the Caledonides ever visited. Most spectacularly, the original sled of Wegeners 1912 expedition was found some 30 kilometers from its expected location in the Dove Bugt Region of northeastern Greenland.

  4. [The demographic and occupational characteristics of Italian migrants to Argentina, 1880-1930].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1984-09-01

    "This essay studies...the demographic and socio-professional characteristics of the Italian emigrants in Argentina during the period 1880-1930. Besides a reconstruction of the demographic variables (age, sex, mortality, and fertility) in the historical series, the essay also depicts the professional profile of the Italians in Argentina...." (summary in ENG, FRE)

  5. [Wegener and Wegener's disease].

    PubMed

    Knuistingh Neven, Arie

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the history and significance of the eponym 'Wegener'. After the American College of Chest Physicians awarded Wegener with the Master Clinician Award, discussion about his Nazi past arose. Should the eponym 'Wegener' be maintained?

  6. Alfred Gilman.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, K

    2001-08-01

    At the age of 10, Alfred Gilman wanted to go to the moon; on a visit to New York's Hayden Planetarium with his parents, he signed up to be an astronaut. Fifty years later, Gilman is preparing to take on a different, yet equally astronomical task. Instead of traveling to outer space, he is heading up a research program to detail the workings of cellular space.

  7. Indolent Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, D G; Bourne, J T; Dieppe, P A; Easty, D L

    1983-01-01

    Classical Wegener's granulomatosis is a relentlessly progressive and rapidly fatal disease. A pulmonary 'limited form' is associated with a much better prognosis. We report 3 cases of Wegener's granulomatosis which ran a prolonged indolent course despite major manifestations outside the lower respiratory tract and review the literature on survival. Images PMID:6882035

  8. The Wegener Memorial Expedition to the Greenland Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Piller, Werner

    2014-05-01

    2012 marked the 100 anniversary of the publication of Alfred Wegeners book: 'Die Entstehung der Kontinente' - which is often hailed as the discovery of continental drift theory in the advent of plate tectonics. Wegener was later appointed as professor for geophysics at the University of Graz in Austria - in part for this discovery. He held this position until his death in Greenland in 1930. In honor of the hundredth anniversary of the 1912 milestone publication, the University of Graz in Austria stages an expedition to Greenland in the spirit of Alfred Wegener, supported by the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The expedition aims predominantly to unravel secrets of the Caledonides of Northeastern Greenland using an extensive sampling program to some of the least explored corners of the orogenic belt. Particular emphasis will be placed on the Hager Bjerg allochthon and its relationship to the hanging wall and footwall units. The expedition will use the unparalleled flexibility of small aircraft that will be piloted by experienced Alaskan bush pilots and brought to Greenland from Alaska for this purpose.

  9. ENT manifestations of Wegeners granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpit; Deshmukh, Shraddha; Dabholkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis with multisystemic involvement. We present two cases of Wegener's presenting with otological manifestations as the first symptom. These symptoms are subtle and diagnosis may be easily overlooked. Hence a high index of suspicion is required. Early diagnosis and treatment goes a long way in improving the outcomes and in preventing further complications.

  10. The Canonical Alfred Hitchcock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Hitchcock is a major figure of popular culture. He was one of the founding fathers of the cinematic art and, together with Eisenstein and Murnau, helped define its visual language. So fruitful was he that a single film could spawn an entire genre, as "Psycho" helped create the modern horror film and "North by Northwest" the style and tone…

  11. The Other Alfred Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the major contributions of Alfred Binet. Explains why the fame of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale was so long lasting whereas that of his other contributions was so fleeting. Discusses implications of his contributions for current efforts to formulate unified theories of cognition and cognitive development. (Author/GLR)

  12. [Neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Kunihiko; Muto, Tatsuro

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare autoimmune disease associated with granulomatous inflammation and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small vessel vasculitis. Following the discovery of ANCA, ANCA-associated vasculitis is established as a disease entity of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Clinical and experimental studies have provided evidences that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which are major antigenic targets for ANCA in neutrophils, are not only disease markers but also involved in the pathogenesis. In addition, recent studies have revealed another potential antigen for ANCA, lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2). Though nervous system manifestations of Wegener's granulomatosis are less frequent than classical manifestations in the lungs and kidneys, 20-50% of patients demonstrate neurological involvements. Peripheral nervous system involvement (in generalized Wegener's granulomatosis) is more frequent than central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Multiple mononeuropathy and multiple cranial neuropathy are the most prevalent symptoms. CNS manifestations include cerebrovascular events, pachymeningitis, seizures, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Here we discuss the pathogenic mechanism of ANCA and review the literature regarding neurological involvement in Wegener's granulomatosis.

  13. Wegener granulomatosis presenting as epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Miller, D Chris; Koss, Michael N

    2009-06-01

    Isolated epididymitis is a very rare presentation of Wegener granulomatosis (WG). Only 1 such case has been previously reported. We report a case of epididymitis in which WG was not suspected clinically or pathologically at orchiectomy, and the patient subsequently developed pulmonary involvement with WG. WG was ultimately diagnosed and treated after lung biopsy several months after the orchiectomy. The retrospective pathologic review of the orchiectomy specimen confirmed the presence of WG in the epididymis; the testicular tissue was not involved.

  14. Fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Ankur; George, Ajith; Pfleiderer, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 63‐year‐old woman who presented to the emergency department with epistaxis and haemodynamic instability is reported. Subsequent investigation showed renal failure and multiple pulmonary nodules. A positive proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test supported the diagnosis of fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis, requiring urgent dialysis, plasma exchange and immunosuppression. This is the first report in the emergency literature of Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as acute epistaxis. Emergency physicians should consider Wegener's granulomatosis in patients with atypical epistaxis. In patients presenting with clinically severe, active disease early proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody testing is recommended. PMID:17351208

  15. Wegener Granulomatosis: Otologic Manifestation as First Symptom.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla Fabiane da; Polanski, Jose Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Wegener granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels of the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Objective To describe a case of Wegener disease with atypical manifestation. Resumed Report We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss as the primary symptoms, without other manifestations. Conclusion In cases of acute ear manifestations with or without hearing loss and with poor response to usual treatments, Wegener granulomatosis should be included among the possible etiologies. After adequate diagnoses and treatment of this rare disease, there was favorable evolution.

  16. Why turbulence dominates the atmosphere and hydrosphere? (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that in very stable stratifications, at Richardson numbers (Ri) exceeding the critical value Ric ~ 0.25, turbulence inevitably decays and the flow becomes laminar. This is so, indeed, in the low-Reynolds-number (Re) flows, e.g., in some laboratory experiments; but this is by no means always the case. Air flows in the free atmosphere and water currents in deep ocean are almost always turbulent in spite of the strongly supercritical stratifications, with typical values of Ri varying in the interval 10 < Ri < 102. Until recently, this paradox has remained unexplained. We demonstrate that the key mechanism of the seemingly paradoxical self-preservation of the very-high-Re geophysical turbulence as a loop including (i) conversion of the turbulent kinetic unto potential energy and (ii) self-control of the negative (down-gradient) turbulent heat flux through efficient generation of the positive (counter-gradient) heat transfer by the turbulent potential energy (Zilitinkevich et al., 2007, 2008, 2009, 2013). Thanks to this loop, turbulence is maintained in supercritical stratifications and, moreover, at Ri > Ric the familiar 'strong-mixing turbulence' regime, typical of boundary-layer flows and characterised by the practically invariable turbulent Prandtl number PrT ~ 1 (the so-called 'Reynolds analogy'), gives way to a previously unknown 'wave-like turbulence' regime, wherein PrT sharply increases with increasing Ri (rather than to the laminar regime as is often the case in lab experiments). It is precisely the wave-like turbulence that dominates the free flows in the atmosphere and ocean. Modellers have long been aware that the turbulent heat transfer in the free atmosphere/ocean is much weaker than the momentum transfer. Our theory gives authentic formulation for this heuristic rule and provides physically grounded method for modelling geophysical turbulence up to very stable startifications.

  17. The three lost millennia of the last deglaciation (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-01

    Looking back more than thirty years, climate history over the last period of deglaciation was seen to portray a smooth transition between the last glacial maximum (LGM) centered around 18,000 years ago (based on radiocarbon), and the beginning of the Holocene at about 10,000 years before present. At that time, the renowned CLIMAP group used the stratigraphy available to reconstruct the glacial world by averaging paleothermometric data over a wide time window, ranging between at least 14,000 and 24,000 yr BP, over which period climate was assumed to be rather stable. Even if northern European pollen records showed several phases of vegetation shift, the exact duration and spatial coverage of these shifts was unknown and their climatic significance was not well-enough understood to be separated from other biological effects, such as plant migration following ice-sheet demise. Significant progress came from mass spectrometry developments applied to isotope geochronology in the mid- and late- 1980s. This allowed the precise analysis of radiocarbon on small samples such as foraminifera in marine sediments and enabled the measurement of U-Th ages for accurate dating of corals and speleothems. These technological improvements permitted meaningful comparisons between proxy records from the various archives originating from all latitudes and longitudes. Today, it is clear that the old LGM time window corresponds to a period of more than ten millennia during which there was significant climate variability, including a prominent cooling event at the beginning of the deglaciation. This cooling event is known as the 'Oldest Dryas' by palynologists, as 'Heinrich Event #1' (H1) by paleoceanographers, and has even been dubbed the 'Mystery Interval' by prominent authors as they puzzled while attempting to synthesize and interpret its records. The H1 drastic cooling, attributed to a pulse-like injection of ice and meltwater into the North Atlantic, was first evidenced in 1987 in sediments from the Iberian Margin. Three years later, significant improvements of the radiocarbon calibration demonstrated that about three millennia were missing from the deglaciation record. Accordingly, the LGM mean age was pushed from 18,000 to 21,000 yr BP, the midpoint of H1 was shifted from 13,500 to 16,000 yr BP, and the beginning of the Holocene was repositioned at about 11,500 yr BP. This new climate chronology was subsequently confirmed by counting 'cryovarves' within the GRIP and GISP2 Greenland ice cores. These studies have since been complemented by many other records from polar ice, marine and lacustrine sediments and cave speleothems. In addition to extending the chronology by three additional millennia, improvement also arose from the quality of the new geological archives. These archives have allowed studies at much higher resolution than was previously achieved in the framework of CLIMAP, which included many records based on deep-sea cores characterized by low sedimentation rate, and thus very susceptible to smoothing processes such as bioturbation. In addition, analytical geochemistry has only recently provided techniques adapted to the production of high-resolution time series of various proxies based on elemental ratios, on organic compounds or on stable and radiogenic isotopes. More than a dozen years after the H1 discovery, the same Iberian Margin sediments were used to show that H1 comprised at least two phases, H1a and H1b, based on ice rafted debris (IRD) and other proxies. It is now recognized that the entire H1 event (H1 sensu lato) is a three millennia-long period (ca. 17,500 to 14,500 yr BP). To illustrate the progress in this research field, I will review the key records that can be used to document the complex nature of this episode. The H1 (s.l.) included several phases of intense cooling, of precipitation changes - notably at low latitudes and in the Asian monsoon area, of retreat and decay of glacial ice-sheets - as evidenced in sediments collected in river mouths, and of sea-level rise as recorded in corals from Tahiti and Barbados. Various isotopic proxies of deep-sea ventilation have been used to identify variations during the H1 sub-phases of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), indicating that ocean heat transport was involved in the observed climate fluctuations. The various records documenting different climate parameters at many locations over the Earth can also be used in meaningful comparison with numerical model simulations performed in a transient mode. Collectively, these works allow to estimate the phase relationships between the causes (insolation and the greenhouse effect) and the often abrupt responses of the various components of the climate system, such as the atmosphere, oceans and ice sheets. Although these studies concern a naturally-occurring global warming that took place over a long time period, useful parallels will be drawn with the evolution of modern climate. In fact, the phase relationships between forcings (such as greenhouse gases and solar input) and changes in regional and global temperatures are also at the heart of modern global climate change. As for early deglaciation, the ocean can modulate warming regionally, thereby delaying, or even temporarily masking, long-term changes. Climate changes over the last century have been smaller in magnitude than those of the last deglaciation. Fortunately for us, there has been no recent collapse of gigantic ice masses such as the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, most climate models show a 20 to 40% reduction of the MOC during the 21st century. Even if this change exerts only a minor influence on the projected magnitude of global warming, such a slowdown in ocean circulation change is generally sufficient to reduce the simulated warming over the North Atlantic with a resulting impact on adjacent continents, including Europe.

  18. The Complex Physics of Climate Change and Climate Sensitivity: A Grand Unification (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent estimates of climate evolution over the coming century still differ by several degrees. This uncertainty motivates in part the work presented in this lecture. The complex physics of climate change arises from the large number of components of the climate system, as well as from the wealth of processes occurring in each of the components and across them. This complexity has given rise to countless attempts to model each component and process, as well as to two overarching approaches to apprehend the complexity as a whole: deterministically nonlinear and stochastically linear. Call them the Ed Lorenz and the Klaus Hasselmann approach, respectively, for short. We propose a "grand unification" of these two approaches that relies on the theory of random dynamical systems (RDS). In particular, we apply this theory to the problem of climate sensitivity, and study the random attractors of nonlinear, stochastically perturbed systems, as well as the time-dependent probability densities associated with these attractors. The random attractors so obtained are visually spectacular objects that generalize the strange attractors of the Lorenz approach. Results are presented for several simple climate models, from the classical Lorenz convection model to El Nino-Southern Oscillation models. Their attractors carry probability densities with nice physical properties. Implications of these properties for climate predictability on interannual and decadal time scales are discussed. The RDS setting allows one to examine the interaction of internal climate variability with the forcing, whether natural or anthropogenic, and to provide a definition of climate sensitivity that takes into account the climate system's non-equilibrium behavior. Such a definition is of the essence in studying systematically the sensitivity of global climate models (GCMs) to the uncertainties in tens of semi-empirical parameters; it is given here in terms of the response of the appropriate probability densities to changes in the parameters and compared with numerical results for a somewhat simplified GCM. This lecture is the result of recent collaborations with M. D. Chekroun, D. Kondrashov, J. C. McWilliams, J. D. Neelin, E. Simonnet, S. Wang, and I. Zaliapin; more broadly, it represents the fruition of all I learned from tens of Ph. D. students, post-docs and other colleagues over the years.

  19. Tracheal Stenosis Because of Wegener Granulomatosis Misdiagnosed as Asthma.

    PubMed

    O'Hear, Kelley E; Ingrande, Jerry; Brodsky, Jay B; Morton, John M; Sung, Chih-Kwang

    2016-05-15

    We describe a patient with Wegener granulomatosis whose complaint of wheezing was incorrectly attributed to asthma. Anesthesiologists must recognize that tracheal stenosis is extremely common in Wegener granulomatosis and can mimic other causes of wheezing.

  20. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, S N; Shah, V; Dillon, M J

    1998-09-01

    The prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) was studied in 12 children with Wegener's granulomatosis. The serum samples were taken in the active phase of disease and were screened for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence with normal neutrophils and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude neutrophil extract, proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G, lactoferrin, and elastase as antigens. Of these 12 patients, 10 wre positive for ANCA in the active phase of their illness, and they showed a predominantly cytoplasmic ANCA staining pattern on indirect immunofluorescence. There were high titres of ANCA directed against crude neutrophil extract, proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase, and cathepsin G. IgM isotypes occurred as commonly as IgG isotypes. Therefore, screening for ANCA is usually but not invariably positive in children with Wegener's granulomatosis. Specific diagnosis still relies on clinical and pathological features, and the value of ANCA in the diagnosis of paediatric Wegener's granulomatosis requires further study.

  1. Wegener's granulomatosis: current and upcoming therapies

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Carol A

    2003-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a complex multisystem disease that can be associated with morbidity and mortality. The introduction of cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids brought about the potential for long-term survival and provided the opportunity and impetus to explore treatment options that can reduce the toxicity of therapy and lessen the likelihood of relapse. With the growth of knowledge regarding disease pathophysiology and the increasing ability to selectively target the immune system, the potential options for therapeutic investigation have continued to expand. Careful study of new agents through rigorously designed trials is essential to answering questions of safety and efficacy in Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:12823849

  2. Wegener's granulomatosis and autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, D R; Maxwell, A P; Watt, L

    1988-01-01

    We report five cases of Wegener's granulomatosis all of whom had clinical and histological evidence of disease activity at presentation and in whom autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens were detected. This test may prove useful for the diagnosis of this serious condition and help to monitor disease activity during treatment. PMID:3068870

  3. Wegener's granulomatosis of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1990-05-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is an uncommon systemic vasculitis with granuloma formation that has many manifestations in the head and neck. The otolaryngologist may be the first physician called upon to examine such a patient. Although this disease was previously fatal, treatment with cyclophosphamide and steroids has produced response rates of 93%.

  4. Alfred Binet and higher education.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2002-08-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Alfred Binet sought teaching positions at the Collége de France and the Sorbonne. Binet wanted to develop experimental psychology in France, but the strong psychopathological orientation of French psychology blocked his ambition. The 1st part of this article relates the history of the introduction of psychology, via Théodule Ribot, to the Sorbonne and the Collège de France. Ribot's premature retirement from the Collège de France in 1901 triggered a battle that led to Binet's repeated failure to gain access to these institutions of highter education and the success in 1902 of Ribot's students: Pierre Janet at the Collège de France and George Dumas at the Sorbonne.

  5. Paranasal sinus obliteration in Wegener granulomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Roberts, R.L.; Fauci, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The authors report 14 cases of Wegener granulomatosis in which one or more paranasal sinuses were obliterated by bone. The maxillary antra were involved in all cases, with the other sinuses being affected less frequently. These changes are thought to result from chronic bacterial sinusitis superimposed on the granulomatous vasculitic process. Computed tomography dramatically demonstrated the bone changes, consisting of a combination of sinus wall thickening and trabeculated new bone formation within the sinuses.

  6. Alfred Russel Wallace deserves better.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, David; Wimpenny, Julian; Venables, Alfred

    2010-09-01

    During 2009, while we were celebrating Charles Darwin and his The origin of species, sadly, little was said about the critical contribution of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the theory of evolution. Like Darwin, he was a truly remarkable nineteenth century intellect and polymath and, according to a recent book by Roy Davies (The Darwin conspiracy: origins of a scientific crime), he has a stronger claim to the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection than has Darwin. Here we present a critical comparison between the contributions of the two scientists. Sometimes referred to as 'The other beetle-hunter' and largely neglected for many decades, Wallace had a far greater experience of collecting and investigating animals and plants from their native habitats than had Darwin. He was furthermore much more than a pioneer biogeographer and evolutionary theorist, and also made contributions to anthropology, ethnography, geology, land reform and social issues. However, being a more modest, self-deprecating man than Darwin, and lacking the latter's establishment connections, Wallace's contribution to the theory of evolution was not given the recognition it deserved and he was undoubtedly shabbily treated at the time. It is time that Wallace's relationship with Darwin is reconsidered in preparation for 2013, the centenary of Wallace's death, and he should be recognized as at least an equal in the Wallace-Darwin theory of evolution.

  7. [Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Wieteska, Maria; Wawrzyńska, Liliana; Wiatr, Elzbieta; Chabowski, Mariusz; Bestry, Iwona; Kurzyna, Marcin; Torbicki, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic disease of unknown origin characterized by necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that involves primarily the upper and the lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys. A 44-year-old woman presenting with unusual neurological manifestation is reported. The patient with multiple pulmonary round shadows and hilar lymphadenopathy on the chest X-ray pictures, suffered from sudden hemiparesis episode. Computed tomography revealed ischemic stroke focus. A diagnosis of WG was confirmed by histological examination of specimen obtained during open lung biopsy. During the combination chemotherapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide, neurological symptoms decreased and clinical condition significantly improved.

  8. Alfred North Whitehead: Plato's Lost Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Joseph Gerard

    1978-01-01

    The author reminisces about a course, Philosophy 3b at Harvard, taught by Alfred North Whitehead in 1934, where Whitehead moved from meditations on Plato, Epicurus, and Descartes to his own metaphysical speculations. He also discusses other philosophers at Harvard, calling the 1930s the Silver Age of the Harvard Philosophy Department. (KC)

  9. Alfred Hitchcock and the Art of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Draws an interesting and instructive parallel between the work of film director Alfred Hitchcock, a master craftsman and technician, and the process of academic research. Briefly identifies shared qualities of specific concepts clearly communicated: all of the parts serve the whole, and respect for the audience. (MJP)

  10. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  11. The Contributions of Dr. Alfred Gysi.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Rodney D; Engelmeier, Robert L

    2016-11-24

    This article is a historical overview of Dr. Alfred Gysi's contributions to the profession in the areas of denture tooth and articulator design. His understanding of occlusion and mandibular movement resulted in denture tooth designs and occlusal concepts still in widespread use.

  12. Marathon of eponyms: 23 Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Langdon, J; Evans, J

    2012-03-01

    The use of eponyms has long been contentious, but many remain in common use, as discussed elsewhere (Editorial: Oral Diseases. 2009: 15; 185). The use of eponyms in diseases of the head and neck is found mainly in specialties dealing with medically compromised individuals (paediatric dentistry, special care dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine, oral and maxillofacial pathology and oral, oral and maxillofacial radiology and maxillofacial surgery) and particularly by hospital-centred practitioners. This series has selected some of the more recognized relevant eponymous conditions and presents them alphabetically. The information is based largely on data available from MEDLINE and a number of internet websites as noted below: the authors would welcome any corrections. This document summarizes data about Wegener granulomatosis.

  13. [Wegener's granulomatosis with pronounced kidney involvement].

    PubMed

    Heinicke, H J; Hensel, J

    1981-06-01

    It is reported on the course of histologically ascertained Wegeners' granulomatosis in 4 patients. After initial affection of the upper respiratory tract in form of necrotizing and granulomatous inflammations in all cases a generalisation of the disease with above all early and severe participation of the kidneys developed. Maximum acceleration of sedimentation, C-reactive protein, anaemia, leucocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, enlargement of the number of alpha 2-globulins, increase of creatinine, proteinuria, erythrocyturia and leucocyturia are the most frequent pathological laboratory findings, whereas LE-cells, ANF, rheumatoid factor and decrease of the complement never could be proved. By reason of a pathogenic immunoreaction a combined glucocorticoid therapy and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide may favourably influence the course of the disease which is otherwise prognostically infaust.

  14. Colitis: an unusual presentation of Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Joseph Dalby; Matthews, Paul; Fletcher, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) also known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive (ANCA) vasculitis which most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract, lungs and kidneys. It is uncommon for colitis to be the primary reason for the first hospital admission related to WG. This case represents one of the few in the literature where colitis is associated with WG and in particular, where colonic involvement was the presenting symptom. The patient presented to hospital with a 3-day history of bloody diarrhoea and was treated for colitis. The disease progressed and during the second admission renal and pulmonary involvement was found. A renal biopsy showed a crescentic change and a CT-confirmed inflammatory changes in the caecum and ascending colon. A diagnosis of WG was made and appropriate treatment initiated. The patient is now in remission. PMID:23436885

  15. The Challenges of Developing a Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ("From Observations to Decisions") recognizes that "water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity", and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the developments at Princeton University towards a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions, flood potential and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of water variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed. Future changes in water availability and drought risk are quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land surface models. For regions with lack of on-the-ground data we are field-testing low-cost environmental sensors and along with new satellite products for terrestrial hydrology and vegetation, integrating these into the system for improved monitoring and prediction. At every step there are scientific challenges whose solutions are only partially being solved. In addition there are challenges in delivering such systems as "climate services", especially to societies with low technical capacity such as rural agriculturalists in sub-Saharan Africa, but whose needs for such information are great. We provide an overview of the system and some examples of real-world applications to flood and drought events, with a focus on Africa.

  16. [Jean Alfred Fournier: to 180th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Betekhin, M S

    2012-01-01

    Jean Alfred Fournier was professor in dermatology in Université de Paris and the director of the world-wide known venereology hospital of Saint Louisio. He is the author of many publications about clinical and social aspects of syphilidology. Fournier introduced the concept of "parasyphilis" (tabes dorsalis and general paralysis) and he was the first one who specified the relationship between these diseases and syphilis. He pointed out the significance of congenital syphilisio. In 1901 Fournier founded the French Society of sanitary and moral prevention. His ideas concerning syphilis control were implemented on the territories of many European countries.

  17. [Wegener granulomatosis - otologic, nasal, tracheobronchial and pulmonary involvement].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Leal, Laurentino Mendes; Morais, António; Magalhães, Adriana; Oliveira, Teresa; Hespanhol, Venceslau; Dias, Carlos; Fernandes, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Wegener granulomatosis is a rare systemic idiopathic disease characterized by involvement of small vessels - medium and small arteries, venules, arterioles and ocasionally large arteries. This disease has predilection for the upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidney, with granulomatous inflamation and necrosis. Clinical manifestations and organ involvement of the disease vary widely. Early diagnosis and treatment may lead to a full recovery. Without treatment, Wegener's granulomatosis can be fatal. The authors present a case of a 33 year-old female, with severe disease, but with good outcome, after adequate diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Centennial Presidential Perspective: Dr. Alfred Blalock

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Claude A.; George, Timothy J.; Conte, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Great men are not a common occurrence. Indeed, they are a rare find. Though respected and lauded in their time, it is only in retrospect that their true contributions can be adequately measured as a surgeon, an educator and a scientist. Such is the case of Dr. Alfred Blalock. Many have considered him the father of modern cardiac surgery. All consider his “blue baby” operation to be one of the landmarks of cardiac surgery and, as the chief of surgery at Johns Hopkins, he trained many who would become the leaders of our discipline. His continual reach for excellence helped him to not only affect, but revolutionize the paradigm of surgical research, an understanding of the physiology of shock and the surgical management of pulmonic stenosis/atresia. Dr. Blalock was the 30th president of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and his presidential address was given in 1951. PMID:22248679

  19. Extensive gastrointestinal tract and thyroid involvement with Wegeners granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raja Shekhar; Biyyani, Sappati; Pauskar, Privi; Fahmy, Nabil M; King, James F

    2007-01-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) is a pauci-immune systemic vasculitis involving small to medium sized blood vessels of the respiratory tract and renal vasculature. We report a 34-year-old lady with extensive gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and thyroid involvement. Literature review revealed only two prior reports of esophageal involvement, two reports of pancreatic involvement and few cases of thyroid involvement.

  20. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  1. [Wegener's granulomatosis. Three cases with different clinical courses].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Sawionek, I; Filipecki, S

    1996-01-01

    Three cases of Wegener's granulomatosis are presented. In every case the different clinical picture was observed. In the first case dominated the pulmonary changes and fingers necrosis. In that case the excellent therapeutic effect of etoposide was observed. In the second case the most important clinical sings illustrated severe renal insufficiency. The third case demonstrated pericardial and skin changes. The significance of early diagnosis and early institution of proper therapy was discussed.

  2. How Political Science Became Modern: Racial Thought and the Transformation of the Discipline, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation argues that changing ideas about race and engagement with race science were at the heart of a major transformation of political science in the 1920s, a transformation that I characterize as "becoming modern." This transformation was at once conceptual--visible in the basic categories and theoretical apparatus of the…

  3. Irish Medical Student Culture and the Performance of Masculinity, C.1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there have been valuable studies of medical education that have highlighted the importance of shared educational activities and the changing image of the student. Less attention has been paid to how masculine ideals were passed on to students and how educational and extra-curricular spheres became sites for the maintenance of…

  4. "The Electric City": Sherbrooke et son paysage hydroelectrique (1880--1930)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemette, Remi

    Ce memoire presente l'imbrication des elements hydroelectrique au sein du paysage de la ville de Sherbrooke entre 1880 et 1930. Nous cherchons a comprendre comment les nouveaux elements energetiques s'integrent a celui-ci et comment la population sherbrookoise se represente ces espaces transformes. Comment le paysage hydroelectrique, en tant qu'espace vu et vecu, interagit-il avec la societe sherbrookoise ? A l'interieur de cette problematique generale, nous chercherons a repondre a trois sous-questions. Quelles sont les transformations physiques et materielles engendrees par l'implantation de cette nouvelle technologie hydroelectrique sur le paysage urbain sherbrookois ? Qu'est-ce que les differents groupes valorisent au sein du paysage ? Quel sens prennent ces nouveaux paysages pour les Sherbrookois ? En effet, l'etude du developpement rapide du potentiel hydroelectrique de la riviere Magog nous amene a demontrer que l'exploitation des ressources energetiques a profondement transforme le paysage de Sherbrooke : vastes modifications du trace des cours d'eau, apparition de batiments specifiques a la production energetique, structures de distributions et infrastructures permettant l'illumination de la ville. Nous avancons aussi que differents groupes d'individus ne valorisent pas les memes elements paysagers. Finalement, nous proposons que le regard porte par les citoyens sur le paysage energetique est tributaire de l'usage qu'ils en font. Comme la fonction des elements energetiques paysagers evolue, le regard qu' ils portent vers ces structures se transforme lui aussi. Mots cles: histoire de Sherbrooke, paysage, hydroelectricite, electricite, transformation de l'espace, histoire environnementale

  5. Diabetes insipidus as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis and its treatment with biologic agents.

    PubMed

    Cunnington, Joanna Rosalind; Jois, Ramesh; Zammit, Ivan; Scott, David; Isaacs, John

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis of the pituitary gland resulting in diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of the disease. Standard treatment for Wegener's granulomatosis involves a combination of prednisolone and cylophosphamide, however biologic agents are now being used in refractory cases. We report three cases of patients with diabetes insipidus as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis who were treated with biologic agents. All three cases showed clinical response to treatment with biologic agents including rituximab and alemtuzumab and two cases demonstrated improvement in pituitary gland abnormalities by MRI. Clinicians should be aware that diabetes insipidus can present as a complication of Wegener's granulomatosis and that biologic therapies may be effective in refractory cases.

  6. An unusual orbital localization of wegener granulomatosis detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Rossini, Pierluigi; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old male patient affected by Wegener granulomatosis and left exophthalmos who underwent F-FDG PET/CT during follow-up for rectal cancer. The study was negative for secondary lesions but revealed high uptake at the left orbital mass consistent with Wegener granulomatosis.

  7. [Wegener's granulomatosis with anti-MPO c-ANCA revealed by uveitis].

    PubMed

    Mbéthé, G L Gaundong; Diéval, C; Lafitte, A; Roger-Schmeltz, J; Longy-Boursier, M; Mercié, P

    2010-10-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare systemic necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis affecting small- to medium-sized vessels, associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA), mainly anti-proteinase 3. Rarely, ANCA may be directed against myeloperoxidase. We report a 58-year-old woman who developed an uveitis as the presenting manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis who highlight the usefulness of internist and ophthalmologist collaboration.

  8. An unusual case of multiple cranial nerve palsies in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Daderian, A. D.; Chayasirisobhon, S.

    2000-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of Wegener's granulomatosis, which initially caused fulminant palsies affecting cranial nerves II, V, VI, VII, and VIII during a brief episode of the disease. The patient was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Wegener's granulomatosis should be suspected when multiple cranial nerves are initially affected. PMID:11052460

  9. Kaposi's sarcoma following immune suppressive therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Deschênes, Isabelle; Dion, Louise; Beauchesne, Claude; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur

    2003-03-01

    The association between Kaposi's sarcoma and infection with human herpesvirus 8 is now well recognized. Immunologic impairment is associated with 2 forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, epidemic [associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] and iatrogenic (associated with immunosuppressive treatment); both forms have become more common during the last decade. We describe an HIV negative 54-year-old man who developed Kaposi's sarcoma 2 months after the beginning of immuno-suppressive therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). With tapering of medication, complete remission of Kaposi's sarcoma was achieved in one year. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with WG.

  10. Alfred of Wessex at a Cross-Roads in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first situates King Alfred in Winchester, in Wessex, in Anglo-Saxon England, and in the Christendom of the ninth century. Attention is drawn to Alfred's education, which included experience of court life in Wessex, Rome and Francia. The paper argues that Alfred prioritised vernacular literacy as a means of educating elites in a shared…

  11. 78 FR 19009 - Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D.; Decision And Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D.; Decision And Order On February 4, 2013, Administrative... Certificate of Registration AS6213172, issued to Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D., be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D., to renew or modify...

  12. Prince Alfred College 1993 Study Tour to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marten; Lake, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a trip to China by students of Mandarin Chinese at Prince Alfred College, Australia, in order to learn about the language and culture of the host country. Some continuing features of the stay were shopping, food, and attitudes of the local populace toward the foreigners. (Author/CK)

  13. Professor Alfred Jost: the builder of modern sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Josso, N

    2008-01-01

    Professor Alfred Jost (1916-1991) is famous for his discovery of the Mullerian inhibitor, now called anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) or Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS). Alfred Jost resolved the controversy surrounding the mechanism of somatic sex differentiation by proving that male characteristics must be imposed on the fetus by the testicular hormones testosterone and AMH, respectively responsible for the virilization of the Wolffian ducts, urogenital sinus and external genitalia and for the regression of Mullerian ducts. In the absence or inactivity of these hormones, the fetus becomes phenotypically female. Alfred Jost was also a pioneer through his work on testicular differentiation, in collaboration with Solange Magre. He was the first to show that testicular organization is heralded by the development of pre-Sertoli cells, which progressively surround germ cells to form seminiferous tubules. Alfred Jost did not rely only on his brilliant mind. He distrusted theories built on suboptimal experimental data and believed that intelligence was powerless without technical skill. His search for elegant, effective techniques led him to apply surgical methods to fetal endocrinology. He was also a fascinating teacher, particularly for pre-doctoral students. He died aged 75, having retired from the Collège de France, but still active as the Secrétaire Perpétuel of the French Science Academy.

  14. Apostle of Freedom: Alfred Adler and His British Disciples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The psychology of Alfred Adler is traditionally considered to be one of the three so-called in-depth or psychoanalytic therapies, the other two being the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. This article demonstrates that Adler's Individual Psychology was especially influential on teachers in Vienna between the two world wars. There…

  15. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  16. Aortic aneurysm and orchitis due to Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Minnee, R C; van den Berk, G E L; Groeneveld, J O; van Dijk, J; Turkcan, K; Visser, M J; Vahl, A C

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) with involvement of the abdominal aorta, testis, peripheral nerve system, and skin. A 51-year-old man presented at our outpatient clinic with lower back pain. He had a history of smoking, hypertension, and an embryonal carcinoma of the left testis, treated 13 years ago with orchidectomy and chemotherapy. One month earlier, he underwent a partial orchidectomy of the right testis due to testicular swelling. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3.8 cm wide aneurysm of the distal part of the aorta with inflammation. One week later he was admitted to the hospital with numbness of his hands and feet. Physical examination showed signs of peripheral microemboli. Serological laboratory tests revealed elevated antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers with positive reactions against proteinase-3, indicating Wegener's disease. The chest X-ray was normal. Pathological examination of the right testis showed necrotizing vasculitis of a small artery. He was treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. WG with extrapulmonary involvement occurs infrequently, and reports of manifestations of WG in aorta, testis, the peripheral nerve system, and skin are even more uncommon. Small- and medium-vessel vasculitis can precede large-vessel vasculitis or occur in the absence of small-vessel involvement. Therefore, WG should be included in the work-up of large-vessel vasculitis, which can give rise to periaortic inflammation.

  17. Alpha 1-antitrypsin activity is markedly decreased in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ali; Sahebghadam Lotfi, Abbas; Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Najavand, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the most abundant proteinase inhibitor in plasma and the main inhibitor of Proteinase 3, the target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) that predominant in Wegeners' granulomatosis. Α1AT deficiency correlated with ANCA-associated vasculitis. This study explores the trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC), specific activity, and phenotypic deficiency of Α1AT in Wegener's granulomatosis. Twenty-seven WG patients were studied. ANCA was tested by IIF and ELISA. Serum a1-anti-trypsin levels were quantified in WG patients and healthy controls by immunoturbidimetric assay. Serum TIC was assessed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay. Phenotypes of A1AT were detected by Isoelectric Focusing. A1AT concentration was equivalent in patients and controls; however, serum TIC (P = 0.001) and specific activity of A1AT (P = 0.001) were dramatically lower in WG patients. Five patients had deficient phenotypes of A1AT: MZ (n = 3), MS (n = 1) and SS (n = 1). This was correlated with an increase in the prevalence of deficient phenotypes of A1AT in WG (P = 0.01). Trypsin inhibitory capacity and specific activity of A1AT were decreased in WG patients and may be involve in disease pathogenesis and can worsen the clinical manifestations. This A1AT deficiency probably resulted from oxidative inactivation and/or enzymatic degradation of A1AT. This could result in localized deficiency of A1AT in vessel wall interfaces and lead to severe disease.

  18. A typical Wegeners granulomatosis -- but not pauci-immune!

    PubMed

    Joerg, L; Kerstin, A; Niko, B; Dominik, A; Martin, K; Latus, J; Amann, K; Braun, N; Alscher, M D; Kimmel, M

    2012-06-01

    We present a the case of 58-year old man who was admitted to hospital with typical clinical features (bloody nasal discharge, arthralgia, acute kidney injury with a nephritic syndrome) consisting with Wegeners granulomatosis (WG). CT-scan showed pulmonary nodules and antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies (ANCA) were elevated. A kidney biopsy showed a crescentic glomerulonephritis, but not pauci-immune-immune with a histopathological staining of a mesangioproliferative IgA-glomerulonephritis. The patient was put on prednisolone and i.v. cyclophosphamid (CYCLOPS-protocol (1). The anti-proteinase-3 antibody titer decreased and the CT-scan showed decreased activity of Wegener's granulomatosis (BVAS 26 dropped to 2) and the patient`s serum creatinine level was stable. The exact nosological relation of mesangial IgA-nephropathy to WG is still unclear. This case underlines that knowledge of renal histology is essential in the management of patients with renal disease, especially in patients with hematuria and/or proeinuria with positive ANCA.

  19. Tumor of the heart in a young woman; a rare manifestation of Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Remmi; Rosen, Seymour

    2012-02-01

    Wegener granulomatosis may rarely present with tumor masses that are in areas not typically involved by the disease. Although some cases have an associated positive anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies, other cases do not, especially those of the limited form. To prevent misdiagnosis and ensure prompt treatment, it is extremely important to consider Wegener granulomatosis even in cases without the classic clinical findings. We report a case of a 19-year-old woman with no prior significant medical history who presented with persistent ventricular tachycardia and a papillary muscle mass in her left ventricle which upon excision and tissue evaluation demonstrated histologic changes of Wegener granulomatosis.

  20. Wegener's granulomatosis: parotid involvement and associated pancreatitis with C.T. findings.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, S L; Smart, P J

    1992-11-01

    Parotid enlargement is an uncommon physical sign and even less commonly the reason for referral for computerised tomography (CT) as the aetiology is usually self-evident. In cases referred for CT examination Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered, particularly if the pathology appears bilateral. This diagnosis may be confirmed by biopsy and/or supported by Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA) assay. A case of Wegener's granulomatosis with parotid gland involvement and temporally related pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is reported. This is the second reported case of possible pancreatic involvement in Wegeners granulomatosis and approximately the tenth reported case of salivary gland involvement.

  1. Wegener's thinking about the mechanism: Greenland and Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Wegener's early Arctic expeditions to Greenland (1906-08 and 1912-13 with a stop in Iceland) suggest a significant affect on his thinking about the mechanism of continental drift till his death in 1930. Beside his specialized work in meteorology and the Arctic, he had a broad general interest in science especially of the earth system as a whole. The drift idea occurred to him in 1910 on the basis of new data on geomorphology (Atlantic seafloor), supported by geophysics, geology and palaeontology. In his 1912 initial public talk and ensuing paper he mentioned something akin to seafloor spreading and refuted the continental relict hypothesis from break-up for the mid-Atlantic ridge. But 1912 he bypassed the tension fractures in Iceland and in Greenland (1912-13) he experienced the rheology of ice, brittle and viscous, when thinking about the drift of SIAL continents through the SIMA mantle (as documented in his diaries). When in 1915 rewriting his 1012 paper as the book "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" he had given up the early idea for that of floating continental rafts. It is tempting to speculate why. Rheology of rocks was clearly described. But some misconceptions distracted him from the correct relationships: (1) Data of the time suggested that sialic rock is more solid than mafic rock which would soften at lower temperature (contrary to present knowledge) and (2) convection in the atmosphere, well known to him, seemed to be no model for convection in the mantle, although rafting continents implied mantle flow. Did the rheologies appear too different to him? Not before the mid twenties (as documented in the 4th edition of his book, 1929) did Wegener admit that mantle convection might be the answer. A great spirit was misled but clearly saw that the phenomenon of drift, based on observations, is not refuted by the lack of an explanation.

  2. [Wegener's granulomatosis with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against anti-cathepsin G antigen].

    PubMed

    Ocaña Pérez, E; Peña Casas, A M; del Campo Muñoz, T; Avila Casas, A; Luque Barona, R

    2013-12-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis belongs to the group of small vessel vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies characterized by granulomatous inflammation and necrotising vasculitis in various organs with particular involvement of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare disorder in childhood and early diagnosis of this disease is critical to the long-term prognosis of the disease. The presence of positive cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody staining or a high titre of proteinase 3 antibodies were added as new criteria of vasculitis in childhood. This article presents a case of Wegener's granulomatosis, with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies with cytoplasmic pattern with absence of anti-proteinase 3 antibodies and presence of high levels of anti-cathepsin G antibodies, rarely described in Wegener's granulomatosis.

  3. A Case of Wegener's Granulomatosis Presenting with Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ujjawal, Roy; Koushik, Pan; Ajay, Panwar; Subrata, Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis or granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a necrotizing vasculitis affecting both arterioles and venules. The disease is characterized by the classical triad involving acute inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tracts with renal involvement. However, the disease pathology can affect any organ system. This case presents Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with facial nerve palsy as the first manifestation of the disease, which is rarely reported in medical literature. PMID:27110249

  4. Proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen: from gene to antigen.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G

    2001-02-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is one of four serine protease homologues in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils and granules of monocytes. It is of importance that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) are mainly directed against PR3 only. Furthermore, PR3 is overexpressed in a variety of acute and chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for a PR3-derived peptide have been shown to specifically lyse leukemia cells that overexpress PR3. This review will focus on PR3 and the characteristics of PR3 that might implicate this particular antigen in the pathogenesis of WG and as target for immunotherapy in myeloid leukemias. We will discuss the genetic localization and gene regulation of PR3, the processing, storage, and expression of the PR3 protein, and the physiological functions of PR3, and compare this with the three other neutrophil-derived serine proteases: human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, and azurocidin. Three main differences are described between PR3 and the other serine proteases. This makes PR3 a very intriguing protein with a large array of physiological functions, some of which may play a role in ANCA-associated vasculitidis and myeloid leukemia.

  5. Interference of Wegener's granulomatosis autoantibodies with neutrophil Proteinase 3 activity.

    PubMed Central

    van de Wiel, B A; Dolman, K M; van der Meer-Gerritsen, C H; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Goldschmeding, R

    1992-01-01

    Classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCA) are disease-specific markers of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The possible pathogenetic role of these autoantibodies, which are directed against Proteinase 3 (PR3), is not yet clear. We studied the effect of C-ANCA on PR3 proteolytic activity and on the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). C-ANCA IgG from eight patients with active WG significantly inhibited PR3 proteolytic activity, particularly towards elastin (median 84.2% inhibition). C-ANCA IgG significantly inhibited the complexation of PR3 with alpha 1AT (median 58.8% inhibition). Moreover, addition of purified PR3 to C-ANCA-positive sera from WG patients yielded less complexes with alpha 1AT (median 44.8%) compared with sera containing perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (P-ANCA) or ANCA-negative sera. These findings indicate the existence of a hitherto unknown property of C-ANCA, which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of WG. PMID:1458677

  6. Alfred Lee Loomis - last great amateur of science

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarex, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alfred Loomis may well be remembered as the last of the great amateurs of science. He had distinguished careers as a lawyer, as an Army officer and as an investment banker before he turned his full energies to the pursuit of scientific knowledge, first in the field of physics and later as a biologist. By any measure that can be employed, he was one of the most influential physical scientists of this century: he was elected to the National Academy when he was 53 years old; he received many honorary degrees from prestigious universities; and he played a crucial role as director of all NDRC-OSRD radar research in World War II.

  7. Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace’s background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind. PMID:20350381

  8. [Science and the scientist: opposing vues on Alfred Granadidier's explorations].

    PubMed

    Monnier, Jehanne-Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    This article embraces the different ways a scientist traveller and his fieldworks can be perceived through the case of Alfred Grandidier in South America, in India and in Madagascar (1857-1870). Our aim is to deal with various aspects of historical scientific exploration and to draw a picture of the erudite traveller by crossing various and complementary points of view. Scientific works can be received very differently, depending on the place and the nature of the addresses, whether they are authorities wishing to take advantage of it, native people fearing for their safety or disciples glorifying their idol. The concept of science itself and the status of the scientist raise the question of mutual understanding between the explorer and his contemporaries, in Paris or in a remote place. Alfred Grandidier's example is particularly relevant to reveal different visions of scientist traveller as promoted in the 19th century, as well as the various perceptions that a scientific work can have depending on the public it impacts.

  9. ALFRED: A Practical Method for Alignment-Free Distance Computation.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Sharma V; Chockalingam, Sriram P; Liu, Yongchao; Apostolico, Alberto; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-06-01

    Alignment-free approaches are gaining persistent interest in many sequence analysis applications such as phylogenetic inference and metagenomic classification/clustering, especially for large-scale sequence datasets. Besides the widely used k-mer methods, the average common substring (ACS) approach has emerged to be one of the well-known alignment-free approaches. Two recent works further generalize this ACS approach by allowing a bounded number k of mismatches in the common substrings, relying on approximation (linear time) and exact computation, respectively. Albeit having a good worst-case time complexity [Formula: see text], the exact approach is complex and unlikely to be efficient in practice. Herein, we present ALFRED, an alignment-free distance computation method, which solves the generalized common substring search problem via exact computation. Compared to the theoretical approach, our algorithm is easier to implement and more practical to use, while still providing highly competitive theoretical performances with an expected run-time of [Formula: see text]. By applying our program to phylogenetic inference as a case study, we find that our program facilitates to exactly reconstruct the topology of the reference phylogenetic tree for a set of 27 primate mitochondrial genomes, at reasonably acceptable speed. ALFRED is implemented in C++ programming language and the source code is freely available online.

  10. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  11. Strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare multi-system disease characterized by the classic triad of necrotizing granulomas affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Oral lesions as a presenting feature are only encountered in 2% of these cases. Hyperplastic gingival lesions or strawberry gingivitis, is a characteristic sign of Wegener's granulomatosis. The latter consists of reddish-purple exophytic gingival swellings with petechial haemorrhages thus resembling strawberries. Recognition of this feature is of utmost importance for timely diagnosis and definitive management of this potentially fatal disease. A case of strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of Wegener's granulomatosis affecting a 50-year-old Malay male is reported here. The differential diagnosis of red lesions that may present in the gingiva is discussed. PMID:21813375

  12. [Subglottic stenosis as the initial manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis in a teenager. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Rodríguez, Verónica; Doormann, Flavia; Pringe, Alejandra; Bellia Munzón, Patricio; Bellia Munzón, Gastón; Ortega, Carlos; Álvarez, Rubén

    2017-04-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of autoimmune origin that primarily affects the upper and lower airways and kidneys. It is very rare in children and adolescents. When started at a young age it is often associated with subglottic stenosis. Subglottic stenosis is a potentially fatal manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis. Its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion since it might develop in the absence of other signs of activity. Occasionally, subglottic stenosis may present as the initial manifestation of the disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic visualization of the lesion. The treatment is complex, and it often requires repeated interventions due to restenosis. We present a 13-year-old patient with subglottic stenosis secondary to Wegener's granulomatosis. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of this rare cause of respiratory distress in the pediatric population.

  13. Kaposi's sarcoma in an elderly man with Wegener's granulomatosis treated with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Erban, S B; Sokas, R K

    1988-05-01

    The association of Kaposi's sarcoma with malignant lymphoreticular diseases and immunosuppressive therapy is well documented. This report describes an elderly man who presented with fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis that responded to treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids. Rapidly progressing cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma developed ten weeks after the start of immunosuppressive therapy yet regressed on discontinuation of the corticosteroid therapy, despite continuation of cyclophosphamide therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring in association with Wegener's granulomatosis. The literature on Kaposi's sarcoma in immunosuppressed patients is reviewed.

  14. Alfred P. Dachnowski and the scientific study of peats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Cohen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Botanist Alfred Paul Dachnowski (1875–1949) was a major contributor to efforts at mapping organic soils in the United States during the early 20th century. He began his career at The Ohio State University, and spent most of his professional life at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC. His work spanned a diversity of topics, including bog ecology and the ecosystem services provided by wetlands, the mapping and chemical characterization of peat, and the commercial applications of peat. We present a biography and overview of his work. Dachnowski is best known today for the peat sampler that bears his name. The details of its operation are described here, and its place in modern peat studies is discussed.

  15. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed.

  16. Reporting hospital adverse events using the Alfred Hospital's morbidity data.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rhonda; McLean, Jenny; Walsh, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hospital morbidity data were analysed to determine their usefulness for reporting adverse events. The entire ICD-10-AM classification system was reviewed in conjunction with the Australian Coding Standards to identify external cause codes and code prefixes associated with adverse events. For the 50,712 separations registered at The Alfred from July 2000-June 2001, 4,740 external cause codes were associated with adverse events. Place of occurrence code CY92.22 was considered the best indicator of the number of separations associated with adverse events. Approximately 4% of all separations were associated with adverse events occurring during an episode of care. Results suggest that hospital morbidity data are useful for monitoring adverse events at hospital level. Reliable reporting across the health care industry requires consistent reporting requirements at state and national levels and the adoption of standard code prefixes nationally.

  17. [Alfred Kirstein (1863-1922)--pioneer in direct laryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Reinhard, M; Eberhardt, E

    1995-06-01

    On April 23rd 1895, in Berlin, Alfred Kirstein performed the first direct examination of the interior of the larynx. 23 days after his first view of larynx, he gave a comprehensive demonstration of autoscopy to the Berlin Medical Association. Until then laryngologists had been content with the technique of indirect laryngoscopy using mirrors, a method popularised by Garcia, Türck and Czermak. Kirstein named the combination of the electroscope and the oesophagoscope "The autoscope" and direct examination of the larynx he termed "autoscopy". Despite the infancy of autoscopy and the autoscope, Kirstein already recognised the potential of his new discovery. He reported that the removal of foreign bodies from the trachea must be easier through an autoscope then by means of a tracheostomy; furthermore, catheterisation of the bronchi should now present no great difficulties. The similarity between the blades he used and those described in the 1940s by Macintosh and Miller is remarkable.

  18. Alfred O.C. Nier (1911”1994)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldich, Samuel S.

    Alfred O.C. Nier was a friendly, helpful person who got along remarkably well with people from all walks of life. For the scientific community, his work opened new possibilities for discovery in many fields. His skill in designing and operating mass spectrometers and in interpreting the data brought him worldwide recognition.Nier was born in St. Paul, Minnesota on May 28, 1911, and lived most of his life in the state. He earned three degrees from the University of Minnesota: a Bachelor of Engineering, 1931; an M.S. in electrical engineering, 1933; and a Ph.D. in physics, 1936. For his doctoral research, Nier measured the relative abundance of the isotopes of Ar, K, Zn, Rb, Cd [Nier, 1936].

  19. Literature, Science, and the Rise of Modernism: 1880-1930, a Team-Taught Course in Science and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Tim; Reiland, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the social construction of scientific knowledge by examining the modernist literary works of Chekhov, Ibsen, and Kafka. Demonstrates philosophical conflicts among the authors centering on the benefits and drawbacks of scientific inquiry and modernism. Students also read textbooks and treatises on the history of science. (MJP)

  20. The Response of Textbooks to the Development of the Mass High School and Its History Curriculum, 1880-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Arthur; Westbury, Ian

    The European history textbooks of four authors, Phillip Van Ness Meyers, Willis Mason West, Hutton Webster, and James Harvey Robinson, are described to show how they responded to and reflected the changing nature and function of the high school from 1880 to 1930. Data for the study came from educational histories, committee reports, journals,…

  1. Alfred binet and the concept of heterogeneous orders.

    PubMed

    Michell, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In a comment, hitherto unremarked upon, Alfred Binet, well known for constructing the first intelligence scale, claimed that his scale did not measure intelligence, but only enabled classification with respect to a hierarchy of intellectual qualities. Attempting to understand the reasoning behind this comment leads to an historical excursion, beginning with the ancient mathematician, Euclid and ending with the modern French philosopher, Henri Bergson. As Euclid explained (Heath, 1908), magnitudes constituting a given quantitative attribute are all of the same kind (i.e., homogeneous), but his criterion covered only extensive magnitudes. Duns Scotus (Cross, 1998) included intensive magnitudes by considering differences, which raised the possibility (later considered by Sutherland, 2004) of ordered attributes with heterogeneous differences between degrees ("heterogeneous orders"). Of necessity, such attributes are non-measurable. Subsequently, this became a basis for the "quantity objection" to psychological measurement, as developed first by Tannery (1875a,b) and then by Bergson (1889). It follows that for attributes investigated in science, there are three structural possibilities: (1) classificatory attributes (with heterogeneous differences between categories); (2) heterogeneous orders (with heterogeneous differences between degrees); and (3) quantitative attributes (with thoroughly homogeneous differences between magnitudes). Measurement is possible only with attributes of kind (3) and, as far as we know, psychological attributes are exclusively of kinds (1) or (2). However, contrary to the known facts, psychometricians, for their own special reasons insist that test scores provide measurements.

  2. Alfred Binet and the Concept of Heterogeneous Orders†

    PubMed Central

    Michell, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In a comment, hitherto unremarked upon, Alfred Binet, well known for constructing the first intelligence scale, claimed that his scale did not measure intelligence, but only enabled classification with respect to a hierarchy of intellectual qualities. Attempting to understand the reasoning behind this comment leads to an historical excursion, beginning with the ancient mathematician, Euclid and ending with the modern French philosopher, Henri Bergson. As Euclid explained (Heath, 1908), magnitudes constituting a given quantitative attribute are all of the same kind (i.e., homogeneous), but his criterion covered only extensive magnitudes. Duns Scotus (Cross, 1998) included intensive magnitudes by considering differences, which raised the possibility (later considered by Sutherland, 2004) of ordered attributes with heterogeneous differences between degrees (“heterogeneous orders”). Of necessity, such attributes are non-measurable. Subsequently, this became a basis for the “quantity objection” to psychological measurement, as developed first by Tannery (1875a,b) and then by Bergson (1889). It follows that for attributes investigated in science, there are three structural possibilities: (1) classificatory attributes (with heterogeneous differences between categories); (2) heterogeneous orders (with heterogeneous differences between degrees); and (3) quantitative attributes (with thoroughly homogeneous differences between magnitudes). Measurement is possible only with attributes of kind (3) and, as far as we know, psychological attributes are exclusively of kinds (1) or (2). However, contrary to the known facts, psychometricians, for their own special reasons insist that test scores provide measurements. PMID:22912619

  3. Alfred Binet and experimental psychology at the Sorbonne laboratory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Sanitioso, Rasyid Bo

    2012-11-01

    Between 1892 and 1904, Alfred Binet (1857-1911) produced, in the psychology laboratory of the Sorbonne, a whole set of original works that still remains little known today. He integrated the laboratory, directed by the psychophysiologist Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), in 1891. We describe the circumstances that led Binet to take the direction of this laboratory in 1895 and present scientific investigations that were conducted there by Binet and his collaborators. For Binet, the laboratory was not narrowly limited to a set of rooms where experiments were conducted by means of sophisticated devices (experimental psychology), it was also a working area, regularly organized, where all the psychological documents were classified, whatever their origin (descriptive psychology). We show that Binet was a pioneer who is still little recognized in various areas of experimental psychology. Binet suffered, at the time, from the indifference of his contemporaries, but he especially regretted not being able to attract students to his laboratory due to the absence of diploma-offering programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Autoantibodies against neutrophils and monocytes: tool for diagnosis and marker of disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, F J; Rasmussen, N; Lobatto, S; Wiik, A; Permin, H; van Es, L A; van der Giessen, M; van der Hem, G K; The, T H

    1985-02-23

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies against extranuclear components of polymorphonuclear granulocytes were detected in 25 of 27 serum samples from patients with active Wegener's granulomatosis and in only 4 of 32 samples from patients without signs of disease activity. In a prospective study of 19 patients these antibodies proved to be better markers of disease activity than several other laboratory measurements used previously. The autoantibodies were disease specific and the titres were related to the results of an in-vitro granulocyte phagocytosis test, in which 7S IgG antibodies were internalised after specific binding to the cell, resulting in gradual formation of ring-like cytoplasmic structures. This autoantibody may have a pathogenetic role in Wegener's granulomatosis. The detection of this antibody is valuable for diagnosis and estimation of disease activity.

  5. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years.

  6. Management Scheme for Cerebral Wegener Granulomatosis: An Unusual Pseudotumoral Skull Base Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Anne Laure; Lefevre, Etienne; Sène, Damien; Herman, Philippe; Biassette, Homa Adle; Froelich, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener disease) is a rare antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis that seldom involves brain and meninges. We present a case of a 35-year-old woman with granulomatosis with polyangiitis involving the brain and the meninges. The histologic diagnosis required a complete resection of the lesion. Despite the possibility of postoperative wound infection, surgery was mandatory to ascertain the diagnostic and to treat locally.

  7. Cytoplasmic-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies targeting myeloperoxidase in Wegener's granulomatosis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Bhavana M; Joshi, Sangeeta; Adhikary, Ranjeeta

    2014-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) patients can rarely have antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO), producing a cytoplasmic pattern on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). This has important implications in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of the disease. We present to you a report of three cases of WG, demonstrating a cytoplasmic-ANCA pattern on indirect IIF, but directed against MPO. It is necessary to diagnose a patient taking into account both the autoimmune test results and the clinical features.

  8. Successful Management of Refractory Dialysis Independent Wegener's Granulomatosis with Combination of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange and Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sheetal; Dhawan, Hari Krishan; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Aman

    2016-06-01

    Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) is an autoimmune, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody mediated necrotizing vasculitis involving renal, and upper and lower respiratory systems. Treatment relies on a combination of immunosuppressive drugs and tapering regimen of glucocorticoids. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been recognized as a second line treatment. We report the successful use of TPE in combination with rituximab in achieving remission in a patient with WG (dialysis independent) not responding to conventional therapy.

  9. Progressive renal disease despite immunosuppressive therapy in a patient with Wegener s granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, I; Vervoort, G; Steenbergen, E; Wetzels, J

    2008-03-01

    We present a patient with Morbus Wegener and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone resulted in the disappearance of signs and symptoms of systemic inflammation. However, renal function deteriorated. Renal biopsy showed evidence of continuing capillary necrosis. Renal function improved with added plasmapheresis treatment. This case report illustrates that in patients with vasculitis necrotizing glomerulonephritis may remain active despite immunosuppressive therapy, even in the absence of extrarenal disease activity.

  10. Confessions of a serial entrepreneur: a conversation with Alfred E. Mann. Interview by Molly Joel Coye.

    PubMed

    Mann, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    In this wide-ranging interview, Alfred Mann describes the activities of several medical technology enterprises with which he is engaged. Several of them are companies that he formed; one is a nonprofit foundation, the Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering, founded to establish research-oriented institutes on a dozen university campuses and support their work in developing marketable innovations. Mann discusses the need to consider the cost implications of technology, in the context of U.S. health system reform, and describes several important innovations that have emerged from his companies over the years.

  11. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following...] Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County, Florida...

  12. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  13. [The social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and its contribution for the nursing].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Capalbo, Creusa; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deise Moura; Tocantins, Florence Romijn; Rodrigues, Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará; Ciuffo, Lia Leão

    2013-06-01

    Nursing care can be considered a social action that is set in the everyday world, where intersubjective relations are established and must be valued by the nurse in the different contexts in which it acts. It is a theoretical study which aimed to highlight the main concepts of the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz's and its contribution to Nursing as a knowledge and professional practice field. The following questions guided this study: what is the understanding of caring in Nursing from the perspective of the social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz's? How to apply Alfred Schütz's theoretical concepts in the action of caring in Nursing? The theoretical concepts of the social phenomenology and their interface with Nursing were delimited. By incorporating the concepts of the t theory of social action developed by Alfred Schütz into Nursing, this study allows nurses to value and apply the aspects highlighted by this theoretical framework within healthcare, education and scientific research.

  14. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  15. 76 FR 17672 - Alfred E. Boyce, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ....100(b) and 0.104, I order that DEA Certificate of Registration, FB0003943, issued to Alfred E. Boyce..., M.D., to renew or modify his registration, be, and it hereby is, denied. This Order is effective... May 13, 2010, proposing to revoke the DEA Certificate of Registration (COR), Number FB0003943,...

  16. Frank Buchman's Moral Re-Armament and Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics: A Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H. L.

    This paper hypothesizes that Frank Buchman and Alfred Korzybski were aware of each other and made some comments--written or orally--about each other's work. Support for this hypothesis was developed by concentrating on correspondence, documents, and interviews relative to the two men. The paper also provides documentation about Buchman and…

  17. Wegener's granulomatosis complicated by central diabetes insipidus and peripheral neutrophy with normal pituitary in a patient.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Huaxiang; Jin, Qiaofei

    2009-08-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing systemic vasculitis that any organ system can be involved in. We report a patient who was hospitalized with recurrent nodules in pulmonary computed tomograph and symptoms such as intermitted fever, polydipsia, insensibility and pain on extremities. Laboratory investigation showed positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in a cytoplastic pattern. The histopathologic result of the lung nodule revealed multiloci necrosis of lung tissue accompanied with large amount of neutrophils. She was diagnosed as WG with multi-systemic involvements and almost recovered on 6 months' prednisone and cyclophosphamide treatment.

  18. [Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole++ in the treatment of a case of localized Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Villegas Fernández, F R; Callol Sánchez, L; Moreno Muro, M; Cuevas Ibáñez, A; Gómez de Terreros, F J

    1991-04-01

    A 50 year old man, affected by a Wegener's granulomatosis limited to lung, is presented. The indirect immunofluorescence test for "Anticytoplasmic Antibodies" (ACPA) was negative and we got the definitive diagnostic by the histological study from thoracotomy and biopsy samples. We started treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and a good evolution with an adequate clinical control, x-ray study and blood test was obtained. Some aspects of the value of the ACPA as diagnostic and activity markers of the disease and also the use of an antimicrobial agent on the treatment of this nosological entity are discussed.

  19. Diversity of PR3-ANCA epitope specificity in Wegener's granulomatosis. Analysis using the biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Rarok, Agnieszka A; van der Geld, Ymke M; Stegeman, Coen A; Limburg, Pieter C; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2003-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic disease characterized by the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies specific for proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA). The functional characteristics of PR3-ANCA differ between quiescent and active disease, suggesting changes in the properties of the autoantibodies in time. Using biosensor technology, we found that PR3-ANCA of different patients (n = 8) recognize a limited number of overlapping regions on PR3 at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. This area might cover an immunodominant epitope, common for PR3-ANCA from all patients, irrespective of the size of the total area recognized by an individual autoantibody. Experiments with sera (n = 4) collected at the moment of diagnosis and at the time of relapse showed that the individual epitope specificities of PR3-ANCA change during the course of the disease. These changes in epitope specificity of PR3-ANCA may be responsible for the differences in functional properties of these autoantibodies between various stages of the disease.

  20. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and micropolyarteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, G; Meroni, P L; Tincani, A; Sinico, A; Barcellini, W; Radice, A; Gregorini, G; Froldi, M; Borghi, M O; Balestrieri, G

    1990-01-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have been detected by cell surface radioimmunoassay in nine out of 15 patients with micropolyarteritis (MPA) and in two out of five patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. AECA mostly belonged to the IgG isotype and were present in the active phase of the diseases. These antibodies were not detectable in 10 sera from patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia, suggesting that they were not a mere epiphenomenon consequent to the inflammatory vascular injury. The binding activity was not related to ABH antigens or to HLA class I antigens displayed by resting human endothelial cells in culture and was not influenced by removing immune complexes. Absorption of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), present in MPA and Wegener's granulomatosis sera, did not affect the endothelial binding. AECA-positive sera did not display lytic activity against endothelial cells, neither alone nor after addition of fresh complement or normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although AECA are not cytolytic for endothelial cell monolayers in vitro, the reactivity against intact endothelial cells suggests their possible involvement in in vivo pathological processes affecting vascular structures in small vessel primary vasculitides. PMID:2302834

  1. Wegener's Granulomatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inflammation behind the eye is known as an “orbital pseudotumor”. An orbital pseudotumor such as those caused by Wegener’s Granulomatosis ... the eyes in a patient with a retro–orbital mass (a mass behind the eye) in a ...

  2. Treatment of refractory retrobulbar granuloma with rituximab in a patient with ANCA-negative Wegener's granulomatosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Seido; Maeda, Akihiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Omata, Masami; Yamada, Hidehiro; Ozaki, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    Retrobulbar granuloma is one of the serious complications in Wegener's granulomatosis and often shows resistance to conventional therapy during long-term treatment. The outcome of this complication includes visual loss, orbital and facial deformity, fistula formation, as well as infection. There has been increasing evidence that shows the efficacy of rituximab, a chimeric anti-B cell mAb, for the treatment of autoimmune diseases including Wegener's granulomatosis. We present a 22-year-old Japanese woman who was diagnosed with Wegener's granulomatosis complicated by refractory retrobulbar granuloma. She was admitted to our hospital with pain of the right eye and right proptosis during treatment with monthly IVCY for Wegener's granulomatosis. We diagnosed refractory retrobulbar granuloma by computed tomography (CT) scan and biopsy. She showed a refractory growth of retrobulbar granuloma in spite of negative ANCA. She was also complicated with pulmonary granulomatous lesions in bilateral apices. After approval by an institutional ethical committee and informed consent of this patient, rituximab 375 mg/m2 was intravenously administered weekly four times. Concomitant prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg was also administered for 2 weeks and gradually tapered. Treatment of rituximab resulted in prompt relief of symptoms in this case and the reduction of the granuloma. BVAS score also improved from 6 to 0 at 3 months and was kept in remission for 12 months. Circulating CD19-positive cells were kept less than 0.1% during the follow-up. There were no serious adverse events. This case suggests that rituximab is effective for refractory retrobulbar granuloma complicated in Wegener's granulomatosis even when ANCA titers are negative.

  3. Alfred Kastler et le développement du Groupement Ampère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béné, G. J.

    We show, in this paper, the decisive contributions of A. Kastler at the time of the foundation of the Ampere Group by René Freymann in the years 1950-51. Alfred Kastler contributes also to give, during the main steps of its development at the european level in the year 1956-57, to the meetings their particular physionomy : encounter of men for cooperation and mutual help. Nous montrons dans cette communication les contributions décisives de Alfred Kastler, soit au moment de la création, par René Freymann, du Groupement Ampère en 1950-51, soit lors de son développement au niveau européen dès 1956-57. A. Kastler a toujours voulu faire des colloques Ampère des rencontres d'hommes ayant le souci de coopérer et de s'entraider.

  4. Citation for presentation of the 2016 Alfred E. Treibs Award to Patrick G. Hatcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2017-03-01

    I am privileged and honored to introduce Patrick G. Hatcher as the recipient of the 2016 Alfred E. Treibs Award. I have known Pat for almost twenty years, over which time we have shared an interest in biomacromolecules, biodegradation, and the development of analytical methods. Pat is a true chemist at heart and we have all benefited greatly from his insights on the examination of complex macromolecular materials through state-of-the art spectroscopic analyses.

  5. Video Q&A: Allergies and allergen immunotherapy - an interview with Alfred William Frankland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this video Q&A, we talk to Dr Alfred William Frankland about the highlights of his career, including working alongside Sir Alexander Fleming, co-founding the British Allergy Society, and introducing pollen counts to UK weather forecasts. We also discuss his opinions on why misconceptions about allergies and allergen immunotherapy still exist. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/255. PMID:24447813

  6. Alfred Bentz - Erdölgeologe in schwieriger Zeit, 1938-1947

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, E.; Seibold, I.

    2002-12-01

    Alfred Bentz was the leading oil geologist in Germany during the Third Reich, the World War II and thereafter. His relevant activities are treated here mainly on the base of documents in the Geologenarchiv Freiburg. In spite of his prominent position during the Nazi Regime he can obviously not be blamed for personal guilt. As a loyal civil servant he was embedded in the tragic German fate in these years.

  7. Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Aortic aneurysm is not common in young patient. When a young patient presents with abdominal aortic aneurysm, there may be an underlying cause. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of a 33-year-old gentleman who presented with flu like illness, chest and abdominal pains following a tooth extraction. A chest X-ray and subsequent computerised tomogram of the chest and abdomen demonstrated lung nodules and an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm was repaired and his serology was positive for Wegener's granulomatosis. A nasal mucosal biopsy confirmed WG. He was treated with oral steroids and cyclophosphamide. His graft leaked and had to be replaced with a synthetic graft. Two months after his re-operation, he remains well. Conclusion Whenever a young patient presents with an abdominal aortic aneurysm, an underlying connective disease should be excluded because early steroid/immunosuppressive treatment may prevent the development of further aneurysms. PMID:20066062

  8. Combined CNS and pituitary involvement as a primary manifestation of Wegener granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Spísek, Radek; Kolouchová, Elena; Jensovský, Jirí; Rusina, Robert; Fendrych, Pavel; Plas, Jaroslav; Bartůnková, Jirina

    2006-09-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis of small and medium vessels. It predominantly affects the upper and/or lower respiratory airway and kidneys. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. WG relatively frequently affects the nervous system (in 30-50% according to the different studies). Most frequently, it manifests as necrotizing vasculitis that leads to the peripheral neuropathies or to the cranial nerves palsy. Impairment of the central nervous system (CNS) is less frequent and occurs in 2-8% of patients. Three major pathogenetic mechanisms were described: CNS vasculitis, spreading of granulomas from the adjacent anatomical areas (paranasal cavities, orbit etc.), and new formation of granulomas in brain tissue. This case report describes patients in whom WG manifested in the form of localized skin involvement and combined CNS involvement that included pituitary gland. Atypical presentation of WG impedes and slows down the process of diagnosis and emphasizes the need for collaboration between medical specialists.

  9. Airway Surgery in Tracheostomised Patients with Wegener Granulomatosis Leading to Subglottic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Sivrikoz, Nükhet; Çamcı, Emre

    2015-10-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a multisystemic disorder characterised by granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory system. The growing of proliferative tissue towards the larynx and trachea may cause airway obstruction on account of subglottic stenosis. In this situation, the surgical goal is to eliminate the airway obstruction by providing natural airway anatomy. While mild lesions do not require surgical intervention, in fixed lesions, surgical intervention is required, such as tracheostomy, laser resection and dilatation. In tracheostomised patients, granuloma formation surrounding the tracheostomy cannula may occur in the trachea. Inflammation and newly formed granulation tissue result in severe stenosis in the airways. During surgical treatment of such patients, airway management is important. In this case report, we will discuss gas exchange and airway management with jet ventilation (JV) during excision of the granulation tissue with endolaryngeal laser surgery, leading to subglottic stenosis in tracheostomised patients in WG.

  10. Limited-Form Wegener Granulomatosis Case: Anaesthetic Approach and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sarıtaş, Tuba Berra; Şahin, Osman; Borazan, Hale; Otelcioğlu, Şeref

    2014-12-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a kind of vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized arteries. Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and necrotizing glomerulonephritis of the kidneys are present. WG affects mainly Caucasian individuals between 15-75 years old, with a mean age of onset of 41 years. It affects both males and females equally. Kidney involvement is not present in the limited form of WG. Peripheral nerve blocks are good alternatives when general anaesthesia is risky. Popliteal block is blockade of the sciatic nerve at the popliteal region. Popliteal block is a kind of peripheral block for surgeries below the knee level. In this article, we report on the anaesthesia management of a 61-year-old limited-form WG patient for whom general anaesthesia was risky because of lung involvement.

  11. ANCA-negative Wegener's granulomatosis with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Jin; Bae, Jung Ho; Cho, Min-Sun; Park, Kee Duk; Jeong, Jee Hyang

    2013-11-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels with granulomatous formation. Though it is known for respiratory tract and kidney involvement, neurologic manifestation has been also reported. Herein we report a patient who suffered pansinusitis with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies but reached remission by immunosuppressant after the diagnosis of WG. A 54-yr-old female visited with headache, hearing difficulty, and progressive bulbar symptoms. She experienced endoscopic sinus surgeries due to refractory sinusitis. Neurologic examination revealed multiple lower cranial nerve palsies. Vasculitic markers showed no abnormality. Nasal biopsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis involving small vessels. Given cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, her symptoms were prominently improved. WG should be considered in the patient with multiple cranial nerve palsies, especially those with paranasal sinus disease. Because WG can be lethal if delayed in treatment, prompt immunosuppressant is warranted after the diagnostic tissue biopsy.

  12. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic anti body (ANCA)-negative limited form of Wegener's granulomatosis; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Tsubochi, H; Kishimoto, K; Imai, T; Kaimori, M

    2007-07-01

    A 54-year-old man, who was suspected to suffer from multi-drug resistant lung abcess, was admitted to our hospital. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed large cavitary mass in right S6 and nodules in left S1+2 and S10. No abnormal findings were detected without raised immunoglobulin E (IgE) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was repeatedly negative. We couldn't make a diagnosis by percutaneous biopsy. Finally we performed open lung biopsy of left lung, and Wegener's granulomatosis was diagnosed at last He improved immediately after treatment with prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. ANCA-negative Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered when we diagnose multiple pulmonary nodules.

  13. [A case of Wegener's granulomatosis with seronegative for PR-3 ANCA and seropositive for MPO-ANCA].

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kensuke; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Zaima, Mika; Kohno, Chiyoko; Yamada, Yoshihito; Murota, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Tamiko

    2009-07-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with low fever, dry cough and occult hematuria with abnormality on her chest X-ray film showing patchy shadows in the apices of both lungs. The patient was seronegative for PR-3 ANCA and seropositive for MPO-ANCA and transbronchial lung biopsy showed inflammatory granulation tissue. We performed an open lung biopsy to achieve a definitive diagnosis. The lung specimen showed the typical findings of Wegener's granulomatosis. Renal biopsy revealed necrotizing glomerulonephiritis. A systemic form of Wegener's granulomatosis was diagnosed. Initilal treatment combined oral prednisolone at 30 mg daily with oral cyclophosphamide at 50 mg daily improved not only the clinical course, but also the radiographic findings. Finally, she became seronegative for MPO-ANCA.

  14. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  15. Nuclear Planetology: Constraining the Driving Force in Wegener's Continental Drift Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, G.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear planetology [1] is a new research field, which aims at deciphering the nuclear physics processes responsible for the evolution of ultra-substellar objects and the driving force in Wegener's continental drift theory by means of Re-Os nuclear geochronometry [2]. Terrestrial Re/Os ratios observed within diamond sulphide inclusions [3], compatible with lunar r-process production ratios of Th/U≈1≈Au/Ir [4], drop from ≈0.8 to 0.2-0.05 for nucleogeochronometric ages between 2.3 Ga and 1.4 Ga [5]. It has therefore been argued [5,6] that the Re/Os fractionation is related to a change in oxygen fugacity due to the physics/chemistry of Earth's core after a possibly Fermi-pressure controlled core collapse [4]. Here, Pd/Ru, Pd/Pt, Pd/Ir, Pd/Os, Ru/Ir, Ru/Os, Pt/Ir or Pt/Os ratios from 24 published H chondrite components [7] are connected to their respective nucleogeochronometric ages to constrain an extended fossil fractionation record over 800 Ma. The following ranges are obtained: 0.06-1.04 (Pd/Ru), 0.06-0.79 (Pd/Pt), 0.06-1.76 (Pd/Os), 0.07-1.94 (Pd/Ir), 1.08-1.99 (Ru/Ir), 0.83-2.41 (Pt/Os), 0.82-2.64 (Pt/Ir). Comparing the Re/Os fractionation pattern of the diamond sulphide inclusions with these results and considering that Re is readily oxidized even at ultra-low oxygen fugacity, it may be concluded that (i) extremely reducing conditions within Earth's core basically preserve any unfractionated r-process element ratio until today; and (ii) nuclear/quantum physics processes leading to the observed ratios and fractionation pattern are ultimately the driving force in Wegener's continental drift theory. [1] Roller (2015), Abstract T34B-0407, AGU Spring Meeting. [2] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-17. [3] Smit et al. (2010), GCA 74, 3292. [4] Roller (2015), Abstract #5041, 78th Ann. Met. Soc. Meeting. [5] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-2399. [6] Roller (2015), Abstract PG34A-0283, AGU Spring Meeting. [7] Horan et al. (2009), GCA 73

  16. [Doctor and poet as rivals. Sigmund Freud, Alfred von Berger and the narrative of female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a passage in the Dora case history where Freud suggests some differences between a literary and a clinical narrative of female homosexuality, this paper presents examples which he might have had in mind. Besides Balzac's "La fille aux yeux d'or" (1834/35) it is in particular Alfred v. Berger's novella "Die Italienerin [The Italian woman]" (1904) which may have served as a model and counterpoint to the literary strategies used in Freud's case history. Freud had a relationship of long standing with Berger. This newly discovered source may provide a clue for the date at which Freud finalized the Dora manscript which he had held back for years.

  17. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  18. Erosive rhinitis resembling granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in an Anatolian shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Marlies; Basson, Sandra

    2015-04-21

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) is one of the idiopathicimmune-mediated small-vessel vasculitides described in humans which are characterised by the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. It most commonly involves capillaries, venules and arterioles of the ear, nose and throat, lungs and glomeruli. A case of destructive haemopurulent rhinitis associated with relapsing periods of pyrexia, lethargy and stiffness as well as generalised pulmonary infiltrates in a young Anatolian shepherd dog is presented that closely resembles granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) as reported in humans. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were detected in the dog's serum. Signs resolved promptly and completely once immunosuppressive doses of prednisone were administered, and have not recurred. This is the first report onthe use of pANCA to investigate rhinitis in dogs. It is also, to the authors' knowledge, the first description of a relapsing haemopurulent lytic rhinitis in this species. The concurrent manifestations of erosive haemopurulent rhinitis, ground-glass opacities on pulmonary computed tomography, pyrexia and listlessness resemble GPA as described in humans.

  19. A case of exorbitism in association with Wegener's granulomatosis with renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Beji, S; Fatma, L Ben; Chebbi, A; Rais, L; Krid, M; Smaoui, W; Maiz, H Ben; Zouaghi, K; Moussa, F Ben

    2012-03-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, lungs, and kidneys. Ocular involvement can occur in about 50% of cases. There are very few reports of WG with orbital inflammation and exorbitism. We report a case of a female patient who presented with exorbitism related to orbital inflammation secondary to WG, with renal involvement. A 29-year-old woman with a previous history of recurrent pan-sinusitis presented with bilateral exophthalmos and renal failure with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Computed tomography showed extensive bilateral soft tissue in the retro-orbital area. Immunologic tests showed the presence of type-C anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and renal biopsy revealed pauci immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and pulses of cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. After a follow-up of 10 months, the renal outcome was favorable with improvement of renal function but there was persistence of exorbitism and loss of visual function. Our case suggests that WG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent bilateral exophthalmos. Prompt recognition of this early manifestation is important for the institution of early treatment.

  20. Cocaine-induced midline destruction lesions with positive ANCA test mimicking Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Stahelin, Letícia; Fialho, Sonia Cristina de Magalhães Souza; Neves, Fabrício Souza; Junckes, Larissa; Werner de Castro, Gláucio Ricardo; Pereira, Ivânio Alves

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine by inhalation may induce midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), which can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the ear, nose and throat lesions of Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG). We describe the case of a 43-year-old female patient admitted with a two-year history of nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She had been diagnosed with WG for five months, being on prednisone and cyclophosphamide. On her physical examination, perforation of her nasal septum and palate was observed. Laboratory tests showed elevated acute phase proteins and a positive p-ANCA test. ELISA assays anti-proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase were negative. The paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) showed destruction of the nasal septum and palate, in addition to bilateral maxillary sinusitis. Chest CT was normal. Nasal mucosal biopsy revealed an inflammatory infiltrate, with neither granuloma nor vasculitis. When questioned, she admitted being a cocaine user for five years. Medical therapy and cocaine use were withdrawn. She has been followed up for six months and no other lesion or other organ symptoms occurred. Differential diagnosis in patients with midline destructive lesions can be very challenging. Evaluation should include enquiry about intranasal use of cocaine. Although ANCA testing does not clearly differentiate the ANCA found in some patients with CIMDL from those found in WG patients, the localized involvement and the biopsy findings non-characteristic of small vessel granulomatous vasculitis should be recognized as features for cocaine-induced lesions.

  1. c-ANCA-induced neutrophil-mediated lung injury: a model of acute Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hattar, K; Oppermann, S; Ankele, C; Weissmann, N; Schermuly, R T; Bohle, R M; Moritz, R; Krögel, B; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Sibelius, U; Grandel, U

    2010-07-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Fulminant disease can present as acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, a model of ALI in WG was developed using isolated rat lungs. Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were primed with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to induce surface expression of PR3. Co-perfusion of TNF-primed neutrophils and monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies induced a massive weight gain in isolated lungs. This effect was not observed when control immunoglobulin G was co-perfused with TNF-primed PMNs. The c-ANCA-induced oedema formation was paralleled by an increase in the capillary filtration coefficient as a marker of increased pulmonary endothelial permeability. In contrast, pulmonary artery pressure was not affected. In the presence of the oxygen radical scavenger superoxide dismutase and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, c-ANCA-induced lung oedema could be prevented. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase was equally effective in preventing c-ANCA-induced lung injury. In conclusion, anti-PR3 antibodies induced neutrophil mediated, elastase- and oxygen radical-dependent ALI in the isolated lung. This experimental model supports the hypothesis of a pathogenic role for c-ANCA in WG and offers the possibility of the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lung injury in fulminant WG.

  2. Sir Alfred Keogh--the years of reform 1899-1910.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sydney V

    2008-12-01

    History inevitably requires individuals to influence and change circumstances; men and women of principles, courage or power who influence events to such an extent they produce change, even to the extent of changing the course of history. Alfred Keogh was such a man. He possessed strong principles and the courage to convert a nineteenth-century attitude to the health of an army into the modern vision of Army Health we have today. Keogh was plucked from obscurity in India and plunged into a war, the outcome of which was never certain. The reputation of the Army had been tarnished by a government who had done next to nothing to prepare it for modern war or ameliorate the condition of the common soldier and the Boer War exposed the extent of that neglect to a shocked public. Ultimately the humiliation of the Army prompted radical reforms which converted a metaphorically red-coated army into a fighting force fit for the twentieth-century. During this time Keogh led the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) through a very painful rebirth. His meteoric rise from Major to Lt. General in a little less than five years was matched only by his vision of the future and the dynamic effect he had in effecting change. This essay looks at the influence Alfred Keogh had in the reform of the RAMC that occurred in Edwardian Britain.

  3. Expression of recombinant proteinase 3, the autoantigen in Wegener's granulomatosis, in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Van der Geld, Y M; Smook, M L F; Huitema, M G; Harmsen, M C; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G M

    2002-06-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is the major autoantigen for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Little is known about the major antigenic sites on PR3. To facilitate epitope mapping, PR3 was cloned in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. Four different sequences of the PR3 cDNA were amplified by PCR: two clones containing the pro-peptide of PR3 with or without a His-tag (rproPR3-his and rproPR3, respectively) and two clones without the pro-peptide and with or without a His-tag (rPR3-his and rPR3, respectively). The PR3 sequences were cloned behind the polyhedrin promoter and the honeybee melittin signal peptide enabling secretion of rPR3. Plasmids were transposed into the genome of baculovirus, and wild types as well as PR3-containing virus genomes were transfected into Sf21 insect cells. All four rPR3 variants were secreted into the medium and were recognized by anti-neutrophil PR3 rabbit serum and by at least two anti-PR3 monoclonal antibodies. Mature forms of PR3 were recognized by almost all patient sera, whereas the pro-forms of PR3 were recognized by 14 of 18 PR3-ANCA sera tested. On SDS-PAGE, the four rPR3 forms migrated at approximately 32 kDa. RPR3-his and rproPR3-his could be purified by means of this His-tag. In conclusion, especially the mature rPR3s are well recognized by PR3-ANCA sera. The presence of a C-terminal His-tag facilitated purification of His-tagged rPR3. Thus, rPR3 expressed in insect cells can be used as a tool for diagnostic tests as well as for epitope mapping studies.

  4. Using inpatient data to estimate the prevalence of Wegener's granulomatosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Cui, Yazhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Heng; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Summary China lacks a registry for most rare diseases, so specific epidemiological data on those diseases are lacking. A strategy involving the DISMOD II model was recently formulated to estimate the epidemiological parameters of rare diseases, and this strategy has been used to study several rare diseases. The current study used this strategy to estimate the prevalence of one such rare disease, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), in China based on its incidence, mortality, and rate of remission according to the software tool DISMOD II. The incidence of WG was calculated based on inpatient data from 100 hospitals throughout China. The cause-specific mortality from WG was estimated based on data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States and adjusted for the Chinese population. The rate of disease remission was based on the results of previous study. The current results indicated that the prevalence of WG in China is 1.94/100,000, which is slightly lower than that in Europe and the United States. The mean age at onset of WG in China was calculated to be 38.9 years for males and 39.3 years for females and the duration of disease was 28 years for both male and female patients. These figures are similar to published data from other countries. In conclusion, the DISMOD II model was used to estimate the prevalence of WG in China, providing a basis to evaluate the potential disease burden and orphan drug use by patients with WG. The DISMOD II model could be used to estimate the prevalence of other rare diseases. PMID:26989646

  5. The New Liberal Arts. An Exchange of Views. An Occasional Paper from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerner, James D., Ed.; And Others

    The position taken by Stephen White, of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (New York, New York), in the title article of this collection, states that the programs of many liberal arts colleges are moving toward incorporating applied mathematics and technological literacy into the curriculum. White also states that colleges should be adjusting their…

  6. 75 FR 30427 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Idaho, Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is..., Alfred W. Bowers Laboratory of Anthropology, Moscow, ID, that meet the definitions of ``unassociated... Laboratory of Anthropology have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the five cultural...

  7. Cohort profile: the Welsh Geriatric Registrar-Led Research Network (WeGeN): rationale, design and description

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sara; Butler, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Medical trainees are required to undertake audit and quality improvement projects. They must also have an understanding of the principles of research and are encouraged to participate in research projects. However, the constraints of time, a lack of formal training and rotation between different training posts create barriers to audit cycle completion and pursuing research. This leads to trainees being reluctant to undertake research, facilitates poor quality research and risks incomplete audit. Participants The Welsh Geriatricians Network (WeGeN) has been created with the aims of facilitating collaborative, trainee-led research within Geriatric Medicine in Wales, promoting research engagement and improving the research evidence base for older patients. By coordinating collaborative research projects across different sites within Wales, trainees continue existing projects at new sites, allowing completion of projects and establishing the long-term infrastructure and experienced personnel needed for high-quality research data to be gathered. Findings WeGeN has facilitated 4 national audits, all of which are intended for peer review publication. The first project considers the service provision for the older person in the emergency department, the second Parkinson's disease, the third reviews delirium management and the fourth project considers epidemiology of surgical disease in older people. Future plans The objective of this project is to further establish and develop WeGeN as a group which facilitates high-quality research and provides the opportunity for geriatric trainees to engage in research activity. It is anticipated that the establishment of this research platform will provide a blueprint for the development of other such networks in the UK and beyond. PMID:28196947

  8. [A patient with both cocaine-induced nasal septum destruction and antibodies against anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA); potential confusion with Wegener's disease].

    PubMed

    Scheenstra, R J; van Buren, M; Koopman, J P

    2007-10-27

    A 37-year-old male cocaine user presented with continual, sanguinolent nasal obstruction and persistant pain following a nasal operation one year ago. Examination showed crustae, granulations and exposed septal cartilage in the right nasal passage in addition to a considerable septal deviation to the left. No other physical abnormalities were found. A biopsy of the nasal mucosa showed acute necrotic inflammation. The serological examination revealed markedly elevated anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) titres with positive reactions against proteinase-3, indicating Wegener's disease. Additional testing also showed a positive ANCA reaction for human neutrophil elastase, which made cocaine use a more plausible cause for the nasal abnormalities than Wegener's disease. Treatment consisted of nasal flushing with saline and, for a short period, a nasal tampon with hydrocortisone-oxytetracycline-polymyxin B ointment. However, the patient did, ultimately, develop a septal perforation. Cocaine-induced nasal abnormalities can imitate symptoms that may fit Wegener's disease, including relevant serological ANCA findings.

  9. Before New Big Science: Alfred O. C. Nier and the Resurrection of Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The mass spectrometer found its first success as a means to determine the isotopic masses and constitutions of chemical elements. As the last known elements were analyzed, its future in physics and chemistry laboratories was in doubt. From the 1940s to the 1960s, however, the mass spectrometer transformed from an instrument built for a specific purpose into a flexible analytical tool that brought together researchers from disciplines across the natural sciences. This talk examines that transition through the career of Alfred Otto Carl Nier, the University of Minnesota mass spectroscopist who was instrumental in both finding new realms where his favored tool could be applied and in building an interdisciplinary community around it. It argues that the reinvention of the mass spectrometer that Nier helped effect prefigured a similar transition in accelerator laboratories, which Catherine Westfall and Robert P. Crease have called ``New Big Science,'' some decades later.

  10. The Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein Signaling Then and Now: A Tribute to Alfred G. Gilman.

    PubMed

    Sunahara, Roger K; Insel, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    The recent, unfortunate death of Alfred G. ("Al") Gilman, M.D., Ph.D., represents a sad signpost for an era spanning over 40 years in molecular pharmacology. Gilman's discoveries, influence, and persona were dominant forces in research and training in pharmacology. Here, we review the progression of ideas and knowledge that spawned early work by Gilman and collaborators (among them, one of the authors) and later efforts (including those of the other author) that have recently yielded a comprehensive and precise structural understanding of fundamental topics in pharmacology: the binding of ligands to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the interaction of GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins and effector molecules. Those data provide new and important insights into the molecular basis that underlies affinity and efficacy, two of the most important features of drug action, which represent the latest chapter in the saga that Al Gilman's work helped launch.

  11. Capturing the will: Imposture, delusion, and exposure in Alfred Russel Wallace's defence of spirit photography.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Benjamin David

    2014-06-01

    The co-discoverer of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace, found himself deeply embroiled in a range of controversies surrounding the relationship between science and spiritualism. At the heart of these controversies lay a crisis of evidence in cases of delusion or imposture. He had the chance to observe the many epistemic impasses brought about by this crisis while participating in the trial of the American medium Henry Slade, and through his exchanges with the physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter and the psychical researcher Frederic Myers. These contexts help to explain the increasing value that Wallace placed on the evidence of spirit photography. He hoped that it could simultaneously break these impasses, while answering once and for all the interconnected questions of the unity of the psyche and the reliability of human observation.

  12. Alfred Russel Wallace's medical libertarianism: state medicine, human progress, and evolutionary purpose.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), naturalist and explorer of South America and the Malay Archipelago, secured his place in history by independently discovering the theory of natural selection. His letter outlining the theory was sent from Ternate in eastern Indonesia and received at Down House, according to Charles Darwin (1809-82), on June 18, 1858, prompting the now-famed evolutionist to rush his languishing manuscript to press. Wallace's contributions to evolutionary biology, biogeography, and anthropology are well known, but his medical views have received far less attention. Within the context of a strident populist antivaccination movement and an ominous elitist eugenics campaign, Wallace took his stand, which revealed itself in a libertarianism that defended traditional socialist constituencies (the working poor, the lumpenproletariat, and feminist reformers) against state-mandated medical interventions. Rather than viewing Wallace as a heterodox contrarian, this article argues that his positions were logical outgrowths of his medical libertarianism and evolutionary and social theories.

  13. Archival note: an inquiry into the relationshp between Alfred Binet and Cyril Burt.

    PubMed

    Faber, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Two recent archival items offer material for analysis of Alfred Binet's (1857-1911) and Cyril Burt's (1883-1971) relationship in the early twentieth century. Burt's letter to Binet's biographer Theta Wolf was an answer to her request for information about his contact with Binet. An analysis of Burt's account prompts more questions than it answers. His statements in the letter are compared with previous ones and are put into the context of the activities of the two men, but these do not enlighten us about his actual relations with Binet. The problem arises because of Burt's desciptive vagueness and lack of supporting evidence. Despite attacks against Burt's integrity made from 1976 onward, we found no conclusive evidence of false claims. The negative outcome of this analysis probably results from Burt's faulty memory, and herein lies the caveat that personal memories make unreliable material for historical accounts.

  14. Alfred P. Southwick, MDS, DDS: dental practitioner, educator and originator of electrical executions.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    2000-11-01

    The search for a modern, humane method of criminal execution was triggered by a freak accident which occurred in Buffalo, New York in 1881. Dr. Alfred P. Southwick (a former steam-boat engineer, noted dentist and dental educator) happened to witness an intoxicated man die after he inadvertently touched a live generator terminal. Southwick's initial reaction was shock. Later, as he pondered this tragic event, he concluded that electrocution was, at least, a quick and seemingly painless way to depart from this earth. As his thoughts turned to common methods of capital punishment, Alfred concluded that death by electrocution could become a more humane alternative, as compared with the more grisly methods (e.g., hanging, beheading by guillotine, garroting, suffocation and flaying). Working through the governor of New York and the state legislature, Southwick originated and successfully promoted the passage of laws which mandated electrical executions in New York and in approximately 20 other states. During 1888-1889, Southwick served on the state's three-person Electrical Death Commission, a group who reported that electrical execution was superior to all other methods. On January 1, 1889, the world's first electrical execution law went into effect. On August 6, 1890, William Francis Kemmler, who had murdered his mistress, was the first person to die in the electric chair. However, this public event became an amateurish spectacle: the initial surge of current did not cause Kemmler's immediate death and a second jolt was needed. Those who witnessed this bungled execution were stunned. Graphic and detailed criticism from both the press and the general public ran high. However, Dr. Southwick vigorously continued to support and finally achieve his goal--to humanize capital punishment through the legal use of electrical execution.

  15. Persistent expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Abdulahad, W H; van der Geld, Y M; Stegeman, C A; Kallenberg, C G M

    2006-09-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is associated with an ongoing immune effector response, even in remission, we examined the distribution of peripheral naive and memory T-lymphocytes in this disease, and analyzed the function-related phenotypes of the memory T-cell population. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were freshly isolated from WG-patients in remission (R-WG, n=40), active WG-patients (A-WG, n=17), and age-matched healthy controls (HCs, n=21). Expression of CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CCR7, interleukin (IL)-18Ralpha, ST2L, and FoxP3 were determined by four-color flow cytometric analysis. CD45RO and CCR7 were used for distinction between naive and memory T cells, IL-18Ralpha, ST2L, and FoxP3 for the assessment of Type1, Type2, and regulatory T-cells, respectively. In R-WG, the CD4+CD45RO+CCR7- effector memory T-cell subpopulation (TEM) was relatively increased, whereas the CD4+CD45RO-CCR7+ naive T-cell population (TNaive) was decreased as compared to HC. The distribution of naive and memory CD8+T cells did not differ between R-WG, A-WG, and HC, nor did CD4+CD45RO+CCR7+ central memory T cells (TCM). In contrast to HC, the percentage of CD4+TNaive cells in R-WG correlated negatively with age, whereas CD4+TEM cells showed a positive correlation. In R-WG, a skewing towards Type2 T cells was observed in CD4+TEM cells. No differences were detected in FoxP3+CD4+TEM cells between R-WG and A-WG, whereas the FoxP3-CD4+TEM cells were increased in R-WG and decreased in A-WG as compared to HC. Collectively, peripheral blood homeostasis of CD4+T cells is disturbed in R-WG with the persistent expansion of non-regulatory CD4+TEM cells. These cells might be involved in relapse and may constitute a target for therapy.

  16. The Dead Sea Transform as exemplary pattern for the quest of the Wegener Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Damm, V.; Piepjohn, K.; Tessensohn, F.; Neben, S.

    2006-12-01

    The northern Baffin Bay (BB) forms a tectonic system around a triple point which is similar to the northern Red Sea (RS) triple junction. The oceanic BB is supposed to have formed by sea floor spreading, although no marine magnetic anomalies have been found north of Davis Strait, so far. The spreading history is derived from the Labrador Sea, south of the BB. The supposed triple junction is located between Baffin and Ellesmere Islands, where the left-lateral Wegener Fault (WF) branches off, as well as the failed rift arm Lancaster Sound and/or Jones Sound. The area forms a key region in order to understand the late break-up development of Laurasia. There is an ongoing debate about the amount of left lateral displacement that was compensated along the WF between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Evidence for left lateral motion is found in most parts of the Nares Strait (NS). But, in the south, towards the triple junction (Smith Sound), evidence for the fault is lacking. A similar tectonic system is located in the northern Red Sea (RS) area. The Dead Sea Transform (DST)/Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) joins the RS-rift south of the Sinai Peninsula. The other arm of the triple junction extends into the Gulf of Suez. The RS-rift is active since the Middle Oligocene and the left lateral displacement of 105 km along the DST began about 18 Ma ago. The comparison between the BB/NS region and the northern RS/GoA could shed light onto the unknown processes of tectonic development of both systems. The DST and its accompanying structures are well known. Similar tectonic features and geophysical evidence are found along the WF. On the other hand, the actual stage of development of the northern RS is still unknown. The investigation of the transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading in the southern BB could provide evidence for the actual status quo in the northern RS. A compilation of recent marine seismic and bathymetric data of the NS (BGR 01) and the GoA and northern RS

  17. How Earth works 100 years after Wegener's continental drift theory and IGCP 648

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Evans, D. A.; Zhong, S.; Eglington, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    It took half a century for Wegener's continental drift theory to be accepted as a fundamental element of the plate tectonic theory. Another half a century on, we are still unsure of the driving mechanism for plate tectonics: is it dominated by thermal convection, gravitational forces, or by a combination of mechanisms? Nonetheless, breakthroughs in the past decades put us in a position to make a major stride in answering this question. These include: (1) widely accepted cyclic occurrences of supercontinent assembly and break-up (whereas random occurrence of supercontinents was an equal possibility in the 1990s); (2) the discovery of two equatorial and antipodal large low seismic velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that dominate the lower mantle and appear to have been the base for almost all mantle plumes since at the Mesozoic, and of subduction of oceanic slabs all the way to the core-mantle boundary, which together suggesting whole-mantle convection; (3) the recognition of true polar wander (TPW) as an important process in Earth history, likely reflecting Earth's major internal mass redistribution events; and (4) rapidly enhancing computer modelling power enabling us to simulate all aspect of Earth's dynamic inner working. Many new yet often controversial ideas have been proposed, such a possible coupling in time (with an offset) and space between supercontinent cycle and superplume (LLSVP) events which oppose to the idea of static and long-lived LLSVPs, and the orthoversion v.s. introversion or extroversion models for supercontinent transition. To fully utilise these advances as well as the rapidly expanding global geoscience databases to address the question of how Earth works, an UNESCO-IUGS sponsored IGCP project No. 648 was formed to coordinate a global cross-disciplinary effort. We aim to achieve a better understanding of the supercontinent cycle, and examine the relationship between supercontinent cycle and global plume events. We will establish a series of global

  18. [A case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in the course of Wegener's granulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Idasiak-Piechocka, I; Oko, A; Łochyńska, K; Woźniak, A; Czekalski, S

    2000-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of the respiratory tract and glomerulonephritis (GN). Prognosis of this disease is poor and about 20% of untreated patients die after one year from the onset. WG was recognized in 45-year-old patient on the basis of: 1) clinical symptoms (joint pain and swollen, purpura on the skin which appeared one week after respiratory tract infection, ulceration of the tonsils and lingula), 2) results of additional testing (X-chest-ray-infiltrates of both lungs), positive results of the cANCA (titre 1:640) and rapidly progressive renal failure [the increase of serum creatinine level (Pcr) from 123.7 to 707 mumol/l (1.4 to 8.0 mg/dl) during one week]. Renal biopsy revealed extracapillary GN (cellular crescents in 7 out of 8 glomeruli and scattered foci of fibrinoid necrosis of capillary walls in all). At the beginning of the treatment Pcr raised to 884 mumol/l (10 mg/dl) and the patient required hemodialysis. He was treated with methylprednisolone (M) at flash doses of 1000 mg/24 h by three days followed by 125 mg/24 h i.v.--because of peptic ulcer, with cyclophosphamide (C-150 mg/24 h p.p.), with trimetoprim/sulphametoxazole, with pentoxifylline and omeprazol. After six weeks of the treatment in the control kidney biopsy sclerotic changes in 10 out of 13 glomeruli and diffuse interstitial fibrosis were found. However, during the same time, we observed clinical remission of the disease and the decrease of Pcr to 176.8 mumol/l (2 mg/dl). The M dosis was reduced by 5 mg every weeks and the C dosis--to 50 mg (because of the increase of aminotransferase levels) After six months of the treatment Pcr was 132.6 mumol/l (1.5 mg/dl) and CANCA titer was 1:16. In this case of RPGN, despite off the progression of the morphological changes in the kidney, we obtained the clinical remission of the disease and significant decrease of Pcr level. These results suggest that aggressive treatment of WG is justified even in

  19. Effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process to Black Carbon Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; He, Cenlin; Wang, Xin; Huang, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    We systematically investigated the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process to black carbon (BC) simulation by a global 3D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem constrained by measurements of BC scavenging efficiencies, concentration in air, deposition fluxes, concentration in snow and washout ratios. Including effect of WBF process reduces the annual mean BC scavenging efficiencies (the ratio of BC in cloud droplets to total BC) at all altitudes by 43-76% in the Arctic. For mid latitude BC scavenging efficiencies decrease by 8-22%, 23-39%, and 41-50% in lower (0-2 km), middle (2-5 km) and upper troposphere (5-10 km), respectively. Simulated BC in air in the Arctic and at mid altitude (˜4 km) in mid latitude increases by ˜40%, and the discrepancy reduces from -65% to -30%. Simulated median BC in snow decreases from 25.7 to 22.4 ng g-1, by 15% in mid latitude and increases from 8.7 to 11.0 ng g-1, by 26% in the Arctic and the comparison with observations improves. The model overestimates washout ratios (ratio of BC in fresh snow/rain to BC in surface air) at most of the sites by up to a factor of 165. With effect of WBF process included, the discrepancy decreases to a factor of 72. The simulated BC burden increases from 0.22 to 0.35 mg m-2 yr-1 when effect of WBF process is included, partly explains the scaled up of BC burden in Bond et al., 2013. Moreover, burden above 5 km increases from 22% to 27% when WBF process is included, indicating a higher forcing efficiency. We also found that BC simulation is insensitive to the temperature criteria between mixed phase clouds and ice clouds. The simulated BC burden is the same when the temperature is set as -15° C and -25° C. This study also suggests that more observations are needed to better distinguish riming dominated and WBF dominated conditions and better parameterize BC scavenging efficiency under the two conditions.

  20. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    PubMed

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  1. Eminent Victorian dentistry. 1. John Ruskin and the patient experience of Victorian dentistry. Ruskin's dentist, Alfred James Woodhouse.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M G H

    2011-02-26

    This paper describes the relationship between John Ruskin [1819-1900] the Victorian artist, writer, and critic, and Alfred James Woodhouse [1824-1906], the dentist who cared for him from 1866 to 1883. Although Ruskin was perhaps not quite as eccentric as a recent television series has portrayed him, he was certainly not conventional, and the relationship with his dentist was also not entirely conventional.

  2. The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing. In 1909, Ernst Haeckel gave a talk in Jena, later published under the title The worldview of Darwin and Lamarck (Das Weltbild von Darwin und Lamarck), but not as the Darwin-Wallace concept. Haeckel mentions Wallace only once. In two important proceedings volumes from the 1959 anniversaries, Wallace was ignored. The only fair treatment of Wallace is given in another book, a collection of documents edited by Gerhard Heberer, for which the author selected nine key documents and reprinted excerpts (1959). Three of them were articles by Wallace, including the Sarawak- and Ternate-papers of 1855 and 1858, respectively. An analysis of the dominant themes during the celebrations of 2009 shows that none of the six topics had much to do with Wallace and his work. Thus, the tendency to exclude Alfred Russell Wallace is an international phenomenon, and largely attributable to the "Darwin industry".

  3. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A H; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-07-02

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace's pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group.

  4. Alfred Walter Campbell and the visual functions of the occipital cortex.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2014-07-01

    In his pioneering cytoarchitectonic studies of the human brain, Alfred Walter Campbell identified two structurally different areas in the occipital lobes and assigned two different kinds of visual functions to them. The first area, the visuosensory, was essentially on the mesial surface of the calcarine fissure. It was the terminus of nervous impulses generated in the retina and was where simple visual sensations arose. The second area, the visuopsychic, which surrounded or invested the first, was where sensations were interpreted and elaborated into visual perceptions. I argue that Campbell's distinction between the two areas was the starting point for the eventual differentiation of areas V1-V5. After a brief outline of Campbell's early life and education in Australia and of his Scottish medical education and early work as a pathologist at the Lancashire County Lunatic Asylum at Rainhill near Liverpool, I summarise his work on the human brain. In describing the structures he identified in the occipital lobes, I analyse the similarities and differences between them and the related structures identified by Joseph Shaw Bolton. I conclude by proposing some reasons for how that work came to be overshadowed by the later studies of Brodmann and for the more general lack of recognition given Campbell and his work. Those reasons include the effect of the controversies precipitated by Campbell's alliance with Charles Sherrington over the functions of the sensory and motor cortices.

  5. The ornithologist Alfred Russel Wallace and the controversy surrounding the dinosaurian origin of birds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nizar; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Over many years of his life, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) explored the tropical forests of Malaysia, collecting numerous specimens, including hundreds of birds, many of them new to science. Subsequently, Wallace published a series of papers on systematic ornithology, and discovered a new species on top of a volcano on Ternate, where he wrote, in 1858, his famous essay on natural selection. Based on this hands-on experience, and an analysis of an Archaeopteryx fossil, Wallace suggested that birds may have descended from dinosaurian ancestors. Here, we describe the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis" that originated with the work of Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895). We present the strong evidence linking theropod dinosaurs to birds, and briefly outline the long and ongoing controversy around this concept. Dinosaurs preserving plumage, nesting sites and trace fossils provide overwhelming evidence for the dinosaurian origin of birds. Based on these recent findings of paleontological research, we conclude that extant birds indeed descended, with some modifications, from small, Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. In the light of Wallace's view of bird origins, we critically evaluate recent opposing views to this idea, including Ernst Mayr's (1904-2005) arguments against the "dinosaur-bird hypothesis", and document that this famous ornithologist was not correct in his assessment of this important aspect of vertebrate evolution.

  6. Stereochemistry of coordination compounds. From alfred werner to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    von Zelewsky, Alex

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the scientific symposium, November 22nd, 2013, commemorating the Nobel Prize awarded to Alfred Werner in 1913, a presentation of the development of stereochemistry of coordination compounds during the past 120 years was given. Stereochemistry was fundamental to Werner's theory of coordination compounds. After Werner's death in 1919, stereochemistry in this field did not progress much further for almost 20 years, but then developed continuously. It was realized that stereochemical features of elements showing coordination numbers larger than four are responsible for an almost unlimited number of stereochemical possibilities, thus opening a molecular world of new structures. In the beginning of the 21st century, interest in the field rose again considerably, mainly due to the potential of stereoselective catalysis, and the self-assembly of supramolecular structures. An end of these developments is not in sight. Here an abbreviated version of the lecture is given. A PowerPoint(®) file, or a video of the presentation, can be downloaded.

  7. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Fabien L.; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Genson, Gwenaelle; Sperling, Felix A. H.; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after Alfred Wallace studied the geographical variation and species diversity of butterflies in the Indomalayan-Australasian Archipelago, the processes responsible for their biogeographical pattern remain equivocal. We analysed the macroevolutionary mechanisms accounting for the temporal and geographical diversification of the charismatic birdwing butterflies (Papilionidae), a major focus of Wallace’s pioneering work. Bayesian phylogenetics and dating analyses of the birdwings were conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The combination of maximum likelihood analyses to estimate biogeographical history and diversification rates reveals that diversity-dependence processes drove the radiation of birdwings, and that speciation was often associated with founder-events colonizing new islands, especially in Wallacea. Palaeo-environment diversification models also suggest that high extinction rates occurred during periods of elevated sea level and global warming. We demonstrated a pattern of spatio-temporal habitat dynamics that continuously created or erased habitats suitable for birdwing biodiversity. Since birdwings were extinction-prone during the Miocene (warmer temperatures and elevated sea levels), the cooling period after the mid-Miocene climatic optimum fostered birdwing diversification due to the release of extinction. This also suggests that current global changes may represent a serious conservation threat to this flagship group. PMID:26133078

  8. Alfred Russel Wallace and the destruction of island life: the Iguana tragedy.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Kleinhans, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), but Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. In contrast to Darwin, Wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. Here, we outline two case studies pertinent to Wallace's prediction. First, we summarize the behavior of the predator-naive marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands, which are threatened by feral dogs and cats imported by humans. We also describe the unique life cycle of the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura bakeri) from the island of Utila (Honduras), a rare species whose populations are declining because of habitat destructions. In contrast to these threatened, endemic island species, the Green iguana (Iguana iguana) is still widely distributed, although, as a result of de-forestation, in some areas of South America local populations have disappeared. We conclude that Wallace was correct in his prediction that, because of human activities, numerous species of animals and plants will be driven to extinction, notably on islands.

  9. [Alfred Binet and the first 'measures' of intelligence (1905-1908)].

    PubMed

    Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is considered the most representative exponent of the second generation of French experimental psychologists. His scientific work was inspired both by the experimentalism that Théodule Ribot and Hippolyte Taine introduced in France at the end of the 1870s, and by that of Wundt. Drawing from numerous sources, Binet was able to elaborate a psychology that focused on experiments and a controlled observation of pathological phenomena, with the objective of differentiating them from normal phenomena. His scientific production was moreover characterized by the emphasis placed upon the experimental study of "superior" psychic phenomena and, in particular, on their measurement. The aim of this paper is to describe the stages and sources of the "psychological" study of intelligence, which constituted precisely the fil rouge that had indispensably to be followed in order to fully understand the originality of all of Binet's research, whose most mature product was undoubtedly represented by the development of the Echelle métrique de l'intelligence, the first intelligence test in the history of psychology.

  10. Politics and naturalism in the 20th century psychology of Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-11-01

    Alfred Binet is internationally recognized as the "father" of the first intelligence test as well as the most faithful French representative of laboratory experimentalism. A historical analysis of his work is therefore necessary to get to a thorough comprehension of 20th century psychology. The present article, starting from Binet's intellectual path and from the suggestions of the previous historical literature, aims at providing fresh insights into Binet's work by trying to capture the intersections between Binet, his naturalistic culture and the political context in which he worked in the early 20th century, when he actively tried to apply experimental psychology to the pedagogical area. In fact, it is possible to underline, with reference to those years, an evident turn towards applications in Binet's psychological production. The article reconstructs the political and institutional background of Binet's research and shows how the naturalism and experimentalism he promoted were complementary to the solidarist conceptions that were particularly prevalent among those who supported his work during the Third Republic.

  11. Real-Time Measurements of Sediment Modification by Large Macrofauna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    to organism behaviors. Nils Volkenborn ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) and Lubos Polerecky (Microsensors Group, Max Planck...at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. We combined geochemistry, physics, and behavior studies of Arenicola marina using...infauna have been excluded so that the biogenic hydraulic head causing advection can be measured. Nils Volkenborn and Karsten Reise ( Alfred

  12. Recombinant proteinase 3 (Wegener's antigen) expressed in Pichia pastoris is functionally active and is recognized by patient sera.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, M C; Heeringa, P; van der Geld, Y M; Huitema, M G; Klimp, A; Tiran, A; Kallenberg, C G

    1997-11-01

    The open reading frame of human proteinase 3 (PR3) without the prepro-peptide was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (rcPR3) and in Pichia pastoris (rpPR3). The 6-histidine tagged rpPR3 was efficiently secreted into culture supernatant from which it could be purified by immobilized metal chelate chromatography. Purified rpPR3 migrated as a single 32-kD band on SDS-PAGE and harboured protease activity that could be inhibited with inhibitors specific for serine-proteases. By indirect antigen-capture ELISA using rpPR3, 60% of sera from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis bound to the recombinant product, although it was not recognized in ELISA with directly coated rpPR3.

  13. Hémothorax spontané révélant une vascularite de Wegener chez une femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Serhane, Hind; Yassine, Msougar; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    L’hémothorax spontané demeure une pathologie rare. Ses étiologies sont multiples mais restent parfois inconnues. Chez certains patients, la thoracotomie peut être le seul recours pour déterminer son origine. Les vascularites n’ont pas été rapporté comme cause habituelle des hémothorax spontanés. La grossesse ne semble pas avoir d’effet causal, ni aggravant des hémothorax spontanés, ni des vascularites. Nous rapportons une observation assez particulière d’une jeune patiente, présentant au cours de sa grossesse un hémothorax spontané secondaire à une vasularite de type Wegener, diagnostiquée par la biopsie pleurale faite au cours d’une thoracotomie exploratrice et confirmée par le dosage des ANCA. PMID:28154726

  14. Pathways to ANCA production: from differentiation of dendritic cells by proteinase 3 to B lymphocyte maturation in Wegener's granuloma.

    PubMed

    Csernok, Elena; Moosig, Frank; Gross, Wolgang L

    2008-06-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome are idiopathic systemic vasculitides in which circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) are commonly found. Within the last 25 years, these antibodies were subject of intensive studies, and a growing body of evidence arose for a distinct role of ANCA in the pathogenesis of the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Yet, the evidence derived from clinical observations and in vitro studies remains circumstantial. The various animal models have provided substantial support for a pathogenic role of MPO-ANCA in vivo, but the debate if ANCA play a primary role in the pathogenesis of these diseases is still open. The aim of this review was to update current basic and clinical research on ANCA in the pathophysiology of AAV and to point out and discuss limitations and inconsistencies of the clinical and experimental evidence.

  15. C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis induces lung vasculitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    WEIDEBACH, W; VIANA, V S T; LEON, E P; BUENO, C; LEME, A S; ARANTES-COSTA, F M; MARTINS, M A; SALDIVA, P H N; BONFA, E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse in rats the ability of C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction in triggering inflammatory response on pulmonary tissue. Wistar rats (n = 18) were injected via the the internal jugular vein with 20 mg of total C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction isolated from serum of three different Wegener's granulomatosis patients obtained before therapy. Similarly, control rats were treated with IgG fraction from two rheumatoid arthritis patients (n = 7), IgG from six normal human sera (n = 15) or saline (n = 18), respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24h of injection for histological analysis of the lungs. Vasculitis and inflammatory infiltrate were consistently absent in rats injected with rheumatoid arthritis IgG or saline and in 14/15 of normal IgG treated animals. In contrast, marked vasculitis was observed in all 18 animals injected with C-ANCA-positive IgG fraction. The histological features were characterized by the presence of a perivascular pleomorphic cellular sheath, particularly around small vessels, endothelial adherence and diapedesis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and presence of granuloma-like lesions. A dose–response relationship was observed between protein concentration of C-ANCA IgG sample and the intensity of the inflammatory response in the animals. In addition, IgG fraction with undetectable C-ANCA, obtained from one patient in remission after treatment, was not able to reproduce the pulmonary tissue alterations induced by its paired IgG that was positive for C-ANCA taken before therapy. The experimental model described herein may be useful to characterize more effectively the pathogenic mechanism of C-ANCA in Wegener's disease. PMID:12100022

  16. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  17. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history.

  18. The color of complexes and UV-vis spectroscopy as an analytical tool of Alfred Werner's group at the University of Zurich.

    PubMed

    Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Two PhD theses (Alexander Gordienko, 1912; Johannes Angerstein, 1914) and a dissertation in partial fulfillment of a PhD thesis (H. S. French, Zurich, 1914) are reviewed that deal with hitherto unpublished UV-vis spectroscopy work of coordination compounds in the group of Alfred Werner. The method of measurement of UV-vis spectra at Alfred Werner's time is described in detail. Examples of spectra of complexes are given, which were partly interpreted in terms of structure (cis ↔ trans configuration, counting number of bands for structural relationships, and shift of general spectral features by consecutive replacement of ligands). A more complete interpretation of spectra was hampered at Alfred Werner's time by the lack of a light absorption theory and a correct theory of electron excitation, and the lack of a ligand field theory for coordination compounds. The experimentally difficult data acquisitions and the difficult spectral interpretations might have been reasons why this method did not experience a breakthrough in Alfred Werner's group to play a more prominent role as an important analytical method. Nevertheless the application of UV-vis spectroscopy on coordination compounds was unique and novel, and witnesses Alfred Werner's great aptitude and keenness to always try and go beyond conventional practice.

  19. Alfred Donné and Léon Foucault: the first applications of electricity and photography to medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Tobin, William

    2006-03-01

    The first electric projecting microscope and the first published photomicrographs harnessed recent technological developments to provide improved methods of medical illustration for educational purposes. Both projects were the work of two Frenchmen. The impetus came from the microscopist Dr Alfred Donné (1801-78), discoverer of trichomonas vaginalis and leukaemia. Implementation was primarily by his medical-student assistant, Léon Foucault (1819-68), who later gained fame as a physicist, especially with his pendulum demonstration of the Earth's rotation.

  20. Real-Time Measurements of Sediment Modification by Large Macrofauna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    pressure pulses due to organism behaviors. 2 Nils Volkenborn (formerly of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and now a...Volkenborn and Karsten Reise ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) allowed us to use their long term exclusion experiments (20 m by 20 m...Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology and Nils Volkenborn at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research we have now confirmed that

  1. Real-Time Measurements of Sediment Modification by Large Macrofauna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    pressure pulses due to organism behaviors. Nils Volkenborn ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) and Lubos Polerecky (Microsensors...Reise ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) have allowed us to use their long term exclusion experiments (20 m by 20 m) involving...and Nils Volkenborn at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. We combined geochemistry, physics, and behavior studies of

  2. Alfred Pischinger (1899-1983): An Austrian career in anatomy continuing through National Socialism to postwar leadership.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine; Czarnowski, Gabriele

    2017-02-20

    Despite intensified research efforts on the history of anatomy during National Socialism (NS), many aspects of this story still need further investigation. This study explores the life, work and politics of Alfred Pischinger, Chairman of the Institute for Embryology and Histology in Graz from 1936 to 1945, and in Vienna from 1958 to 1970, and is an addition to previous reports on careers in anatomy continuing through the Third Reich to the postwar period. Pischinger was an illegal NSDAP member in Austria, joined the SA in 1938, served as expert in racial hygiene, and as judge on the Genetic Health High Court of Graz. His research focus was histochemistry, but he became part of a scientific network at the University of Graz, which from 1939 on experimented on the bodies of pregnant women and their fetuses under the leadership of gynecologist Karl Ehrhardt. The researchers were among the many who took actively part in the complete exploitation and physical destruction of those considered to be "the enemy" by the NS regime. After the war, Pischinger received publicity for his work on the "scientific basis" of alternative and holistic approaches of medicine. His NS past and fetal experiments seem to have vanished from public knowledge. As systematic studies of the influence of the NS period on postwar medical education and the science of anatomy itself are still missing, this critical investigation of Alfred Pischinger's life within the relevant historic background aims to contribute to this body of knowledge.

  3. B-lymphocyte activating factor levels are increased in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and inversely correlated with ANCA titer.

    PubMed

    Bader, Lucius; Koldingsnes, Wenche; Nossent, Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Circulating autoantibodies against neutrophils (ANCA) are a distinctive finding in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). B-lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) promotes autoantibody production by increasing B cell survival and proliferation. We investigated serum BAFF levels (s-BAFF) in a WG patient cohort in relation to ANCA titers and disease activity. Baseline data were obtained in twenty-two WG patients (55% female, age 44 years, disease duration 1 year). S-BAFF was determined by capture ELISA and associations between s-BAFF, clinical (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) and Disease Extent Index (DEI)) and biochemical (C-reactive protein (CRP), IgG and ANCA) disease measures were analysed in a cross sectional as well as longitudinal analysis. S-BAFF was increased in WG patients compared to healthy controls (1.8 vs. 0.55 ng/ml, p < 0.01). S-BAFF was higher in ANCA negative than ANCA-positive WG sera (2.16 vs. 1.29 ng/ml, p < 0.01), correlated independently and inversely with ANCA levels (Rs -0.48, p < 0.01) but did not correlate with CRP, BVAS, DEI or VDI scores. Individual s-BAFF profiles were stable over time in 68% of patients. The finding of a negative correlation between ANCA levels and s-BAFF that is independent of steroid treatment indicates that BAFF does not directly drive ANCA production in WG.

  4. Examining the Extent and Nature of Online Learning in American K-12 Education: The Research Initiatives of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picciano, Anthony G.; Seaman, Jeff; Shea, Peter; Swan, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 1992, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation began its "Anytime, Anyplace Learning Program", the purpose of which was to explore educational alternatives for people who wanted to pursue an education via Internet technology. Part of this grant activity was a research award to the Babson College Survey Research Group to examine online learning in…

  5. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies target sequential functional proteinase 3 epitopes in the sera of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, B F; Vista, E S; Wynn, D M; Harley, J B; James, J A

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA). Aside from being a diagnostic marker, these autoantibodies may play roles in disease pathogenesis. Proteinase 3 (PR3) is the primary target of c-ANCA in WG patient sera. Of 60 c-ANCA-positive patients, 10 patients were selected for detailed humoral epitope analysis, contingent upon serum availability, using samples with positive levels of anti-PR3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sequential epitope specificities of anti-PR3 antibodies detected by screening the maximally overlapping solid-phase octapeptides of PR3 showed seven major common antigenic targets bound by WG patient sera. These include novel and previously identified sequential PR3 epitopes bound by c-ANCA. B cell epitope prediction algorithms identified all or part of the seven defined epitopes. Several epitopes share sequence and structural proximity with functional sites, including the catalytic triad and proposed binding sites of other potential proteins [PR3 complementary peptide and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR)]. Epitope 4 (VVLGAHNVRTQ) had the highest binding prevalence (90%) and epitope 2 (AQPHSRPYMAS) has the highest average reactivity of the antigenic regions. Epitope 4 includes the interaction site between sEPCR and PR3 which may serve as an important interaction to down-regulate inflammation. Epitopes 3, 5 and 7 are in direct proximity to amino acids that form the catalytic triad of the protein. c-ANCA targets both unique and previously known sequential PR3 peptides. This information may prove useful in understanding anti-PR3-mediated disease pathogenesis in systemic vasculitides. PMID:21077276

  6. Image analysis: a novel approach for the quantification of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Maarten M; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Patnaik, Meeta; Peter, James B; Tervaert, Jan W Cohen

    2003-03-01

    Rises in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) have predictive potential for a relapse of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). To assess the value of image analysis for monitoring ANCA levels, we measured PR3-ANCA in a cohort of PR3-ANCA positive patients with WG that were prospectively followed in our clinic and compared findings with other techniques. ANCA levels were measured serially by quantitative image analysis, titration in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), two different directly coated antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and a capture ELISA using a PR3-specific monoclonal antibody in 16 consecutive WG patients prior to a renal relapse, and in 16 age- and sex-matched patients with inactive WG. The positive predictive value (PPV) of an increase in ANCA titers by image analysis for relapse was 69% (11 of 16). The PPV of an increase in ANCA was 61% (11 of 18) by IIF, 71% (12 of 17) by a commercial direct ELISA, 63% (12 of 19) by in-house direct ELISA, and 75% (12 of 16) by capture ELISA. The negative predictive value (NPV) of the absence of an increase in ANCA titers by image analysis for relapse was 69% (11 of 16). The NPV of the absence of an increase in ANCA was 64% (9 of 14) by IIF, 73% (11 of 15) by a commercial direct ELISA, 63% (9 of 13) by in-house direct ELISA, and 75% (12 of 16) by capture ELISA. In conclusions, quantitative image analysis is a novel technique based on the principle of IIF to quantify ANCA levels in a single dilution in a patient sample. No major differences were observed between image analysis and the other techniques in their capacity to predict relapses of disease activity.

  7. Infectious serologies and autoantibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis and other vasculitides: novel associations disclosed using the Rad BioPlex 2200.

    PubMed

    Lidar, Merav; Lipschitz, Noga; Langevitz, Pnina; Barzilai, Ori; Ram, Maya; Porat-Katz, Bat-Sheba; Pagnoux, Christian; Guilpain, Philippe; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Radice, Antonella; Bizzaro, Nicola; Damoiseaux, Jan; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Martin, Javier; Guillevin, Loïc; Bombardieri, Stefano; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-09-01

    In this study we assess the presence of antibodies against infectious agents as well as for a variety of autoantibodies in an attempt to establish associations between various vasculitides and infections in order to shed light on the etiopathogenesis of these diseases and perhaps implicate a potential cure. Sera from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg Strauss, and giant cell arteritis were compared to healthy control sera. Serum samples were assessed, using the Bio-Rad BioPlex 2200, for the presence of Toxoplama gondii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Treponema pallidum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies were assessed by ELISA. In addition, sera were tested for a panel of antibodies associated with thrombophilia as well as various autoantibodies. The prevalence of antibodies toward HCV and H. pylori was significantly higher among patients with WG. IgG antibodies toward T. gondii and IgM antibodies toward CMV were significantly more common among WG patients than among controls. WG patients exhibited more antibodies toward EBV viral capsid antigen IgG and EBV early antigen IgG compared to sera from healthy controls. In WG, positive associations were disclosed between CMV IgG antibodies and the presence of gastrointestinal manifestations and renal involvement, and there was a higher Birmingham vasculitis activity score in association with elevated titers of EBV viral capsid antigen IgG antibodies. Otorhinolaryngeal manifestations were more common in those with positive IgG antibodies for EBV early antigen. Our results unveil novel associations between WG and various infectious agents, including HCV, H. pylori, T. gondii, CMV, and EBV. In addition to putative roles in initiation and exacerbation of the vasculitic process, it seems that these infectious agents also modulate the clinical phenotype of the

  8. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated.

  9. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    South-eastern Austria is characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns. For this reason, the county of Feldbach was selected by the Wegener Center as a focus area for a pioneering observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network (in brief WegenerNet) comprises 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km (~ 1.4 km × 1.4 km station grid). All stations measure the main parameters temperature, humidity and precipitation with 5 minute sampling. Selected further stations include measurements of wind speed and direction completed by soil parameters as well as air pressure and net radiation. The collected data is integrated in an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, product generation, and visualization. Each station is equipped with an internet-attached data logger and the measurements are transferred as binary files via GPRS to the WegenerNet server in 1 hour intervals. The incoming raw data files of measured parameters as well as several operating values of the data logger are stored in a relational database (PostgreSQL). Next, the raw data pass the Quality Control System (QCS) in which the data are checked for its technical and physical plausibility (e.g., sensor specifications, temporal and spatial variability). In consideration of the data quality (quality flag), the Data Product Generator (DPG) results in weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 min to annual) for single stations and regular grids. Gridded data are derived by vertical scaling and squared inverse distance interpolation (1 km × 1 km and 0.01° × 0.01° grids). Both subsystems (QCS and DPG) are realized by the programming language Python. For application purposes the resulting data products are available via the bi-lingual (dt, en) WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). At this time, the main interface is still online in a system in which

  10. Discrimination and variable impact of ANCA binding to different surface epitopes on proteinase 3, the Wegener's autoantigen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco; Hummel, Amber M; Jenne, Dieter E; Specks, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are highly specific for the autoimmune small vessel vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). PR3-ANCA have proven diagnostic value but their pathogenic potential and utility as a biomarker for disease activity remain unclear. PR3-ANCA recognize conformational epitopes, and epitope-specific PR3-ANCA subsets with variable impact on biological functions of PR3 have been postulated. The aims of this study were to identify specific PR3 surface epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) and to determine whether the findings can be used to measure the functional impact of epitope-specific PR3-ANCA and their potential relationship to disease activity. We used a novel flow cytometry assay based on TALON-beads coated with recombinant human (H) and murine (M) PR3 and 10 custom-designed chimeric human/mouse rPR3-variants (Hm1-5/Mh1-5) identifying 5 separate non-conserved PR3 surface epitopes. Anti-PR3 moAbs recognize 4 major surface epitopes, and we identified the specific surface location of 3 of these with the chimeric rPR3-variants. The ability of PR3-ANCA to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PR3 was measured indirectly using a capture-ELISA system based on the different epitopes recognized by capturing moAbs. Epitope-specific PR3-ANCA capture-ELISA results obtained from patient plasma (n=27) correlated with the inhibition of enzymatic activity of PR3 by paired IgG preparations (r=0.7, P<0.01). The capture-ELISA results also seem to reflect disease activity. In conclusion, insights about epitopes recognized by anti-PR3 moAbs can be applied to separate PR3-ANCA subsets with predictable functional qualities. The ability of PR3-ANCA to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PR3, a property linked to disease activity, can now be gauged using a simple epitope-based capture-ELISA system.

  11. One More Step Toward a Warmer Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-09

    Seattle, WA 98105, USA. A. Beszczynska, E. Fahrbach, R. Gerdes, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, and References U, Schauer, Alfred - Wegener Institut fur Polar...speed of -25 cm/s, with a sampling2Alfred- Wegener Institut fur Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerha- period of 0.5s. The MMP measures temperature

  12. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in Research Career Planning Treatments Patient and Caregiver ... Fellows Evidence-Based Practice for Academic Researchers Responsible Data Management in Research Career Planning Treatments Patient and Caregiver ...

  13. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  14. Biochar and Glomus caledonium influence Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance).

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-14

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  15. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (−62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  16. Engaging with Lyell: Alfred Russel Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers as reactions to Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology.

    PubMed

    Costa, J T

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) are honored as the founders of modern evolutionary biology. Accordingly, much attention has focused on their relationship, from their independent development of the principle of natural selection to the receipt by Darwin of Wallace's essay from Ternate in the spring of 1858, and the subsequent reading of the Wallace and Darwin papers at the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. In the events of 1858 Wallace and Darwin are typically seen as central players, with Darwin's friends Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) playing supporting roles. This narrative has resulted in an under-appreciation of a more central role for Charles Lyell as both Wallace's inspiration and foil. The extensive anti-transmutation arguments in Lyell's landmark Principles of Geology were taken as the definitive statement on the subject. Wallace, in his quest to solve the mystery of species origins, engaged with Lyell's arguments in his private field notebooks in a way that is concordant with his engagement with Lyell in the 1855 and 1858 papers. I show that Lyell was the object of Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers through a consideration of the circumstances that led Wallace to send his Ternate paper to Darwin, together with an analysis of the material that Wallace drew upon from the Principles. In this view Darwin was, ironically, intended for a supporting role in mediating Wallace's attempted dialog with Lyell.

  17. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENT MAKERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: THE CASE OF ALFRED BINET AT THE SORBONNE LABORATORY.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology.

  19. Keeping the fire burning: Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the one of the world's leading physicians during the final third of the 19th century. Rewarded in 1882 with the creation of the first chair in the diseases of the nervous system, he was extremely successful at recruiting loyal and talented students. Charcot himself never produced a general treatise on hysteria, but instead encouraged his pupils to write their own books. Here, we describe how the work on hysteria of Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Richer, Charles Féré and Alfred Binet was closely associated with Charcot, and how they remained faithful to their mentor. We will highlight the unusual personality of G. Gilles de la Tourette and the tragic end to his life, the exceptional artistic talent of P. Richer (writer and painter of his magnificently illustrated thesis), the prolific writing capacity of C. Féré (bearing witness to his broad fields of interest) and A. Binet (blessed with an extraordinary capacity for work, and author of The Psychology of Reasoning, before presenting his metric scale of intelligence).

  20. Un mode de révélation rare de la maladie de Wegener: une myocardite associée a une endocardite fibroblastique

    PubMed Central

    Arous, Salim; Bensahi, Ilham; Noureddine, Malika; Habbal, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons à travers cette observation le cas rare d'une maladie de Wegener révélée par une myocardite associée à une endocardite fibroblastique. Le patient a été admis initialement dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque globale, avec un trouble du rythme type flutter auriculaire à l'ECG. A l’échocardiographie le ventricule gauche était non dilaté, siège d'une dysfonction sévère, avec un dosage des troponines positif. Une insuffisance rénale sévère a été découverte fortuitement nécessitant une hémodialyse, associée à une anémie inflammatoire confirmée par la férritinémie et le myélogramme. Le dosage des c-ANCA était fortement positif confirmant le diagnostic. La TDM thoracique avait objectivé une pneumopathie basale droite. Après avoir démarré un traitement adapté comprenant une corticothérapie et un traitement immunosuppresseur, l’évolution a été favorable avec normalisation de la fonction systolique du ventricule gauche. Bien que les manifestations cardiaques cliniques évidentes soient rares, l'atteinte cardiaque au cours de la maladie de Wegener est décrite, nécessitant une orientation diagnostic rapide et une connaissance rigoureuse de cette maladie grave. PMID:27279960

  1. Mourning Dr. Alfred G. Knudson: the two-hit hypothesis, tumor suppressor genes, and the tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Hino, Okio; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    On July 10, 2016, Alfred G. Knudson, Jr., MD, PhD, a leader in cancer research, died at the age of 93 years. We deeply mourn his loss. Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, published in 1971, has been fundamental for understanding tumor suppressor genes and familial tumor-predisposing syndromes. To understand the molecular mechanism of two-hit-initiated tumorigenesis, Knudson used an animal model of a dominantly inherited tumor, the Eker rat. From the molecular identification of Tsc2 germline mutations, the Eker rat became a model for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a familial tumor-predisposing syndrome. Animal models, including the fly, have greatly contributed to TSC research. Because the product of the TSC2/Tsc2 gene (tuberin) together with hamartin, the product of another TSC gene (TSC1/Tsc1), suppresses mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), rapalogs have been used as therapeutic drugs for TSC. Although significant activity of these drugs has been reported, there are still problems such as recurrence of residual tumors and adverse effects. Recent studies indicate that there are mTORC1-independent signaling pathways downstream of hamartin/tuberin, which may represent new therapeutic targets. The establishment of cellular models, such as pluripotent stem cells with TSC2/Tsc2 gene mutations, will facilitate the understanding of new aspects of TSC pathogenesis and the development of novel treatment options. In this review, we look back at the history of Knudson and animal models of TSC and introduce recent progress in TSC research.

  2. A case of simultaneous, biopsy-proven, classic, ANCA-positive Wegener's granulomatosis and anti-GBM disease, but without detectable circulating anti-GBM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gmurczyk, Aleksandra; Ahya, Shubhada N; Goldschmidt, Robert; Kim, George; Ho, L Tammy; Nash, Kevin

    2010-06-15

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a systemic, necrotizing, granulomatous vasculitis of unknown etiology. Approximately 75% of cases present as classic WG with both pulmonary and renal involvement, while the remaining 25% of patients present with a limited form with either predominantly upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms. Ninety percent of WG patients have circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), and approximately 10% have both circulating ANCA antibodies and concomitant anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease on renal biopsy. Virtually all of these patients also have circulating anti-GBM antibodies. While it has been reported that some patients with ANCA vasculitis have circulating anti-GBM antibodies, and patients with anti-GBM disease may have positive ANCA, review of the literature does not demonstrate other cases of biopsy-proven, simultaneous, ANCA-associated vasculitis and anti-GBM disease. We report a case of simultaneous, biopsy-proven, classic, ANCA-positive WG and anti-GBM disease, but without detectible circulating anti-GBM antibodies. We present findings characteristic of both WG and linear IgG deposition along the GBM suggesting concurrent anti-GBM disease, in the absence of detectable circulating anti-GBM antibodies. Possible theories to explain the absence of these antibodies are discussed.

  3. Proteinase-3 as the major autoantigen of c-ANCA is strongly expressed in lung tissue of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Brockmann, Holger; Schwarting, Andreas; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Petrow, Peter; Gaumann, Andreas; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Galle, Peter Robert; Mayet, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Proteinase-3 (PR-3) is a neutral serine proteinase present in azurophil granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and serves as the major target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with a cytoplasmic staining pattern (c-ANCA) in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The WG disease appears as severe vasculitis in different organs (e.g. kidney, nose and lung). Little is known about the expression and distribution of PR-3 in the lung. We found that PR-3 is expressed in normal lung tissue and is upregulated in lung tissue of patients with WG. Interestingly, the parenchymal cells (pneumocytes type I and II) and macrophages, and not the neutrophils, express PR-3 most strongly and may contribute to lung damage in patients with WG via direct interaction with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antobodies (ANCA). These findings suggest that the PR-3 expression in parenchymal cells of lung tissue could be at least one missing link in the etiopathogenesis of pulmonary pathology in ANCA-associated disease. PMID:12010574

  4. Alfred E. Bergeat (1866-1924): a distinguished volcanologist and ore deposit researching scientist at the mining academies of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains) in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2010-06-01

    Alfred E. Bergeat, originated from a family, who produced gold-glance in a factory (porcelain painting), studied mineralogy and geology at the University of Munich from 1886 to 1892. Due to the results of his habilitation work on the volcanism of island arcs, especially of the Stromboli volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, he became a recognized volcanologist and specialist in volcanic petrography. He further became an explorer of syngenetic, epigenetic and deuterogenic ore deposits at the mining academies (Bergakademien) of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains). He described these ore deposits in a two-volume manual (1904-1906) which was summarized again in 1913. After his early death in 1924, the two manuals “Die Vulkane” (1925) and “Vulkankunde” (1927) were posthumously published by his colleague and friend Karl Sapper (1866-1945).

  5. Interference of PR3-ANCA with the enzymatic activity of PR3: differences in patients during active disease or remission of Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Tool, A T J; Videler, J; de Haas, M; Tervaert, J W Cohen; Stegeman, C A; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G M; Roos, D

    2002-09-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) against proteinase 3 (PR3) are strongly associated with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and are thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. Levels of PR3-ANCA do not always correspond to clinical disease activity. To investigate the relationship between functional effects of PR3-ANCA and disease activity, we tested the effect of IgG samples from sera of 43 WG patients, taken during active disease or remission, for their capacity to interfere with the proteolytic activity of PR3. Furthermore, longitudinal sera of seven WG patients were included. The enzymatic activity of PR3 was determined (1) with casein or with a small synthetic substrate and (2) by complexation of PR3 with alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT). With a fixed concentration (100 microg/ml) of IgG, PR3-ANCA from patients during an active phase of WG had a higher inhibitory capacity towards the proteolytic activity of PR3 and complexation of PR3 with alpha1-AT than did PR3-ANCA from WG patients during remission. However, the number of PR3-ANCA units that gave 50% inhibition of the PR3 enzymatic activity and its complexation with alpha1-AT was lower for patients during remission than for patients during an active phase of WG, indicating a stronger inhibitory capacity at a molar base. In conclusion, PR3-ANCA from patients during remission had a relatively higher inhibitory capacity towards the enzymatic activity of PR3 than PR3-ANCA from patients during an active phase. This may indicate that during active disease the ANCA titre is increased, but the number of active ANCA molecules that recognize the enzyme-inhibiting epitopes is not increased.

  6. Relevance of classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (C-ANCA)-mediated inhibition of proteinase 3-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexation to disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, K M; Stegeman, C A; van de Wiel, B A; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Kallenberg, C G; Goldschmeding, R

    1993-01-01

    In the sera of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), C-ANCA can be detected that are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We have previously observed that C-ANCA interfere with PR3 proteolytic activity and with complexation of PR3 with its major physiologic inhibitor, alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). In the present study we investigated whether this inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation correlates with clinical activity of WG. Serial serum samples of eight consecutive patients with histologically proven relapses of WG were tested. At the moment of relapse all sera revealed inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation (median 22%, range 10-59%). Disease activity score (r = 0.87, P < 0.02) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (r = 0.66, P < 0.1) correlated with C-ANCA inhibition of PR3-alpha 1AT complexation, while they did not correlate with the C-ANCA titre detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) nor with IgG anti-PR3 antibody level measured by ELISA. The inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation had risen significantly at the moment of relapse compared with values 3 months (P < 0.05) and 6 months (P < 0.01) before relapse. Eight patients with established WG and positive for C-ANCA but without clinical evidence of relapse served as controls. In this group no inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation was observed in 7/8 patients sera. Sera of one control patient contained moderate C-ANCA inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation, which remained at a constant level during the 6 months period of observation. Thus, disease activity in WG appears to be more closely related to C-ANCA inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation. PMID:8370167

  7. Representation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process in climate models: Perspectives from a cloud-resolving study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Ghan, Steven; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Korolev, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of Arctic mixed-phase clouds observed during the ISDAC and M-PACE field campaigns are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with size-resolved cloud microphysics. The modeled cloud properties agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements and surface-based retrievals. Cloud properties such as the probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity (w), cloud liquid and ice, regimes of cloud particle growth, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process, and the relationships among properties/processes in mixed-phase clouds are examined to gain insights for improving their representation in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The PDF of the simulated w is well represented by a Gaussian function, validating, at least for arctic clouds, the subgrid treatment used in GCMs. The PDFs of liquid and ice water contents can be approximated by Gamma functions, and a Gaussian function can describe the total water distribution, but a fixed variance assumption should be avoided in both cases. The CRM results support the assumption frequently used in GCMs that mixed phase clouds maintain water vapor near liquid saturation. Thus, ice continues to grow throughout the stratiform cloud but the WBF process occurs in about 50% of cloud volume where liquid and ice co-exist, predominantly in downdrafts. In updrafts, liquid and ice particles grow simultaneously. The relationship between the ice depositional growth rate and cloud ice strongly depends on the capacitance of ice particles. The simplified size-independent capacitance of ice particles used in GCMs could lead to large deviations in ice depositional growth.

  8. Representation of Arctic Mixed-Phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process in Climate Models: Perspectives from a Cloud-Resolving Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Ghan, Steven J.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Korolev, Alexei

    2011-09-20

    Two types of Arctic mixed-phase clouds observed during the ISDAC and M-PACE field campaigns are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with size-resolved cloud microphysics. The modeled cloud properties agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements and surface-based retrievals. Cloud properties such as the probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity (w), cloud liquid and ice, the regime of ice growth at the expense of liquid water (i.e., Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process), and the inherent relationships among cloud properties/processes in the mixed-phase layers are examined to gain insights for improving the representation of the mixed-phase processes in General Circulation Models (GCMs). We find that, the WBF process only occurs in about 50% of the mixed-phase regime with the vast majority occurring in the downdrafts. In updrafts both liquid and ice grow simultaneously. But in GCMs, it is not necessary to treat the WBF process at the subgrid scale. Our CRM results produce a w distribution well represented by a Gaussian normal function, validating, at least for arctic clouds, the subgrid treatment used in GCMs. Our CRM results also support the assumption frequently used in GCMs that mixed phase clouds maintain water vapor very near liquid saturation. A Gamma function with a fixed variance does not accurately represent the subgrid variability of cloud liquid. The PDFs of cloud liquid and cloud ice can be fitted with Gamma functions, and a normal function can be used for total water, but the variance should not be fixed. The relationship between the ice depositional growth rate and cloud ice strongly depends on the capacitance of ice particles. The assumption for the capacitance of ice particles (e.g., 1.0 for spheres) used in GCMs could lead to a large deviation in ice depositional growth. At large sales, the maximum overlap assumption looks appropriate.

  9. The excluded philosophy of evo-devo? Revisiting C.H. Waddington's failed attempt to embed Alfred North Whitehead's "organicism" in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    Though a prominent British developmental biologist in his day, a close friend of Theodosius Dobzhansky, and a frequent correspondent with Ernst Mayr, C.H. Waddington did not enter the ranks of "architect" of the Modern Synthesis. By the end of his career, in fact, he recognized that other biologists reacted to his work "as though they feel obscurely uneasy"; and that the best that some philosophers of biology could say of his work was that he was not "wholly orthodox" (Waddington 1975c, 11). In this essay, I take Waddington's self-assessments at face value and explore three potential reasons why his work did not have more of a direct impact: Waddington's explicit support for the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead; a lack of institutional support; and Waddington's occasional marginalization from the core network of American neo-Darwinians. Though excluded from the Modern Synthesis in the mid-20th century, it now appears that Waddington's work does undergird the emerging evo-devo synthesis. Whether this indicates concomitant, if implicit, support for Whiteheadian philosophy is an interesting question not explored here.

  10. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  11. Resister's logic: the anti-vaccination arguments of Alfred Russel Wallace and their role in the debates over compulsory vaccination in England, 1870-1907.

    PubMed

    Fichman, Martin; Keelan, Jennifer E

    2007-09-01

    In the 1880s, Alfred Russel Wallace, the celebrated co-discoverer of natural selection, launched himself into the centre of a politicised and polarised debate over the unpopular compulsory vaccination laws in England. Wallace never wavered in his belief that smallpox vaccination was useless and likely dangerous. Six years before his death, the anti-vaccinationists successfully secured a conscience clause that effectively dismantled the compulsory vaccination laws. Several other important Victorian scientists joined Wallace in the fight to repeal compulsory vaccination arguing that widely held views on the effectiveness of vaccination and evidence for immunity were inconclusive in the light of (then) contemporary standards of evidence. This article situates Wallace's anti-vaccination logic within the broader matrix of sociopolitical and cultural reform movements of the late Victorian era. Additionally it provides the first detailed analysis of his critique of vaccination science, in particular the role statistics played in his arguments. In this period, both pro-vaccinationists and anti-vaccinationists invested great efforts in collating and analysing statistical data sets that either supported or refuted the claims of vaccination's effectiveness. While each side presented 'controlled' case studies to support their assertions, without an unambiguous test to measure or demonstrate vaccination's effectiveness, the anti-vaccinationists continued to mount credible statistical critiques of vaccination science.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induced differential Cd and P phytoavailability via intercropping of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance): post-harvest study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junli; Li, Jintian; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Ye, Zhihong; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-01

    A post-harvest experiment was conducted further to our previous greenhouse pot study on upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) intercropping system in Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Previously, four treatments were established in the intercropping experiment, including monoculture of kangkong (control), intercropping with stonecrop (IS), and IS plus inoculation with Glomus caledonium (IS+Gc) or Glomus versiforme (IS+Gv). Both kangkong and stonecrop plants were harvested after growing for 8 weeks. Then, the tested soils were reclaimed for growing post-harvest kangkong for 6 weeks. In the post-harvest experiment, there were no significant differences between the IS and control treatments, except for a significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil available P concentration with IS treatment. Compared with IS, both IS+Gc and IS+Gv significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations, but not total Cd, by elevating soil pH, causing significantly lower (p<0.05) Cd concentrations in both the root and shoot of kangkong. In addition, both Gc and Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) soil acid phosphatase activities and available P concentrations and hence resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) plant P acquisitions. However, only Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) kangkong yield, while Gc only significantly elevated (p<0.05) the shoot P concentration. It suggested that AM fungi have played key roles in Cd stabilization and P mobilization in the intercropping system, and such positive responses seemed to be sustainable and valuable in post-harvest soils.

  13. [The Essen-based steel producer Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) as a reader of the flora and fauna of the Gulf of Naples. A look at the relationship of Anton Dohrn (1840-1909) to the house Krupp].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    A unfavourable notice written by industrial magnate Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) has been discovered on the posterior cover sheet of the first volume of the monumental series Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, edited by the Zoological Station at Naples (1880) Krupp's handwritten statement affords the opportunity to discuss in more detail the intricate relationship between the founder of the first marine biology station, Anton Dohrn (1840-1909), and the owner of the greatest steel factory in Europe, the Krupp-family at Essen. Although Anton Dohrn did not know about Krupp's disapproving comment he had a fine unerring instinct for the mentality of his negotiating partner, whose way of thinking rather aimed at the practical success and completion of armament factory, preventing thus a the serious rapprochement between the two personalities. Even when the Krupp-heir, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, later devoted to questions about marine biology in his new built house at Capri, and was willing to support the Zoological Station with high sponsoring, Anton Dohrn maintained a reserved attitude towards the Krupp's offer to support the marine research financially. Likewise, he remained unimpressed, when the steel magnate was shook by the smear campaign in Capri that ultimately led to Krupp's death in November 1902.

  14. Precambrian crustal evolution in relation to geodynamics and supercontinents: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2016-10-01

    More than a century ago, Alfred Wegener explored the origin of continents in his work: "Die Entstehung der Kontinente" (Wegener, 1912, 1915) which provided the core idea of plate tectonics. However, significantly before this work, the idea of "continental drift" was hypothesized by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 with the suggestion that the Americas were torn away from Europe and Africa by earthquakes and floods, and that these continents were once united.

  15. Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing Debashis Chanda1, Kazuki Shigeta1, Sidhartha Gupta1, Tyler Cain1, Andrew Carlson1, Agustin Mihi1, Alfred J. Baca3...2008). 11. Dolling, G., Enkrich, C. & Wegener , M. Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths. Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006...metamaterials. Phys. Rev. B 75, 024304 (2007). 13. Dolling, G., Wegener , M. & Linden, S. Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic

  16. Land-Based Air in a National Maritime Strategy: The Need for a Joint Strategic Doctrine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-30

    Scene i Granting the same aggregate of force, It Is never as great in two hands as in one, because it is not perfectly concentrated.1 Alfred Thayer Mahan... Alfred Thayer Mahan, Naval Strategy (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1911). 2. See Peter M. Swartz, "Contemporary U.S. Naval Strategy: A Bibliography...Principles of Maritime Strategy (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1918), p. 21. 4. Corbett, p. 13. 5. See Edward Wegener , "Theory of Naval Strategy in

  17. Zur Geschichte der Geophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, Klaus

    1980-07-01

    Alfred Wegener's most important work, the theory of continental drift, has a key position in the history of geophysics and has crucially advanced the discussion of this central problem of geodynamics amongst supporters and adversaries. The aim of this paper is to paint a portrait of Wegener's personality, of his stations of life, and of his interests and research work. The conceptions of the origin of continents and oceans prior to Wegener, and the further development of his ideas after his death on the ice cup of Greenland 50 years ago are discussed.

  18. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth sciences in the last 10 years. The theory of plate tectonics combines many of the ideas about continental drift (originally proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener in Germany) and sea-floor spreading (suggested originally by Harry Hess of Princeton University). 

  19. Frank Bursley Taylor - Forgotten Pioneer of Continental Drift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, George W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Frank B. Taylor was an American geologist who specialized in the glacial geology of the Great Lakes. This article discusses his work on the Continental Drift theory, which preceeded the work of Alfred Wegener by a year and a half. (MA)

  20. Topographic Stress in the Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-20

    tilt witnd stress, Itldeed, ilves ’s, takmla- 0 A AQ 1 1) - rb tions described by D. Olbcrs of the Alfred 6 similar to the zonal momentum budget...issue Wegener Institut. Bremerhaven. Federal Re- ’ r’ , in ACC channel geometry.:.L~:-b- "T qg)"-7 in channel.geometry public of Germany, suggest that

  1. A Review of Mechanics and Injury Trends Among Various Running Styles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    running. Sports Eng. 2005;8(1):47-55. McDougall C. 12. Born to Run. New York: Alfred A. Knopf; 2009. Divert C, Mornieux G, Baur H, Mayer F, Belli A...McClay IS, Hamill J. Arch struc-86. ture and injury patterns in runners. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2001;16(4):341-347. Wegener C, Burns J, Penkala

  2. European SEPG 󈨥 Event Planner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    reaching Level 3. AIf Pilgrim Profile - AIf Pilgrim Digital Dr Alfred Pilgrim is the Engineering Manager responsible for several of Digital’s Office and...http:l/www.software.ibm.com/year2000 Internet for benchmark: http:l/www.europe.ibm.comlsoftwarelbenchmk F14 7 ICT NIEUWE WEGEN IN AUTOMArtSERING With

  3. Space Strategy: A Call to Arms for the Sea Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    environment of operations— including the strategic positions within it—affects means. See Wolfgang Wegener , The Naval Strategy of the World War (Berlin...Strategy (London: Longmans, Green, 1911; reprint, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988), 91–93. 7 Alfred T. Mahan, The Problem of Asia and Its

  4. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    In the About AGU article "AGU Union Fellows elected for 2014," published in the 29 July 2014 issue of Eos (95(30), 272, doi:10.1022/ 2014EO300008), a joint research group affiliation was inadvertently omitted for one Fellow. Antje Boetius is with the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany, and the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

  5. Eberhard Fahrbach (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut; Schauer, Ursula; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Rintoul, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Eberhard Fahrbach, an internationally known oceanographer, died on 21 April 2013 at age 65 after battling a brain tumor. He had retired 1 year earlier from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, where he directed research on observational oceanography.

  6. Lovell, Alfred Charles Bernard [Sir Bernard] (1913-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist and astronomer, born in Oldland Common, Gloucestershire, England. Worked on cosmic rays at Manchester, researched radar in the Second World War, and afterwards with J S HEY procured an ex-army mobile radar unit used to detect V-2 rockets and attempted to detect cosmic ray showers with it. Interference from the electric trams at Manchester displaced the work to the university's botanical...

  7. The Alfred Hospital Lung Transplant Experience.

    PubMed

    Paraskeva, Miranda A; Westall, Glen P; Pilcher, David; McGiffin, David; Levvey, Bronwyn J; Williams, Trevor J; Snell, Gregory I

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients undergoing lung transplantation has continued to evolve, leading to improvements in 90-day and 1-year survival. The significant advancements in donor management and utilization at our center have led to significant increases in lung transplant activity without any compromise in recipient outcomes. Through the use of a patient-centered multidisciplinary model of care involved in all aspects of recipient management, from assessment and waitlisting to pre-, peri- and post-operative care, our lung transplant outcomes represent 2015 world's best lung transplant practice.

  8. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  9. Fowler, William Alfred [`Willy'] (1911-95)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    American nuclear physicist, born in Pittsburgh, PA, worked at CalTech. Nobel prizewinner (1983). While at the Kellogg Laboratory studied the nuclear reactions of protons with the isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, the very reactions in the CN cycle identified at that time by HANS BETHE as occurring in the stars. Established the science of nuclear astrophysics. Found that there was a gap in the sequ...

  10. William Alfred Fowler (1911-1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific career of W. A. Fowler enduringly enriched astronomy by providing us with a systematic treatment of nuclear reaction rates in stars. I clarify how and why this achievement earned him both the 1979 Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics (jointly with S. Chandrasekhar). I attempt to share my understanding and experience of this great man, what he was like personally, and the larger context of his life. (SECTION: Obituary)

  11. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-03-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational ideas have now come full circle, and it is time to bring Gage and his texts and ideas to 21st-century physics teachers.

  12. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational…

  13. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  14. Alfred Thayor Mahan and Space: A Necessary Unity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    point for unmanned space exploration, space colony resupply * .and further manned interplanetary exploration. Mankind’s reach after making the transition ...2050 5. Rapid, reliable transport within the Solar sstem. Median date: 2040 . IQR: 2030-2050 6. Detection of an extrasolar planet. .-.- , Median date...This orbital parameter is the dividing line between CLS and Trans-lunar space. The Van Allen belts contain high energy particles which lie in

  15. Out of the Kitchen: The Transformation of Teachers College, Columbia University, 1913-1933. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Salley J.

    A portion of American history (1880-1930) in which institutional sex discrimination was strong is discussed with focus on Teachers College, Columbia University, which became a major center for training teachers and school administrators. Though it became known as the world's foremost education institution, its history reflects the…

  16. Imaging the plate boundary between Greenland and North America within the Kane Basin by means of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Axel; Schnabel, Michael; Damm, Volkmar; Piepjohn, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The Nares Strait is a waterway separating NW Greenland and North America. The nature of the Nares Strait has been subject of discussion for decades, especially if it represents a transform fault that compensated the opening of the Baffin Bay in the Paleogene as Alfred Wegener supposed in 1912. The Kane Basin in the central part of Nares Strait provides an opportunity to cross the proposed fault. Geophysical data were acquired in 2001 and 2010, including among others multichannel and wide-angle seismic data. The eastern part of the Kane Basin is characterized by a solid platform most likely representing a continuation of the Paleoproterozoic Inglefield-Mobile-Belt (Greenland). In the western part, a sedimentary basin with northwestward tilted and eroded layers of Cretaceous age can be resolved. The transition between those two units shows the plate boundary between Greenland and North America and can be considered as a relic of the Wegener Fault.

  17. Continental drift under the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public. Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other hand, continental drift received official support under the Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by most earth scientists outside Germany.

  18. The Ny-Alesund aerosol and ozone measurements intercomparison campaign 1997/1998 (NAOMI-1998)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuber, R.; Beyerle, G.; Beninga, I.; VonderGathen, P.; Rairoux, P.; Schrems, O.; Wahl, P.; Gross, M.; McGee, Th.; Iwasaka, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Shibata, T.; Klein, U.; Steinbrecht, W.

    1998-01-01

    An intercomparison campaign for Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and aerosol has been conducted at the Primary Station of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) in Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen during January-February 1998. In addition to local instrumentation, the NDSC mobile ozone lidar from NASA/GSFC and the mobile aerosol lidar from Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) participated. The aim is the validation of stratospheric ozone and aerosol profile measurements according to NDSC guidelines. This paper briefly presents the employed instruments and outlines the campaign. Results of the blind intercomparison of ozone profiles are given in a companion paper and temperature measurements are described in this issue.

  19. Surfaces and interfaces of glass and ceramics; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Special Topics in Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, N.Y., August 27-29, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, V. D. (Editor); Lacourse, W. C.; Burdick, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    The characterization of surfaces and interfaces is considered along with the infrared spectra of several N-containing compounds absorbed on montmorillonites, applications of surface characterization techniques to glasses, the observation of electronic spectra in glass and ceramic surfaces, a method for determining the preferred orientation of crystallites normal to a surface, and the friction and wear behavior of glasses and ceramics. Attention is given to the wear behavior of cast surface composites, an experimental investigation of the dynamic and thermal characteristics of the ceramic stock removal process, a dynamic elastic model of ceramic stock removal, and the structure and properties of solid surfaces. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  20. School Psychology: Prospective and Retrospective Views of the Field. Proceedings of the Annual Alfred University School Psychology Symposium (20th, Alfred, New York, November 1, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward, Ed.; Faherty, Ellen, Ed.

    Five contributors, viewing the field from divergent phenomenological spaces, provide a variety of viewpoints on the status of the field of school psychology. In "Glimpses of the Future in Current Practice?" Randy W. Kamphaus discusses the changing nature of school psychology, its two identities today, and the need to adapt a core value for…

  1. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's disease): An updated review of ocular disease manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Kubaisi, Buraa; Abu Samra, Khawla; Foster, C. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a potentially lethal systemic disorder that is characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of small arteries and veins. The respiratory system is most commonly affected in limited forms of the disease, however upper and lower respiratory system, systemic vasculitis, and necrotizing glomerulonephritis are the characteristic components of the disease triad. The peak incidence is observed at 64–75 years of age, with a prevalence of 8–10 per million depending on geographic location. In this review we focus on the ocular manifestations of the disease which occur in nearly in one third of the patients. In addition we describe the neuro-ophthalmic complications which occur in up to half of cases. We also discuss the current systemic treatment options including corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and the available biologic response modifiers including rituximab. The disease remains difficult to diagnose due to the generalized symptomatic presentation of patients with GPA. As a result, several sets of diagnostic criteria have been developed which include clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to varying extents. Early diagnosis and multi-specialty collaboration among physicians is necessary to adequately manage the disease and the potential complications that may result from drugs used in the treatment of the disease. Despite recent advances, more research is necessary to prevent the high rates of mortality from the disease itself and from therapeutic side effects. PMID:27195187

  2. WEGENER: Solid Body Dynamics Investigation of Venus. Results from Summer School Alpbach 2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, A.; Coyle, S.; Czeluschke, A.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Donohoe, A.; Hu, H.; Koopmans, R.-J.; Lucchetti, A.; Mannel, T.; Nachon, M.; Nilsson, D.; Shelakhaev, N.; Suer, A.; Timoney, R.

    2015-10-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by the Orange Team during Summer School Alpbach 2014, which mainly concerns about geophysics of terrestrial planets. A mission is designed to investigate the past and current tectonic and volcanic activity on Venus. During the mission, a simultaneous observations from topographic, magnetic and gravitational measurements will be performed and the combination of the information has the potential to provide an improved understanding of the formation and evolution of the planet.

  3. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies should not be used to guide treatment in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, C A

    2004-01-01

    WG can be associated with serious consequences that can occur as a result of active disease or from the side effects of treatment. If the medications used to treat WG were safe, the risk of exposing even a significant proportion of individuals to unwarranted treatment might be a reasonable approach in light of the nature of the disease process. In the setting of toxic medications though, the use of preemptive treatment based on ANCA alone and the potential for unnecessary exposure to side effects cannot be justified in the absence of compelling evidence. Unfortunately, the medical literature does not support that the benefits of preemptive treatment determined by ANCA outweigh the risks. To treat solely on the basis of ANCA potentially exposes an unacceptably high number of patients to the toxicities of treatment that they would not have needed. It is for these reasons that treatment decisions in WG should not be based on ANCA alone in the absence of clinical evidence of disease activity.

  4. Citation for presentation of the 2010 Alfred Treibs Award to John Volkman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Jan W.

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decades, Dr. John Volkman has established himself as a world authority on the discovery and application of biomarkers in organic geochemistry, environmental geochemistry, petroleum geochemistry and palaeoclimatology. His work has laid the foundation on which much modern biomarker research is based and his studies of lipids in microalgae, in particular, have had a considerable influence and is widely cited. He has identified many new compounds including sterols, alcohols, diols and hydrocarbons. He has written a large number of review papers which are commonly used by younger organic geochemists to become acquainted with the field and as reference work by many others. John Volkman is truly exceptional in the breadth of expertise, his ability to integrate different sub-disciplines and his openness for young organic geochemists to act as a sparring-partner in scientific discussions. John has achieved this very impressive record even though he has not been employed as a “hard-core” organic geochemist for the last two decades but has nevertheless remained active in organic geochemistry in his “free” time. In addition, John's contributions to more applied fields of research are also numerous.

  5. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  6. "Gulliver's Travels" by Alfred Silver with Music by Stephen Naylor. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Milde; Flynn, Rosalind, Ed.

    Designed to be used before and after attending a musical adaptation of Jonathan's Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" (performed by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia), this cue sheet presents information about the performance and suggests activities that can be done with classmates, friends, or family members. Beginning with an illustration of…

  7. Acceptance of the 2016 Alfred E. Treibs Award by Patrick G. Hatcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2017-03-01

    It is with great humility that I accept the 2016 Treibs Medal awarded by the Organic Geochemistry Division of The Geochemical Society. I am honored and thank Tom Bianchi and others who nominated me as well as the members of the selection committee. I also thank all my associates over the more than 30 years of continuous research who are part of this award. Without the collaboration of these associates, my career would not have developed to the stage it is now.

  8. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-02

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry.

  9. Project Update: Alfred Kiger Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    21st Century School Fund, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location project is designed to meet a number of important goals for Washington, D.C. Public Schools (DCPS) and the District of Columbia. It will improve the teaching and learning conditions for Savoy Elementary School so that they are in excellent condition, can support a high quality curriculum,…

  10. The Marketing of Education in a Coordinated Decentralised Context: Alfred P. Sloan Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter E.

    This paper argues that a useful way of analyzing the current moves to locate education within a decentralized framework of schools competing for educational consumers is to return to the founders of managerialism. In particular, this paper suggests that by returning to the point of production, the "mutilated rationality" (Habermas) of…

  11. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  12. Instability Rules: The Ten Most Amazing Ideas of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Charles

    2002-03-01

    World-altering discoveries that reveal a universe of uncertainty and constant change Whether probing the farthest reaches of the vast universe or exploring the microscopic world of genetics and the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, Instability Rules is a remarkably informative and engaging look at ten milestone discoveries and their discoverers-a wide range of very human personalities whose insights have dramatically altered our most basic assumptions about human existence during the last century. The stories include Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe, Alfred Wegener and continental drift, Neils Bohr and quantum mechanics, Alan Turing and artificial intelligence, and James Watson and Francis Crick and DNA. Also covering discoveries of the twenty-first century that are already refining these and other ideas, Instability Rules is an exhilarating, sometimes amusing encounter with the defining scientific discoveries of our age.

  13. ESSReS-PEP, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Promoting young researchers is a major priority of the German Helmholtz Association. Since more than five years graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science has been established in Bremen and Bremerhaven, north-western Germany. Using the network and collaboration of experts and specialists on observational and paleoclimate data as well as on statistical data analysis and climate modelling from two Universities and the Helmholtz research institute on Polar and Marine Research, master and PhD students are trained to understand, decipher and cope with the challenges of recent climate change on an highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional level. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. At the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar

  14. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  15. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  16. Operational tsunami modelling with TsunAWI - recent developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, N.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Harig, S.; Immerz, A.; Danilov, S.; Hiller, W.; Schröter, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this article, the tsunami model TsunAWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) and its application for hindcasts, inundation studies, and the operation of the tsunami scenario repository for the Indonesian tsunami early warning system are presented. TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and simulates all stages of a tsunami from the origin and the propagation in the ocean to the arrival at the coast and the inundation on land. It solves the non-linear shallow water equations on an unstructured finite element grid that allows to change the resolution seamlessly between a coarse grid in the deep ocean and a fine representation of coastal structures. During the GITEWS project and the following maintenance phase, TsunAWI and a framework of pre- and postprocessing routines was developed step by step to provide fast computation of enhanced model physics and to deliver high quality results.

  17. Transport Pathways of Pollution Plumes into the Canadian Arctic during RACEPAC and NETCARE 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoor, P. M.; Bozem, H.; Koellner, F.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Burkart, J.; Willis, M. D.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC and NETCARE 2014. The measurements were performed in May and July 2014 out of Inuvik and Resolute Bay with the POLAR 6 DC-3 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and focused on cloud processes in the Canadian Arctic as well as transport processes of pollution. CO and CO2 measurements indicate that long range transport from various sources affected the arctic lower troposphere during spring /summer 2014. Whereas the high latitudes were relatively unaffected by pollution plumes from lower latitudes, the more southern parts of the arctic regions were strongly perturbed by pollution from various sources. These events are likely connected to biomass burning. We also performed measurements of local emissions from shipping, to investigate their potential to penetrate the arctic boundary layer and affect the arctic free troposphere thereby becoming part of the large scale flow.

  18. On solving the momentum equations of dynamic sea ice models with implicit solvers and the elastic-viscous-plastic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losch, Martin; Danilov, Sergey

    Experiments with idealized geometry are used to compare model solutions of implicit VP- and explicit EVP-solvers in two very different ice-ocean codes: the regular-grid, finite-volume Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and the Alfred Wegener Institute Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM). It is demonstrated that for both codes the obtained solutions of implicit VP-and EVP-solvers can differ significantly, because the EVP solutions tend to have smaller ice viscosities ("weaker" ice). EVP solutions tend to converge only slowly to implicit VP solutions for very small sub-cycling time steps. Variable resolution in the unstructured-grid model FEOM also affects the solution as smaller grid cell size leads to smaller viscosity in EVP solutions. Models with implicit VP-solvers can block narrow straits under certain conditions, while EVP-models are found to always allow flow as a consequence of lower viscosities.

  19. Peripheral T cell lymphoma with a high titer of proteinase-3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies that resembled Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Reiko; Tajima, Yumi; Kohata, Katsura; Yamamoto, Joji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takasawa, Naruhiko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present a 54-year-old man with proptosis and swelling below the left eyelid. Laboratory findings showed high levels of PR3-ANCA and histological examination of the first biopsy revealed acute inflammation. Together with the findings of MRI, a diagnosis of WG was made. However, the disease progressed rapidly and histological examination of the second biopsy revealed infiltration of neoplastic T lymphocytes with aberrant loss of CD7. A final diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (WHO) was made, and complete remission was achieved by chemotherapy. This is a very rare case of T cell lymphoma with a high titer of PR3-ANCA.

  20. Th17 expansion in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's): the role of disease activity, immune regulation and therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In autoimmune diseases, IL-17 producing T-cells (Th17), a pro-inflammatory subset of T-cells, are pathophysiologically involved. There is little knowledge on the role of Th17 cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). In the present study, we investigated Th17 cells, Tregs and subsets of circulating Th17 cells in GPA and related results to disease activity. Methods 42 GPA patients in remission, 18 with active disease and 14 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Th17 cells, their subsets and regulatory T-cells were determined by intracellular fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Data are given as mean percentage ±SD of total T-helper-cells. Results Th17 cells are expanded in active and quiescent GPA as compared to HC (1.7±1.4% vs. 0.7 ±0.3%, P = 0.006 and 1.9 ±1.5% vs. 0.7 ±0.3%, P<0.0001). Th17 expansion is stable over time and does not decline when remission is achieved. However, a negative association of Th17 cells and steroid dosage is observed (r=-0.46, P = 0.002). The Th17 expansion was not balanced by Tregs as indicated by skewed Th17/Treg ratios in active and quiescent GPA. Th17 subsets co-producing IFNγ or IL-10 are significantly increased in GPA. GPA patients in remission not receiving maintenance therapy have significantly more IL-10/IL-17A double positive T-cells than HC (0.0501 ±0.031% vs. 0.0282 ±0.016%, P = 0.007). Conclusions We provide evidence for a persistent, unbalanced expansion of Th17 cells and Th17 subsets which seems to be independent of disease activity. Maintenance therapy reduces -but does not normalize- Th17 expansion. PMID:23079279

  1. The Eye of the Storm. The Seventh Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Survey of Broadcast Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Marvin; Sklar, Zachary

    This book, the seventh in a series surveying broadcast journalism, provides behind-the-scenes details of news coverage during 1978-79, evaluating the growth and sophistication of the news media. The first section of the book discusses the treatment of major issues and news events, including the "odd couple" of politics and broadcasting,…

  2. New Horizons: Higher Education Academic Link between King Alfred's College, Winchester and the Universities of Dhaka and Khulna, Bangledesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentki, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Explains the Higher Education Academic link, which promotes Theatre for Development in both the university and non-governmental organization sectors in Bangladesh. Highlights some of the most important and innovative issues which emerged from the link. Describes activities in the university sector which engaged students in practical workshops…

  3. Beyond Courseware: A Report and Bibliography Prepared for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation on Computing Technology in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantz, David; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is based on a literature search which was commissioned to complement the report on a conference hosted by Dartmouth University (New Hampshire) in October 1988. An introductory essay describes the conference, which brought together 30 educators from a wide variety of institutions for 3 days to reflect on the…

  4. Glider observations of oceanic conditions in the Fram Strait, 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Latarius, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    The Fram Strait is the deepest gateway to the Arctic Ocean (2600 m sill depth), and a crucial pathway for exchange of heat and freshwater between the Arctic and the rest of the world ocean. The region is important for studying changes in the Arctic Ocean and possible feedback mechanisms between the ocean and sea ice. In order to monitor volume, heat and freshwater exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, the Alfred Wegener Institute and the North Polar Institute have been maintaining an oceanographic mooring array along 78°50'N since 1997. The Fram Strait is characterized by strong variability in temperature, salinity and currents on time and spatial scales corresponding to oceanic mesoscale phenomena. This makes estimation of long-term fluxes difficult. In order to improve monitoring the Fram Strait ocean observing system was extended by a multi-purpose acoustic system for thermometry, passive acoustics, and glider navigation between 2008 and 2012 as part of the ACOBAR project. Acoustic thermometry provides depth range averaged ocean temperature at a high temporal resolution. To improve the spatial resolution of the monitoring system Seagliders were deployed in Fram Strait for a few months at a time following a quasi-zonal transect and profiling down to 1000 m. We present analysis of hydrographic data from the Seagliders operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Fram Strait between 2008 and 2012. During eight glider missions physical oceanography data were collected along repeated sections south of the mooring array. In addition to the directly measured hydrographic data (conductivity, temperature, and pressure), depth-averaged current velocities are derived from glider displacements. Data from the five summer (July-September) and three autumn (September-November) glider missions are used to make year-to-year comparisons of vertical temperature and salinity profiles in the upper 1000 m of the water column. Glider section data show a high

  5. In vitro T lymphocyte responses to proteinase 3 (PR3) and linear peptides of PR3 in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG).

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Huitema, M G; Franssen, C F; van der Zee, R; Limburg, P C; Kallenberg, C G

    2000-12-01

    T cell-mediated immunity is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of WG. In previous studies a minority of WG patients as well as some healthy controls showed in vitro proliferation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to PR3, the main autoantigen in WG. The relevant peptides responsible for this in vitro proliferation have not been identified. In order to define immunogenic peptides, PBMC of 13 WG patients in remission and 10 healthy controls were tested for proliferation to linear peptides of PR3 and to whole PR3. Fifty overlapping peptides spanning the whole PR3 sequence were synthesized. Peptides were tested in pools of five peptides and as single peptide. PBMC of two WG patients and one healthy control proliferated to whole PR3 and to peptide pools. In addition, 10 WG patients and eight healthy controls that did not proliferate to whole PR3 did proliferate to pools of PR3 peptides. Although more WG patients tended to react to particular peptide pools, no significant difference was seen between lymphocyte proliferation to PR3 peptides of WG patients and that of healthy controls. The pools of peptides recognized were mainly located at the N- and C-terminus of PR3. No correlation was observed between HLA type and proliferation on particular peptide pools. No proliferation of PBMC was observed to single peptides. In conclusion, T cells of WG patients proliferate in vitro more frequently to PR3 peptides than to the whole PR3 protein. Peptides derived from the signal sequence, the propeptide or peptides located at the C-terminus of PR3 induce highest levels of proliferation. No specific PR3 sequence could be identified that was preferentially recognized by PBMC of WG patients compared with controls.

  6. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    PubMed Central

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  7. Climate Change at the Poles: Research Immersion Experience at Bellingshausen, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Repina, I. A.; Baeseman, J. L.; Fernandoy, F.; Bart, S.

    2010-12-01

    We brought a party of 15 scientists, graduate students, and educators to King George Island, the largest of the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula, for an international workshop on Antarctica and global climate change in January 2010. Participants included professors, young scientists and graduate students from the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin, and the Michigan Technological University. Lindsay Bartholomew, an education and outreach specialist at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago connected the workshop via video and Internet with an audience of museum visitors. Scientists living and working at Bellingshausen, including Hans-Ulrich Peter, an eminent ecologist from Jena University (Germany), and Bulat Movlyudov (Institute of Geography, Moscow), a distinguished glaciologist, participated in the workshop. Field trips led by Peter and Movlyudov and others were made by day and lectures were held by night. Professors and graduate students made cutting-edge presentations on such subjects as permafrost, glaciology, and global climate models. Three workshop teams conducted field research projects at the foot of the Bellingshausen Dome icecap - two on carbon cycling and one on permafrost. Major funding sources for the workshop included the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russia), Wilderness Research Foundation (USA), NSF, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Museum for Science and Industry (Chicago). INACH, the Chilean Antarctic Institute, and IAU, the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, provided air charter services. On King George Island, our group was billeted at Russia’s Bellingshausen science station.

  8. Radio-echo sounding at Dome C, East Antarctica: A comparison of measured and modeled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Anna; Eisen, Olaf; Steinhage, Daniel; Zirizzotti, Achille; Urbini, Stefano; Cavitte, Marie; Blankenship, Donald D.; Wolff, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The internal layering architecture of ice sheets, detected with radio-echo sounding (RES), contains clues to past ice-flow dynamics and mass balance. A common way of relating the recorded travel time of RES reflections to depth is by integrating a wave-speed distribution. This results in an increasing absolute error with depth. We present a synchronization of RES-internal layers of different radar systems (Alfred Wegener Institute, Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, British Antarctic Survey and University of Texas Institute for Geophysics) with ice-core records from the Antarctic deep drill site Dome C. Synthetic radar traces are obtained from measurements of ice-core density and conductivity with a 1D model of Maxwell's equations. The reflection peaks of the different radar systems' measurements are shifted by a wiggle-matching algorithm, so they match the synthetic trace. In this way, we matched pronounced internal reflections in the RES data to conductivity peaks with considerably smaller depth uncertainties, and assigned them with the ice-core age. We examine the differences in shifts and resolution of the different RES data to address the question of their comparability and combined analysis for an extensive age-depth distribution.

  9. Simulation of Coastal Polynyas in the Western Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal polynyas play a prominent role in the formation and modification of water masses in the polar oceans. A coastal polynya is usually kept open mechanically, primarily by winds, and the ocean surface is at freezing point. Thus a major fraction of the annual ice production of the high-latitude oceans occurs in polynyas and hence the duration and extent of their appearance has a substantial effect on bottom water formation. In the western Weddell Sea, recurring coastal polynyas are formed in front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and in the area of the decayed Larsen A/B Ice Shelf. Simulations to study polynya formation and their impact on ice production and bottom water formation in the western Weddell Sea were performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). FESOM is a fully coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. The simulations were conducted on a global grid with a resolution varying between roughly 300 km in tropical latitudes and <5 km along the coast of the southwestern Weddell Sea. In vertical direction, the grid uses terrain-following coordinates. The model results give insight into the mechanisms governing the formation of transient and persistent polynyas and their influence on ice production and deep water formation. Water mass formation and ice export rates are quantified and compared to observation-based estimates.

  10. Cirrus Clouds, Equatorial Kelvin Waves and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrems, O.; Immler, F.; Krueger, K.; Rex, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    2007-12-01

    A number of field-campaigns in the tropics have been conducted in the past years with the mobile LIDAR systems MARL and ComCAL of the Alfred Wegener Institute aboard the research vessel Polarstern in the tropical Atlantic and at Paramaribo in Suriname. The lidars detect particles in the atmosphere with high vertical and temporal resolution and are capable of detecting extremely thin cloud layers which frequently occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We investigated the occurrence of clouds in the TTL with a newly developed trajectory model and found that ice particles form in slow ascent and efficiently dehydrate the air. The Lagrangian temperature history thus defines the water vapour transported to the stratosphere in the tropics. Radiosonde as well as ECMWF operational analysis data show a strong influence of eastward moving equatorial Kelvin waves on the temperature at the tropical cold point tropopause (CPT). We find a clear correlation between the temperature anomalies introduced by these waves and the occurrence of thin cirrus. This finding suggests an influence of Kelvin wave activity on the dehydration characteristics of the TTL

  11. A multi-satellite concept in support of high latitude permafrost modelling and monitoring - The ESA DUE Permafrost project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Duguay, Claude; Schmullius, Christiane; Strozzi, Tazio; Heim, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    A number of remotely sensed products have been developed in the past which provide information relevant to permafrost distribution on circumpolar scale. They comprise parameters such as land surface temperature, land cover, soil moisture, disturbances, snow and terrain. A monitoring system of high latitude permafrost requires regular and multiscale observation of all these parameters. Further on, the datasets need to meet requirements of permafrost models as well as support related research in geomorphology, botany and hydrology. Such a comprehensive database is setup within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) program. The ESA DUE Permafrost project establishes a monitoring system on local to pan-boreal/arctic scale based on satellite data. Within this project permafrost relevant remotely sensed products are assessed and eventually provided to users. The complexity of the phenomenon permafrost requires the close cooperation with the scientific community working in this field. The consortium is led by I.P.F, Vienna University of Technology and supported by four partners: Gamma Remote Sensing, University of Waterloo, Jena University and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost

  12. Conception and realisation of educational models for an exhibition explaining the plate tectonics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerghi, S.; Harchi, M.; Riadh chebbi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Alfred Wegener suggested in 1915 that the seven continents were once one large land mass that broke apart creating the continents, which then drifted to their current locations. The Atlantic Ocean was created by this process. The mid-Atlantic Ridge is an area where new sea floor is being created. The sea floor continues to spread and the plates get bigger and bigger. Therefore, when plates diverge and form new crust in one area, the plates must converge in another area and be destroyed. When two continental plates meet each other this results in the formation of a mountain. As the subducting oceanic crust melts as it goes deeper into the Earth, the newly-created magma rises to the surface and forms volcanoes. So, the plates move towards each other. The amount of crust on the surface of the earth remains relatively constant. In this context, the aim of this study is to elaborate some educational models to facilitate the comprehension of plate tectonics and there results for pupils and science city visitors.

  13. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  14. Supercycles, Wilson cycles and the future of Earth's oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Rosas, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    At the dawn of the 20th Century Alfred Wegener proposed the existence of a supercontinent - Pangaea - gathering all the continental masses on Earth. Five decades later, while seeding the theory of plate tectonics, Tuzo Wilson introduced a new concept that would become known as Wilson cycles, which describes the evolution of oceans: 1) opening and spreading, 2) foundering of the passive margins and development of new subduction zones and 3) consumption and closure. Later on, in the 70's evidences for the existence of a number of other supercontinents and ancient oceans on Earth's history started to emerge. Today, concepts like supercycles, supercontinents, superoceans and Wilson cycles are loosely used. However, several important questions remain. How do subduction zones initiate in pristine oceans? Which major ocean on Earth will close to form the next supercontinent? The Atlantic (introversion), the Pacific (extroversion), or both? Are Wilson cycles of lower order than Supercycles? Are we in an abnormally long supercycle? Is there any cyclicity at all? These are some of the questions that we will tentatively address together with the proposal of several future scenarios for the evolution of Earth's oceans and continents.

  15. The local environment of ice particles in arctic mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenczek, Oliver; Fugal, Jacob P.; Schledewitz, Waldemar; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    During the RACEPAC field campaign in April and May 2014, research flights were made with the Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Arctic clouds near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. One flight with the Polar 6 aircraft, done on May 16, 2014, flew under precipitating, stratiform, mid-level clouds with several penetrations through cloud base. Measurements with HALOHolo, an airborne digital in-line holographic instrument for cloud particles, show ice particles in a field of other cloud particles in a local three-dimensional sample volume (~14x19x130 mm3 or ~35 cm^3). Each holographic sample volume is a snapshot of a 3-dimensional piece of cloud at the cm-scale with typically thousands of cloud droplets per sample volume, so each sample volume yields a statistically significant droplet size distribution. Holograms are recorded at a rate of six times per second, which provides one volume sample approx. every 12 meters along the flight path. The size resolution limit for cloud droplets is better than 1 µm due to advanced sizing algorithms. Shown are preliminary results of, (1) the ice/liquid water partitioning at the cloud base and the distribution of water droplets around each ice particle, and (2) spatial and temporal variability of the cloud droplet size distributions at cloud base.

  16. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized community earth system models (COSMOS) and document the procedures which we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo and preindustrial (PI) time-slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene as simulated with our COSMOS-setup and PRISM boundary conditions is both warmer and wetter than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  17. Variations of ion concentrations in the deep ice core and surface snow at NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Azuma, K.; Wegner, A.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Miyake, T.; Motoyama, H.; NEEM Aerosol Consortium members

    2012-04-01

    Discrete samples were collected from the CFA (Continuous Flow Analysis) melt fractions during the field campaign carried out at NEEM, Greenland in 2009-2011, and were distributed to different laboratories. Ionic species were analyzed at National Institute of Polar Research (Japan) and Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany). Here we present and compare the ion concentration data obtained by both institutes. Most of the ions show good agreement between the two institutes. As is indicated with the CFA data (Bigler and the NEEM Aerosol Consortium members, EGU 2012), ion chromatograph data also display that calcium and sodium, mainly originated from terrestrial dust and sea-salt, respectively, show large variations associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, sodium, potassium and magnesium also show such variations, as has been already reported for other Greenland ice cores. New ion data obtained from the NEEM deep core also show large variability of oxalate and phosphate concentrations during DO events. Acetate, which is thought to be mainly derived from biomass burning, as is oxalate, appears to show variability associated with DO events, but to a lesser extent. On the other hand, nitrate, ammonium and methanesulfonate do not show such variations. Together with ion data from the deep ice core, we present those from the pits dug during the NEEM field campaign to discuss seasonal variations of ionic species. The seasonal and millennial scale variations of ions are thought to be caused by changes in atmospheric circulation and source strength.

  18. Seasonal sea ice predictions for the Arctic based on assimilation of remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauker, F.; Kaminski, T.; Ricker, R.; Toudal-Pedersen, L.; Dybkjaer, G.; Melsheimer, C.; Eastwood, S.; Sumata, H.; Karcher, M.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-10-01

    The recent thinning and shrinking of the Arctic sea ice cover has increased the interest in seasonal sea ice forecasts. Typical tools for such forecasts are numerical models of the coupled ocean sea ice system such as the North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM). The model uses as input the initial state of the system and the atmospheric boundary condition over the forecasting period. This study investigates the potential of remotely sensed ice thickness observations in constraining the initial model state. For this purpose it employs a variational assimilation system around NAOSIM and the Alfred Wegener Institute's CryoSat-2 ice thickness product in conjunction with the University of Bremen's snow depth product and the OSI SAF ice concentration and sea surface temperature products. We investigate the skill of predictions of the summer ice conditions starting in March for three different years. Straightforward assimilation of the above combination of data streams results in slight improvements over some regions (especially in the Beaufort Sea) but degrades the over-all fit to independent observations. A considerable enhancement of forecast skill is demonstrated for a bias correction scheme for the CryoSat-2 ice thickness product that uses a spatially varying scaling factor.

  19. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009) and document the procedures that we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo- and preindustrial (PI) time slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene, as simulated with our COSMOS setup and PRISM boundary conditions, is both warmer and wetter in the global mean than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  20. Preliminary results of a radio echo sounding survey of the Recovery Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Angelika; Kleiner, Thomas; Steinhage, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The Recovery Glacier is draining about 8% of the East Antarctic ice sheet and feeds into the Filchner Ice Shelf. This ice shelf might be subjected in future to increasing basal melting (Hellmer et al., 2012) forcing potentially grounding line retreat. Compared to other areas in Antarctica this glacier is been surveyed very sparse and hence does not allow modeling studies yet. As many large and small subglacial lakes are present underneath this ice stream at different locations along the flow, the question of the influence of the lakes on ice stream genesis and ice stream dynamics arose. For investigating this influence by observation and subsequent modelling, an airborne campaign of the Alfred Wegener Institute was carried out in January 2014, covering the Recovery Ice Stream and two smaller glaciers merging with it, the Ramp Glacier and the Blackwall Glacier. The radar system uses a carrier frequency of 150MHz and a 600ns pulse. The survey includes several flights along flow lines in order to assess the basal roughness of the ice stream. Here we present the first preliminary data analysis.

  1. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  2. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots. Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes. Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  3. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  4. Acoustic monitoring in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using hydrophone of the Ocean Bottom Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sukyoung; Lee, Won Sang; Kuk Hong, Jong; Yoo, Hyun Jae; Park, Yongcheol; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Geissler, Wolfram H.

    2016-04-01

    Although a number of active source seismic experiments have been conducted over the last few decades to investigate the crustal structure in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, long-term observation to monitor underwater tectonic activities and changes in the cryospheric environment still remains challenging due to existence of sea ice in the study region. Korea Polar Research Institute has accomplished successful deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the Ross Sea collaborating with Alfred Wegener Institute during the period of 2011-2012 and 2014 by Korean icebreaker RV Araon. The OBS system manufactured by K.U.M. contains a hydrophone sensor that allow us to monitor underwater acoustics generated by tectonic and ice-related events. We present spectrograms of the continuous hydroacoustic data and various types of signals, e.g. seismic T-waves, iceequakes, and tremors. There are periodic and harmonic tremors that might be related with tidal modulation, and the seasonal variation of the background noise seems to be related with sea ice concentration.

  5. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots.Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes.Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  6. Major Ion concentrations in the new NEEM ice core in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, A.; Azuma, K. G.; Hirabayashi, M.; Schmidt, K.; Hansson, M.; Twarloh, B.

    2012-12-01

    The drilling of the new deep ice core in NEEM (77.45°N 51.06°W) was terminated in 2010. Using a continuous flow analysis system (CFA), discrete samples were filled and analyzed for major ion concentrations (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, SO_4 and NO_3) using Ion Chromatography (IC). The samples were measured at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany) and National Institute of Polar Research (Japan). Here we present preliminary results of the major Ion concentrations. We found highest variations in concentrations of Calcium and Magnesium which are mainly originating from terrestrial sources with concentrations between 5-10 ppb and 4 ppb during the Holocene compared to 800 ppb and 80 ppb during the LGM. This is in line with measurements of particulate dust concentrations. Sulphate concentrations closely follow DO events and vary between 25 ppb during the Holocene and ~400 ppb during the LGM. Sodium concentrations vary between ~ 8 ppb during the Holocene and up to 100 ppb during the LGM. We discuss influences of changes in the source areas and atmospheric transport intensity on the different time scales.

  7. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  8. The geometry of continental displacement and its application to Arctic geology: Eugen Wegmann's early approaches published in the Geologische Rundschau in 1943

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsch, Dominik

    2013-06-01

    Plate tectonics developed around 1965 as a powerful tool to describe the tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. The article demonstrates that basically four already existing theoretical concepts—subduction, seafloor spreading, the application of Euler's theorem and transform faults—had to be combined to arrive at the modern theory. Alfred Wegener, father of the theory of continental displacement, is often credited as the most direct forerunner of plate tectonics. However, none of the aforementioned concepts had been developed by him. The present article deals with the hitherto not duly credited contributions of the Swiss geologist Eugen Wegmann (1896-1982). He developed in a series of highly original papers published between 1943 and 1948 (one of them in the Geologische Rundschau), a critical test of the theory of continental displacement based on the regional geology of the Arctic. Furthermore, he gave a very concise account on the geometrical principles of drift movements. As a result, he developed for the first time—25 years before McKenzie and Parker's Nature 216:1276-1280, landmark paper on the Pacific (1967)—the geometrical basis to graphically test plate motion directions. However, his work has not yet received the credit it deserves, neither by scientist nor by historians of science.

  9. First results from the aerosol lidar and backscatter sonde intercomparison campaign STRAIT'1997 at table mountain facility during February-March 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Gross, M. R.; Haner, D. A.; Kjome, N. T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Schaefer, H. - J.; Schrems, O.

    1998-01-01

    First results of an intercomparison measurement campaign between three aerosol lidar instruments and in-situ backscatter sondes performed at Table Mountain Facility (34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg E, 2280 m asl) in February-March 1997 are presented. During the campaign a total of 414 hours of lidar data were acquired by the Aerosol-Temperature-Lidar (ATL, Goddard Space Flight Center) the Mobile-aerosol-Raman-Lidar (MARL, Alfred Wegener Institute), and the TMF-Aerosol-Lidar (TAL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and four backscatter sondes were launched. From the data set altitude profiles of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization of stratospheric background aerosols at altitudes between 15 and 25 km and optically thin high-altitude cirrus clouds at altitudes below 13 km are derived. On the basis of a sulfuric acid aerosol model color ratio profiles obtained from two wavelength lidar data are compared to the corresponding profiles derived from the sonde observations. We find an excellent agreement between the in-situ and ATL lidar data with respect to backscatter and color ratio. Cirrus clouds were present on 16 of 26 nights during the campaign. Lidar observations with 17 minute temporal and 120-300 m spatial resolution indicate high spatial and temporal variability of the cirrus layers. Qualitative agreement is found between concurrent lidar measurements of backscatter ratio and volume depolarization.

  10. ESA Cryovex 2011 Airborne Campaign for CRYOSAT-2 Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourup, H.; Einarsson, I.; Sandberg, L.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Davidson, M.

    2011-12-01

    After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA's CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar and laser measurements, as the laser reflects on the surface, and by overflight of laser reflectors. In the spring of 2011 the DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar-5 carrying an EM-bird. We present an overview of the 2011 airborne campaign together with first results of the CryoSat-2 underflights.

  11. AMALi - the Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar for Arctic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Neuber, R.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Wehrle, G.

    2010-03-01

    The Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) is an instrument developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research for reliable operation under the challenging weather conditions at the Earth's polar regions. Since 2003 the AMALi has been successfully deployed for measurements in ground-based installation and zenith- or nadir-pointing airborne configurations during several scientific campaigns in the Arctic. The lidar provides backscatter profiles at two wavelengths (355/532 nm or 1064/532 nm) together with the linear depolarization at 532 nm, from which aerosol and cloud properties can be derived. This paper presents the characteristics and capabilities of the AMALi system and gives examples of its usage for airborne and ground-based operations in the Arctic. As this backscatter lidar normally does not operate in aerosol-free layers special evaluation schemes are discussed, the nadir-pointing iterative inversion for the case of an unknown boundary condition and the two-stream approach for the extinction profile calculation if a second lidar system probes the same air mass. Also an intercomparison of the AMALi system with an established ground-based Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) is given.

  12. Ground-based lidar measurements from Ny-Ålesund during ASTAR 2007: a statistical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Shiobara, M.; Lampert, A.; Maturilli, M.; Orgis, T.; Neuber, R.; Herber, A.

    2009-07-01

    During the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR) in March and April 2007, measurements obtained at the AWIPEV Research station in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (operated by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the Institut polaire français Paul-Emile Victor), supported the airborne campaign. This included Lidar data from the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), located in the atmospheric observatory as well as photometer data and the daily launched radiosonde. The MPL features nearly continuous measurements; the KARL was switched on whenever weather conditions allowed observations (145 h in 61 days). From 1 March to 30 April, 71 meteorological balloon soundings were performed and compared with the corresponding MPL measurements; photometer measurements are available from 18 March. For the KARL data, a statistical overview based on the optical properties backscatter ratio and volume depolarization can be given. The altitudes of the occurrence of the named features (subvisible and visible ice and water as well as mixed-phase clouds, aerosol layers) as well as their dependence on different air mass origins are analyzed. Although the spring 2007 was characterized by rather clean conditions, diverse case studies of cloud and aerosol occurrence during March and April 2007 are presented in more detail, including temporal development and main optical properties as backscatter, depolarization and extinction coefficients. Links between air mass origins and optical properties can be presumed but need further evidence.

  13. On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Ritter, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Two-Stream technique employes simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars aiming at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a few Alfred-Wegener-Institute's (AWI) campaigns dedicated to the Arctic research, the AWI's Polar 2 aircraft with the integrated onboard nadir-aiming Airborne Mobile Merosol Lidar (AMALi) overflew a vicinity of Ny Ålesund on Svalbard, where the zenith-aiming Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) has been located. This experimental approach gave a unique opportunity to retrieve the extinction profiles with rather rarely used Two-Stream technique against the well established Raman technique. Both methods were applied to data obtained for a clean Arctic conditions during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric clouds and Radiation (ASTAR 2004) campaign and a slightly polluted Arctic conditions during the Svalbard Experiment (SvalEx 2005) campaign. Successful intercomparison of both evaluation tools in a different measurement conditions demonstrates sensitivity and feasibility of the Two-Stream method to obtain particle extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles without assumption of their relationship (lidar ratio). The method has a potential to serve as an extinction retrieval tool for KARL or AMALi simultaneous observations with the spaceborne CALYPSO lidar taken during the ASTAR 2007.

  14. On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Ritter, C.

    2010-03-01

    The Two-Stream technique employs simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars pointing at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a number of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) campaigns dedicated to Arctic research, the AWI's Polar 2 aircraft with the integrated onboard nadir-pointing Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) was utilised. The aircraft flew over a vicinity of Ny Ålesund on Svalbard, where the zenith-pointing Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) has been located. This experimental approach gave the unique opportunity to retrieve the extinction profiles with a rarely used Two-Stream technique against a well established Raman technique. Both methods were applied to data obtained for clean Arctic conditions during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric clouds and Radiation (ASTAR 2004) campaign, and slightly polluted Arctic conditions during the Svalbard Experiment (SvalEx 2005) campaign. Successful comparison of both evaluation tools in different measurement conditions demonstrates sensitivity and feasibility of the Two-Stream method to obtain particle extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles without assumption of their relationship (lidar ratio). The method has the potential to serve as an extinction retrieval tool for KARL or AMALi simultaneous observations with the space borne CALIPSO lidar overpasses during the ASTAR 2007.

  15. Determination and Use of the Local Recovery Factor for Calculating the Effectiveness Gas Temperature for Turbine Blades / Jack B. Esgar and Alfred L. Lea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Lea, Alfred L

    1951-01-01

    In an in experimental investigation of local recovery factors for a blade having a pressure distribution similar to that of a typical reaction-type turbine blade, it a was found that the recovery factors were essentially independent of Mach number, Reynolds number, pressure gradient, and position on the blade surface except for regions where the boundary layer was probably in the transition range from laminar to turbulent. The recommended value of local subsonic recovery factor for use in calculating the effective gas temperature for gas turbine blades was 0.89.

  16. The Influence of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan upon the United States Navy through the United States Naval Institute’s Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    both Mahan and the College. Senior members of the Navy believed the War College’s curriculum was post-graduate in nature and did not require a separate...are explained in great detail within the surviving letters. Critics and supporters of Mahan owe a debt of gratitude to the individuals who...

  17. GIS-based Reconstruction of Pangaea with Recent Progresses in Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.-H.; Cheong, H.-B.; Lee, Y.-W.

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that the continents or land masses are constantly, slowly moving, or drifting over the asthenosphere as the sea floors spread in response to the mantle convection. These continents were joined together at one time, some 250 million years ago, in a single giant landmass called Pangaea. Alfred Wegener, who proposed originally the hypothesis of continental drift, succeeded in reconstructing the Pangaea in early 20th century, by gathering evidences such as land features, fossils, and climate change. The shape of Pangaea shown by Wegener is a huge landmass which is in rounded shape close to an oval. The Pangaea of Wegener was found to be in good agreement with the supercontinent which was reconstructed by modern scientists in late 1960s based on concrete and sophisticated sciences such as the plate tectonics. There are a couple of shapes describing the Pangaea by now, other than the Wegener's, that are recognized by the geological community. In spite of profound geological data and development of related-area sciences, uncertainties still remains on the precise shape of Pangaea before the stage of breaking up and drifting apart. In this study, the Pangaea is reconstructed taking the recent progresses of plate tectonics into full consideration with the use of an elaborate Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping technique. For a better visualization of the shape of the supercontinent the equidistant map projection is incorporated to display the Pangaea, where the central point of Pangaea is placed on the center of the map. The Pangaea reconstructed in this way appears in an almost circular shape, which has never been seen in previous studies (Fig. 1). The radius of the circle which circumscribes the Pangaea is about 9 000 km, giving the total area slightly above that of continents and lands of present day, because some of the continental margins were considered as a part of continents. This result suggests us that the Pangaea might have

  18. The ANCA Vasculitis Questionnaire (AAV-PRO©)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA); Wegener Granulomatosis (WG); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV); Vasculitis

  19. Origin of Second-Harmonic Generation Enhancement in Optical Split-Ring Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-15

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 201403(R) (2012) 12M. W. Klein, M. Wegener , N. Feth, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 15, 5238 (2006). 13M. McMahon, R. Lopez, R. Haglund...Enkrich, M. Wegener , and S. Linden, Science 313, 502 (2006). 20F. B. P. Niesler, N. Feth, S. Linden, and M. Wegener , Opt. Lett. 36, 1533 (2011). 21R. Ruppin

  20. Kane Basin, Nares-Strait: Strike-slip induced sediment deformation along the coastline of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Nares-Strait (NS), a seaway between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, is important to understand the plate tectonic history of the Arctic region. As it is clear that rifting and seafloor spreading took place between Greenland and Baffin Island, it is unclear how the extension was compensated between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Already Alfred Wegener suggested some kind of left lateral transform fault along the NS, a straight seaway separating the Greenland Plate from the North American Plate, nowadays proposed as the Wegener-Fault. Plate tectonic reconstruction models require a transform fault for the compensation of several hundred km of extension and seafloor spreading from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. However, land geological data do not support this thesis and let assume that no lateral displacement occurred between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. With the formation of the recent Midatlantic Ridge System between Greenland and Europe since the early Eocene, the western branch became inactive and consequently the proposed transform fault, too. Northeast motion of Greenland replaced the left lateral transform and caused compression. The inactive transform fault was overprinted and as a consequence it was altered, probably displaced and is difficult to recognize. The Kane Basin is one of a series of basins that are aligned along the NS. It resembles probably a pull-apart basin following the approach that NS developed as transform fault. This paper presents insight into the Kane Basin by means of 2D seismic data, sonobuoy data, gravity and magnetic data acquired during surveys of BGR in 2001 and 2010. The eastern Kane Basin is characterized by a deeper rim and a more shallow central part. Most of it is floored by Proterozoic crust without any sediment on top of it. Only in the western part of the Kane Basin a sedimentary infill can be recorded which terminates with an erosional truncation on to the seafloor. Because of the mapped sediment and

  1. ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Hanfland, Claudia; Sprengel, Claudia; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bijma, Jelle; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2014-05-01

    Postgraduate education is gaining increasing importance and has been identified as one instrument to foster quality and promote networking, both in research and in education. Exchange and co-operation between graduate programmes that have related topics produce added value for all. Students have access to a range of research facilities, course offers, and a broad scientific community from which they can start building their individual scientific network. Larger events like PhD conferences, career symposia or cost-intensive trainings are more easily tackled by joining forces of various players. The postgraduate programmes ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR are part of a larger network of marine and climate science programmes in the north-western region of Germany and together host up 180 (23 ESSReS, 130 POLMAR, 30 PEP) PhD/Master students in their respective programmes. Here, we will present a number of joint activities from this collaboration. Today, the PhD education is completely different to that from 15 years ago due to a variety of different scientific offerings including e.g. excursions, soft skill courses and special seminars. In the framework of the ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR concept the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Two different ways to further graduation are currently possible at the Alfred Wegener Institute. The Helmholtz Graduate School for Polar and

  2. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  3. Aircraft observations of ultrafine particles and CCN from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in the Arctic summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Brauner, Ralf; Konrad, Christian; Herber, Andreas; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is one of the regions most sensitive to climate change. The shrinking extent of sea ice during the Arctic summertime increases the area covered by open ocean, which likely impacts Arctic aerosol, cloud properties, and thus climate. In this context extensive aerosol measurements (aerosol composition, particle number and size, cloud condensation nuclei, and trace gases) have been made during the NETCARE 2014 summer campaign from the Polar 6 aircraft. The Polar 6 is an adopted DC-3 aircraft owned by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany. In July 2014 eleven flights were conducted out of Resolute Bay. Flights included vertical profiles from as low as 60 m up to 3 km, as well as several low-level flights covering diverse terrains such as open ocean, fast ice, melt ponds, and polynyas. Here we discuss the vertical distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP, dp: 5 - 20 nm), size distributions of larger particles (dp: 20 nm to 1 μm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in relation to different meteorological conditions and terrains. UFPs have been observed predominantly within the boundary layer, where concentrations reached several hundreds and occasionally even a few thousand particles per cubic centimeter. Highest concentrations were observed above open ocean and at the top of low-level clouds. During such events, the dominant mode of the size distribution was below 20 nm. However, in a few cases this ultrafine mode extended to sizes larger than 40 nm, suggesting that these UFP can grow into the CCN size range and thereby impact cloud properties and become climatically relevant.

  4. Relative sea-level variations in the Amerasia Basin since the Lower Cretaceous (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokat, W.; Hegewald, A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multi-channel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-78°N and 170°E-170°W), namely across the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Plateau and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an airgun array with up to six airguns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) and a 3000 m long streamer with 240 active channels were used. One of the profiles, collected from the Chukchi Shelf towards the north into deep water, shows the paleo-shelf break structures over 250 km length as prograding, retrograding and aggrading sequences with a total thickness of 3500 m. To receive the ages of these sequences, five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were used. An existing network of 194 seismic reflection lines from the United States Geological Service (USGS), collected between 1977 and 1993, from the Norwegian company TGS-NOPEC (2006), and the American HOTRAX Expedition (2005) were used to correlate the well logging information into the AWI data. With the help of this network, it was possible to correlate tentatively four prominent horizons with ages between the Paleocene and Lower Cretaceous into the new data. The interpreted sequence boundaries in the seismic reflection profile were used to determine its chronostratigraphic significance, and concluded from that, the relative sea-level changes. Finally, in this presentation the Arctic Ocean sea-level changes will be compared with the global sea-level curve.

  5. Interaction of mid-latitude air masses with the polar dome area during RACEPAC and NETCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Koellner, Franziska; Kunkel, Daniel; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan; Wendisch, Manfred; Ehrlich, Andre; Leaitch, Richard; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Thomas, Jennie; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories as well as Flexpart particle dispersion modeling we analyze the transport regimes of mid-latitude air masses traveling to the high Arctic prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014, NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014). In general more northern parts of the high Arctic (Lat > 75°N) were relatively unaffected from mid-latitude air masses. In contrast, regions further south are influenced by air masses from Asia and Russia (eastern part of Canadian Arctic and European Arctic) as well as from North America (central and western parts of Canadian Arctic). The transition between the mostly isolated high Arctic and more southern regions indicated by tracer gradients is remarkably sharp. This allows for a chemical definition of the Polar dome based on the variability of CO and CO2 as a marker. Isentropic surfaces that slope from the surface to higher altitudes in the high Arctic form the polar dome that represents a transport barrier for mid-latitude air masses to enter the lower troposphere in the high Arctic. Synoptic-scale weather systems frequently disturb this transport barrier and foster the exchange between air masses from the mid-latitudes and polar regions. This can finally lead to enhanced pollution levels in the lower polar troposphere. Mid-latitude pollution plumes from biomass burning or flaring entering the polar dome area lead to an enhancement of 30% of the observed CO mixing ratio within the polar dome area.

  6. The Dark Side of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Henry

    1986-10-01

    Wood's The Dark Side of the Earth is another addition to the growing list of books on the recent revolution in the earth sciences. Wood rightly points out that any new book on the topic should break new ground. In the preface, he writes of himself and his book that he has benefited from previous accounts by saving himself research time, and that his book, unlike others, “attempts to tell one complete story of the study of the Earth, geologists, geophysicists, dreamers and all” (p. vi). Wood is ambitious, for his work covers much of 19th-century geology as well as the development, reception, rejection, and eventual acceptance of mobilist ideas. Before discussing the work of the German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred L. Wegener, American glacial geomorphologist Frank Taylor, and several of their predecessors who proposed “mobilist” ideas, he manages to string together brief descriptions of the contributions of (among others) German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner, British geologists James Hutten and John Playfair, British engineer William Smith, British geologist Charles Lyell, American geologists James Hall and James Dwight Dana, British volcanologist William Lowthian Green, American geologist Grove Karl Gilbert, French geologist Elie de Beaumont, British geologist and mathematician Osmond Fisher, American geologist Clarence Dutton, British mathematician and physicist Lord Kelvin, Austrian geologist Eduard Suess, French geologist Marcel Bertrand, and American geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin. Moreover, Wood offers an interesting thesis about the revolution in the earth sciences. He claims that the real revolution was not the replacement of fixist views with the mobilist ones of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, but rather the replacement of geology with the new discipline of the earth sciences in which geophysics and geochemistry play the central role.

  7. On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different

  8. Cirrus clouds, humidity, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer observed at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immler, Franz; Krüger, Kirstin; Tegtmeier, Susann; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Fortuin, Paul; Verver, Gé; Schrems, Otto

    2007-02-01

    In the framework of the European Project STAR the Mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar (MARL) of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) was operated in Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W), and carried out extensive observations of tropical cirrus clouds during the local dry season from 28 September 2004 to 16 November 2004. The coverage with ice clouds was very high with 81% in the upper troposphere (above 12 km). The frequency of occurrence of subvisual clouds was found to be clearly enhanced compared to similar observations performed with the same instrument at a station in the midlatitudes. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of thin tropical cirrus is with 26 ± 7 sr significantly higher than that of midlatitude cirrus (16 ± 9 sr). Subvisual cirrus clouds often occur in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above an upper tropospheric inversion. Our observations show that the ice-forming ability of the TTL is very high. The transport of air in this layer was investigated by means of a newly developed trajectory model. We found that the occurrence of clouds is highly correlated with the temperature and humidity history of the corresponding air parcel. Air that experienced a temperature minimum before the measurement took place was generally cloud free, while air that was at its temperature minimum during the observation and thus was saturated contained ice. We also detected extremely thin cloud layers slightly above the temperature minimum in subsaturated air. The solid particles of such clouds are likely to consist of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) rather than ice.

  9. Microphysical and optical properties of precipitating drizzle and ice particles obtained from alternated lidar and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayet, J.-F.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Jourdan, O.; Shcherbakov, V.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Neuber, R.

    2007-07-01

    During the international ASTAR experiment (Arctic Study of Aerosols, Clouds and Radiation) carried out from Longyearbyen (Spitsbergen) from 10 May to 11 June 2004, the AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) Polar 2 aircraft was equipped with a unique combination of remote and in situ instruments. The airborne AMALi lidar provided downward backscatter and Depolarisation ratio profiles at 532 nm wavelength. The in situ instrumental setup comprised a Polar Nephelometer, a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) as well as a Nevzorov and standard PMS probes to measure cloud particle properties in terms of scattering characteristics, particle morphology and size, and in-cloud partitioning of ice/water content. The objective of the paper is to present the results of a case study related to observations with ice crystals precipitating down to supercooled boundary-layer stratocumulus. The flight pattern was predefined in a way that firstly the AMALi lidar probed the cloud tops to guide the in situ measurements into a particular cloud formation. Three kinds of clouds with different microphysical and optical properties have therefore been quasi-simultaneously observed: (i) water droplets stratiform-layer, (ii) drizzle-drops fallstreak and (iii) precipitating ice-crystals from a cirrus cloud above. The signatures of these clouds are clearly evidenced from the in situ measurements and from the lidar profiles in term of backscatter and Depolarisation ratio. Accordingly, typical lidar ratios, i.e., extinction-to-backscatter ratios, are derived from the measured scattering phase function combined with subsequent particle shapes and size distributions. The backscatter profiles can therefore be retrieved under favourable conditions of low optical density. From these profiles extinction values in different cloud types can be obtained and compared with the direct in situ measurements.

  10. Simulation of the minor tsunami generated by the September 30 2009 earthquake near Padang, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wekerle, C.; Harig, S.; Pranowo, W.; Behrens, J.; Androsov, A.; Schroeter, J.; Hiller, W.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude 7.6 earthquake (USGS) on September 30, 2009 at 10:16 UTC close to the city of Padang in West Sumatra generated a minor tsunami. Earthquakes in this region however have the potential to generate destructive waves as it was shown in historical and recent events. Taking into account the large number of casualties due to this earthquake it is important to prepare for possible future events which might be accompanied by a tsunami. Due to the geographical setting of Padang a tsunami might have disastrous impact. An effective early warning system is crucial. The tsunami modeling group of Alfred Wegener Institute is part of the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) and is responsible for creating a database of pre-calculated tsunami scenarios of various magnitudes and epicenter locations covering the Sunda Trench. These scenarios are calculated with the newly developed model TsunAWI. It is based on the nonlinear shallow water equations and employs the finite element method in unstructured meshes. In case of a tsunamigenic earthquake, sensor data (comprising seismometers, GPS instruments, tide gauges, buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors) will be evaluated. The most probable scenario will be selected and used to forecast arrival times and estimated wave height along the coast. The unstructured discretisation employed in TsunAWI allows for a high resolution around the city of Padang. In this presentation we show preliminary examples of the results of the GITEWS simulation system. We evaluate our pre-computed scenarios and analyze their deficiencies. Additional simulations based on diverse source models are performed to analyze the predictability of near-field tsunamis within short time. We compare simulation results to tide gauge data from Padang harbor and find good agreement.

  11. RTOPO-1: A consistent dataset for Antarctic ice shelf topography and global ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry (i.e. ice-shelf draft and ocean bathymetry). Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-minute bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. Locations of the merging line have been carefully adjusted in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves and for Pine Island Glacier have been carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam ship survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and again carefully merged into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-minute data set contains consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The Ice Shelf Cavern Geometry Team: Anne Le Brocq, Tara Deen, Eugene Domack, Pierre Dutrieux, Ben Galton-Fenzi, Dorothea Graffe, Hartmut Hellmer, Angelika Humbert, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Astrid Lambrecht, Keith Makinson, Fred Niederjasper, Frank Nitsche, Ole Anders Nøst, Lars Henrik Smedsrud, and Walter Smith

  12. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  13. Surface energy balance measurements and modeling on the ice cap of King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Braun, M.; Sala, H.; Menz, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield for the austral summers November 2010 to March 2011 and January to February 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures in profile. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for an entire year. Repeat measurements of surface lowering at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the inland ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Jubany, King George Island) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute (German).

  14. Results of the NY-Alesund ozone measurements intercomparison NAOMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Gross, M.; McGee, T.; Neuber, R.; Gathen, P. V. D.; Wahl, P.; Klein, U.; Langer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Worldwide, about ten Differential Absorption Lidars are used for long-term monitoring of stratospheric ozone. These systems are an important component of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. Although DIALs are self-calibrating in principle, regular intercomparisons with other ozone-lidars, microwave radiometers or ozone-sondes are highly desirable to ensure high data quality at a well known level. The Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) validation policy suggests that such intercomparisons be "blind", meaning all participants submit their data to an impartial referee, without seeing results from the other participants. Here we report on the "blind" intercomparison taking place from January 20th to February 10th 1998 at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen (78.92 deg N, 11.95 deg E). Participating groups were from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Potsdam, operating the NDSC DIAL system at Ny-Alesund, from the University of Bremen operating the NDSC microwave radiometer for ozone profiling at Ny-Alesund, and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center group with the "NDSC travelling standard" STROZ-LITE. The first author acted as the impartial referee. Also used for the intercomparison were data from ECC-6A/Vaisala RS80 ozone sondes routinely launched at Ny-Alesund by the AWI group. A 1% KI solution (3 ml) and the 1986 ECC pump correction (1.092 at 5 hPa) are used. The ECC-data were available to all participants during the campaign and thus were not "blind". Table 1 summarizes the expected performance of the instruments participating in the ozone intercomparison reported in this paper.

  15. Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankylä the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

  16. FRAM - FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring: Permanent Observations in a Gateway to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwedel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to understand the complex interactions of biological, chemical, physical, and geological processes in the ocean is still limited by the lack of integrative and interdisciplinary observation infrastructures. The main purpose of the open-ocean infrastructure FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) is permanent presence at sea, from surface to depth, for the provision of near real-time data on climate variability and ecosystem change in an Arctic marine environment. The Alfred-Wegener-Institut I Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI), together with partner institutes in Germany and Europe, aims at providing such infrastructure for the polar ocean as a major contribution to international efforts towards comprehensive Global Earth Observation. The FRAM Ocean Observing System targets the gateway between the North Atlantic and the Central Arctic, representing a highly climate-sensitive and rapidly changing region of the Earth system. It will serve national and international tasks towards a better understanding of the effects of change in ocean circulation, water mass properties and sea-ice retreat on Arctic marine ecosystems and their main functions and services. FRAM integrates and develops already existing observatories, i.e. the oceanographic mooring array HAFOS (Hybrid Arctic/Antarctic Float Observing System) and the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site HAUSGARTEN. It will implement existing and next-generation sensors and observatory platforms, allowing synchronous observation of relevant ocean variables, as well as the study of physical, chemical and biological processes in the water column and at the seafloor. Experimental and event-triggered platforms will complement observational platforms. Products of the infrastructure are continuous long-term data with appropriate resolution in space and time, as well as ground-truthing information for ocean models and remote sensing.

  17. The Face of the Earth and those of her sisters: why are they so different?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celal Sengor, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    The terrestrial planets, Mercury (uncompressed density: 5.3 g/cm3) Venus (4.4), the earth (4.4), and Mars 3.8) and the Moon, the rocky satellite of the earth (3.3), have formed some 4500 to 4600 million years ago through gravitational accretion about individual centres of attraction around the Sun. Yet all five have very different "faces" to use Eduard Suess' happy expression (adopted by Alfred Wegener for the Moon also). The earth looks blue when viewed from space because of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere. Venus looks yellowish due to its clouds of sulfuric acid and Mars is buff because of its dusty atmosphere. The earth's hypsometric curve is double-peaked; Mars' approaches the earth's. The others have single-peaked curves. Mercury and the Moon are very similar-looking, but this is deceptive: we now recognise that Mercury has extensive thrust faulting resulting from planetary contraction; the Moon probably has contractional structures, but on an incomparably smaller scale. Venus has an active interior albeit incapable of dividing its surface into horizontally-moving plates. Mars has a less active interior, but it seems nevertheless active with volcanism as recently as 2 Ma ago. Venus and Mars have plume-dominated tectonics. The earth gets its heat out by plate tectonics (but also by plumes) creating its most distinctive facial features: the orogenic belts and the oceans. The differences among the sisters seem to be due to distance from the sun, accretion history and final size. So far, the most thrilling results concerning their geology have been gained as soon as we obtained the capability of looking at their faces and knock on their rocks.

  18. Paleomagnetism and Pangea: The road to reconciliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mathew; Van der Voo, Rob; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2012-01-01

    Outside the realm of paleomagnetic studies, it has been a long held tenet that Pangea amalgamated into and disseminated from essentially the same paleogeography, the conventional Pangea reconstruction of Alfred Wegener. There is widespread geologic and geophysical support for this continental configuration during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, but global paleomagnetic data have been repeatedly shown to be incompatible with this reconstruction for pre-Late Triassic time. This discrepancy, which has endured from the late 1950s to the present day, has developed into a fundamental enigma of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetism. The problem stems from a large disparity in the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are restored to the conventional fit. If the APWPs are forced to coincide while some semblance of this fit is maintained, a substantial crustal overlap (1000 + km) results between Laurussia and Gondwana. To resolve this problem, alternative Pangea reconstructions have been built to accommodate the paleomagnetic data, but these invariably require large-scale shearing between Laurussia and Gondwana to reach the conventional configuration, from which it is unanimously agreed that the Atlantic Ocean opened in the Jurassic. Evidence for a megashear between these landmasses is critically lacking. Another proposed solution invokes time-dependent non-dipole fields, but challenges the common assumption that the geomagnetic field has effectively been a geocentric axial dipole through the Phanerozoic. The remaining alternative is that the problem is a manifestation of artifacts/contamination in the paleomagnetic data. Here we review the historical development of this problem and conduct an up-to-date re-analysis. Using the most recent late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, we examine the influence of data-quality, refined continental fits, and theoretical inclination shallowing corrections, and confirm that

  19. RTopo-2: A global high-resolution dataset of ice sheet topography, ice shelf cavity geometry and ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph; Schaffer, Janin

    2016-04-01

    The RTopo-1 data set of Antarctic ice sheet/shelf geometry and global ocean bathymetry has proven useful not only for modelling studies of ice-ocean interaction in the southern hemisphere. Following the spirit of this data set, we introduce a new product (RTopo-2) that contains consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arc seconds resolution. We used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. To achieve a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry around the Greenland continent, we corrected data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ and Helheim Glacier assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79°N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model including all available multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for ice surface and ice base topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centers of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA/NSF) and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). For the Antarctic ice sheet/ice shelves, RTopo-2 largely relies on the Bedmap-2 product but applies corrections for the geometry of Getz, Abbot and Fimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available in full and in regional subsets in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database.

  20. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds during VERDI and RACEPAC: Combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in sea-ice covered areas the airborne research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) were initiated by a collaboration of German and French research institutes. The aircraft operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany were based in Inuvik, Canada from where the research flights of in total 149 flight hours (62 h during VERDI, 87 h during RACEPAC) were able to cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort. The aim of both campaigns was to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. Remote sensing instrumentation contained a backscatter lidar and spectral solar radiation measurements including a hyperspectral camera. In-situ sampling was highlighted by a suit of comprehensive cloud particle probes, aerosol particle counters and mass spectroscopy as well as trace gas detectors. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft (Polar 5) subsequently, for RACEPAC two identical aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) were coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. In this way not only the combined analysis of radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably, also remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of both projects including instrumentation and flight patterns of the research flights. Beside flight missions dedicated to sample low level clouds by remote sensing and in situ probing, flights were also coordinated with satellite overpasses and ground based stations. Exemplary results will be highlighted.

  1. Arctic and Antarctic Sea-Ice Freeboard and Thickness Retrievals from CryoSat-2 and EnviSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Schwegmann, Sandra; Helm, Veit; Rinne, Eero

    2016-04-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is now in the 6th year of data acquisition. With its synthetic aperture radar altimeter, CryoSat-2 achieves great improvements in the along track resolution compared to previous radar altimeter missions like ERS or Envisat. The latitudinal coverage contains major parts of the Arctic marine ice fields where previous missions left a big data gap around the North Pole and especially over the multiyear ice zone north of Greenland. With this unique data set, changes in sea-ice thickness can be investigated in the context of the rapid reduction of the Arctic sea-ice cover which has been observed during the last decades. We present the current state of the CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness retrieval that is processed at the Alfred Wegener Institute and available via seaiceportal.de (originally: meereisportal.de). Though biases in sea-ice thickness may occur due to the interpretation of waveforms, airborne and ground-based validation measurements give confidence that the retrieval algorithm enables us to capture the actual distributions of sea-ice regimes. Nevertheless, long time series of data retrievals are essential to estimate trends in sea-ice thickness and volume. Today, more than 20 years of radar altimeter data are potentially available and capable to derive sea ice thickness. However, data originate from satellites with different sensor characteristics. Therefore, it is crucial to study the consistency between single sensors to derive long and consistent time series. We present results from the tested consistency between Antarctic freeboard measurements of the radar altimeters on-board of Envisat and CryoSat-2 for their overlap period in 2011.

  2. Surface energy balance and turbulence measurements on Warszawa Icefield, King George Island, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Sala, H.; Braun, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat of glaciers, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield over 1.5 years from November 2010 to 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for one and a half years. Repeat measurements of snow accumulation and surface lowering along transects on the glacier and at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer within the source area of the ground measurements. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Carlini station, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute of Marine and Polar Research (Germany).

  3. Critical Fracture Toughness Measurements of an Antarctic Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Webber, Kyle; Isaia, Daniel; Schader, Florian; Kippstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Humbert, Angelika

    2014-05-01

    Fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a pre-existing defect in a body to further crack extension. The fracture toughness of glacial ice as a function of density is important for modeling efforts aspire to predict calving behavior. In the presented experiments this fracture toughness is measured using an ice core from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The samples were sawed in an ice lab at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven at -20°C and had the dimensions of standard test samples with thickness 14 mm, width 28 mm and length 126 mm. The samples originate from a depth of 94.6 m to 96 m. The grain size of the samples was also identified. The grain size was found to be rather uniform. The critical fracture toughness is determined in a four-point bending approach using single edge V-notch beam samples. The initial notch length was around 2.5 mm and was prepared using a drilling machine. The experimental setup was designed at the Institute of Materials Science at Darmstadt. In this setup the force increases linearly, until the maximum force is reached, where the specific sample fractures. This procedure was done in an ice lab with a temperature of -15°C. The equations to calculate the fracture toughness for pure bending are derived from an elastic stress analysis and are given as a standard test method to detect the fracture toughness. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to determine the ice core densities. The tests cover densities from 843 kg m-3 to 871 kg m-3. Thereby the influence of the fracture toughness on the density was analyzed and compared to previous investigations of this material parameter. Finally the dependence of the measured toughness on thickness, width, and position in the core cross-section was investigated.

  4. Air and shipborne magnetic surveys of the Antarctic into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, A.; Bell, R.; Blankenship, D.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Masolov, V.; Riedel, S.; von Frese, R.; Young, D.

    2013-02-01

    The Antarctic geomagnetics' community remains very active in crustal anomaly mapping. More than 1.5 million line-km of new air- and shipborne data have been acquired over the past decade by the international community in Antarctica. These new data together with surveys that previously were not in the public domain significantly upgrade the ADMAP compilation. Aeromagnetic flights over East Antarctica have been concentrated in the Transantarctic Mountains, the Prince Charles Mountains - Lambert Glacier area, and western Dronning Maud Land (DML) — Coats Land. Additionally, surveys were conducted over Lake Vostok and the western part of Marie Byrd Land by the US Support Office for Aerogeophysical Research projects and over the Amundsen Sea Embayment during the austral summer of 2004/2005 by a collaborative US/UK aerogeophysical campaign. New aeromagnetic data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (120,000 line-km), acquired within the IPY Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province project reveal fundamental geologic features beneath the East Antarctic Ice sheet critical to understanding Precambrian continental growth processes. Roughly 100,000 line-km of magnetic data obtained within the International Collaboration for Exploration of the Cryosphere through Aerogeophysical Profiling promises to shed light on subglacial lithology and identify crustal boundaries for the central Antarctic Plate. Since the 1996/97 season, the Alfred Wegener Institute has collected 90,000 km of aeromagnetic data along a 1200 km long segment of the East Antarctic coast over western DML. Recent cruises by Australian, German, Japanese, Russian, British, and American researchers have contributed to long-standing studies of the Antarctic continental margin. Along the continental margin of East Antarctica west of Maud Rise to the George V Coast of Victoria Land, the Russian Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition and Geoscience Australia obtained 80,000 and 20,000 line-km, respectively, of

  5. CryoSat-2 Arctic Sea-Ice Thickness: Uncertainties and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Haas, C.; Davidson, M.

    2014-12-01

    The CryoSat-2 satellite is in the 4th year of its mission. It has collected a unique altimetry dataset with higher spatial resolution and a better coverage of Arctic sea ice than any previous radar altimeter mission. The along-track sharpened footprint allows resolving fine-scale features of the ice pack and the examination of retrievable information from the SAR waveforms is a field of ongoing research. Different methods can be applied to CryoSat-2 data: threshold retrackers that use the leading edge; or fitted forward models, which are applied to full waveforms. The uncertainty of these methods propagates into the uncertainty of the final sea-ice thickness estimate via the freeboard to thickness conversion. Theoretical considerations show that the magnitude of uncertainties in the radar retracking may be a major if not dominating contribution to the uncertainty budget of sea-ice thickness retrieval from CryoSat-2. We present a break-down of the uncertainty budget of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice thickness of the threshold retracker based sea-ice thickness data product of the Alfred Wegener Institute. We discuss the differences in the radar waveform properties and the identification of leads in first-year and multi-year ice covered areas with the aim to mitigate ice type dependent biases. Though threshold retrackers are prone to a simplistic interpretation of the SAR waveforms we investigate the potential of this fast and robust method to retrieve additional physical properties at the sea ice surface.

  6. Sediment structures and sediment ages of the Chukchi region, Amerasia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegewald, A.; Jokat, W.

    2011-12-01

    In 2008, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) of Germany, using the RV Polarstern, collected multichannel seismic reflection data in the eastern Arctic Ocean (73-79°N and 170°E-165°W), namely the East Siberian Shelf, the Chukchi Shelf, - Plateau, and - Abyssal Plain, and the southern part of the Mendeleev Ridge. For the seismic data acquisition an air gun array with up to six air guns (48 ltr. total volume fired at 200 bar) was used. With a 3000 m long streamer including 240 active channels and a 600 m long streamer including 96 active channels the seismic signals were recorded. Obtaining the ages of the sediments, the information of five exploration wells near the coast of Alaska were correlated into the new seismic lines. For this correlation an existing network of more than 200 seismic reflection lines on the East Siberian Shelf and Chukchi Shelf from the USGS, TGS-NOPEC and ION-GX Technology were used. The research area is dominated by two different sediment packages ranging from the Paleocene to the Jurassic. The upper part is an undisturbed unit with low amplitudes and flat-lying reflections. In contrast, the lower package is dominated by an undulated stratification with many fractures and faults. Moreover, the lower unit consists of higher amplitudes with strong reflection bands. The sedimentary thickness varied from the East Siberian Shelf to the Chukchi Plateau from more than 8 km to 4 km. In the basin between the Chukchi Plateau and the Mendeleev Ridge the sedimentary thickness is about 2 km. Furthermore, a series of prograding sequences at the continental margin of the Chukchi Shelf with ages of 65 Ma and younger were analysed. These sequences are the result of an enormous sediment influx from Siberia and Alaska and can be explained by variations in the sedimentation rate over time.

  7. Study on the location and fit of continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ohyeok; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Since Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift more than a century ago, continuous effort to reconstruct the super continent Pangea has been carried out paleo-geographically during past several decades. Although a remarkable success has been achieved, there remains still a great uncertainty on the precise location and fits of the continents that constitute the Pangea. While the fits are recognized as quite complete for Gondwana, the northern part of Pangea, the fits for Laurasia which contains North Ameraica and Eurasia, are left with a lot of improvement. What the two giant continents look like when they were fitted to form the Pangea is also a unsolved question. Several hypothesis for the fits of Laurasia and Gondwana have been raised, and the scenarios of Pangea A1, Pangea A2, Pangea B, and Pangea C were proposed hitherto. Recently, an updated version very close to Pangea A2 was suggested by authors including Van der Voo, Trond H. Torsvik, which have improved several deficiencies of the Pangea A2. However, it was found that the new scenario cannot be fully supported by the paleomagnetism data. Furthermore, it is not in complete agreement with previous paleogeological surveys on major geological features such as Variscan and Caledonian orogenic belt, indicating that a more sophisticated scenario is needed still for the Pangea. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the continents in western central Pangea with a focus on the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean. A new fit of continents to form the Pangea is proposed, where the continents are fitted with enhanced accuracy compared to other models of Pangea particularly for the Mediterranean Sea, central America, Iran Plateau etc.. The results suggest that the continents were not distorted significantly on the process of drifting and merging during the past 200 million years.

  8. A study of the stable boundary layer in strong gap flows in northwest Greenland using a research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.

  9. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  10. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  11. Ground-based lidar measurements from Ny-Ålesund during ASTAR 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Shiobara, M.; Lampert, A.; Maturilli, M.; Orgis, T.; Neuber, R.; Herber, A.

    2009-11-01

    During the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR) in March and April 2007, measurements obtained at the AWIPEV Arctic Research Base in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen at 78.9° N, 11.9° E (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research - AWI and the Institut polaire français Paul-Emile Victor - IPEV), supported the airborne campaign. This included lidar data from the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), located in the atmospheric observatory as well as photometer data and the daily launched radiosonde. The MPL features nearly continuous measurements; the KARL was switched on whenever weather conditions allowed observations (145 h in 61 days). From 1 March to 30 April, 71 meteorological balloon soundings were performed and compared with the concurrent MPL measurements; photometer measurements are available from 18 March. For the KARL data, a statistical overview of particle detection based on their optical properties backscatter ratio and volume depolarization can be given. The altitudes of the occurrence of the named features (subvisible and visible ice and water as well as mixed-phase clouds, aerosol layers) as well as their dependence on different air mass origins are analyzed. Although the spring 2007 was characterized by rather clean conditions, diverse case studies of cloud and aerosol occurrence during March and April 2007 are presented in more detail, including temporal development and main optical properties as depolarization, backscatter and extinction coefficients. Links between air mass origins and optical properties can be presumed but need further evidence.

  12. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  13. Receptivity of a Cryogenic Coaxial Gas-Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Gas-Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wegener , Forliti, Leyva...of a Cryogenic Coaxial Gas-Liquid Jet to Acoustic Disturbances 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference Jeff Wegener , UCLA David Forliti...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Previous injectors (Sophonias, 2012) New injector ( Wegener , 2013) 13Place

  14. Pediatric Vasculitis Initiative

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Wegeners Granulomatosis (Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis); Microscopic Polyangiitis; Churg Strauss Syndrome (Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis); Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu Arteritis; Primary CNS Vasculitis; Unclassified Vasculitis

  15. Educational Needs of Patients With Systemic Vasculitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-11

    Behcet's Disease; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Vasculitis, Central Nervous System; Giant Cell Arteritis; Wegener Granulomatosis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu's Arteritis

  16. Impact of Vasculitis on Employment and Income

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-26

    Vasculitis; Systemic Vasculitis; Behcet's Disease; CNS Vasculitis; Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis; Eosinophilic Granulomatosis; Temporal Arteritis; Wegener Granulomatosis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN); Takayasu's Arteritis; Urticarial Vasculitis

  17. Induction of Regulatory t Cells by Low Dose il2 in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-12

    Rheumatoid Arthritis; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Psoriasis; Behcet's Disease; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Takayasu's Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Autoimmune Hepatitis; Sclerosing Cholangitis; Gougerot-sjögren

  18. Proceedings for the Alaska Meeting on Fundamental Optical Processes in Semiconductors (AMFOPS 󈧅) Held in Girdwood, Alaska on August 5-10, 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    o . I (L MM ( La. M2 L I 478 8 i4 N 6 i:& e From Quantum Kinetics to the Carrier-Wave Regime Martin Wegener Institut fir Angewandte Physik...Steinbach, M.U. Wehner, M. Wegener , T. Marschner, and W. Stolz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2188 (1995). [2] M.U. Wehner, M.H. Ulm, D.S. Chemla, and M. Wegener ...Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1992 (1998). [3] W.A. Hhlgel, M.F. Heinrich, M. Wegener , Q.T. Vu, L. Bdnyai, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3313 (1999). [4

  19. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    smaller scale surveys - getting close to industry standards - targeted specific geological questions, the reconnaissance type of aerogeophysical projects continued in Dronning Maud Land, now in close cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). This very successful cooperation between the two German institutions - both working continuously in the polar regions - was already established in Arctic projects, namely in northern Greenland. Also, since the late 1990's BGR conducted together with Canada airborne surveys as part of PMAP (Polar Margins Aeromagnetic Program), thematically linked to the predominantly geological CASE (Circum Arctic Structural Events) program of BGR. A joint project of GSC (Geological Survey of Canada) and BGR in the Nares Strait was a highlight of combined geological and aeromagnetic research addressing the still widely discussed Wegener fault between Greenland and Ellesmere Island and the extent of tertiary basins in the Nares Strait itself. BGR intends to continue its successful combined geological-geophysical work in both polar regions. The increasing logistic and financial challenges to work in these extreme areas will demand not only a continuation but an intensification of national and international collaboration.

  20. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On-going activities of the NASA special consultant to WEGENER (Working group of European Geoscientists for the Establishment of Networks for Earth-science Research) program are reported. Topics cover include: the WEGENER 2002 conference in Greece and the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS).

  1. Development of a Facility for Combustion Stability Experiments at Supercritical Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    at Supercritical Pressure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wegener , Leyva, Forliti, Talley...Force Research Laboratory Jeff Wegener , Ivett Leyva, David Forliti, and Doug Talley Air Force Research Laboratory Combustion Devices Branch - Combustion

  2. Coalition Operations in Afghanistan Post 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    part of the world. Notes 1 Andrew Wegener , A Complex and Changing Dynamic: Afghan...29-60. Rust, Stephen N. “The Nuts and Bolts of Village Stability Operations.” Special Warfare. (Jul-Sep 2011): 28-31. Wegener , Andrew. A

  3. Contrasts between American and Afghan Warriors, a Comparison between two Martial Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    successful in resisting outside invasions ( Wegener 2007). The British fought three wars, seized Kabul twice, retreated twice, and never managed to...and US coalition interventions. Lieutenant Wegener describes these reactions as a complex political social function that reflected the cultural

  4. The IAOOS arctic network project, status and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelon, J.; Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Calzas, M.; Blouzon, F.; Gascard, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    intensive tests were very timely. The first IAOOS array deployment will start in August 2015 from R/V Araon during the Korean cruise organized by the KOPRI in the Canadian Basin and from R/V Polarstern during the German cruise TRANSARC II organized by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Eurasian Basin. First results obtained in the frame of IAOOS will be presented and discussed.

  5. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  6. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching

  7. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  8. PANGAEA® - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science - Research data enters scholarly communication and big data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepenbroek, Michael; Schindler, Uwe; Riedel, Morris; Huber, Robert

    2014-05-01

    and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (more than 160 International to national projects since the last 15 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  9. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  10. Insights into aerosols, chemistry, and clouds from NETCARE: Observations from the Canadian Arctic in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (or NETCARE) was established in 2013 to study the interactions between aerosols, chemistry, clouds and climate. The network brings together Canadian academic and government researchers, along with key international collaborators. Attention is being given to observations and modeling of Arctic aerosol, with the goal to understand underlying processes and so improve predictions of aerosol climate forcing. Motivation to understand the summer Arctic atmosphere comes from the retreat of summer sea ice and associated increase in marine influence. To address these goals, a suite of measurements was conducted from two platforms in summer 2014 in the Canadian Arctic, i.e. an aircraft-based campaign on the Alfred Wegener Institute POLAR 6 and an ocean-based campaign from the CGCS Amundsen icebreaker. NETCARE-POLAR was based out of Resolute Bay, Nunavut during an initial period of little transport and cloud-free conditions and a later period characterized by more transport with potentially biomass burning influence. Measurements included particle and cloud droplet numbers and size distributions, aerosol composition, cloud nuclei, and levels of gaseous tracers. Ultrafine particle events were more frequently observed in the marine boundary layer than above, with particle growth observed in some cases to cloud condensation nucleus sizes. The influence of biological processes on atmospheric constituents was also assessed from the ship during NETCARE-AMUNDSEN, as indicated by high measured levels of gaseous ammonia, DMS and oxygenated VOCs, as well as isolated particle formation and growth episodes. The cruise took place in Baffin Bay and through the Canadian archipelago. Interpretation of the observations from both campaigns is enhanced through the use of chemical transport and particle dispersion models. This talk will provide an overview of NETCARE Arctic observational and

  11. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    infancy, the initial methodologies and protocols will undoubtedly continue to need further development and regular revision - making continued collaboration and communication between the polar and space communities mutually beneficial and advisable. NRC Study Committee members: 1 John E. Hobbie (Chair), Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts; 2 Amy Baker, Technical Administrative Services, Littleton, Colorado; 3 Garry Clarke, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 4 Peter T. Doran, University of Illinois at Chicago, Earth and Environmental Sciences; 5 David Karl, University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Honolulu; 6 Barbara Methé, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland; 7 Heinz Miller, Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany; 8 Samuel B. Mukasa, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; 9 Margaret Race, SETI Institute, Mountain View, California; 10 Warwick Vincent, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; 11 David Walton, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 12 James White, University of Colorado, Boulder, 13 Maria Uhle (Study Director), National Research Council.

  12. Ice-tethered measurement platforms in the Arctic Ocean: a contribution by the FRAM infrastructure program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Katlein, Christian; Scholz, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been in the focus of many studies during recent years, investigating the state, the causes and the implications of the observed rapid transition towards a thinner and younger sea-ice cover. However, consistent observational datasets of sea ice, ocean and atmosphere are still sparse due to the limited accessibility and harsh environmental conditions. One important tool to fill this gap has become more and more feasible during recent years: autonomous, ice-tethered measurement platforms (buoys). These drifting instruments independently transmit their data via satellites, and enable observations over larger areas and over longer time periods than manned expeditions, even throughout the winter. One aim of the newly established FRAM (FRontiers in Arctic marine Monitoring) infrastructure program at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute is to realize and maintain an interdisciplinary network of buoys in the Arctic Ocean, contributing to an integrated, Arctic-wide observatory. The additional buoy infrastructure, ship-time, and developments provided by FRAM are critical elements in the ongoing international effort to fill the large data gaps in a rapidly changing Arctic Ocean. Our focus is the particularly underrepresented Eurasian Basin. Types of instruments range from snow depth beacons and ice mass balance buoys for monitoring ice growth and snow accumulation, over radiation and weather stations for energy budget estimates, to ice-tethered profiling systems for upper ocean monitoring. Further, development of new bio-optical and biogeochemical buoys is expected to enhance our understanding of bio-physical processes associated with Arctic sea ice. The first set of FRAM buoys was deployed in September 2015 from RV Polarstern. All datasets are publicly available on dedicated web portals. Near real time data are reported into international initiatives, such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). The

  13. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  14. Development and First Results of a new Airplane Based Fixed Wing Electromagnetic Induction Sea Ice Thickness Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenstein, L.; Lobach, J.; Haas, C.

    2007-12-01

    Regular observation of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice thickness is of high importance for a better understanding of processes of climate change in polar regions. For regular and accurate observations of polar sea ice thickness a long range airborne device is necessary. Airborne electromagnetic induction (AEM) sounding was found to be an ideal method for accurate and wide area sea ice thickness measurements. As a consequence of five years of successful helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) sea ice thickness measurements and to overcome helicopter range restrictions, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) constructed a new airplane based fixed wing EM system. The first test flights were carried out in 2006 over the North Sea and in April 2007 in Svalbard, where the system's performance was proven under arctic conditions. The system operates in frequency domain with 1990 Hz and a vertical coplanar coil configuration. Thus the system produces a horizontal dipole. The coils are mounted beneath the wings with a separation of 11.6 meters. The airplane, a Dornier 228, is also equipped with a laser altimeter to determine the altitude of the instrument with an accuracy of 2cm. The compensation of the transmitter signal at the receiver coil is done electronically. Flights over open sea are used for the calibration of the system, because the ocean functions as a homogeneous half space with well known conductivity. A data acquisition computer records four voltages with a sample rate of 10 Hz. These are the reference voltage of the transmitter, the compensated and raw receiver voltages and the compensation signal. The laser height is recorded with a sample rate of 100 Hz to account for surface roughness. EM instruments for sea ice thickness sounding should have a vertical resolution of 10cm but due to the electrical noise caused by the airplane engines this was not easy to achieve. To account for the noise a time average filter is used. Alternatively, in order to keep the original

  15. Earth System Science - Bridging the gaps between disciplines; Perspectives from a multi-disciplinary Helmholtz Research School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bracher, Astrid; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Unnithan, Vikram; Buschmann, Matthias; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Notholt, Justus

    2015-04-01

    Post-graduate education in Germany has changed a lot over the past decades. Formerly, PhD students generally did not have the option to attend formal classes and lectures and were expected to conduct their independent research, including occasionally teaching courses for students. Since the introduction of bachelor and masters studies with the Bologna Process in the late 90th, the higher education in Europe has been harmonized, leading to more structured and focused studies at the expense of a broad and universal disciplinary education. At this same time, special fields such as Earth System Science became more interdisciplinary. In consequence, universities and research institutes have established so-called research schools and/or graduate schools, offering specific courses and training alongside the doctorate. Especially, Earth System Science has developed from an interesting concept in Earth Sciences education to a fully integrative Science focussed on understanding the complex system Earth. This evolution is partially due to the radical and far reaching anthropogenic changes and the general feeling of helplessness with regards to the possible consequences and future impacts on the Earth System. The Helmholtz "Earth System Science Research School" (ESSReS) is a small unit of PhD students co-organized by three educational and research institutions in the city state Bremen: University of Bremen (Institute for Environmental Physics, IUP), Jacobs University (School of Engineering and Science (JU)), and Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven (AWI). ESSReS aims at the integration of research at the interface of Geology, Biology, Physics, Geophysics, Mathematics and Informatics. It is therefore multi- and interdisciplinary in every aspect. The training, curriculum, and PhD research subjects are closely located at the interfaces between the participating disciplines. This is guaranteed by interdisciplinary supervision of

  16. A three-dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne Sun photometer observations: PAM-ARCMIP, April 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. S.; Herber, A.; Vitale, V.; Mazzola, M.; Lupi, A.; Schnell, R. C.; Dutton, E. G.; Liu, P. S. K.; Li, S.-M.; Dethloff, K.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Stock, M.; Neuber, R.; Maturilli, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Arctic climate is modulated, in part, by atmospheric aerosols that affect the distribution of radiant energy passing through the atmosphere. Aerosols affect the surface-atmosphere radiation balance directly through interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and indirectly through interactions with cloud particles. Better quantification of the radiative forcing by different types of aerosol is needed to improve predictions of future climate. During April 2009, the airborne campaign Pan-Arctic Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (PAM-ARCMIP) was conducted. The mission was organized by Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research of Germany and utilized their research aircraft, Polar-5. The goal was to obtain a snapshot of surface and atmospheric conditions over the central Arctic prior to the onset of the melt season. Characterizing aerosols was one objective of the campaign. Standard Sun photometric procedures were adopted to quantify aerosol optical depth AOD, providing a three-dimensional view of the aerosol, which was primarily haze from anthropogenic sources. Independent, in situ measurements of particle size distribution and light extinction, derived from airborne lidar, are used to corroborate inferences made using the AOD results. During April 2009, from the European to the Alaskan Arctic, from sub-Arctic latitudes to near the pole, the atmosphere was variably hazy with total column AOD at 500 nm ranging from ˜0.12 to >0.35, values that are anomalously high compared with previous years. The haze, transported primarily from Eurasian industrial regions, was concentrated within and just above the surface-based temperature inversion layer. Extinction, as measured using an onboard lidar system, was also greatest at low levels, where particles tended to be slightly larger than at upper levels. Black carbon (BC) (soot) was observed at all levels sampled, but at moderate to low concentrations compared with

  17. From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. However, the evolution of phenotypic features is not predictable, and biologists no longer use terms such as "primitive" or "perfect organisms". Despite these insights, the Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae, i.e., the idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists until ca. 1850 (Charles Bonnet, Jean Lamarck and others). Charles Darwin is usually credited with the establishment of a branched evolutionary "Tree of Life". This insight of 1859 was based on his now firmly corroborated proposals of common ancestry and natural selection. In this article I argue that Darwin was still influenced by "ladder thinking", a theological view that prevailed throughout the 19th century and is also part of Ernst Haeckel's famous Oak tree (of Life) of 1866, which is, like Darwin's scheme, static. In 1910, Constantin Mereschkowsky proposed an alternative, "anti-selectionist" concept of biological evolution, which became known as the symbiogenesis-theory. According to the symbiogenesis-scenario, eukaryotic cells evolved on a static Earth from archaic prokaryotes via the fusion and subsequent cooperation of certain microbes. In 1929, Alfred Wegener published his theory of continental drift, which was later corroborated, modified and extended. The resulting theory of plate tectonics is now the principal organizing concept of geology. Over millions of years, plate tectonics and hence the "dynamic Earth" has caused destructive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. At the same time, it created mountain ranges, deep oceans, novel freshwater habitats, and deserts. As a result, these geologic processes destroyed numerous

  18. From the scala naturae to the symbiogenetic and dynamic tree of life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2011-06-30

    All living beings on Earth, from bacteria to humans, are connected through descent from common ancestors and represent the summation of their corresponding, ca. 3500 million year long evolutionary history. However, the evolution of phenotypic features is not predictable, and biologists no longer use terms such as "primitive" or "perfect organisms". Despite these insights, the Bible-based concept of the so-called "ladder of life" or Scala Naturae, i.e., the idea that all living beings can be viewed as representing various degrees of "perfection", with humans at the very top of this biological hierarchy, was popular among naturalists until ca. 1850 (Charles Bonnet, Jean Lamarck and others). Charles Darwin is usually credited with the establishment of a branched evolutionary "Tree of Life". This insight of 1859 was based on his now firmly corroborated proposals of common ancestry and natural selection. In this article I argue that Darwin was still influenced by "ladder thinking", a theological view that prevailed throughout the 19th century and is also part of Ernst Haeckel's famous Oak tree (of Life) of 1866, which is, like Darwin's scheme, static. In 1910, Constantin Mereschkowsky proposed an alternative, "anti-selectionist" concept of biological evolution, which became known as the symbiogenesis-theory. According to the symbiogenesis-scenario, eukaryotic cells evolved on a static Earth from archaic prokaryotes via the fusion and subsequent cooperation of certain microbes. In 1929, Alfred Wegener published his theory of continental drift, which was later corroborated, modified and extended. The resulting theory of plate tectonics is now the principal organizing concept of geology. Over millions of years, plate tectonics and hence the "dynamic Earth" has caused destructive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. At the same time, it created mountain ranges, deep oceans, novel freshwater habitats, and deserts. As a result, these geologic processes destroyed numerous

  19. Topographic effect in marine magnetotelluric data and implications to the electrical conductivity structure of the mantle beneath the Tristan da Cunha hotspot area in southern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, K.; Chen, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Utada, H.; Kammann, J.; Geissler, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Kiyoshi Baba1,2, Jin Chen2, Marion Jegen2, Hisashi Utada1, Janina Kammann3, and Wolfram H. Geissler4 1. Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo2. GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel3. University of Hamburg4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchTristan da Cunha Island is one of the hot spots in the Atlantic Ocean. The discussion about its source have not reached consensus yet whether it is in shallow asthenosphere or deeper mantle, because of lack of the geophysical observations in the area. A marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted together with seismological observations in the area in 2012-2013 by collaboration between Germany and Japan, in order to give further constraints on the physical state of the mantle beneath the area. A total of 26 seafloor stations were deployed around the Tristan da Cunha islands and available data were retrieved from 23 stations. The MT responses were estimated for those available sites. The detailed data processing will be presented by Chen et al. in this meeting. In this study, we report on the topographic effect on the observed MT responses. During the cruises for seafloor instruments deployment and recovery, detailed bathymetry data were collected around the stations by onboard multi-narrow beam echo sounding (MBES) system. We compiled the MBES data and ETOPO1 data to incorporate the local and regional topography. Then, we applied iterative topographic effect correction and one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity structure inversion. The MT responses of each station were simulated by three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling. Preliminary results show the overall feature of the observed MT responses at some stations were qualitatively well explained by the seafloor topography included in the conductivity structure model over the 1-D mantle structure. An extreme example is the station near the Tristan da Cunha Island. The impedance phases varies ~300 degrees in

  20. A Generic Framework for Enabling the Flow of Sensor Observations to Archives: O2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchow, Peter; Koppe, Roland; Macario, Ana; Haas, Antonie; Shäfer-Neth, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Over the last two decades, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) has been continuously committing to develop and sustain an e-Infrastructure for coherent discovery, visualization, dissemination and archival of scientific information in polar and marine regions. Most of the data originates from research activities being carried out in a wide range of AWI-operated research platforms: vessels, land-based stations, ocean-based stations and aircrafts. Archival and publishing in PANGAEA repository along with DOI assignment to individual datasets is a typical end-of-line step for most data owners. Within AWI, a workflow for data acquisition from vessel-mounted devices along with ingestion procedures for the raw data into the institutional archives has been well-established for many years. However, the increasing number of ocean-based stations and respective sensors along with heterogeneous project-driven requirements towards satellite communication, sensor monitoring, QA/QC control and validation, processing algorithms, visualization and dissemination has recently lead us to build a more generic and cost-effective framework. This framework, hereafter named O2A, has as main strength its seamless flow of sensor observation to archives and the fact that it complies with internationally used OGC standards and thus assuring interoperability in international context (e.g. SOS/SWE, WPS, WMS WFS,..). O2A is comprised of several extensible and exchangeable modules (e.g. controlled vocabularies and gazetteers, file type and structure validation, aggregation solutions, processing algorithms, etc) as well as various interoperability services. At the first data tier level, not only each sensor is being described following SensorML data model standards but the data is being fed to an SOS interface offering streaming solutions along with support to O&M encoding. Project administrators or data specialists are now able to monitor the individual sensors displayed in a map by simply clicking

  1. Reconciling Paleomagnetism and Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, M. M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Outside of the realm of paleomagnetic studies, it has been a long held tenet that Pangea amalgamated into and disseminated from essentially the same paleogeography, the conventional Pangea reconstruction of Alfred Wegener. There is widespread geologic and geophysical support for this re-assembly during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, but global paleomagnetic data have been repeatedly shown to be incompatible with this reconstruction for pre-Late Triassic time. This discrepancy, which has endured from the late 1950's to the present day, has developed into a fundamental enigma of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetism. The problem stems from a large disparity in the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are restored to the conventional paleogeography. If the APWPs are made to coincide while the conventional fit is maintained, a substantial crustal misfit results; a continental overlap of approximately 10° latitude (1000+ km) occurs between Laurussia and Gondwana. To resolve this problem, alternative Pangea reconstructions have been built to accommodate the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, but these invariably require large-scale shearing between Laurussia and Gondwana to reach the conventional Pangea re-assembly, from which it is unanimously agreed that the Atlantic Ocean opened in the Jurassic. Evidence for a megashear between these landmasses is critically lacking. Another proposed solution invokes time-dependent non-dipole fields, but challenges the working assumption that the geomagnetic field has effectively been a geocentric axial dipole through the Phanerozoic. The final alternative is that the problem is a manifestation of artifacts/contamination in the paleomagnetic data. Previous investigations of this last hypothesis have demonstrated its theoretical plausibility, but lacked the exhaustive analysis of global paleomagnetic data necessary to assuredly dispel the problem as an enduring data

  2. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Eliseev, A. V.; Evgrafova, S.; Fedorova, I.; Glagolev, M.; Grigoriev, M.; Hubberten, H. W.; Knoblauch, C.; Kunitsky, V.; Kutzbach, L.; Reichstein, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Wagner, D.; Zimov, S. A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 2.5-times the carbon within the global vegetation. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg

  3. Pollution in the Summertime Canadian High Arctic observed during NETCARE 2014: Investigation of origin and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Willis, Megan; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon; Herber, Andreas; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The clean and sensitive Arctic atmosphere is influenced by transport of air masses from lower latitudes that bring pollution in the form of aerosol particles and trace gases into the Arctic regions. However, the transport processes causing such pollution events are yet not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on results from the aircraft campaign NETCARE 2014 that took place in July 2014 in Resolute Bay, Nunavut (Canada) as part of the "Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environment" (NETCARE). These airborne measurements add to only a very few of such measurements conducted in the Arctic during the summertime. The instrumentation on board the research aircraft Polar 6 (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research) included a large set of physico-chemical aerosol analysis instruments, several trace gas measurements and basic meteorological parameters. Here we focus on observed pollution events that caused elevated trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the summertime Canadian High Arctic between 50 and 3500 m. In order to better understand the chemical composition and the origin of those polluted air masses, we use single particle aerosol composition obtained using the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA), combined with aerosol size distributions and number concentrations from an Optical Particle Counter as well as trace gas measurements of CO and CO2. CO and CO2 are important tracers to study pollution events, which are connected to anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic combustion processes, respectively biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. The ALABAMA provides a detailed single particle aerosol composition analysis from which we identify different particle types like soot-, biomass burning-, organics-, diesel exhaust- and metallic particles. The measurements were compared to Lagrangian models like FLEXPART and LAGRANTO to find the pollution sources

  4. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help

  5. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Centre Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (HZG). Further participating centres are: the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Research Centre Jülich (FZJ), the Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Sciences (GEOMAR), the Karlsruher Institute for Technology (KIT) and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). The webpage will be accessible at www.eskp.de.

  6. Numerical Aspects of Nonhydrostatic Implementations Applied to a Parallel Finite Element Tsunami Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, A.; Androsov, A.; Harig, S.; Hiller, W.; Rakowsky, N.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the jeopardy of devastating tsunamis and the unpredictability of such events, tsunami modelling as part of warning systems is still a contemporary topic. The tsunami group of Alfred Wegener Institute developed the simulation tool TsunAWI as contribution to the Early Warning System in Indonesia. Although the precomputed scenarios for this purpose qualify for satisfying deliverables, the study of further improvements continues. While TsunAWI is governed by the Shallow Water Equations, an extension of the model is based on a nonhydrostatic approach. At the arrival of a tsunami wave in coastal regions with rough bathymetry, the term containing the nonhydrostatic part of pressure, that is neglected in the original hydrostatic model, gains in importance. In consideration of this term, a better approximation of the wave is expected. Differences of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic model results are contrasted in the standard benchmark problem of a solitary wave runup on a plane beach. The observation data provided by Titov and Synolakis (1995) serves as reference. The nonhydrostatic approach implies a set of equations that are similar to the Shallow Water Equations, so the variation of the code can be implemented on top. However, this additional routines cause a lot of issues you have to cope with. So far the computations of the model were purely explicit. In the nonhydrostatic version the determination of an additional unknown and the solution of a large sparse system of linear equations is necessary. The latter constitutes the lion's share of computing time and memory requirement. Since the corresponding matrix is only symmetric in structure and not in values, an iterative Krylov Subspace Method is used, in particular the restarted Generalized Minimal Residual Algorithm GMRES(m). With regard to optimization, we present a comparison of several combinations of sequential and parallel preconditioning techniques respective number of iterations and setup

  7. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    years as suggested by the radiocarbon dating of the upper centimeter of the sediment in PS87/030-2 (7792 ± 59 14C years BP), PS87/055-1 (3897 ± 41 14C years BP), and PS87/099-4 (1421 ± 66 14C years BP). Reference Stein, R. (Ed.), 2015. The Expedition PS87 of the Research Vessel Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean in 2014, Reports on Polar and Marine Research 688, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 273 pp (http://epic.awi.de/37728/1/BzPM_0688_2015.pdf).

  8. Amphibian Seismological Studies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Kuk Hong, Jong; Lee, Won Sang; Geissler, Wolfram; Yun, Sukyoung; Gohl, Karsten; Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014

  9. An aircraft-based investigation of the turbulent stable boundary layer over the North Water polynya (Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens; Kramer, Daniel; Ernsdorf, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Atmosphere/sea-ice/ocean exchange processes over the NOW (North Water) polynya in northwest Greenland were studied during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. While a polynya is associated with a convective boundary layer during winter, the situation in early summer is quite different. With the surface temperature at the melting point of ocean water, warm air advection leads to the formation of a stable boundary layer. Over the NOW in June, a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were found in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects at Smith Sound a well-pronounced low-level jet system was documented. These channeling effects lead to an increased wind-induced sea-ice export from the Nares Strait through Smith Sound. Cross-sections of mean quantities over the polynya are presented. The multiresolution decomposition is used to identify the spectral gap for the computation of turbulent fluxes. For the NOW polynya flights gap scales are between 500 m - 1000 m. Sensible heat fluxes are around -30W/m² in the area of highest wind speed at Smith Sound. Accordingly, the momentum flux shows also a maximum caused by the channeling, which is an important factor for the process of NOW formation. The experimental data

  10. PANGAEA® - Research Data enters Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, U.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.

    2012-04-01

    publication workflow used by PANGAEA®, the technical background of the dynamic linking approach done between conventional publishers and the data repository, and the further steps for integrating editorial processes on both sides. PANGAEA® is operated as a joint long term facility by MARUM at the University Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). More than 80% of the funding results from project data management and the implementation of spatial data infrastructures (47 International, 46 European and 37 national projects since the last 12 years - www.pangaea.de/projects).

  11. Variability of Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean from summer hydrographic observations in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Walczowski, Waldemar; Fahrbach, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Before reaching the Arctic Ocean, warm and salty water masses, originating from the North Atlantic, pass the eastern rims of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and continue farther to the north through Fram Strait. During its northward advection the Atlantic water (AW) is continuously transformed and its temperature, salinity and heat content changes significantly. A part of the AW heat is released to the atmosphere while a major share is lost due to lateral exchanges and mixing with adjacent water masses. This study addresses summer-to-summer variability, transformation, and circulation patterns of the Atlantic water in the region between the northern Norway and northern Fram Strait. We will present results of the long-term summer measurements in the Norwegian-Atlantic and West Spitsbergen Currents, carried in 1996-2013 by Institute of Oceanology PAS, and compare them to continuous observations from the moored array maintained by Alfred Wegener Institute in the northern Fram Strait, to estimate the impact of seasonal variations on long-term changes in the AW properties. Significant variability over different time scales has been observed in the properties of the AW over the studied period with the warmest AW inflow in late 90s and 2005-2006 and a significant positive trend in AW salinity. Time series of temperature and salinity at the standard hydrographic section at 76°30'N reveal a presence of three 5-6 years long cycles. Spatial distributions of AW properties and geostrophic velocities in the studied region show alternating phases of intensified AW inflow into the Barents Sea and periods of increased northward volume and heat transport through Fram Strait. Using available reanalysis data and meteorological measurements from Svalbard area we will attempt to explain possible links between observed changes and atmospheric forcing. The hydrographic measurements, continued by IO PAS for nearly two decades in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait, have been strongly

  12. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  13. Estimation of Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness Using CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanggyun; Im, Jungho; yoon, Hyeonjin; Shin, Minso; Kim, Miae

    2014-05-01

    data were used to identify leads. Rule-based machine learning approaches such as random forest and See5.0 and human-derived decision trees were used to produce rules to identify leads. With the freeboard height calculated from the lead analysis, sea ice thickness was finally estimated using the Archimedes' buoyancy principle with density of sea ice and sea water and the height of freeboard. The results were compared with Arctic sea ice thickness distribution retrieved from CryoSat-2 data by Alfred-Wegener-Institute.

  14. A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik; Savstrup Kristensen, Steen; Mayer, Christoph; Morlighem, Mathieu; Steinhage, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    /NSF), and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). For the Antarctic ice sheet/ice shelves, RTopo-2 largely relies on the Bedmap-2 product but applies corrections for the geometry of Getz, Abbot, and Fimbul ice shelf cavities. The data set is available in full and in regional subsets in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.856844.

  15. Fully automatic adjoints: a robust and efficient mechanism for generating adjoint ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.; Rognes, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of generating and maintaining adjoint models is sufficiently difficult that typically only the most advanced and well-resourced community ocean models achieve it. There are two current technologies which each suffer from their own limitations. Algorithmic differentiation, also called automatic differentiation, is employed by models such as the MITGCM [2] and the Alfred Wegener Institute model FESOM [3]. This technique is very difficult to apply to existing code, and requires a major initial investment to prepare the code for automatic adjoint generation. AD tools may also have difficulty with code employing modern software constructs such as derived data types. An alternative is to formulate the adjoint differential equation and to discretise this separately. This approach, known as the continuous adjoint and employed in ROMS [4], has the disadvantage that two different model code bases must be maintained and manually kept synchronised as the model develops. The discretisation of the continuous adjoint is not automatically consistent with that of the forward model, producing an additional source of error. The alternative presented here is to formulate the flow model in the high level language UFL (Unified Form Language) and to automatically generate the model using the software of the FEniCS project. In this approach it is the high level code specification which is differentiated, a task very similar to the formulation of the continuous adjoint [5]. However since the forward and adjoint models are generated automatically, the difficulty of maintaining them vanishes and the software engineering process is therefore robust. The scheduling and execution of the adjoint model, including the application of an appropriate checkpointing strategy is managed by libadjoint [1]. In contrast to the conventional algorithmic differentiation description of a model as a series of primitive mathematical operations, libadjoint employs a new abstraction of the simulation

  16. SMILES zonal and diurnal variation climatology of stratospheric and mesospheric trace gasses: O3, HCl, HNO3, ClO, BrO, HOCl, HO2, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Kasai, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    We present a climatology of the diurnal variation of short-lived atmospheric compounds, such as ClO, BrO, HO2, and HOCl, as well as longer-lived species: O3, the hydrogen chloride isotopes H35Cl and H37Cl, and HNO3. Measurements were taken by the Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES). This spectrally resolving radiometer, with very low observation noise and altitude range from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere (20-100km), was measuring vertical profiles of absorption spectra along a non-sun-synchronous orbit, thus observing at all local times. We used the retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles to compile climatologies that are a function of pressure, a horizontal coordinate (latitude or equivalent latitude), and a temporal coordinate (solar zenith angle or local solar time). The main product presented are climatologies with a high resolution of the temporal coordinate (diurnal variation climatologies). In addition, we provide climatologies with a high resolution of the horizontal coordinate (zonal climatologies).The diurnal variation climatologies are based on data periods of 2 months and the zonal climatologies on monthly data periods. Consideration of the SMILES time-space sampling patterns with respect to the averaging coordinates is a key issue for climatology creation, especially in case of diurnal variation climatologies. Biases induced by inhomogeneous sampling are minimized by carefully choosing the size of averaging bins. The sampling biases of the diurnal variation climatology of ClO and BrO are investigated in a comparison of homogeneously sampled model data versus SMILES-sampled model data from the stratospheric Lagrangian chemistry and transport model Alfred Wegener Institute Lagrangian Chemisrty/Transport System. In most cases, the relative sampling error is in the range of 0-20%. The strongest impact of sampling biases is found where the species' temporal gradients are strongest (mostly at sunrise and sunset

  17. CarboPerm: An interdisciplinary Russian-German scientific and technological cooperation project on the formation, turnover and release of carbon in Siberian permafrost landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils of the northern hemisphere have accumulated large pools of organic carbon (OC) since continuous low temperatures in the permafrost prevented organic carbon decomposition. According to recent estimates these soils contain 1670 Pg of OC, or about 3-times the carbon within the atmosphere. Rising arctic temperatures will result in increased permafrost thawing resulting in a mobilization of formerly frozen OC. The degradation of the newly available OC will result in an increased formation of trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which can be released to the atmosphere. Rising trace gas concentrations due to permafrost thawing would thereby form a positive feedback on climate warming. CarboPerm, a 4.5 million Euro project for scientific and technological cooperation, is a joint German-Russian research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises multi-disciplinary investigations on the formation, turnover and release of OC in Siberian permafrost. It aims to gain increased understanding of how permafrost-affected landscapes will respond to global warming and how this response will influence the local, regional and global trace gas balance. Permafrost scientists from Russia and Germany will work together at different key sites in the Siberian Arctic. These sites are: the coast and islands at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, the Lena River Delta, and the Kolyma lowlands close to Cherskii. The scientific work packages comprise studies on (i) the origin, properties, and dynamics of fossil carbon, (ii) the age and quality of organic matter, (iii) the recent carbon dynamics in permafrost landscapes, (iv) the microbial transformation of organic carbon in permafrost, and (v) process-driven modeling of soil carbon dynamics in permafrost areas. The coordination will be at the University of Hamburg (scientific), the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam (logistic) and

  18. Retrospect on the tsunami simulation efforts for the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2005, the GITEWS project (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) established from scratch a fully operational tsunami warning system at BMKG in Jakarta. GITEWS was succeeded in 2011 by the smaller project PROTECTS for training the Indonesian staff and consolidating the technical system. With the official end in March 2014, it is time to draw a balance and evaluate the approach. This presentation focuses on the contribution of the tsunami modelling group at the Alfred Wegener Institute. We will give a short overview on the developments of the numerical tsunami simulation model TsunAWI, of the scenario database built with TsunAWI, and of the simulation module SIM that interfaces the database to the decision support system. Some distinctive experiences will be highlighted. Topics include the modeling part as well as the matching process after the database is already set up. On the modeling side, unstructured mesh generation with focus on local bathymetric features and inclusion of precise coastline position as well as numerical parametrization and post processing are covered. The matching of pre calculated scenarios with incoming data in case of a tsunamigenic earthquake is performed in the simulation system SIM, which processes the data of multiple sensors and employs various metrics to limit the choice of possible scenarios from the database. One challenge was that the development of the matching algorithm had to start without having access to real sensor data except seismic information on epicenter and magnitude. Therefore, the algorithm is designed with robustness in mind. Still, the conservative approach allows to narrow down the scenario selection even with limited sensor information. Given more experience in the typical behaviour of sensor data in real events, the algorithm parameters can easily be calibrated towards a more restrictive scenario selection. Another challenge was to ensure the quality control of the data products derived from

  19. Department of Defense General/Flag Officer Worldwide Roster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    3T CLOSE GEORGE F JR ............... 10 DANIEL EUGENE L .................. 6 CLOSNER JOHN J III ........... 26,28 DANTONE JOSEPH J...ALFRED J LTG USA 92, 7 920722 SUPRFME HEADQUARTERS, ALLIED POWERS, EUROPE (SHAPE) S11PREME ALLIED COICAMDER EUROPE JOULUAN GEORGE ALFRED GEN USA 9310... GEORGE ALFRED GEN USA 9310 901121 DEPUTY COMMANDER IN CHIEF BOYD CHARLES G GEN USAF 9212 921201 EXECUTIVE OFFICER TO DEPUTY COMMANDER IN CHIEF

  20. US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941. Volume 1. The Arms: Major Commands and Infantry Organizations, 1919-41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    September 1917–8 June 1918 Lt. Col. Alfred A. Hickox 31 July 1929–1 September 1929 Col. Russell C. Langdon 8 June 1919–22 September 1919 Col. Frederick...NY; engineer units were sent to Fort Du Pont, DE; and signal corps units were sent to Camp Alfred Vail (later renamed Fort Monmouth), NJ. Corps...12 miles southwest of New London, CT. Established in 1898. Designated in honor of Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry, who commanded the successful attack

  1. Deepening Democracy: Explaining Variations in the Levels of Democracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Boulder: L. Rienner, 1988), 6. Juan J. Linz and Alfred C. Stepan, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South...34Democracy’s Third Wave," Journal of Democracy 2, no. 2 (1991): 137–48; Juan J. Linz and Alfred C. Stepan, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Baltimore...Linz and Alfred C. Stepan, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 50. 31 Ibid. 32 Schmitter, "The

  2. The Resolution of a Completely Inorganic Coordination Compound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Takaji; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a technique used by Alfred Werner to resolve inorganic coordination compounds. The materials, procedures and analysis necessary for undergraduates to repeat this procedure are described. (CW)

  3. The 1986 ARI (Army Research Institute) Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Media Habits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    RIPTIDE Y089 KNIGHT RIDER Y090 AMAZING STORIES Y091 ALFRED HITCHCOCK 22 La~~N Xw *- Tabular Description Index Variable Survey Item Name Content Y092 60...Y091 -- REG TV VIEWING: ALFRED HITCHCOCK DID YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? ALFRED HITCHCOCK I...TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.1 100.1 STATISTIC VALUE D.F. PROB. CHISQUARE 31.766 16 0.0107 B-174 Y091 -- REG TV VIEWING: ALFRED HITCHCOCK DID YOU

  4. 77 FR 18259 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Grove, Shaw, Alfred, Magnolia, Kingshighway, & Vandeventer Aves., St. Louis (Independent City), 12000207... Junction Historic District, Roughly bounded by W. Berkley St., Roberts, Germantown, & Wayne...

  5. A resolution honoring Mr. Alfred Lind for his dedicated service to the United States of America during World War II as a member of the Armed Forces and a prisoner of war, and for his tireless efforts on behalf of other members of the Armed Forces touched by war.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2010-09-28

    09/28/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7666-7669; text as passed Senate: CR S7666; text of measure as introduced: CR S7635) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Walter E. Washington, et al., Petitioners, v. Alfred E. Davis, et al., Respondents. Supreme Court of the United States, No. 74-1492, on Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit; Motion for Leave to File Brief as Amicus Curiae and Brief Amicus Curiae for Educational Testing Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willens, Howard P.; And Others

    This brief, filed by Educational Testing Service (ETS), a non-profit educational corporation, deals with whether Test 21, a test of verbal ability developed by the U.S. Civil Service Commission and used by the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia to select police recruits, is sufficiently job-related to be legally permissible…

  7. VCRC Tissue Repository

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-21

    Aortitis; Cutaneous Vasculitis; Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis; Giant Cell Arteritis; Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener's); Henoch-Schonlein Purpura; IgA Vasculitis; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Takayasu Arteritis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome

  8. [Cavitating lung lesions in the course of ANCA-associated vasculitis: differential diagnostic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, J; Raab, H P; Länger, F; Wigand, R; Mitrou, P; Jacobi, V

    1998-05-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome) show quite variable courses. Clinical features of the full blown generalized systemic vasculitis are usually found in the respiratory tract and the kidney. Pulmonary involvement of Wegener's granulomatosis shows commonly nodules and cavitations but also diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. We report the case of a 57 year-old man suffering from dyspnea, thoracal pain, arthralgia, purpura, scleritis and tinitus. Specimen of the kidney showed segmental glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Because of the presence of cANCA Wegener's disease was assumed. Pulmonary infiltrates developed under immunosuppressive treatment with cyclophosphamid. As differential diagnosis of the pulmonary infiltrates, we considered invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as well as infiltrates due to Wegener's granulomatosis. In spite of maximal therapeutic management of patient died of respiratory and cardiovascular failure. The findings at autopsy showed distinct invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and perifocal hemorrhage.

  9. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies with Cytoplasmic Fluorescence Pattern.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Seema; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Goyal, Lekha; Sharma, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    We report here two rare cases of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive Wegener's granulomatosis (limited variant) which deceptively produced a cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) pattern on indirect immunofluorescence.

  10. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    MedlinePlus

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a rare disease. It is a type of vasculitis, or inflammation of the blood vessels. The inflammation limits the flow of ...

  11. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of different conditions, such as: Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Wegener granulomatosis Risks There is a possibility of ... biopsy Malignant mesothelioma Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Solitary fibrous tumor Viral pneumonia ...

  12. Reproductive Health in Men and Women With Vasculitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-25

    Giant Cell Arteritis; Takayasu's Arteritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Microscopic Polyangiitis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Kawasaki Disease; Henoch-schoenlein Purpura; Vasculitis, Central Nervous System; Drug-induced Necrotizing Vasculitis

  13. Using Web Services and XML Harvesting to Achieve a Dynamic Web Site. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Exploiting and contextualizing free information is a natural part of library culture. In this column, Gary Roberts, the information systems and reference librarian at Herrick Library, Alfred University in Alfred, NY, describes how to use XML content on a Web site to link to hundreds of free and useful resources. He gives a general overview of the…

  14. Groupware as a Knowledge Repository. Computers in Small Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Herrick Library (Alfred University, Alfred, NY) reference guru of 18 years, Frank McBride, retired recently, leaving a smaller and less experienced staff to collectively handle reference questions. Frank had conscientiously documented much of his experience in a collection of paper files. In this column, the author (Herrick's new coordinator of…

  15. More Than Just Plan, Prepare, Execute, and Assess: Enhancing the Operations Process by Integrating the Design and Effects-Based Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    From Kant to Hegel , trans. Alfred Edersheim, (London: Adams & Company, 1854), 61. 6 The national level of government refers to the environment in...University Press, 1999. Chalybaus, Heinrich Moritz. Historical Development of Speculative Philosophy: From Kant to Hegel . Translated by Alfred Edersheim

  16. Why the Weak Win Wars: A Study of the Factors That Drive Strategy in Asymmetric Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    recognized practice of quantifying power using the size of the population and armed 24 Alfred Tennyson Lord, “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” In The...Works of Alfred , Lord Tennyson, Vol. II. Miscellaneous Poems II (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1892), 57. 11 defensive.”26 ider the U.S. as the

  17. Web-Enabled Simulations: Exploring the Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Kendall

    2005-01-01

    With funding from Alfred West, Jr., an alumnus of The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and chairman of SEI Investments, Wharton Dean Patrick T. Harker established the Alfred West Jr. Learning Lab to explore ways "to reach a deeper understanding of how people learn and to push that process to a higher level using advancements…

  18. Toolmanagement - Werkzeuge und Prozesse als Schlüssel für eine effiziente Produktion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, Magnus

    In Bezug auf die Fertigungskosten nehmen die Werkzeugkosten mit 3% einen sehr kleinen und daher vermeintlich unwichtigen Posten ein. HoheKosten ergeben sich aber meist indirekt durch Maschinenstillstandszeiten wegen fehlender oder falscher Werkzeuge, wegen ineffektiven Rüstvorgängen, umständlicher Werkzeuglogistik, unnötig hoher Bestände, unabgestimmter Abläufe, nicht aktueller Fertigungsunterlagen sowie mangelhafter Informationsflüsse zwischen Planung, Vorbereitung und Ausführung in der Fertigung [1].

  19. [A rare case of an extra-pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Windler, B

    1989-01-01

    This is a case report on a 42-year old West. German woman suspected of suffering from an extrapulmonary manifestation of mucous membrane tuberculosis of the ethmoid sinuses. The condition did not improve after application of specific chemotherapy. Only after histological examination of several tissue samples was a direct connection with initial stage Wegeners granulomatosis established. Attention must be drawn to the fact that in isolated cases the differentiation between the histological diagnosis of tuberculosis versus Wegeners disease is complex and often faulty.

  20. [Biological treatment of rare inflammatory rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Baslund, Bo

    2008-06-09

    The current status of the use of biological medicine in the treatment of adult onset morbus still, Wegeners granulomatosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reviewed. The need for controlled trials is emphasized. Anti-CD20 treatment for SLE patients with kidney involvement and patients with Wegeners granulomatosis seems promising. Anti-TNF and IL1 receptor antagonist can control disease activity in most patients with adult morbus still.

  1. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  2. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    . Observations of under-ice topography by upward-looking multibeam sonar combined with aerial images provide a unique three dimensional picture of the complexity of the non-uniform sea ice layer. ROV surveys cover the scale of an entire ice floe and are an excellent tool to bridge the scale gap between isolated point measurements and larger scale surveys, such as specifically designed under-ice nets with sensor arrays or surveys by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). In the framework of the infrastructure project FRAM (Frontiers in Arctic Marine Monitoring), the Alfred Wegener Institute is in the process of commissioning a new lightweight mobile ROV system for interdisciplinary research underneath sea ice. This new system profits from the acquired experiences and will receive a significantly upgraded suite of scientific sensors, maintaining the rugged and reliable characteristics of the past systems. The interdisciplinary sensor suite will be extended towards the measurement of more oceanographic and biological parameters with a CTD, different fluorometers, and biogeochemical sensors. While basic intervention capabilities are already available, the system can be extended with advanced manipulation and sampling capabilities in the future.

  3. MaNIDA: Insight into the German Marine Network for Integrated Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Angela; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) builds a sustainable e-Infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of data from distinct marine and earth science data providers in Germany (see ESSI1.2 and ESSI2.2). Thereby we implement the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" for coherent discovery, view, download and dissemination of aggregated content. MaNIDA receives a unique momentum from the cooperation and financial partnership between main German marine research institutes (AWI, MARUM, HZG, GEOMAR, Uni Hamburg, Uni Kiel, Uni Bremen) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency as well as active participation in international and major EU-initiatives (ICSU, GEOSS, SeaDataNet, EMODNET, ODIP). Together with a coherent management strategy coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, sustainability will be achieved via the long-term commitment of framework funding by the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific research organization for large-scale facilities and scientific infrastructure. Strategic Aims The installation of the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" will address the urgent demands of the German research community for reliable and easy access to marine research data at one single point of access and truth. Primary focus will be given to data derived from nationally operated research and monitoring facilities (vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc), whereby related contextual content and publications will become an integral part of the aggregation effort. For the scientific community we define responsibilities and commitments across partners while complementing existing data repositories and the new portal with well-articulated workflows from the instrument to the data product. Necessary level of quality assurance and user support will be implemented to achieve substantial enhancements in the whole lifecycle management of marine scientific data. The creation of a data

  4. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  5. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Shupe, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    be used to identify specific gaps and parameterization needs. Preliminary modeling and operational forecasting will also be necessary to directly guide field planning and optimal implementation of field resources, and to support the safety of the project. The MOSAiC Observatory will be deployed in, and drift with, the Arctic sea-ice pack for at least a full annual cycle, starting in fall 2019 and ending in autumn 2020. Initial plans are for the drift to start in the newly forming autumn sea-ice in, or near, the East Siberian Sea. The specific location will be selected to allow for the observatory to follow the Transpolar Drift towards the North Pole and on to the Fram Strait. IASC has adopted MOSAiC as a key international activity, the German Alfred Wegener Institute has made the huge contribution of the icebreaker Polarstern to serve as the central drifting observatory for this year long endeavor, and the US Department of Energy has committed a comprehensive atmospheric measurement suite. Many other nations and agencies have expressed interest in participation and in gaining access to this unprecedented observational dataset. International coordination is needed to support this groundbreaking endeavor.

  6. Modeling acoustic wave propagation in the Southern Ocean to estimate the acoustic impact of seismic surveys on marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitzke, M.; Bohlen, T.

    2007-12-01

    According to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, adopted 1991, seismic surveys in the Southern Ocean south of 60°S are exclusively dedicated to academic research. The seismic surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany during the last 20 years focussed on two areas: The Wedell Sea (60°W - 0°W) and the Amundsen/Bellinghausen Sea (120°W - 60°W). Histograms of the Julian days and water depths covered by these surveys indicate that maximum activities occurred in January and February, and most lines were collected either in shallow waters of 400 - 500 m depth or in deep waters of 2500 - 4500 m depth. To assess the potential risk of future seismic research on marine mammal populations an acoustic wave propagation modeling study is conducted for the Wedell and the Amundsen/ Bellinghausen Sea. A 2.5D finite-difference code is used. It allows to simulate the spherical amplitude decay of point sources correctly, considers P- and S-wave velocities at the sea floor and provides snapshots of the wavefield at any spatial and temporal resolution. As source signals notional signatures of GI-, G- and Bolt guns, computed by the NUCLEUS software (PGS) are used. Based on CTD measurements, sediment core samplings and sediment echosounder recordings two horizontally-layered, range-independent generic models are established for the Wedell and the Amundsen/Bellinghausen Sea, one for shallow (500 m) and one for deep water (3000 m). They indicate that the vertical structure of the water masses is characterized by a 100 m thick, cold, low sound velocity layer (~1440 - 1450 m/s), centered in 100 m depth. In the austral summer it is overlain by a warmer, 50 m thick surface layer with slightly higher sound velocities (~1447 - 1453 m/s). Beneath the low-velocity layer sound velocities increase rapidly to ~1450 - 1460 m/s in 200 m depth, and smoothly to ~1530 m/s in 4700 m depth. The sea floor is mainly

  7. An Integrated Concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences Postgraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John; Sprengel, Claudia; Bijma, Jelle

    2010-05-01

    Today's graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science is a highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional challenge. The integration of observations, palaeoclimate data, and climate modelling requires networks and collaborations of experts and specialists in order to better understand natural climate variations over a broad range of timescales and disciplines, and to cope with the challenges of recent climate change. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred-Wegener-Institut Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment in north-western Germany to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Based on this successful cooperation a similar programme is in preparation with the Lulea University of Technology, Sweden. The Earth System Science Research School (ESSReS) (www.earth-system-science.org) at the AWI enables PhD students from a variety of

  8. Postgraduate Education in Earth and Environmental Sciences: an Integrated Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, K.; Lohmann, G.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.; Burrows, J.; Sprengel, C.; Bijma, J.

    2009-04-01

    Today's graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science is a highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional challenge. The integration of observations, palaeoclimate data, and climate modelling requires networks and collaborations of experts and specialists in order to better understand natural climate variations over a broad range of timescales and disciplines, and to cope with the challenges of recent climate change. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred-Wegener-Institut Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen (Uni-HB), and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment in north-western Germany to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. The foundation of an Earth System Research School (ESSReS) (www.earth-system-science.org) at the AWI enables PhD students from a variety of disciplines to cooperate and exchange views on the common theme of ‘linking data and modelling', leading to a better understanding of local processes within a global context. Computational and conceptual models of the Earth system provide the ability to investigate different scenarios in biogeochemistry, such as the

  9. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  10. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar

    2014-05-01

    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure, the Patagonian Orocline. Despite the fact that this major structure was already described by Alfred Wegener in his famous textbook in 1929, few paleomagnetic studies have been attempted to describe the rotations associated with the formation of the Patagonian Orocline. In this study we present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from more than 130 sites obtained from the Ultima Esperanza region (NS structures at ~51°S) to Península Hardy, south of the Beagle Channel at ~55°S. 45 sites were sampled in early-cretaceous gabbros (gabbro complex), mid-cretaceous tonalites and granodiorites (Canal Beagle group) and Paleocene intrusive rocks (Seno Año Nuevo group) from the South Patagonian batholith, 4 sites from the late Jurassic Hardy formation, a volcanic succession outcropping in Hardy Peninsula and Stewart Island, 9 sites were drilled in the lower cretaceous sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes Basin, 3 sites from the Tortuga ophiolite, a quasi-oceanic crust related to the opening of the Rocas Verdes basin. 80 sites were sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Magallanes fold and thrust belt and Magallanes Basin. Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRMs) obtained from the Rocas Verdes Basin tectonic province correspond to secondary magnetizations postdating the early phase of folding. Pyrrhotite is the main magnetic carrier in some of these sites. ChRMs from the South Patagonian Batholith correspond to a primary magnetization. These rocks record about 90° counterclockwise rotations south of the Beagle channel. Few sites from sediments of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt have stable ChRM. The available paleomagnetic results show that no rotation has occurred in the Provincia of Ultima Esperanza (51.5°S), at least, for the last 60 Ma. In the southern part of Provincia de Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego

  11. Impact of coastal polynyas on sea ice production and water mass modification in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, V.; Timmermann, R.; Ebner, L.; Heinemann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the world ocean is partly driven by deep water formation at high-latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, deep and bottom water formation in the marginal seas is induced by high freezing rates as generally found at coastal polynyas. Atmospheric cooling and brine-release enable the production of very cold and saline water masses. In the southwestern Weddell Sea, wide shelves allow for a strong salinification of the whole water column and the formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The impact of coastal polynyas on ice production and water mass formation in the southwestern Weddell Sea was studied employing the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven. FESOM is a coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. Simulations were conducted on a global unstructured mesh with a strong focus on the southwestern Weddell Sea coastline (up to 3 km resolution). In vertical direction, the grid features 37 z-coordinate depth levels of which 6 are within the uppermost 100 m. The model runs were initialised in 1980 and forced with NCEP reanalysis data (daily resolution). The year 2008 was also simulated with higher-resolution GME and regional COSMO forcing data. For data evaluation and analysis the period 1990-2009 is used. A comparison of AMSR sea ice concentration and model results shows good accordance in spatial and temporal polynya extent. Also, calculated vertical temperature and salinity profiles agree well with CTD measurements. Our simulations feature a 20-year winter mean area of coastal polynyas of 6.7 · 103 km2 (0.4% of the continental shelf area) in the southwestern Weddell Sea which is in good agreement with observations. Winter sea ice production within the coastal polynyas exceeds the ice production of the surrounding ice-covered area by a factor of 7 in the 20-year mean, so that the polynya contribution to total sea ice

  12. Ice-free summers predominant in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean - New insights from a proxy-modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Schreck, Michael; Knorr, Gregor; Forwick, Matthias; Lohmann, Gerrit; Niessen, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Lohmann, G., 2011. Towards quantitative sea ice reconstructions in the northern North Atlantic: A combined biomarker and numerical modelling approach. Earth Planetary Science Letters 306, 137-148. Stein, R. (Ed.), 2015. The Expedition PS87 of the Research Vessel Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean in 2014, Reports on Polar and Marine Research 688, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 273 pp (http://epic.awi.de/37728/1/BzPM_0688_2015.pdf). Stein, R., K. Fahl, Schreck, M., Knorr, G., Niessen, F., Forwick, M., Gebhardt, C., Jensen, L., Kaminski, M., Kopf, A., Matthiessen, J., Jokat, W., Lohmann, G. and the PS87 Geoscience Party, 2016. Ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean - New insights from proxy/model reconstruction. Nature Communications, revised version under review.

  13. Monthly to seasonal low flow prediction: statistical versus dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Klein, Bastian; Meissner, Dennis; Rademacher, Silke

    2016-04-01

    the Alfred Wegener Institute a purely statistical scheme to generate streamflow forecasts for several months ahead. Instead of directly using teleconnection indices (e.g. NAO, AO) the idea is to identify regions with stable teleconnections between different global climate information (e.g. sea surface temperature, geopotential height etc.) and streamflow at different gauges relevant for inland waterway transport. So-called stability (correlation) maps are generated showing regions where streamflow and climate variable from previous months are significantly correlated in a 21 (31) years moving window. Finally, the optimal forecast model is established based on a multiple regression analysis of the stable predictors. We will present current results of the aforementioned approaches with focus on the River Rhine (being one of the world's most frequented waterways and the backbone of the European inland waterway network) and the Elbe River. Overall, our analysis reveals the existence of a valuable predictability of the low flows at monthly and seasonal time scales, a result that may be useful to water resources management. Given that all predictors used in the models are available at the end of each month, the forecast scheme can be used operationally to predict extreme events and to provide early warnings for upcoming low flows.

  14. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  15. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences [1]. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a larger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). With the school-term of 2002/03 the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). The program is the most important component of SEA. Each year 22 high school students (grade 10 or 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their school for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects have been rearranged in their temporal sequencing thus enabling a conceptual formulation of four major questions to be dealt with in the course of the three-year program [2]. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperation schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between both groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. We are organizing expeditions for every group of HIGHSEA-students (e. g. to the Arctic or to mid-Atlantic seamounts). For each student expedition we devise a "real" research question. Usually a single working group at the AWI has a special interest in the

  16. The whole is more than the sum of its parts: Added value from a Graduate School as a structuring element within the wider field of early and pre-career support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanfland, Claudia; Sprengel, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Structured postgraduate programs are a relatively new feature at German Higher Educational Institutions, mainly fostered in the 90ies by the funding programs of the German Science Foundation (Research Training Groups) and the Max-Planck-Association (International Max Planck Research Schools). Since then, funding opportunities for postgraduate programs have equally been set up by the Helmholtz and Leibniz Associations as well as the Excellence Initiative. Today, doctoral candidates can chose from a wide range of training programs to earn a doctoral degree within a structured framework under excellent research conditions. In consequence, the percentage of PhD students in natural sciences that follow a PhD within a structured program has been continuously increasing. Graduate Schools provide a roof under which different curricula can be accommodated. They offer a comprehensive training program, foster interdisciplinary thinking and are a key instrument for quality assurance by providing rules relevant and equal to all doctoral candidates regardless of funding or affiliation. With more and more Graduate Schools becoming a permanent feature in the training of doctoral candidates, universities and research institutions are provided with a tool to create added value for the whole range of early career scientists and beyond. The Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) is currently developing a comprehensive strategy for early and pre-career support with the aim to provide a continuous support chain from high school students to Postdocs. Included are also the apprentices that get a vocational training at AWI as laboratory assistants, office clerks or qualified IT specialists. AWI aims at establishing a solid training network between these groups (apprentices, high school students, Bc and Ms students, internships, doctoral candidates, and Postdocs) across biographic borders. This network serves more than the classical transition phases from high school

  17. New constraints on the crustal structure in the eastern part of northern Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, C. J.; Damm, V.; Altenbernd, T.; Berglar, K.; Block, M.; Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Baffin Bay is a key area for testing plate kinematic models for the Paleocene-Eocene motion of Greenland relative to North America and to decipher the evolution of the thick sedimentary basins in this area. In summer 2010, a multidisciplinary marine geoscientific expedition focusing on the Greenland part of northern Baffin Bay was performed under the direction of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources Hannover, Germany in cooperation with the Alfred-Wegener Institute Bremerhaven. Using 70 days ship time onboard the German R/V Polarstern a comprehensive data set was acquired along profiles extending from the deep oceanic basin in the central part of North Baffin Bay onto the Greenland continental margin in an area which was bordered by the Kane Basin in the North and Disco Island in the South. By means of multi-channel seismic, wide angle seismic, gravimetric and magnetic methods the structural inventory of the crust in the NW Baffin Bay was investigated. Additionally, heat flow data and sediment cores were collected at selected positions along lines across the Greenland continental margin. The cores were extracted for geochemical and geomicrobiological analysis to be used for basin modeling and studying the hydrocarbon potential. Aeromagnetic data was acquired covering part of the marine survey area to investigate magnetic signatures of the oceanic crust and the continental margin. In our presentation we will give an overview of the first results of the expedition with special focus on multi-channel seismic data. With a total length of 3500 km, the initial interpretation of multi-channel seismic data shows that the West Greenland margin is a typical passive continental margin with large rotated basement blocks, listric faults facing mainly seaward, and deep syn-rift-basins in between. The most prominent reflector under the shelf and the slope probably indicates the transition from rifting to drifting and therefore the beginning of

  18. The Russo-Japanese War: How Russia Created the Instrument of Their Defeat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    fleets which came to attack Japan, and protecting Japan’s coasL" 40 Philip A. Crowl, " Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Naval Historian", in Makers of Modern...55 Evans, 64. 56 Evans, 64. 57 Evans, 65. 58 Kiralfy, 44. 59 Warner, 176. 60 Warner, 177. 61 Warner, 176. 62 Nish, The Origins, 158. 63 Alfred Thayer...Purpose of a Navy and its Impact on the War Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan had a profound effect on naval thought. His Influence of Seapower upon History

  19. Influence without Boots on the Ground: Seaborne Crisis Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and Now,” in The Influence of History on Mahan: The Proceed- ings of a Conference Marking the Centenary of Alfred Thayer Mahan’s the influence of Sea...Military in the Air, at Sea, and on the Ground,” interview, 2007, Carnegie Council, www.cceia.org/; cf. Alfred thayer Mahan, The Influence of Seapower...of time. “Nowadays force can be used on, over or under the sea to protect or to deny a particular use of the sea.”65 But even alfred Thayer Mahan

  20. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  1. Social Interest and the Core Conditions: Could It Be that Adler Influenced Rogers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents primary source documentation highlighting the similarities between Alfred Adler's social interest construct and the counselor-oriented core conditions of Carl Rogers. Implications of the similarities are discussed. (Author)

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff Timothy J. Wade, Reagan R. Converse, Elizabeth A. Sams, Ann H. Williams, Edward Hudgens, Alfred P. Dufour Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers have been associated with fecal ...

  3. Way off Broadway and Way out of the Classroom: American Students De-, Re-, and Per-forming the French Dramatic Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essif, Les

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how an intermediate-level French theater practicum helped students develop advanced language skills by focusing their attention on the performance aspects of Alfred Jarry's play "Ubu roi" rather than the traditional foreign language curriculum. (Contains 14 references.) (MDM)

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by students of Perry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by students of Perry E. Borchers, 1958 ROOF TRUSSES AT FRONT (SOUTH) WALL. - Alfred Kelley House, 282 East Broad Street, Columbus, Franklin County, OH

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by students of Perry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by students of Perry E. Borchers, 1958 BASEMENT PILLAR AND FIRST FLOOR CONSTRUCTION. - Alfred Kelley House, 282 East Broad Street, Columbus, Franklin County, OH

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by students of Perry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photograph by students of Perry E. Borchers, 1958 INTERIOR OF MAIN FLOOR LOOKING TOWARDS SOUTH. - Alfred Kelley House, 282 East Broad Street, Columbus, Franklin County, OH

  7. 75 FR 12790 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... District, 29 to 316 Main St., and portions of Elm, Jefferson, Adams, Washington, Franklin, Alfred and Water... County Thayer, Benjamin, House, 200 Farm St., Blackstone, 09001174, Listed, 12/30/09 MISSOURI...

  8. [Book review] The youngest science: notes of a medicine-watcher, by Lewis Thomas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Review of: The youngest science: notes of a medicine-watcher. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Series. Lewis Thomas. Penguin Books, 1995. Pennsylvania State University. 270 pp. ISBN: 0140243275, 9780140243277.

  9. 75 FR 63434 - Availability of Compliance Guide for the Use of Video or Other Electronic Monitoring or Recording...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Clerk, U.S. Department of Agriculture, FSIS, Room 2-2127, George Washington Carver Center, 5601... Washington, DC, on September 15, 2010. Alfred V. Almanza, Administrator. BILLING CODE 3410-DM-P...

  10. The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

  11. Nemours Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pennsylvania View A-Z List of Specialties & Conditions » Hospital & ER Care Emergency, critical, surgical and specialty care ... designed exclusively for kids. Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children Wilmington, Delaware » Nemours Children's Hospital Orlando, ...

  12. 25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM PATENT BAKE OVEN ROASTER BY ALFRED H. REIP NO. 337 BALT. STREET BALTIMORE - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  13. 75 FR 70077 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ..., Garrett D. Couch, Stanley P. Eickhoff, Peter B. Galvin, Mark W. Garver, Richard S. Jackson, Alfred K. Kataoka, Donald S. Keller, Edwin I. Longstreth, Jason M. Luper, Craig S. Lynn, George M. Michael,...

  14. Formulated Delivery of Enzyme/Prodrug and Cytokine Gene Therapy to Promote Immune Reduction of Treated and Remote Tumors in Mouse Models of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Figure 1). pVITRO2-GFP/LacZ, which also contains the genes for the jelly fish green fluorescent protein, GFP, and for the bacterial enzyme... Royal Prince Alfred Hospital to set up a GLP facility for Gene Therapy trials. She was the successful candidate for this position because she was a DOD...Wales, Randwick, NSW, 2031, Australia; 2Cell and Molecular Therapy Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital; Gene and Stem Cell Therapy Group

  15. Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Instruction in Dynamic Skill Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Bachrach Environmental Stress Program Center I Dr. Lloyd Hitchcock Naval Medical Research Institute Human Factors Engineering Bethesda, MD 20014 Division...22217 Washington, DC 20350 5 Personnel & Training Research Programs 1 Dr. Alfred F. Smode (Code 458) Training Analysis & Evaluation Group Office of... Alfred R. Fregly Arlington, VA 22217 AFOSR/NL, Bldg. 410] Bolling AFB 1 DR. A.L. SLAFKOSKY Washington, DC 20332 SCIENTIFIC ADVISOR (CODE RD-i) HO

  16. Al Qaeda’s Millenarian Doctrine: Implications for US Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-15

    Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), 47. 15 Roland Jacquard, In the Name of Osama Bin Laden: Global Terrorism and the Bin Laden Brotherhood (Durham, Duke...C8591-988.xml. 24 Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), 37. 25 Mark R. Reiff...Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2010), 362. 35 Paul Kennedy and William I. Hitchcock , From War to Peace: Altered Strategic Lascapes in the Twentieth

  17. The Nature and Role of Attentional Resources in Controlled and Automatic Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    I -.41 41’ 44 > A4 40 W". (J ("V m 004 DISTRIBUTION Page 1 Navy Navy Dr. Arthur Bachrach 1 Dr. Lloyd Hitchcock Envirormental Stress Prodrm Center...Institute for the OP-987H Behavioral and Social Sciences Washington, DC 20350 5001 Eisenhower Avenue Alexandria, VA 22333 Dr. Alfred F. Smode Training...Univ. of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 Dr. Kenneth A. Klivington Program Officer 1 Dr. Seymour A. Papert Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

  18. Opportunity Missed: Congressional Reorganization of the Army Air Service 1917-1920

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    consoli- dation on behalf of the Navy.71 Senator Gilbert M. Hitchcock (D) of Nebraska declared that nothing but confusion would re- sult from having...Aviation Mission is reprinted in full in the text of the hearings, beginning at page 20. Alfred F. Hurley, Billy Mitchell, 48-49. 16. House of...development of Mitchell’s crusade for airpower after 1920 is presented in Alfred F. Hurley, Billy Mitchell: Crusader for Airpower. 53. Senate, Reorganization

  19. Crossing the Line: A Study of the Legal Permissibility of Using Federalized Troops to Protect the Nation’s Borders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    bombing of the Oklahoma City Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building by an American terrorist. His proposal met stiff resistance on Capitol Hill from...attack was followed by the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. President Clinton, spurred on by these acts...federal court made decisions upholding the viability of limited military assistance to civilian law enforcement agencies. In United States v. Hitchcock

  20. Sparse Representation of Multimodality Sensing Databases for Data Mining and Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-09

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Alfred Hero Alfred O...robustness to noise and other distortions. Experimental validation will be performed by a combination of simulation and experiment on multimodality

  1. A New Therapeutic Paradigm for Breast Cancer Exploiting Low Dose Estrogen-Induced Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    says (6). Early Childhood Jordan, the Alfred G. Knudson Jr. Chair in Cancer Research at the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- vania... Alfred G. Knudson Jr. Chair in Basic Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center 2004 3rd George and Christine Sosnovsky Award in Cancer Therapy, Royal...despite limitations 1) Elizabeth E. Sweeney, Russell E. McDaniel, Philipp Y. Maximov, Ping Fan and V. Craig Jordan * Department of

  2. Civil-Military Relations in the European Union and "Innere Fuehrung"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    35 For a deeper analysis including the development of modernization theory, see Juan J. Linz and Alfred C. Stepan, Problems of...the starting point of scholarly interest in EU member states. 71 Howorth, Security and Defence Policy in the European Union, 315; Alfred C. Stepan and...Defence Policy. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2006. Giegerich, Bastian and William Wallace . “Not Such a Soft Power: The External

  3. General Walton H. Walker: A Talent for Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Heefner, Patton’s Bulldog, 36-42; Alfred E. Cornebise, The United States 15th Infantry Regiment in China, 1912-1938 (London: McFarland & Company, 2004), 2...arms exercises with elements of the Army Air Corps.52 49 Alfred E. Cornebise, The United...Washington, D.C., Korean War Notes, Walton H. Walker HRC 201. Interviews Gay, Hobart R. Interview by Willard L. Wallace , 1981. The Hobart R. Gay

  4. Cutting Off the Head of the Snake: Applying and Assessing Leadership Attack in Military Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    in studying General Mitchell: Alfred F. Hurley, Billy Mitchell: Crusader for Air Power, revised ed. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press...example, the Continental Army adopted this strategy and fought an extended campaign of attrition during the American War for Independence. Russell F...Brent Scowcroft, A World Transformed (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), 489. 15 Colin Powell, with Joseph E. Persico, My American Journey (New York

  5. Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    December 2011. Russell Goldman, “Defiant Assad Denies Ordering Bloody Syrian Crackdown.” ABCNews, http://abcnews.go.com/International/bashar-al...Among Nations, New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1966; Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Princeton: Princeton University...Neoconservatism. Middle East Policy, Vol. XI, No. 1, Spring 2004 and Alfred B. Prados, Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, CRS Report for Congress

  6. Excellence within the Navy Health Care System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    RD-RI54 682 EXCELLENCE WiTHIN THE NAVY HEALTH CARE SYSTEM (U) NAVAL I. POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA J A NORTON DEC 84 UNCLRSSIFIED F/G 6/12...STANDAROS-1963-A -J% * .NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC THESIS EXCELLENCE WITHIN THE NAVY HEALTH CARE SYSTEM by JAMES ALFRED NORTON...Within the Navy Health Care December 1984 System S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) James Alfred Norton S

  7. Strategic Decisions and Implications of the German Assault on Norway in 1940

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Wolfgang Wegener had argued as early as 1915 for a naval strategy to facilitate control over the Atlantic. He saw that control of the Skagerak and...power position of the German Fleet.”24 His ideas may seem lofty given the known outcome of 5 WW I, but Wegener made his argument from a supposition...called for more ‘ Wegenerism ’ in German naval strategy time and again over several years.31 Thus, compelling theories existed for a new naval strategy

  8. Vasculitis Pregnancy Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Vasculitis; Behcet's Disease; CNS Vasculitis; Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis; Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (EGPA); Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS); Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (GPA); Wegener's Granulomatosis; IgA Vasculitis; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura (HSP); Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA); Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN); Takayasu Arteritis (TAK); Urticarial Vasculitis; Systemic Vasculitis

  9. Fabrication of Metamaterials by Drawing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 1821 1998. 5M. A. Tarasov, V. D. Gromov, G. D. Bogomolov, E. A. Otto , and L. S. Kuzmin, Instrum. Exp. Tech. 52, 74...Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn , K. Busch and M. Wegener, “Transition between

  10. Association of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and antiproteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (anti PR3-ANCA).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Odriozola, P; Gutiérrez-Macías, A; Moina Eguren, I; Arrieta Lezama, J

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with serum antiproteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (anti-PR3-ANCA), without clinical or histological signs of Wegener's granulomatosis, in a 46-year-old man. Our case and previously reported cases showing the same association support the hypothesis that the association is not fortuitous, but reflects a common immunological mechanism.

  11. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Life Threatening Autoimmune Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch; Graft Versus Host Disease; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Hypersensitivity Vasculitis; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Giant Cell Arteritis; Pure Red Cell Aplasia; Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Takayasu Arteritis

  12. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This progress report discusses the status and progress made in joint international programs including: 1) WEGENER; 2) Arabian Peninsula program; 3) Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) program; 4) the Fourteenth International Workshop on Laser Ranging; 5) the International Laser Ranging Service; and 6) current support for the NASA network.

  13. Impact of mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic changes in sea ice on the development of low pressure systems in the Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungert, U.; Schlünzen, K. H.; Ries, H.

    2009-09-01

    sea ice seem to be more important than thermodynamic changes. For sea ice export this is less clear. Zones of strong convergences and divergences in the wind field support break up of sea ice and the positioning of high wind regimes leads to important changes in ice drift velocities. Under these conditions, changes in ice concentration are mainly due to dynamic processes thus playing an important role for the exchange of heat and momentum between ocean, sea ice and atmosphere and for the development of low pressure systems. References: Birnbaum, G., 1998: Numerical modelling of the interaction between atmosphere and sea ice in the Arctic marginal ice zone. Reports on Polar Research, Vol. 268, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 160 pp. Brümmer, B., Launiainen, J., Müller, G. and Schröder, D., 2005: FRAMZY 2002, Second field experiment on Fram Strait Cyclones and their impact on sea ice. Field report with Measurement Examples. Rep. 37, Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung der Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 154 pp. Brümmer B., Schröder D., Müller G., Spreen G., Jahnke-Bornemann A. Launiainen J. (2008): Impact of a Fram Strait cyclone on ice edge, drift, divergence, and concentration: Possibilities and limits of an observational analysis. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 113, C12, C12003, DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004149. Dierer S., Schlünzen K.H., Birnbaum G., Brümmer B., Müller G. (2005): Atmosphere- Sea Ice Interactions during a Cyclone Passage Investigated by Using Model Simulations and Measurements. Month. Wea. Rev., 133, No.12, 3678-3692. Lüpkes C. and Schlünzen K.H. (1996): Modelling the Arctic convective boundary-layer with different turbulence parameterizations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 79, 107- 130. Schlünzen, K.H., 1990: Numerical studies on the inland penetration of sea breeze fronts at a coastline with tidally flooded mudflats, Beitr. Phys. Atmosph., 63, 243-256.

  14. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    /GEOTOP, Canada) Mathieu Duchesne (Geological Survey of Canada-Québec, Canada) Frédérique Eynaud (EPOC/Universite Bordeaux I, France) Pierre Francus (INRS-ETE/GEOTOP, Canada) Martin Frank (IFM-GEOMAR, Germany) Yves Gélinas (Concordia/GEOTOP, Canada) Joël Guiot (CEREGE, France) Claude Hillaire-Marcel (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) Patrick Lajeunesse (University Laval, Canada) Jean-François Lemieux (Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, USA) Guillaume Massé (LOCEAN/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, France) Matt O'Regan (Cardiff University, UK) Joseph Ortiz (Kent State University, USA) Frank Rack (University Nebraska-Lincoln, USA/ANDRILL Science Management Office) Taoufik Radi (UQAM/GEOTOP, Canada) André Rochon (ISMER-UQAR/GEOTOP, Canada) Ruediger Stein (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany) Guillaume St-Onge (ISMER-UQAR/GEOTOP, Canada) Bjorn Sundby (ISMER-UQAR, Canada) GEOTOP logoUQAM UQAR logoINRS logo Universite de Quebec logoGeological Survey of Canada logo

  15. Permafrost as palaeo-environmental archive - potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, L.; Wetterich, S.; Meyer, H.; Grosse, G.; Schwamborn, G.; Siegert, C.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1994, the Periglacial Research Group of the Alfred Wegener Institute is studying permafrost sequences of the Beringian landmass. The study sites in Siberia cover lake banks on Taymyr Peninsula, coastal sites at the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, locations in the Lena Delta, at the lower Kolyma river, the middle Lena and the lower Aldan rivers, and the catchment area of the El'gygytgyn crater lake in Chukotka. In Alaska, permafrost tunnels near Fairbanks and Barrow, and coastal sites on the Seward Peninsula coast were studied. In addition, Canadian sites on Herschel Island in the Beaufort Sea and at the adjacent coast of the Yukon plain were studied. Subsurface exposures like tunnels and cellars provided the opportunity for three-dimensional studies of sedimentary and ground ice features, relatively ‘clean' field conditions for in-situ experiments, monitoring procedures, and detailed and repeatable sampling. Permafrost cores were drilled in order to study inaccessible sequences below the terrain surface and shelf sea floor. Cores were transported and stored frozen for further high-resolution analysis. Reference core sections were preserved for subsequent later studies. Terrestrial sediment cores are highly localized records, sometimes problematic in extrapolating horizons in inhomogeneous sediments like ground ice-deformed permafrost deposits, and drill campaigns are usually cost intensive and logistical challenging. Coastal permafrost cliffs often naturally expose large cross sections trough modern and ancient landscapes. Contrary to cores, they provide an opportunity to study the wider context of depositional environments and ground ice features. Due to the relative easy access to coasts and the recurring natural exposure of cliffs by thermo-abrasive wave action they are very convenient study objects for regional comparisons and correlation of past environmental conditions. Finally, palaeogeographical reconstructions are also guided by remote sensing

  16. The GNSS-based Ground Tracking System (GTS) of GFZ; from GITEWS to PROTECTS and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, Carsten; Merx, Alexander; Ramatschi, Markus

    2013-04-01

    , Education and Consulting for Tsunami Early Warning System) are carried out by a large group of scientists and engineers from (GFZ) German Research Centre for Geosciences and its partners from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the GKSS Research Centre, the Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung (KDM), the Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), the United Nations University (UNU), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and other international partners. Funding is provided by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), Grant 03TSU01 and 03TSU07.

  17. The GNSS data processing component within the Indonesian tsunami early warning centre provided by GITEWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, M.; Merx, A.; Falck, C.; Ramatschi, M.

    2010-05-01

    movements which can occur, e.g., due to strong earthquakes. The ground motion information is a valuable source for a fast understanding of an earthquake's mechanism and consequences with possible relevance for a potentially following tsunami. Regarding kinematic coordinates of a buoy only the vertical component is of interest as it corresponds to the instant sea level. The kinematic coordinates are delivered to an oceanographic post-processing unit which applies dipping-, tilting- and tidal-corrections to the data. Deviations to the mean sea level are an indicator for a possibly passing tsunami wave. By this means the GNSS system supports the decision finding process whether a tsunami has been released or not. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed which monitors the whole processing chain from data transmission and GNSS data processing to the displaying of the kinematic coordinate time series. It supports both, a quick view for all staff members at the warning centre (24h/7d shifts) and deeper analysis by GNSS experts. The GNSS GUI system is web-based and allows all views to be displayed on different screens at the same time, even at remote locations. This is part of the concept, as it can support the dialogue between warning centre staff on duty or on standby and sensor station maintenance staff. Acknowledgements The GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is carried out by a large group of scientists and engineers from (GFZ) German Research Centre for Geosciences and its partners from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), the GKSS Research Centre, the Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung (KDM), the Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), the United Nations University (UNU), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and other international partners. Most relevant partners in Indonesia with

  18. The Application of Neutron Radioscopy to Lithium-Aluminum Alloy Target Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    MTL TR 90-18 AD 00 m THE APPLICATION OF NEUTRON * NRADIOSCOPY TO LITHIUM-ALUMINUM * ALLOY TARGET ELEMENTS JOHN J. ANTAL and ALFRED S. MAROTTA U.S...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) John J. Antal, Alfred S. Marotta, Saleem R. Salaymeh,* and Thomas P. Varallo...1 ATTN: Dr. G. Prather. Deputy for Science & Technology I ATTN: Dr. W. Rryzik I Sr. J. R. Sculley , SARD 1 0. Rose 1 Lt. Col. Louis M. Jackson

  19. [Women in natural sciences--Nobel Prize winners].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Kolcić, Ivana; Spoljar-Vrzina, Sanja; Polasek, Ozren

    2006-01-01

    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the founder of the Nobel Foundation, which has been awarding world-known scientists since 1901, for their contribution to the welfare of mankind. The life and accomplishments of Alfred Bernhard Nobel are described as well as scientific achivements of 11 women, Nobel prize winners in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and/or medicine. They are Marie Sklodowska Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Irene Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Gertrude Elion, Christine Nusslein-Volhard and Linda B. Buck.

  20. The Military in the Post-Vietnam ERA: A Search for Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-10

    Andrei Sakharov has written, "it is the supermilitarism of the Soviet Union that necessitates high military expenditures through- out the world.ś It...York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), p. 1. 7. Andrei Sakharov , My Country and the World (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), p. 48_ 8. Lu Hs.’n, quoted in...intellectuals). As Sakharov has vividly pointed out-from perhaps the most.realistic vantage point of all-one cannot provide for "the defense of ethical and

  1. Air Force Strategy Study 2020-2030

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of Order in World Politics, 3rd ed. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 2002), 156. 44. A. F. K. Organski, World Politics (New York: Alfred A. Knopf...23. Joint Futures Group (J59), Joint Operating Environment 2010 (Suffolk, VA: Joint Forces Com- mand, 2010), 24. 24. Alfred Thayer Mahan, The...www.bu.edu/iscip/digest/vol16/ed1611a.shtml. 19. Lt Col Andrew Wallace , USAF, “Russian Federation: Armed Forces,” ISCIP Analyst 16, no. 3, pt. 1 (15

  2. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens.

  3. Robust Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-21

    Lawrence, Gregory M. Grason, Todd Emrick, Alfred J. Crosby. Stretching of assembled nanoparticle helical springs, Physical Chemistry Chemical...par with thermally sintered conductive adhesives. C. Examination of stretching of nanoparticle-based springs. This part of the project...examined the stretching properties of these helical ribbons, which are nanometers thick, sub-micron in width, and arbitrarily long. The force-extension

  4. The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

  5. Ke Ha'a La Puna i Ka Makani: Pele and Hi'iaka Mo'olelo and the Possibilities for Hawaiian Literary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ho'omanawanui, ku'ualoha

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Hawai'i sponsored a symposium titled "Indigenizing the University." This symposium featured indigenous scholars such as Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Graham Smith, and Taiaiake Alfred, who addressed how indigenous political theory and methods of research were necessary to support indigenous research and how changes…

  6. Faculty Retirement Transitions Revitalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ummersen, Claire; Duranleau, Lauren; McLaughlin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost ten years since the American Council on Education (ACE) began to raise awareness of the importance of workplace flexibility in faculty careers and to encourage colleges and universities to support faculty in better integrating their professional and personal lives. With the generous support of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ACE…

  7. AERC 2000: An International Conference. Proceedings of the Annual Adult Education Research Conference (41st, Vancouver, Canada, June 2-4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sork, Thomas J., Ed.; Chapman, Valerie-Lee, Ed.; St. Clair, Ralf, Ed.

    These proceedings contain 102 papers, 32 roundtables, and 5 symposia. Among the papers are "Weathered by Their Experiences" (Aiken); "Politics of Knowledge and Theory Construction in Adult Education (AE)" (Alfred); "Self-Directed Learning as a Political Act" (Andruske); "All Things Bold and Beautiful" (Armstrong); "Violence Against Women" (Baird);…

  8. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  9. Zen and the Art of Higher Education Maintenance: Bridging Classic and Romantic Notions of Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Patricia M.

    Uses Robert Pirsig's ideas in "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" to explore two ways of viewing quality in higher education: the romantic and the classic. Analyzes historical and contemporary literature on quality using insights of Alfred Whitehead, Pirsig, and John Dewey, urging a vision that is honest and that incorporates…

  10. "Reclaiming Rapid Cognition": Improving Decision-making in Command and Control Agencies by Understanding and Enabling Rapid Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    down, in which they experience a sort of “temporary autism .”13 Repeated exposures to these same situations allow the subjects to feel more... horses , and must only be made at decisive moments. • - Alfred North Whitehead • When making a decision of minor importance, I have always found it

  11. The Sloan Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2008-01-01

    This paper is basically the "story" of the Sloan Semester. It is written in a journalistic/case-study style. The Sloan Semester was a vibrant and vitally important undertaking that required the immediate attention of a group of dedicated educators. The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, though its sponsorship of the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C),…

  12. 78 FR 52694 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Trent River, New Bern, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Neuse River Bridge Run participants to safely complete their race without interruptions from bridge.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The event director for the annual Neuse River Bridge Run, with approval from the... deviation from the operating schedule to accommodate the Neuse River Bridge Run. The US 70/Alfred...

  13. 34. Photographic copy of first floor plan of Bowditch Hall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of first floor plan of Bowditch Hall, Alfred Hopkins & Associates, 1943. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  14. 35. Photographic copy of second floor plan of Bowditch Hall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of second floor plan of Bowditch Hall, Alfred Hopkins & Associates, 1943. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  15. 36. Photographic copy of third floor plan of Bowditch Hall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of third floor plan of Bowditch Hall, Alfred Hopkins & Associates, 1943. Drawing on file at Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  16. Moral and Morale Benefits of the Strategic Defense Initiative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Deterrence," Air University Review, July-August 1985, p. 37. 2.Ibid., p. 39. 3. Francis Schaffer, Vladimir Bukovsky, and James Hitchcock , Who Is For...p ’*~~ - - ~ -------- - - - - - - - - CONTINUED_ ____ 15. Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), pp. 56, 57. 16

  17. Toward A Rhetoric of Visual Fragments: Analyzing Disjunctive Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilb, John

    2002-01-01

    Pursues a rhetoric of visual fragments by considering the disjunctive packaging of two particular fictional films: Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 classic "Vertigo" and Christopher Reeve's 1997 adaptation of Alice Elliott Dark's short story, "In the Gloaming." Considers how "Vertigo" offers conflicting stories about the…

  18. Finger Movements in Transcription Typing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-07

    Dr. Alfred F. Smode Office of Nvel Research Dr. Richard Gibson Training Aalysis & Rvalustion Group Arlington, VA 22217Dr. ~chnd Clson(TANG) Bureau of...Personnel PAD Center 1 Dr. Lloyd Hitchcock San Diego, CA 92152 Human Factors lagineerig 1 Roger W. loinSto, bh.D Division (6022) Code L52 I Technical Dirlctor

  19. Repurposing a Feature Film for Interactive Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Sharon; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes how a videodisc of Alfred Hitchcock's film "North by Northwest" was repurposed by adding digitized and computer-generated sound, text, and graphics, to show users the capabilities of interactive multimedia. Recommendations are offered both for working in a design team and for the design of interactive materials. (LRW)

  20. Contour Interaction in Visual Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Systems Command Dr. Alfred F. Smode Human Factors Programs Training Analysis and Evaluation NAVAIR 340F Group Washington, D.C. 20361 Naval Training...Lloyd Hitchcock 333 Ravensworth Avenue Federal Aviation Administration Menlo Park, CA 94025 ACT 200 Atlantic City Airport, NJ 08405 Dr. Edward R

  1. Hitchcock's Melodramatic Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the filmwork of Alfred Hitchcock shows his manipulation of melodramatic silence in that his films demonstrate a link between silence and truth. Concludes that in the simultaneous longing for and denial of the power of film silence lies the modernist complexity of Hitchcock's films that suggests the uses of melodramatic language in a…

  2. A Regression Approach to Generate Aircraft Predictor Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Groton, CT 06340 Orlando, FL 32813 CDR James Goodson Dr. Alfred F. Smode Chief, Aerospace Psychology Division Training Analysis & Evaluation Group Naval...Stanley Deutsch Dr. Lloyd Hitchcock Office of Life Sciences Human Factors Engineering Branch Headquarters, NASA Crew Systems Department 600

  3. The Gordon Research Conference on Electron Spectroscopy Held in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire on 14-18 July 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-18

    Halinovich (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem) SM11 Carbon K-Shell Excitation Spectra of Gaseous and Condensed Cyclic Hydrocarbons A. P. Hitchcock , D...94550 Bielefeld, West Germany D-4800 Ritter, Alfred Estabrook 6 Schowengerdt, F.D. Off Campus Virginia Tech Colorado School of Mines Blacksburg, VA 24061

  4. Watching Movies: How to Use Films to Teach the Craft of Acting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Explains the value of using movies to teach students some acting principles. Analyzes two recent films, "Crimson Tide" and "The Bridges of Madison County," and develops some acting exercises based on the two movies. Describes some of the differences and similarities between film and theater. Argues that Alfred Hitchcock's…

  5. Countering Propaganda in the Global War on Terrorism: What can a Democracy do?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    he said. “It is achieved by a repetition of ideas rather than movements. The civilian mind is standardized by news and not by drills .”57 The...Inquiry into the State of Political Science. 1953: Alfred A. Knopf, N.Y; 2nd ed. 1971. El Fadl, Khaled Abou. Islam and the Theology of Power. Middle

  6. Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Anthony

    1971-01-01

    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  7. Walking Advisement: Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram Hills School District, Armonk, NY.

    The Walking Advisement program at Crittenden Middle School in Armonk, New York was started during the 1984-1985 school year. It was based on the work of Alfred Arth, a middle school specialist at the University of Wyoming. Essentially, the program attempts to expand the guidance function of the school by bringing faculty and students together to…

  8. Bibliometric Studies of Scientific Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    In 1926, Alfred J. Lotka examined the scientific publishing productivity of chemists. His bibliometric study of the number of chemists listed in...square law’ of scientific productivity in which the frequency of authors publishing x papers varied inversely as the square of x. Bibliometric research is

  9. Motivation and Job Satisfaction for Middle Level Career Army Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1959. Just, Ward. Military Men. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. Lawrence, Paul R. and Jay W, Lorsch ...Morse, John J. and Jay W. Lcrsch. "Beyond Theory Y." Harvard Business Review, Vol 48, No. 3, (May-June, 1970). 61-68. Business ^mitari1^’ MTW^8 IttP

  10. Beyond the Scientific: A Comprehensive View of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, Arthur Wellesley, Ed.; Morrisett, Irving, Ed.

    Eight papers which discuss rational and nonrational modes of knowing and consciousness and their relevance to educational practice are presented. Richard Jones in "Looking Back and Forth on Consciousness" considers two modes, the rational and the metaphoric, in a discussion of dreams. Alfred Kuhn discusses random variation and selective retention…

  11. Perspectives on the Organization of Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s, under the aegis of such leading sociologists as Talcott Parsons, anthropologists like Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard and Alfred Kroeber of the University of California at Berkeley, as well as political scientists Gabriel Almond and Lucien Pye, of Yale and MIT, respectively, the analysis of societal and political culture came to play a…

  12. "You Don't Have Like an Identity...You Are Just Lost in a Crowd:" Forming a Student Identity in the First-Year Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Lesley; Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on research grounded in a theoretical framework informed by the work of Alfred Schutz and of Berger and Luckmann and explores transition to university as a loss experience. The specific loss examined here is that which results from student identity discontinuity as they undertake the initial transition to university--a…

  13. Improving Cardiovascular Health in Diverse Populations: A Conversation With Anushka Patel, MBBS, SM, PhD.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anushka; Rutherford, John D

    2017-02-07

    Anushka Patel is the Chief Scientist, The George Institute for Global Health, Professor of Medicine, University of Sydney and a Cardiologist, at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, all based in Sydney, Australia. She obtained her MBBS from the University of Queensland, a Master of Science degree in Epidemiology from Harvard University, and her PhD from the University of Sydney.

  14. Moliere: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guicharnaud, Jacques, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jacques Guicharnaud, Rene Bray, Gustave Lanson, Alfred Simon, Will G. Moore, Ramon Fernandez, Paul Benichou, Lionel Gossman, Andre Villiers, James Doolittle, H. Gaston Hall, Robert J. Nelson, Jacques Copeau, Charles…

  15. Self-Esteem: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…

  16. Effects of coal combustion byproduct encapsulated ammonium nitrate on wheat yield and uptake of nitrogen and metals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient that is taken up in large quantity. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used in agriculture as an N fertilizer, but it is also an ingredient in explosives. As a result of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in April 1995, regulations o...

  17. "The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane…

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    OPZZ [National Trade Union Alliance] Chairman Alfred Miodowicz visited the workforce of the WEDEL [ Chocolate Factory] in the Nation’s Capital. 15...appropriate ministers"), but the rule remains the rule. Prof Rajski, mentioned so many times here, describes the mood of foreign investors: "Among them

  19. Enterprise Education: Revisiting Whitehead to Satisfy Gibbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to demonstrate that a truly learner-centered enterprise education programmer can be developed within a traditional business school environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper unites the broad teaching philosophy of Alfred Whitehead with that of Allan Gibbs's enterprise specific teaching philosophies to consider…

  20. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer, circa 1870s DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer, circa 1870s DETAIL OF BARROWS-COATSWORTH BUILDING, CIRCA 1870s from the Alfred W. Muller Collection Illinois Department of Conservation - Barrows-Coatsworth Building, 122 Main Street, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  1. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer, circa 1870s DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer, circa 1870s DETAIL OF BARROWS-COATSWORTH BUILDING, SHOWING BARROWS' SIDE from the Alfred W. Muller Collection Illinois Department of Conservation - Barrows-Coatsworth Building, 122 Main Street, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer, circa 1880s GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Photographer, circa 1880s GENERAL VIEW OF BARROWS-COATSWORTH BUILDING, CIRCA 1880s from the Alfred W. Muller Collection Illinois Department of Conservation - Barrows-Coatsworth Building, 122 Main Street, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  3. Helicopter Structures - A Review of Loads, Fatigue Design Techniques and Usage Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    often generates the highest vibratory stresses. Darts and Schutz ’ 5 confirm this with stress histories from a Westland Sea King in which they note that...October, 1989. 35. Alfred Gessow Aerodynamics of the Helicopter, Frederick Un ar Garry C. Myers, Jr Publishing, New York, U.S.A., Fourth Printing, 967

  4. Preliminary Study of Satellite Attitude Determination for the LANDSAT 7 Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    ROBERT BOSCH STRASSE 5 D 6100 DARMSTADT GERMANY ATTN PROF ALFRED LEICK 1 DEPARTMENT OF SURVEYING ATTN G SEEBER 1 ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF HANOVER...20771 K14 5 K40 1 ATTN B SCHUTZ 1 K43 2 CENTER FOR SPACE RESEARCH N74 GIDEP 1 WRW402 UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN AUSTIN TX 78712 DEFENSE TECHNICAL

  5. Seafloor Positioning Across Juan De Fuca Ridge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    UNIVERSITY DR NW ATIN CODE WRW402 (B SCHUTZ ) 1 CALGARY ALBERTA CANADA T2N 1N4 I CENTER FOR SPACE RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN ATIN DR PER HELGE...AUSTIN TX 78713-8029 D 6100 DARMSTADT GERMANY ATIN PROF ALFRED LEICK I ATIN DR KAMIL EREN 1 3 DEPT OF SURVEYING ENGINEERING UNPD UNIVERSITY OF MAINE PO BOX

  6. A Phenomenological Approach to the Analysis of Film Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Saundra Kay

    This investigation, based on the phenomenological philosophy of Alfred Schutz, was an attempt to determine how people view films by determining the meaning that the action has for them. Twenty college freshmen and sophomores and two seniors viewed the film "Tilt," a production of the National Film Board of Canada. All subjects were asked…

  7. A Model and a Metalanguage for Research on Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A model of two-person interaction in psychological counseling, which is derived from Alfred Schutz's phenomenological theory of social relations, and a computer-assisted metalanguage based on case-grammar theory are presented, and their applicability to the analysis of natural language in counseling is argued. (Author)

  8. Satellite Motion in an Axi-Symmetric Gravitational Field. Part 2. Perturbations due to an Arbitrary J sub l

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Fortran program (by Alfred Odell) that computes the functions for arbitrary values of Z., k and Kaula’s q , by quadrature. We can now use the identity (34...j 19 J.B. Lundberg Recursion formulas of Legendre functions for use with B.E. Schutz nonsingular geopotential models. j. Guidance, 11, 31-38 (1988

  9. Operational Evaluation of Tug/Barge Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    the 1 aw ma kirg thcose tu;s subj ect t,-) Coast Gua’d inspectior:. Howve-, it should be -e;3 ized that uniess the 1aw is chnrged o that all moto ...Seakeeping Qualities". JAPAN SHIPBUILDING & MARINE ENGINEERING pp. 5-19. Yee, Alfred A.; Sare, Pablo N. 1977, February. "Operational Expe- rience with

  10. Honoring Our Roots and Branches...Our History and Future. Proceedings of the Annual Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education (19th, Madison, Wisconsin, September 27-29, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 44 presentations in these categories: distance education and evaluation; community issues and research; multicultural issues and research; teaching and learning; research methods; and organizational development. The papers are "Philosophical Foundations of Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning" (Alfred);…

  11. Shakespeare, The Tragedies: A collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbage, Alfred, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Alfred Harbage, H. B. Charlton, Willard Farnham, H. T. Price, Donald A. Stauffer, Brents Stirling, Maynard Mack, Helen Gardner, C. S. Lewis, Alvin Kernan, Bernard Spivack, L. C. Knights, Francis Fergusson, G. Wilson…

  12. How Can Music Education Be Religious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines Alfred North Whitehead's claim that education should be construed as religious, and by extension, that music education should be religious. The analysis of questions relating to Whitehead's understanding of the notion of "religious," the defensibility of his claim, and its implications for notions of spirituality and…

  13. Librarians Form a Bridge of Books to Advance Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rawson, Casey H.; McCracken, Lisa; Leonard, Mary Gray; Cunningham, Heather; Vance, Katy J.; Boone, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    School librarians are natural partners in the effort to improve the education, social and employment outcomes of black males. School librarians in Durham, N.C., have been working to close the literacy gap for black males. One of the literacy initiatives centered on the work of Alfred W. Tatum who believes that efforts to engage black males in…

  14. Exploring the Significance of Resource-Rich Views in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In a recently published article in Cultural Studies of Science Education (Volume 6, Issue 2) titled, "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men", Alfred Schademan (Cult Stud Sci Educ 6:361-380, "2011") examines the resources that African American young men learn through playing a card came…

  15. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  16. Infant Mortality, Morbidity, and Childhood Handicapping Conditions: Psychosocial Factors. Based on Proceedings of a Bi-Regional Conference (Atlanta, Georgia, June 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Elizabeth L., Ed.; Melnick, Leslie R., Ed.

    In Part I, "Extent of Knowledge and Implications for Social Work Intervention," the following conference papers are presented: (1) "Unintended Pregnancy and Infant Mortality, Strategies and Interventions" (Alfred W. Brann, Jr.); (2) "Implications for Social Work Intervention in Biopsychosocial Factors Associated with Infant Mortality and…

  17. Reaction Formulation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Reaction formation was studied by Sigmund Freud. This defense mechanism may be related to repression, substitution, reversal, and compensation (or over-compensation). Alfred Adler considered compensation a basic process in his individual psychology. Anna Freud discussed some defense mechanisms, and Bibring, Dwyer, Huntington, and Valenstein…

  18. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    0802 TITLE: Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I. Neugut, MD, PhD...Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... palliative treatments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, palliative care , ureteral obstruction, cord compression 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  19. The International Dimension of the Debate on the Nature of the Educational Sciences: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debeauvais, Michel

    1989-01-01

    Offers clarification on the current debate about educational research pertaining to the issues of terminology, epistemology, and the societal and institutional issues at stake. Discusses globalwide institutional research trends as related to the theories of Emile Durkheim and Alfred Binet. (NL)

  20. Information Resources in Clinical Medicine: Family Practice, Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Surgery, Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwank, Jean; Allen, Joyce

    Designed for beginning health science librarians, this continuing education course syllabus presents a guide to information resources for answering physicians' questions about patient care. Sources from standard core lists, such as the Alfred Brandon list, are highlighted and described, along with additional titles. General resources covered…