Deformation of the Earth's magnetosphere under low Alfven-Mach-number solar wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, Masaki N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Mukai, Toshifumi; Kuznetsova, Masha M.; Rastaetter, Lutz; Phan, Tai; Fujimoto, Masaki
2012-07-01
The density of the solar wind (SW) around the Earth's magnetosphere sometimes decreases to only several percent of the usual value, and such density extrema results in a significant reduction of dynamic pressure and Alfven Mach number (Ma) of the SW flow. Such density reduction plays an important role in magnetospheric phenomena; for instance, a magnetospheric expansion by a low density region of a coronal mass ejection causes an extreme enhancement of killer electrons in the radiation belt (Kataoka and Miyoshi, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2007). While simple expansion of the Earth's magnetosphere by the low dynamic pressure was assumed in previous studies, a recent simulation study predicted a remarkable dawn-dusk asymmetry of the magnetotail in shape under low Ma SW and Parker-spiral IMF configuration (Nishino et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008). We further show evidence of strong deformation of the magnetotail under low Ma SW and Parker-spiral IMF conditions, based on Geotail observations on both the dawn and dusk sides. In addition to the magnetospheric expansion, the deformation during low Ma SW might also affect physical process there, changing drift passes of charged particles in the magnetosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myllys, M. E.; Kilpua, E.; Lavraud, B.
2015-12-01
We have investigated the effect of key solar wind driving parameters on the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency and saturation of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) during sheath and magnetic cloud driven storms. The particular focus of the study was on the coupling efficiency dependence with Alfven Mach number (MA).Since we are studying the instantaneous coupling efficiency instead of the average efficiency over the whole solar wind structure, we needed to take into account the communication time between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. We present the results of the time delay analysis between geomagnetic indices (PCN, AE and SYM-H) and the interplanetary electric field y-component (EY, GSM coordinate system) and Newell and Borovsky functions. The study shows that the MA has a clear effect to the saturation of the PCN index, which can be used as a proxy of the polar cap potential. The higher the MA the higher the limit EY value after which the saturation starts to occur. Thus, the coupling efficiency increases as a function of MA. Also, the AE index saturates during high solar wind driving but the saturation is not MA depended. However, the results also suggest that the MA it is not the primary cause for the PCN saturation.
Chaotic behaviour of high Mach number flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varvoglis, H.; Ghosh, S.
1985-01-01
The stability of the super-Alfvenic flow of a two-fluid plasma model with respect to the Mach number and the angle between the flow direction and the magnetic field is investigated. It is found that, in general, a large scale chaotic region develops around the initial equilibrium of the laminar flow when the Mach number exceeds a certain threshold value. After reaching a maximum the size of this region begins shrinking and goes to zero as the Mach number tends to infinity. As a result high Mach number flows in time independent astrophysical plasmas may lead to the formation of 'quasi-shocks' in the presence of little or no dissipation.
Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.
2015-09-01
Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 τc , where τc is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.
Low Mach Number Modeling of Stratified Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Nonaka, A.; Zingale, M.
2015-06-01
Low Mach number equation sets approximate the equations of motion of a compressible fluid by filtering out the sound waves, which allows the system to evolve on the advective rather than the acoustic time scale. Depending on the degree of approximation, low Mach number models retain some sub set of possible compressible effects. In this paper we give an overview of low Mach number methods for modeling stratified flows arising in astrophysics and atmospheric science as well as low Mach number reacting flows. We discuss how elements from the different fields are combined to form MAESTRO, a code for modeling low Mach number stratified flows with general equations of state, reactions and time-varying stratification.
Very High Mach Number Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholer, M.; Comisel, H.
2011-12-01
A high Mach number quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock is studied with one-dimensional (1-D) full particle simulations. The Alfven Mach number is M_A=22, the shock normal-magnetic field angle is Θ=85 and the ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic pressure) is 0.5. We have used in the simulations a large value for the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the gyrofrequency of ω_pe/Ω_ce=20, and a high value of the ion to electron mass ratio, (m_i/m_e=1500). The shock is highly non-stationary but does not exhibit the reformation pattern seen in previous simulations of lower Mach number perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks. The magnetic field profiles flattens and steepens with a time period of 1.4-1.5 inverse ion gyrofrequencies while the ions are specular reflected from the steepened ramp and finally return downstream just at the subsequent steepening of the ramp. The scale of the ramp varies between ~ 10 to ~ 20 electron inertial lengths corresponding to the changes from a steep to a flat profile. By tracing all trajectories of the reflected ions in the simulation box we have determined the absolute reflection rate as well as an average energy gain related to the non-stationarity of the shock ramp. The reflection rate varies between almost zero percent during flat profiles and ~ 100 percent during steep profiles.
National transonic facility Mach number system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kern, F. A.; Knight, C. W.; Zasimowich, R. F.
1985-01-01
The Mach number system for the Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility was designed to measure pressures to determine Mach number to within + or - 0.002. Nine calibration laboratory type fused quartz gages, four different range gages for the total pressure measurement, and five different range gages for the static pressure measurement were used to satisfy the accuracy requirement over the 103,000-890,000 Pa total pressure range of the tunnel. The system which has been in operation for over 1 year is controlled by a programmable data process controller to select, through the operation of solenoid valves, the proper range fused quartz gage to maximize the measurement accuracy. The pressure gage's analog outputs are digitized by the process controller and transmitted to the main computer for Mach number computation. An automatic two-point on-line calibration of the nine quartz gages is provided using a high accuracy mercury manometer.
Noise suppression with high Mach number inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lumsdaine, E.; Cherng, J. G.; Tag, I.
1976-01-01
Experimental results were obtained for two types of high Mach number inlets, one with a translating centerbody and a fixed geometry inlet (collapsing cowl) with no centerbody. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of these inlets was examined. The effects of area ratio, length/diameter ratio, and lip geometry were among several parameters investigated. The translating centerbody type inlet was found to be superior to the collapsing cowl both acoustically and aerodynamically, particularly for area ratios greater than 1.5. Comparison of length/diameter ratio and area ratio effects on performance near choked flow showed the latter to be more significant. Also, greater high frequency noise attenuation was achieved by increasing Mach number from low to high subsonic values.
Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics for electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andy; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B.; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2016-11-01
We formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids [A. Donev et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 037103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4913571], we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the mass and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. We demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm is second order in the deterministic setting and for length scales much greater than the Debye length gives results consistent with an electroneutral approximation. In the stochastic setting, our model captures the predicted dynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations. We also identify and model an instability that appears when diffusive mixing occurs in the presence of an applied electric field.
Multibody interference at transonic Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Gary T.; Bonness, William K.; Lynch, Prisca L.
1992-01-01
An experimental and computational study has been made of the forces and moments on multibody configurations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2. The interference forces and moments that occur on symmetric double and triple body configurations at zero angle of attack are examined in detail. In all cases, the normal interference force is always in a direction to pull the bodies together and the moment about the 0.5L point is always to rotate the tips of the bodies away from the center of the configuration. The axial interference force (pressure drag at zero angle of attack) increases the drag per store as additional stores are added to the configuration. The effect of angle of attack on the interference is relatively small.
Low Mach Number Simulations of Classical Novae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krueger, Brendan K.; Calder, A. C.; Zingale, M.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Nonaka, A.
2012-01-01
Classical novae are thermonuclear explosions in the accreted layer on the surface of a white dwarf star. The manner in which convective flow interacts with the underlying white dwarf plays a critical role in determining the composition of the accreted layer and the energy release in the outburst. Studies of these complex reactive flows are typically limited by the available computing technology. I am applying a new low Mach number simulation code, MAESTRO, to study classical novae. MAESTRO filters out acoustic waves, allowing much larger time steps without restricting temperature or density perturbations, which in turn enables simulations of much longer time scales. With this unique tool, I have been exploring the development of convection and subsequent mixing in classical novae and their impact on the overall evolution of the outburst. I will present results from multidimensional simulations and quantify the character of the convection and mixing. This work was supported by NASA under grant No. NNX09AD19G and LLNL under contract B59328.
Improved Flux Formulations for Unsteady Low Mach Number Flows
2012-06-01
flows (as, for example, the combusted exhaust plume from an aircraft engine). One effective way for expressing a general iterative method is through a...pseudo-Mach number to physical-Mach number and the ratio of specific heats : 2 1 1p p p M M (5) where 2 2 2 2 minmin max( , , ),1p i uM M M M (6...performed with the CRUNCH CFD ® code, developed at CRAFT Tech12-15. The candidate flux formulations for unsteady low Mach 8 American Institute of
Critical Mach Numbers of Thin Airfoil Sections with Plain Flaps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pardee, Otway O'm.; Heaslet, Max A.
1946-01-01
Critical Mach number as function of lift coefficient is determined for certain moderately thick NACA low-drag airfoils. Results, given graphically, included calculations on same airfoil sections with plain flaps for small flap deflections. Curves indicate optimum critical conditions for airfoils with flaps in such form that they can be compared with corresponding results for zero flap deflections. Plain flaps increase life-coefficient range for which critical Mach number is in region of high values characteristic of low-drag airfoils.
New numerical solver for flows at various Mach numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miczek, F.; Röpke, F. K.; Edelmann, P. V. F.
2015-04-01
Context. Many problems in stellar astrophysics feature flows at low Mach numbers. Conventional compressible hydrodynamics schemes frequently used in the field have been developed for the transonic regime and exhibit excessive numerical dissipation for these flows. Aims: While schemes were proposed that solve hydrodynamics strictly in the low Mach regime and thus restrict their applicability, we aim at developing a scheme that correctly operates in a wide range of Mach numbers. Methods: Based on an analysis of the asymptotic behavior of the Euler equations in the low Mach limit we propose a novel scheme that is able to maintain a low Mach number flow setup while retaining all effects of compressibility. This is achieved by a suitable modification of the well-known Roe solver. Results: Numerical tests demonstrate the capability of this new scheme to reproduce slow flow structures even in moderate numerical resolution. Conclusions: Our scheme provides a promising approach to a consistent multidimensional hydrodynamical treatment of astrophysical low Mach number problems such as convection, instabilities, and mixing in stellar evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Y.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.
2012-12-01
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collision-less shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron βe (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We found electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (MA ~ 30) with a mass ratio of M/m=100 and βe=0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with the large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely-high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low. Matsumoto et al., Astrophys. J., 755, 109, 2012.
Matsumoto, Yosuke; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro
2012-08-20
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfven Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron {beta}{sub e} (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (M{sub A} {approx} 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and {beta}{sub e} = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.
Microphysics of a multidimensional high beta low Mach number shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsukiyo, S.; Matsumoto, Y.
2014-12-01
It is generally thought that a high beta shock is weak so that its structre is relatively laminar and stationary. Such low Mach number shocks have not been paid much attention in terms of particle acceleration. However, Voyager spacecraft revealed that the fluxes of not only the non-thermal ions, which are called as the termination shock particles, but also of the non-thermal electrons are enhanced at the crossings of the termination shock. The heliospheric termination shock has a high effective beta due to the presence of pickup ions which are the component having rather high thermal energy. Radio synchrotron emissions from relics of galaxy cluster mergers imply the presence of relativistic electrons accelerated in merger shocks. A plasma beta of such a merger shock is also thought to be rather high so that the merger shocks are usually assumed to have low Mach numbers. These observational facts imply that even a low Mach number shock can be a good accelerator of non-thermal particles. Here, we perform two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation to study microstructure of a high beta low Mach number shock and the associated electron acceleration process. Although the effective magnotosonic Mach number is rather low, ~2.6, the structure of the transition region is highly complex. Ion and electron scale structures coexist. Furthermore, some electrons are accelerated to high energy. We will discuss the mechanisms of producing those two-dimensional microstructures and high energy electrons.
A simplified Mach number scaling law for helicopter rotor noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aravamudan, K. S.; Lee, A.; Harris, W. L.
1978-01-01
Mach number scaling laws are derived for the rotational and the high-frequency broadband noise from helicopter rotors. The rotational scaling law is obtained directly from the theory of Lowson and Ollerhead (1969) by exploiting the properties of the dominant terms in the expression for the complex Fourier coefficients of sound radiation from a point source. The scaling law for the high-frequency broadband noise is obtained by assuming that the noise sources are acoustically compact and computing the instantaneous pressure due to an element on an airfoil where vortices are shed. Experimental results on the correlation lengths for stationary airfoils are extended to rotating airfoils. On the assumption that the correlation length varies as the boundary layer displacement thickness, it is found that the Mach number scaling law contains a factor of Mach number raised to the exponent 5.8. Both scaling laws were verified by model tests.
Improved Flux Formulations for Unsteady Low Mach Number Flows
2012-07-01
modeling multi-species flows (as, for example, the combusted exhaust plume from an aircraft engine). One effective way for expressing a general...physical-Mach number and the ratio of specific heats : 2 1 1p p p M M ρ γ ρ γ γ ′ ′ − = + (5) where 2 2 2 2 minmin max( , , ),1p...the CRUNCH CFD ® code, developed at CRAFT Tech [12]-[15]. The candidate flux formulations for unsteady low Mach number flows will be tested out
Enthalpy damping for high Mach number Euler solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, Anutosh
1990-01-01
An improvement on the enthalpy damping procedure currently in use in solving supersonic flow fields is described. A correction based on entropy values is shown to produce a very efficient scheme for simulation of high Mach number three-dimensional flows. Substantial improvements in convergence rates have been achieved by incorporating this enthalpy damping scheme in a finite-volume Runge-Kutta method for solving the Euler equations. Results obtained for blended wing-body geometries at very high Mach numbers are presented.
Overestimation of Mach number due to probe shadow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gosselin, J. J.; Thakur, S. C.; Sears, S. H.; McKee, J. S.; Scime, E. E.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-07-01
Comparisons of the plasma ion flow speed measurements from Mach probes and laser induced fluorescence were performed in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment. We show the presence of the probe causes a low density geometric shadow downstream of the probe that affects the current density collected by the probe in collisional plasmas if the ion-neutral mean free path is shorter than the probe shadow length, Lg = w2 Vdrift/D⊥, resulting in erroneous Mach numbers. We then present a simple correction term that provides the corrected Mach number from probe data when the sound speed, ion-neutral mean free path, and perpendicular diffusion coefficient of the plasma are known. The probe shadow effect must be taken into account whenever the ion-neutral mean free path is on the order of the probe shadow length in linear devices and the open-field line region of fusion devices.
Unusual locations of Earth's bow shock on September 24 - 25, 1987: Mach number effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cairns, Iver H.; Fairfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Oger R.; Carlton, Victoria E. H.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Lazarus, Alan J.
1995-01-01
International Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) and Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8) data are used to identify 19 crossings of Earth's bow shock during a 30-hour period following 0000 UT on September 24, 1987. Apparent standoff distances for the shock are calculated for each crossing using two methods and the spacecraft location; one method assumes the average shock shape, while the other assumes a ram pressure-dependent shock shape. The shock's apparent standoff distance, normally approximately 14 R(sub E), is shown to increase from near 10 R(sub E) initially to near 19 R(sub E) during an 8-hour period, followed by an excursion to near 35 R(sub E) (where two IMP 8 shock crossings occur) and an eventual return to values smaller than 19 R(sub E). The Alfven M(sub A) and fast magnetosonic M(sub ms). Mach numbers remain above 2 and the number density above 4/cu cm for almost the entire period. Ram pressure effects produce the initial near-Earth shock location, whereas expansions and contractions of the bow shock due to low Mach number effects account, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, for the timing and existence of almost all the remaining ISEE crossings and both IMP 8 crossings. Significant quantitative differences exist between the apparent standoff distances for the shock crossings and those predicted using the observed plasma parameters and the standard model based on Spreiter et al.'s (1966) gasdynamic equation. These differences can be explained in terms of either a different dependence of the standoff distance on Mach number at low M(sub A) and M(sub ms), or variations in shock shape with M(sub A) and M(sub ms) (becoming increasingly "puffed up" with decreasing M(sub A) and M(sub ms), as expected theoretically), or by a combination of both effects.
Mach Number Effects on Turbine Blade Transition Length Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, R. J.; Simon, F. F.
1998-01-01
The effect of a Mach number correction on a model for predicting the length of transition was investigated. The transition length decreases as the turbulent spot production rate increases. Much of the data for predicting the spot production rate comes from low speed flow experiments. Recent data and analysis showed that the spot production rate is affected by Mach number. The degree of agreement between analysis and data for turbine blade heat transfer without film cooling is strongly dependent of accurately predicting the length of transition. Consequently, turbine blade heat transfer data sets were used to validate a transition length turbulence model. A method for modifying models for the length of transition to account for Mach number effects is presented. The modification was made to two transition length models. The modified models were incorporated into the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code, RVCQ3D. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured midspan surface heat transfer for stator and rotor turbine blades. The results showed that accounting for Mach number effects significantly improved the agreement with the experimental data.
Multiscale lattice Boltzmann schemes for low Mach number flows.
Filippova, Olga; Schwade, Bettina; Hänel, Dieter
2002-03-15
A low Mach number approximation (LMNA) of the Navier-Stokes equations is widely used in numerical methods for the simulation of low-speed thermal and athermal flows. The advanced lattice Boltzmann approach (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) for the solution of the LMNA equations is discussed and its performance is compared with the performance of the commercial CFD code FLUENT 5.
Mach number effect on jet impingement heat transfer.
Brevet, P; Dorignac, E; Vullierme, J J
2001-05-01
An experimental investigation of heat transfer from a single round free jet, impinging normally on a flat plate is described. Flow at the exit plane of the jet is fully developed and the total temperature of the jet is equal to the ambient temperature. Infrared measurements lead to the characterization of the local and averaged heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt numbers over the impingement plate. The adiabatic wall temperature is introduced as the reference temperature for heat transfer coefficient calculation. Various nozzle diameters from 3 mm to 15 mm are used to make the injection Mach number M vary whereas the Reynolds number Re is kept constant. Thus the Mach number influence on jet impingement heat transfer can be directly evaluated. Experiments have been carried out for 4 nozzle diameters, for 3 different nozzle-to-target distances, with Reynolds number ranging from 7200 to 71,500 and Mach number from 0.02 to 0.69. A correlation is obtained from the data for the average Nusselt number.
Acoustic sources in the low Mach number turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, Jay C.
1991-01-01
The sources of sound production in a low Mach number turbulent boundary layer are examined. The sources are shown to be quadrupole in nature and to result from supersonically convecting wave-number components of the fluctuating Reynolds' normal stresses. The primary Tollmien-Schlichting instability of the boundary layer is found to radiate no sound. Analysis of various vortical phenomena suggests that the primary source is the process of formation of horseshoe vortices, with viscous sublayer bursts a possible secondary source.
Statistical error in particle simulations of low mach number flows
Hadjiconstantinou, N G; Garcia, A L
2000-11-13
We present predictions for the statistical error due to finite sampling in the presence of thermal fluctuations in molecular simulation algorithms. The expressions are derived using equilibrium statistical mechanics. The results show that the number of samples needed to adequately resolve the flowfield scales as the inverse square of the Mach number. Agreement of the theory with direct Monte Carlo simulations shows that the use of equilibrium theory is justified.
Heliospheric shocks: From low- to high-Mach numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gedalin, Michael
Collisionless shocks have been studied for more than five decades. From time to time it seems that most of the questions are answered and the shock physics is essentially understood. Each time this impression is broken due to the progress in observations and numerical simulations, which brings about the necessity to update our views and develop theory. Recent advances posed a number of new questions related to the transition from the low- to high-Mach number regime. These include the deviation of the shock front from planar shape (rippling), non-stationarity, and effects of high energy particles. The three issues are inter-connected and have a potential to change our understanding of how high-Mach number shocks work.
Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quest, Kevin B.
1986-01-01
The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.
Numerical simulation of low Mach number reacting flows
Bell, John B.; Aspden, Andrew J.; Day, Marcus S.; Lijewski,Michael J.
2007-06-20
Using examples from active research areas in combustion andastrophysics, we demonstrate a computationally efficient numericalapproach for simulating multiscale low Mach number reacting flows. Themethod enables simulations that incorporate an unprecedented range oftemporal and spatial scales, while at the same time, allows an extremelyhigh degree of reaction fidelity. Sample applications demonstrate theefficiency of the approach with respect to a traditional time-explicitintegration method, and the utility of the methodology for studying theinteraction of turbulence with terrestrial and astrophysical flamestructures.
Courant Number and Mach Number Insensitive CE/SE Euler Solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung
2005-01-01
It has been known that the space-time CE/SE method can be used to obtain ID, 2D, and 3D steady and unsteady flow solutions with Mach numbers ranging from 0.0028 to 10. However, it is also known that a CE/SE solution may become overly dissipative when the Mach number is very small. As an initial attempt to remedy this weakness, new 1D Courant number and Mach number insensitive CE/SE Euler solvers are developed using several key concepts underlying the recent successful development of Courant number insensitive CE/SE schemes. Numerical results indicate that the new solvers are capable of resolving crisply a contact discontinuity embedded in a flow with the maximum Mach number = 0.01.
Gauging the Turbulent Mach Numbers in Optically Thick Clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.
2012-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Turbulence is a critical component of the current paradigms of star formation, particle transport, magnetic reconnection and evolution of the ISM. Progress on this difficult subject is made via theoretical predictions, numerical simulations and observational studies. For star forming molecular clouds in particular, turbulence plays a role in supporting clouds from gravitational collapse and dense filamentary structures created by shocks via supersonic turbulence could act as a catalyst for stellar birth. However, diagnosing turbulence in these dense molecular regions is not straightforward, with additional complications including varying optical depth effects and thermal excitation. We study the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of simulations of MHD turbulence with radiative transfer effects included (specifically looking at the 13CO 2-1 transition) in order to gauge whether the sonic Mach number can be determined in optically thick turbulent environments. From the simulations, we create synthetic integrated intensity maps with different sonic Mach numbers and vary optical depth and thermal excitation by changing the average density(ρ) and molecular abundance (X/H2). We show that PDF descriptors such as the moments and the Tsallis distribution are sensitive to the changes in optical depth as well as the sonic Mach number in 13CO 2-1 integrated intensity maps. This opens up avenues for studying the relationship between the compressibility of GMC clouds and star formation using simple statistical methods.
Extension of sonic anemometry to high subsonic Mach number flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otero, R.; Lowe, K. T.; Ng, W. F.
2017-03-01
In the literature, the application of sonic anemometry has been limited to low subsonic Mach number, near-incompressible flow conditions. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first time a sonic anemometry approach has been used to characterize flow velocity beyond Mach 0.3. Using a high speed jet, flow velocity was measured using a modified sonic anemometry technique in flow conditions up to Mach 0.83. A numerical study was conducted to identify the effects of microphone placement on the accuracy of the measured velocity. Based on estimated error strictly due to uncertainty in time-of-acoustic flight, a random error of +/- 4 m s‑1 was identified for the configuration used in this experiment. Comparison with measurements from a Pitot probe indicated a velocity RMS error of +/- 9 m s‑1. The discrepancy in error is attributed to a systematic error which may be calibrated out in future work. Overall, the experimental results from this preliminary study support the use of acoustics for high subsonic flow characterization.
Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies liquid mixtures
Donev, Aleksandar Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar; Nonaka, Andy; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2015-03-15
We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure, which generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases [Balakrishnan et al., “Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies nonreactive mixtures,” Phys. Rev. E 89 013017 (2014)] and binary liquid mixtures [Donev et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusively mixing fluids,” Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 9(1), 47-105 (2014)]. In this formulation, we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. The formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a “solvent” species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature, and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We extend the semi-implicit staggered-grid finite-volume numerical method developed in our prior work on binary liquid mixtures [Nonaka et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of binary liquid mixtures,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2300 (2015)] and use it to study the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture subjected to a steady concentration gradient. We also numerically study the development of diffusion-driven gravitational instabilities in a ternary mixture and compare our numerical results to recent experimental measurements [Carballido-Landeira et al., “Mixed-mode instability of a
A moving frame algorithm for high Mach number hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trac, Hy; Pen, Ue-Li
2004-07-01
We present a new approach to Eulerian computational fluid dynamics that is designed to work at high Mach numbers encountered in astrophysical hydrodynamic simulations. Standard Eulerian schemes that strictly conserve total energy suffer from the high Mach number problem and proposed solutions to additionally solve the entropy or thermal energy still have their limitations. In our approach, the Eulerian conservation equations are solved in an adaptive frame moving with the fluid where Mach numbers are minimized. The moving frame approach uses a velocity decomposition technique to define local kinetic variables while storing the bulk kinetic components in a smoothed background velocity field that is associated with the grid velocity. Gravitationally induced accelerations are added to the grid, thereby minimizing the spurious heating problem encountered in cold gas flows. Separately tracking local and bulk flow components allows thermodynamic variables to be accurately calculated in both subsonic and supersonic regions. A main feature of the algorithm, that is not possible in previous Eulerian implementations, is the ability to resolve shocks and prevent spurious heating where both the pre-shock and post-shock fluid are supersonic. The hybrid algorithm combines the high-resolution shock capturing ability of the second-order accurate Eulerian TVD scheme with a low-diffusion Lagrangian advection scheme. We have implemented a cosmological code where the hydrodynamic evolution of the baryons is captured using the moving frame algorithm while the gravitational evolution of the collisionless dark matter is tracked using a particle-mesh N-body algorithm. Hydrodynamic and cosmological tests are described and results presented. The current code is fast, memory-friendly, and parallelized for shared-memory machines.
High Order Difference Method for Low Mach Number Aeroacoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, B.; Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A high order finite difference method with improved accuracy and stability properties for computational aeroacoustics (CAA) at low Mach numbers is proposed. The Euler equations are split into a conservative and a symmetric non- conservative portion to allow the derivation of a generalized energy estimate. Since the symmetrization is based on entropy variables, that splitting of the flux derivatives is referred to as entropy splitting. Its discretization by high order central differences was found to need less numerical dissipation than conventional conservative schemes. Owing to the large disparity of acoustic and stagnation quantities in low Mach number aeroacoustics, the split Euler equations are formulated in perturbation form. The unknowns are the small changes of the conservative variables with respect to their large stagnation values. All nonlinearities and the conservation form of the conservative portion of the split flux derivatives can be retained, while cancellation errors are avoided with its discretization opposed to the conventional conservative form. The finite difference method is third-order accurate at the boundary and the conventional central sixth-order accurate stencil in the interior. The difference operator satisfies the summation by parts property analogous to the integration by parts in the continuous energy estimate. Thus, strict stability of the difference method follows automatically. Spurious high frequency oscillations are suppressed by a characteristic-based filter similar to but without limiter. The time derivative is approximated by a 4-stage low-storage second-order explicit Runge-Kutta method. The method has been applied to simulate vortex sound at low Mach numbers. We consider the Kirchhoff vortex, which is an elliptical patch of constant vorticity rotating with constant angular frequency in irrotational flow. The acoustic pressure generated by the Kirchhoff vortex is governed by the 2D Helmholtz equation, which can be solved
Microinstabilities associated with a high Mach number, perpendicular bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, C. S.; Winske, D.; Tanaka, M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Akimoto, K.; Goodrich, C. C.; Zhou, Y. M.; Tsai, S. T.; Rodriguez, P.; Lin, C. S.
1984-01-01
Instability analyses incorporating insights gained through ISEE observations and hybrid simulations are used in an examination of the instabilities associated with a high Mach number perpendicular shock akin to the earth's bow shock. In the regions in front of, and at, the shock transition the cross-field instabilities are subdivided into the ion-ion streaming, kinetic cross-field streaming, and drift lower hybrid instability low frequency modes, as well as the electron cyclotron drift, ion sound, and electron whisker instability high frequency modes. Further downstream, ion ring-like and anisotropy-driven instabilities are considered. The implications of these results for wave signatures, plasma heating and acceleration are noted.
Particle-in-cell Simulations Of Particle Energization From Low Mach Number Fast Mode Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Chuang; Blackman, E.; Park, J.; Siller, R.; Workman, J.
2012-05-01
Collisionless perpendicular mangetosonic shocks relevant for termination shocks during solar flares are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with a reduced ion/electron mass ratio and a moving wall boundary condition. Compared to the reflection boundary condition, the moving wall method can control the shock speed and allows for smaller box sizes and longer simulation times in the study of shocks. In a purely perpendicular shock with the Alfven Mach number of 6.8 and plasma beta of 8. Electron and ion acceleration via shock drift acceleration (SDA) is observed. The modified two-stream instability due to the incoming and reflecting ions in the shock transition region is identified to be a possible turbulent dissipation mechanism. We determine the respective minimum energies required for electrons and ions to incur SDA. We derive a theoretical electron distribution via SDA that compares favorably to the simulation results. This work was supported by DOE under Grant DE-FG02-06ER54879 and Cooperate Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302, by NSF under Grant PHY-0903797, and by NSFC under Grant No. 11129503. The research used resources of NERSC. We also thank the OSIRIS consortium for the use of OSIRIS.
The Variation of Slat Noise with Mach and Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockhard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-01-01
The slat noise from the 30P30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. By varying the Mach number from 0.13 to 0.25, the noise was found to vary roughly with the 5th power of the speed. Slight changes in the behavior with directivity angle could easily account for the different speed dependencies reported in the literature. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.4 to 2.4 million resulted in almost no differences, and primarily served to demonstrate the repeatability of the results. However, changing the underlying hybrid Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes/Large-Eddy-Simulation turbulence model significantly altered the mean flow because of changes in the flap separation. However, the general trends observed in both the acoustics and near-field fluctuations were similar for both models.
DSMC Simulation of High Mach Number Taylor-Couette Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.
2017-01-01
The main focus of this work is to characterise the Taylor-Couette flow of an ideal gas between two coaxial cylinders at Mach number Ma = (U_w /√{ kbT_w / m }) in the range 0.01 < Ma < 10, and Knudsen number Kn = (1 / (√{ 2 } πd2 n_d (r _ 2 - r _ 1))) in the range 0.001
An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers at high Mach number and Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holden, M. S.
1972-01-01
Skin friction, heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained in laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers on flat plates at Mach numbers from 7 to 13 at wall-to-free stream stagnation temperature ratios from 0.1 to 0.3. Measurements in laminar flows were in excellent agreement with the theory of Cheng. Correlations of the transition measurements with measurements on flight vehicles and in ballistic ranges show good agreement. Our transition measurements do not correlate well with those of Pate and Schueler. Comparisons have been made between the skin friction and heat transfer measurements and the theories of Van Driest, Eckert and Spalding and Chi. These comparisons reveal in general that at the high end of our Mach number range (10-13) the theory of Van Driest is in best agreement with the data, whereas at lower Mach numbers (6.5-10) the Spalding Chi theory is in better agreement with the measurements.
Turbomachinery for Low-to-High Mach Number Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, Choon S.; Shah, Parthiv N.
2004-01-01
The thrust capability of turbojet cycles is reduced at high flight Mach number (3+) by the increase in inlet stagnation temperature. The 'hot section' temperature limit imposed by materials technology sets the maximum heat addition and, hence, sets the maximum flight Mach number of the operating envelope. Compressor pre-cooling, either via a heat exchanger or mass-injection, has been suggested as a means to reduce compressor inlet temperature and increase mass flow capability, thereby increasing thrust. To date, however, no research has looked at compressor cooling (i.e., using a compressor both to perform work on the gas path air and extract heat from it simultaneously). We wish to assess the feasibility of this novel concept for use in low-to-high Mach number flight. The results to-date show that an axial compressor with cooling: (1) relieves choking in rear stages (hence opening up operability), (2) yields higher-pressure ratio and (3) yields higher efficiency for a given corrected speed and mass flow. The performance benefit is driven: (i) at the blade passage level, by a decrease in the total pressure reduction coefficient and an increase in the flow turning; and (ii) by the reduction in temperature that results in less work required for a given pressure ratio. The latter is a thermodynamic effect. As an example, calculations were performed for an eight-stage compressor with an adiabatic design pressure ratio of 5. By defining non-dimensional cooling as the percentage of compressor inlet stagnation enthalpy removed by a heat sink, the model shows that a non-dimensional cooling of percent in each blade row of the first two stages can increase the compressor pressure ratio by as much as 10-20 percent. Maximum corrected mass flow at a given corrected speed may increase by as much as 5 percent. In addition, efficiency may increase by as much as 5 points. A framework for characterizing and generating the performance map for a cooled compressor has been developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tendeland, Thorval
1959-01-01
Heat-transfer data were evaluated from temperature time histories measured on a cooled cylindrical model with a cone-shaped nose and with turbulent flow at Mach numbers 3.00, 3.44, 4.08, 4.56, and 5.04. The experimental data were compared with calculated values using a modified Reynold's analogy between skin-friction and heat-transfer. Theoretical skin- friction coefficients were calculated using the method of Van Driest the method of Sommer and Short. The heat-transfer data obtained from the model were found to correlate when the 'T' method of Sommer and Short was used. The increase in turbulent heat-transfer rate with a reduction in wall to freestream temperature ratio was of the same order of magnitude as has been found for the turbulent skin-friction coefficient.
Influence of Mach Number and Dynamic Pressure on Cavity Tones and Freedrop Trajectories
2014-03-27
INFLUENCE OF MACH NUMBER AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON CAVITY TONES AND FREEDROP TRAJECTORIES THESIS Justin D. Merrick, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENY-14...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENY-14-M-36 INFLUENCE OF MACH NUMBER AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON CAVITY TONES...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENY-14-M-36 INFLUENCE OF MACH NUMBER AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON CAVITY TONES AND FREEDROP TRAJECTORIES
Effect of Reynolds Number and Mach Number on flow angularity probe sensitivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, L. A.; Adcock, J. B.
1986-01-01
Preliminary calibrations were performed on nine flow angularity probes in the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST) and the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). These probes will be used in surveying the test section flows of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The probes used in this study have a pyramid head with five pressure orifices. The calibrations consisted of both isolated probe measurements and rake-mounted multiprobe measurements that covered a range of subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.90 and Reynolds numbers per foot up to 40 X 10 to the 6th power. The preliminary calibration in the 7 x 10 HST included testing the probes both individually and in a rake. The 0.3-m TCT calibration tested two probes singly at varying Reynolds numbers. The results from these tests include Mach number, Reynolds number, and rake-mounting effects. The results of these tests showed probe sensitivity to be slightly affected by Mach number. At Reynolds numbers per foot above 10 x 10 to the 6th power, the probe did not exhibit a Reynolds number sensitivity.
Evaluation of a Quartz Bourdon Pressure Gage of Wind Tunnel Mach Number Control System Application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapin, W. G.
1986-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using the National Transonic Facility's high accuracy Mach number measurement system as part of a closed loop Mach number control system. The theoretical and experimental procedures described are applicable to the engineering design of pressure control systems. The results show that the dynamic response characteristics of the NTF Mach number gage (a Ruska DDR-6000 quartz absolute pressure gage) coupled to a typical length of pressure tubing were only marginally acceptable within a limited range of the facility's total pressure envelope and could not be used in the Mach number control system.
Unusual locations of Earth`s bow shock on September 24-25, 1987: Mach number effects
Cairns, I.H.; Anderson, R.R.; Fairfield, D.H.; Carlton, V.E.H.; Paularena, K.I.; Lazarus, A.J.
1995-01-01
ISEE 1 and IMP 8 data are used to identify 19 crossings of Earth`s bow shock during a 30-hour period following 0000 UT on September 24, 1987. Apparent standoff distances for the shock are calculated for each crossing using two methods and the spacecraft location; one method assumes the average shock shape, while the other assumes a ram pressure-dependent shock shape. The shock`s apparent standoff distance normally {approximately}14 R{sub E}, is shown to increase from near 10 R{sub E} initially to near 19 R{sub E}. The Alfven M{sub A} and fast magnetosonic M{sub ms} Mach numbers remain above 2 and the number density above 4 cm{sup {minus}3} for almost the entire period. Ram pressure effects produce the initial near-Earth shock location, whereas expansions and contractions of the bow shock due to low Mach number effects account, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, for the timing and existence of almost all the remaining ISEE crossings and both IMP 8 crossings. Ram pressure-induced changes in the shock`s shape are discussed but found to be quantitatively unimportant for the shock crossings analyzed. Approximate estimates of both the deviation of the shock`s standoff distance from the standard model and of the shock`s shape are determined independently (but not consistently) for M{sub ms}{approximately}2.4. The estimates imply substantial changes in standoff distance and/or shock shape at low M{sub A} and M{sub ms}. Mach number effects can therefore be quantitatively important in determining and predicting the shape and location of the bow shock, even when M{sub A} and M{sub ms} remain above 2. This study confirms and generalizes previous studies of Mach number effects on Earth`s bow shock. Statistical studies and simulations of the bow shock`s shape and location should be performed as a function of Mach number, magnetic field orientation, and ram pressure. 25 refs., 12 figs.
Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a
LOW MACH NUMBER MODELING OF CORE CONVECTION IN MASSIVE STARS
Gilet, C.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.; Zingale, M.
2013-08-20
This work presents three-dimensional simulations of core convection in a 15 M{sub Sun} star halfway through its main sequence lifetime. To perform the necessary long-time calculations, we use the low Mach number code MAESTRO, with initial conditions taken from a one-dimensional stellar model. We first identify several key factors that the one-dimensional initial model must satisfy to ensure efficient simulation of the convection process. We then use the three-dimensional simulations to examine the effects of two common modeling choices on the resulting convective flow: using a fixed composition approximation and using a reduced domain size. We find that using a fixed composition model actually increases the computational cost relative to using the full multi-species model because the fixed composition system takes longer to reach convection that is in a quasi-static state. Using a reduced (octant rather than full sphere) simulation domain yields flow with statistical properties that are within a factor of two of the full sphere simulation values. Both the octant and full sphere simulations show similar mixing across the convection zone boundary that is consistent with the turbulent entrainment model. However, the global character of the flow is distinctly different in the octant simulation, showing more rapid changes in the large-scale structure of the flow and thus a more isotropic flow on average.
Low Mach Number Modeling of Core Convection in Massive Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilet, C.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.; Zingale, M.
2013-08-01
This work presents three-dimensional simulations of core convection in a 15 M ⊙ star halfway through its main sequence lifetime. To perform the necessary long-time calculations, we use the low Mach number code MAESTRO, with initial conditions taken from a one-dimensional stellar model. We first identify several key factors that the one-dimensional initial model must satisfy to ensure efficient simulation of the convection process. We then use the three-dimensional simulations to examine the effects of two common modeling choices on the resulting convective flow: using a fixed composition approximation and using a reduced domain size. We find that using a fixed composition model actually increases the computational cost relative to using the full multi-species model because the fixed composition system takes longer to reach convection that is in a quasi-static state. Using a reduced (octant rather than full sphere) simulation domain yields flow with statistical properties that are within a factor of two of the full sphere simulation values. Both the octant and full sphere simulations show similar mixing across the convection zone boundary that is consistent with the turbulent entrainment model. However, the global character of the flow is distinctly different in the octant simulation, showing more rapid changes in the large-scale structure of the flow and thus a more isotropic flow on average.
Attenuation of sound in a low Mach number nozzle flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, M. S.
1979-01-01
The energy conversion mechanisms which govern the emission of low frequency sound from an axisymmetric jet pipe of arbitrary nozzle contraction ratio in the case of low Mach number nozzle flow are discussed. The energy of the incident sound which flows through the nozzle is used to maintain two distinct characteristic disturbances in the exterior fluid. First, there is the emitted radiation which has the directivity equivalent to that of a monopole-dipole combination. Second, essentially incompressible vortex waves are induced on the jet by vortex shedding from the lip of the nozzle and may involve the excitation of instability modes. Two linearized analytical models are examined to determine the partition of the emitted energy between the radiation field and the vortex waves. One of these is an exact linear theory in which the jet boundary is treated as a vortex sheet. The second model assumes that the width of the mean shear layer of the jet cannot be neglected. The results are discussed with reference to recent nozzle attenuation measurements.
Interaction of upstream flow distortions with high Mach number cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englert, G. W.
1981-01-01
Features of the interaction of flow distortions, such as gusts and wakes with blade rows of advance type fans and compressors having high tip Mach numbers are modeled. A typical disturbance was assumed to have harmonic time dependence and was described, at a far upstream location, in three orthogonal spatial coordinates by a double Fourier series. It was convected at supersonic relative to a linear cascade described as an unrolled annulus. Conditions were selected so that the component of this velocity parallel to the axis of the turbomachine was subsonic, permitting interaction between blades through the upstream as well as downstream flow media. A strong, nearly normal shock was considered in the blade passages which was allowed curvature and displacement. The flows before and after the shock were linearized relative to uniform mean velocities in their respective regions. Solution of the descriptive equations was by adaption of the Wiener-Hopf technique, enabling a determination of distortion patterns through and downstream of the cascade as well as pressure distributions on the blade and surfaces. Details of interaction of the disturbance with the in-passage shock were discussed. Infuences of amplitude, wave length, and phase of the disturbance on lifts and moments of cascade configurations are presented. Numerical results are clarified by reference to an especially orderly pattern of upstream vertical motion in relation to the cascade parameters.
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Gaffney, R. L., Jr.
2007-01-01
A new turbulence model suited for calculating the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is presented. The model is based on a set of two equations: one governing the variance of the enthalpy and the other governing its dissipation rate. These equations were derived from the exact energy equation and thus take into consideration compressibility and dissipation terms. The model is used to study two cases involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction at Mach 9.22 and Mach 5.0. In general, heat transfer prediction showed great improvement over traditional turbulence models where the turbulent Prandtl number is assumed constant. It is concluded that using a model that calculates the turbulent Prandtl number as part of the solution is the key to bridging the gap between theory and experiment for flows dominated by shock wave/boundary layer interactions.
Splitting methods for low Mach number Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abarbanel, Saul; Dutt, Pravir; Gottlieb, David
1987-01-01
Examined are some splitting techniques for low Mach number Euler flows. Shortcomings of some of the proposed methods are pointed out and an explanation for their inadequacy suggested. A symmetric splitting for both the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is then presented which removes the stiffness of these equations when the Mach number is small. The splitting is shown to be stable.
Numerical Simulation of a High Mach Number Jet Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli; Mankbadi, Reda R.
1993-01-01
The recent efforts to develop accurate numerical schemes for transition and turbulent flows are motivated, among other factors, by the need for accurate prediction of flow noise. The success of developing high speed civil transport plane (HSCT) is contingent upon our understanding and suppression of the jet exhaust noise. The radiated sound can be directly obtained by solving the full (time-dependent) compressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, this requires computational storage that is beyond currently available machines. This difficulty can be overcome by limiting the solution domain to the near field where the jet is nonlinear and then use acoustic analogy (e.g., Lighthill) to relate the far-field noise to the near-field sources. The later requires obtaining the time-dependent flow field. The other difficulty in aeroacoustics computations is that at high Reynolds numbers the turbulent flow has a large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) cannot obtain all the scales of motion at high Reynolds number of technological interest. However, it is believed that the large scale structure is more efficient than the small-scale structure in radiating noise. Thus, one can model the small scales and calculate the acoustically active scales. The large scale structure in the noise-producing initial region of the jet can be viewed as a wavelike nature, the net radiated sound is the net cancellation after integration over space. As such, aeroacoustics computations are highly sensitive to errors in computing the sound sources. It is therefore essential to use a high-order numerical scheme to predict the flow field. The present paper presents the first step in a ongoing effort to predict jet noise. The emphasis here is in accurate prediction of the unsteady flow field. We solve the full time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order finite difference method. Time accurate spatial simulations of both plane and axisymmetric jet are presented. Jet Mach
Low Mach Number Simulation of Core Convection in Massive Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilet, Candace Elise
This work presents three-dimensional simulations of core convection in a 15 solar mass star halfway through its main sequence lifetime. We examine the effects of two common modeling choices on the resulting convective flow: using a reduced domain size and using a monatomic, or single species, approximation. We compare a multi-species simulation on a full sphere (360 degree) domain with a multi-species simulation on an octant domain and also with a single species simulation on a full sphere domain. To perform the long-time calculations, we use the new low Mach number code MAESTRO. The first part of this work deals with numerical aspects of using MAESTRO for the core convection system, a new application for MAESTRO. We extend MAESTRO to include two new models, a single species model and a simplified two-dimensional planar model, to aid in the exploration of using MAESTRO for core convection in massive stars. We discuss using MAESTRO with a novel spherical geometry domain configuration, namely, with the outer boundary located in the interior of the star, and show how this can create spurious velocities that must be numerically damped using a sponging layer. We describe the preparation of the initial model for the simulation. We find that assuring neutral stratification in the convective core and reasonable resolution of the gravity waves in the stable layer are key factors in generating suitable initial conditions for the simulation. Further, we examine a numerical aspect of the velocity constraint that is part of the low Mach number formulation of the Euler equations. In particular, we investigate the numerical procedure for computing beta0, the density-like variable that captures background stratification in the velocity constraint, and find that the original method of computation remains a good choice. The three-dimensional simulation results show that using a single species model actually increases the computational cost of the simulation because the single
Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adler, Alfred A
1946-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is
Nonlinear standing Alfven wave current system at Io: Theory
Neubauer, F.M.
1980-03-01
We present a nonlinear analytical model of the Alfven current tubes continuing the currents through Io (or rather its ionosphere) generated by the unipolar inductor effect due to Io's motion relative to the magnetospheric plasma. We thereby extend the linear work by Drell et al. (1965) to the fully nonlinear, sub-Alfvenic situation also including flow which is not perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The following principal results have been obtained: (1) The portion of the currents feeding Io is aligned with the Alfven characteristics at an angle theta/sub A/ is the Alfven Mach number. (2) The Alfven tubes act like an external conductance ..sigma../sub A/=1/(..mu../sub 0/V/sub A/(1+M/sub A//sup 2/+2M/sub A/ sin theta)/sup 1/2/ where V/sub A/ is the Alfven wave propagation. Hence the Jovian ionospheric conductivity is not necessary for current closure. (3) In addition, the Alfven tubes may be reflected from either the torus boundary or the Jovian ionosphere. The efficiency of the resulting interaction with these boundaries varies with Io position. The interaction is particularly strong at extreme magnetic latitudes, thereby suggesting a mechanism for the Io control of decametric emissions. (4) The reflected Alfven waves may heat both the torus plasma and the Jovian ionosphere as well as produce increased diffusion of high-energy particles in the torus. (5) From the point of view of the electrodynamic interaction, Io is unique among the Jovian satellites for several reasons: these include its ionosphere arising from ionized volcanic gases, a high external Alfvenic conductance ..sigma../sub A/, and a high corotational voltage in addition to the interaction phenomenon with a boundary. (6) We find that Amalthea is probably strongly coupled to Jupiter's ionosphere while the outer Galilean satellites may occasionally experience super-Alfvenic conditions.
A Device for Measuring Sonic Velocity and Compressor Mach Number
1948-07-01
resonator (the only 4 NACA TN No. 1664 accurate measurement required) is measured, as shomn in figure 1, by means of a mercury manometer . The compressor Mach...tube vs not connected to the ccmpressor inlet until after calibration. The pressure in the device was measured by means of the mercury manometer . Fram
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shrout, B. L.
1977-01-01
An investigation was made in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel, over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 2.16, to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic-cruise fighter. The configuration, which is designed for efficient cruise at Mach number 1.8, is a twin-engine tailless arrow-wing concept with a single rectangular inlet beneath the fuselage and outboard vertical tails and ventral fins. It had untrimmed values of lift-drage ratio ranging from 10 at subsonic speeds to 6.4 at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable both longitudinally and laterally.
Instability of Poiseuille flow at extreme Mach numbers: linear analysis and simulations.
Xie, Zhimin; Girimaji, Sharath S
2014-04-01
We develop the perturbation equations to describe instability evolution in Poiseuille flow at the limit of very high Mach numbers. At this limit the equation governing the flow is the pressure-released Navier-Stokes equation. The ensuing semianalytical solution is compared against simulations performed using the gas-kinetic method (GKM), resulting in excellent agreement. A similar comparison between analytical and computational results of small perturbation growth is performed at the incompressible (zero Mach number) limit, again leading to excellent agreement. The study accomplishes two important goals: it (i) contrasts the small perturbation evolution in Poiseuille flows at extreme Mach numbers and (ii) provides important verification of the GKM simulation scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graham, Donald J
1949-01-01
Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.
Sidewall Mach Number Distributions for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Florance, James R.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.
2001-01-01
The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel(TDT) was recalibrated due to the conversion of the heavy gas test medium from R-12 to R-134a. The objectives of the tests were to determine the relationship between the free-stream Mach number and the measured test section Mach number, and to quantify any necessary corrections. Other tests included the measurement of pressure distributions along the test-section walls, test-section centerline, at certain tunnel stations via a rake apparatus, and in the tunnel settling chamber. Wall boundary layer, turbulence, and flow angularity measurements were also performed. This paper discusses the determination of sidewall Mach number distributions.
Mach number validation of a new zonal CFD method (ZAP2D) for airfoil simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strash, Daniel J.; Summa, Michael; Yoo, Sungyul
1991-01-01
A closed-loop overlapped velocity coupling procedure has been utilized to combine a two-dimensional potential-flow panel code and a Navier-Stokes code. The fully coupled two-zone code (ZAP2D) has been used to compute the flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.84 near the two-dimensional airfoil C(lmax) point for a Reynolds number of 3 million. For these cases, the grid domain size can be reduced to 3 chord lengths with less than 3-percent loss in accuracy for freestream Mach numbers through 0.8. Earlier validation work with ZAP2D has demonstrated a reduction in the required Navier-Stokes computation time by a factor of 4 for subsonic Mach numbers. For this more challenging condition of high lift and Mach number, the saving in CPU time is reduced to a factor of 2.
DSMC simulations of leading edge flat-plate boundary layer flows at high Mach number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.
2017-01-01
The flow over a 2D leading-edge flat plate is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uinf /√{kBTinf / m }) in the range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Workman, Jared C.; Park, J.; Blackman, E.; Ren, C.; Siller, R.
2012-05-01
Astrophysical shocks are often studied in the high Mach number limit but weakly compressive fast shocks can occur in magnetic reconnection outflows and are considered to be a site of particle energization in solar flares. Here we study the microphysics of such perpendicular, low Mach number collisionless shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with a reduced ion/electron mass ratio and employ a moving wall boundary method for initial generation the shock. This moving wall method allows for more control of the shock speed, smaller simulation box sizes, and longer simulation times than the commonly used fixed wall, reflection method of shock formation. Our results, which are independent of the shock formation method, reveal the prevalence shock drift acceleration (SDA) of both electron and ions in a purely perpendicular shock with Alfven Mach number MA = 6.8 and ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β = 8. We determine the respective minimum energies required for electrons and ions to incur SDA. We derive an theoretical electron distribution via SDA that compares favorably to the simulation results. We also show that a modified two-stream instability due to the incoming and reflecting ions in the shock transition region acts as the mechanism to generate collisionless plasma turbulence that sustains the shock.
Multiobjective Design Optimization of Supersonic Jet Engine in Different Cruise Mach Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Masamichi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Hideyuki
The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective optimization generic algorithm (MOGA) to the conceptual design of the hypersonic/supersonic vehicles with different cruise Mach number. The pre-cooled turbojet engine is employed as a propulsion system and some engine parameters such as the precooler size, compressor size, compression ratio and fuel type are varied in the analysis. The result shows that the optimum cruise Mach number is about 4 if hydrogen fuel is used. Methane fuel instead of hydrogen reduces the vehicle gross weight by 33% in case of the Mach 2 vehicle.
On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pletcher, R. H.; Chen, K.-H.
1993-01-01
The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pletcher, R. H.; Chen, K.-H.
1993-01-01
The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite-difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios
2015-05-01
NASA/TM—2015–218813 Tests of Full -Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios James C. Biggers and...Information Desk Mail Stop 148 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681-2199 This page is required and contains approved text that cannot be...changed. NASA/TM—2015–218813 Tests of Full -Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios James C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Furlong, G. Chester; Fitzpatrick, James E.
1947-01-01
Wing was tested with full-span, partial-span, or split flaps deflected 60 Degrees and without flaps. Chordwise pressure-distribution measurements were made for all flap configurations.. Peak values of maximum lift coefficient were obtained at relatively low free-stream Mach numbers and, before critical Mach number was reached, were almost entirely dependent on Reynolds Number. Lift coefficient increased by increasing Mach number or deflecting flaps while critical pressure coefficient was reached at lower free-stream Mach numbers.
Note: A high Mach number arc-driven shock tube for turbulence studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titus, J. B.; Alexander, A. B.; Johnson, J. A.
2013-04-01
A high Mach arc-driven shock tube has been built at the Center for Plasma Science and Technology of Florida A&M University to study shock waves. A larger apparatus with higher voltage was built to study more stable shock waves and subsequent plasmas. Initial measurements of the apparatus conclude that the desired Mach numbers can be reached using only two-thirds the maximum possible energy that the circuit can provide.
Pressure recovery performance of conical diffusers at high subsonic Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, F. X.; Runstadler, P. W., Jr.
1973-01-01
The pressure recovery performance of conical diffusers has been measured for a wide range of geometries and inlet flow conditions. The approximate level and location (in terms of diffuser geometry of optimum performance were determined. Throat Mach numbers from low subsonic (m sub t equals 0.2) through choking (m sub t equals 1.0) were investigated in combination with throat blockage from 0.03 to 0.12. For fixed Mach number, performance was measured over a fourfold range of inlet Reynolds number. Maps of pressure recovery are presented as a function of diffuser geometry for fixed sets of inlet conditions. The influence of inlet blockage, throat Mach number, and inlet Reynolds number is discussed.
Mach number study of supersonic turbulence: the properties of the density field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konstandin, L.; Schmidt, W.; Girichidis, P.; Peters, T.; Shetty, R.; Klessen, R. S.
2016-08-01
We analyse the scaling properties of turbulent flows using a suite of three-dimensional numerical simulations. We model driven, compressible, isothermal, turbulence with Mach numbers ranging from the subsonic ({M} ≈ 0.5) to the highly supersonic regime ({M}≈ 16). The forcing scheme consists of both solenoidal (transverse) and compressive (longitudinal) modes in equal parts. We confirm the relation σ s^2 = ln {(1+b^2{M}^2)} between the Mach number and the standard deviation of the logarithmic density with b = 0.33. We find increasing deviations with higher Mach number from the predicted lognormal shape in the high-density wing of the density probability density function. The density spectra follow {D}(k, {M}) ∝ k^{ζ ({M})} with scaling exponents depending on the Mach number. We find ζ ({M}) = α {M}^{β } with coefficients α = -2.1 and β = -0.33. The dependence of the scaling exponent on the Mach number implies a fractal dimension D=2+1.05 {M}^{-0.33}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munz, Claus-Dieter; Dumbser, Michael; Roller, Sabine
2007-05-01
When the Mach number tends to zero the compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, under the restrictions of constant density, constant temperature and no compression from the boundary. This is a singular limit in which the pressure of the compressible equations converges at leading order to a constant thermodynamic background pressure, while a hydrodynamic pressure term appears in the incompressible equations as a Lagrangian multiplier to establish the divergence-free condition for the velocity. In this paper we consider the more general case in which variable density, variable temperature and heat transfer are present, while the Mach number is small. We discuss first the limit equations for this case, when the Mach number tends to zero. The introduction of a pressure splitting into a thermodynamic and a hydrodynamic part allows the extension of numerical methods to the zero Mach number equations in these non-standard situations. The solution of these equations is then used as the state of expansion extending the expansion about incompressible flow proposed by Hardin and Pope [J.C. Hardin, D.S. Pope, An acoustic/viscous splitting technique for computational aeroacoustics, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 6 (1995) 323-340]. The resulting linearized equations state a mathematical model for the generation and propagation of acoustic waves in this more general low Mach number regime and may be used within a hybrid aeroacoustic approach.
On the instabilities of supersonic mixing layers - A high-Mach-number asymptotic theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balsa, Thomas F.; Goldstein, M. E.
1990-01-01
The stability of a family of tanh mixing layers is studied at large Mach numbers using perturbation methods. It is found that the eigenfunction develops a multilayered structure, and the eigenvalue is obtained by solving a simplified version of the Rayleigh equation (with homogeneous boundary conditions) in one of these layers which lies in either of the external streams. This analysis leads to a simple hypersonic similarity law which explains how spatial and temporal phase speeds and growth rates scale with Mach number and temperature ratio. Comparisons are made with numerical results, and it is found that this similarity law provides a good qualitative guide for the behavior of the instability at high Mach numbers. In addition to this asymptotic theory, some fully numerical results are also presented (with no limitation on the Mach number) in order to explain the origin of the hypersonic modes (through mode splitting) and to discuss the role of oblique modes over a very wide range of Mach number and temperature ratio.
Detailed noise measurements on the SR-7A propeller: Tone behavior with helical tip Mach number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.
1991-12-01
Detailed noise measurements were taken on the SR-7A propeller to investigate the behavior of the noise with helical tip Mach number and then to level off as Mach number was increased further. This behavior was further investigated by obtaining detailed pressure-time histories of data. The pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse which results in the noise leveling off as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This second pulse appears to originate on the same blade as the primary pulse and is in some way connected to the blade itself. This leaves open the possibility of redesigning the blade to improve the cancellation; thereby, the propeller noise is reduced.
Detailed noise measurements on the SR-7A propeller: Tone behavior with helical tip Mach number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.
1991-01-01
Detailed noise measurements were taken on the SR-7A propeller to investigate the behavior of the noise with helical tip Mach number and then to level off as Mach number was increased further. This behavior was further investigated by obtaining detailed pressure-time histories of data. The pressure-time histories indicate that a portion of the primary pressure pulse is progressively cancelled by a secondary pulse which results in the noise leveling off as the helical tip Mach number is increased. This second pulse appears to originate on the same blade as the primary pulse and is in some way connected to the blade itself. This leaves open the possibility of redesigning the blade to improve the cancellation; thereby, the propeller noise is reduced.
Effect of Mach number on the efficiency of microwave energy deposition in supersonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashkov, V. A.; Karpenko, A. G.; Khoronzhuk, R. S.; Mashek, I. Ch.
2016-05-01
The article is devoted to experimental and numerical studies of the efficiency of microwave energy deposition into a supersonic flow around the blunt cylinder at different Mach numbers. Identical conditions for energy deposition have been kept in the experiments, thus allowing to evaluate the pure effect of varying Mach number on the pressure drop. Euler equations are solved numerically to model the corresponding unsteady flow compressed gas. The results of numerical simulations are compared to the data obtained from the physical experiments. It is shown that the momentum, which the body receives during interaction of the gas domain modified by microwave discharge with a shock layer before the body, increases almost linearly with rising of Mach number and the efficiency of energy deposition also rises.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A.; Correia, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.; de Medeiros, J. R.
2014-09-01
Astrophysical simulations provide a unique opportunity to test and verify observational diagnostics of the physics of the interstellar medium. In these proceedings, we highlight how s imulations of MHD turbulence can increase the accuracy and understanding of observational tracers of important plasma parameters, such as the sonic Mach number, in molecular clouds. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations which include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects of 13CO emission and absorption into account. We find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin 13CO. However, we find that opacity broadening causes Ms to be overestimated by a factor of ≈ 1.16-1.3 when calculated from optically thick 13CO lines. We also find that there is a dependency on the magnetic field: super-Alfvénic turbulence shows increased line broadening as compared with sub-Alfvénic turbulence for all values of optical depth for the line of sight perpendicular to an magnetic field. These results have implications for the observationally derived sonic Mach number-density standard deviation (σρ/<ρ>) relationship, σ2ρ/<ρ>=b2M s2, and the related column density standard deviation (σN/(N)) sonic Mach number relationship, which we briefly discuss. The turbulence sonic Mach number is an important parameter of star formation models and the results highlighted in these proceedings provide researchers with increased understanding of these parameters derived from observations.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Parachutes at Mach Numbers from 1.6 to 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1961-01-01
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Parachutes at Mach Numbers from 1.6 to 3. A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the parameters affecting the aerodynamic performance of drogue parachutes in the Mach number range from 1.6 to 3. Flow studies of both rigid and flexible-parachute models were made by means of high-speed schlieren motion pictures and drag coefficients of the flexible-parachute models were measured at simulated altitudes from about 50,000 to 120,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030970. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Bale, S. D.; Schwartz, S. J.; Soucek, J.; Mozer, F.
2012-01-01
Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.
Experimental study of Mach number effects on the evolution of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo; Wilson, Brandon; Craig, Alex; Prestridge, Kathy
2015-11-01
The evolution of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities from the initial linear growth stages, to the subsequent non-linear interactions and the eventual (sometimes elusive) transition to turbulence, is strongly dependent on a number of factors such as shock strength (Mach number), Atwood number, and the initial structure of the fluid interface. Mach number controls the effective value of the Atwood number after compression, and thus the distribution and total amount of kinetic energy deposited at shock interaction. The initial scale-content in the fluid interface defines how quickly and to what extent growing instabilities interact with each other, ultimately conditioning transition to turbulence. These effects are not entirely independent of each other, and the extent of their relative importance is not well understood. To shed light on this subject, we designed a parameter space consisting of three different Mach numbers (1.1, 1.3, and 1.45) and three different interface configurations of varying scale content. This parameter space is being explored experimentally by means of simultaneous PIV/PLIF measurements on a single air- SF6 interface as it evolves after shock interaction. This talk will focus on the observation of Mach number effects for an early stage of evolution.
Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.
2015-01-01
Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.
Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, John; Saunders, John
2014-01-01
Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüdiger, G.; Schultz, M.; Kitchatinov, L. L.
2016-03-01
With applications to inner solar-type radiative zones, a linear theory is used to analyse the instability of a toroidal background field of dipolar parity, in the presence of density stratification, differential rotation and realistically small Prandtl numbers. The physical parameters are the Alfvén frequency ΩA, the global rotation rate Ω and the buoyancy frequency N with ΩA < Ω < N. Only the solutions for the wavelengths with the maximal growth rates are considered. If these scales are combined to estimate radial velocities, one finds that it hardly depends on the latitudinal shear and the magnetic Mach number. In the formulation of Schatzman the radial mixing of chemicals can be estimated as Re* = O(100) which indeed is necessary to dissipate the lithium in the solar tachocline with a time-scale of 1 Gyr. The calculated growth rates indicate a destabilization of the system for growing latitudinal shear except for small Mach numbers and antisolar shear. The ratio ε of the magnetic and the kinetic energy of the instability pattern only slightly depends on the shear but a strong dependence on the magnetic Mach number exists with ε ∝ Mm2. The effective magnetic Prandtl number reaches values O(103) so that for the stars with high magnetic Mach number the differential rotation decays much faster than the toroidal background field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groesbeck, D. E.; Huff, R. G.; Vonglahn, U. H.
1977-01-01
Small-scale circular, noncircular, single- and multi-element nozzles with flow areas as large as 122 sq cm were tested with cold airflow at exit Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.15. The effects of multi-element nozzle shape and element spacing on jet Mach number decay were studied in an effort to reduce the noise caused by jet impingement on externally blown flap (EBF) STOL aircraft. The jet Mach number decay data are well represented by empirical relations. Jet spreading and Mach number decay contours are presented for all configurations tested.
Tests of a Hermes A-2 Missile Body at Mach Number 4.04
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulmann, Edward F.; Lord, Douglas R.
1950-01-01
Force tests on a proposed body shape of the Hermes A-2 missile with and without longitudinal spoilers were made at Mach number 4.04. Values of normal force coefficient, pitching-moment coefficient, and center-of-pressure position were obtained.
The density variance-Mach number relation in supersonic turbulence - I. Isothermal, magnetized gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina, F. Z.; Glover, S. C. O.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2012-07-01
It is widely accepted that supersonic, magnetized turbulence plays a fundamental role for star formation in molecular clouds. It produces the initial dense gas seeds out of which new stars can form. However, the exact relation between gas compression, turbulent Mach number and magnetic field strength is still poorly understood. Here, we introduce and test an analytical prediction for the relation between the density variance and the rms Mach number ? in supersonic, isothermal, magnetized turbulent flows. We approximate the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium as a superposition of shock waves. We obtain the density contrast considering the momentum equation for a single magnetized shock and extrapolate this result to the entire cloud. Depending on the field geometry, we then make three different assumptions based on observational and theoretical constraints: B independent of ρ, B∝ρ1/2 and B∝ρ. We test the analytically derived density variance-Mach number relation with numerical simulations, and find that for B∝ρ1/2, the variance in the logarithmic density contrast, ?, fits very well to simulated data with turbulent forcing parameter b= 0.4, when the gas is super-Alfvénic. However, this result breaks down when the turbulence becomes trans-Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic, because in this regime the turbulence becomes highly anisotropic. Our density variance-Mach number relations simplify to the purely hydrodynamic relation as the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β0→∞.
A New Density Variance-Mach Number Relation for Subsonic and Supersonic Isothermal Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konstandin, L.; Girichidis, P.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2012-12-01
The probability density function of the gas density in subsonic and supersonic, isothermal, driven turbulence is analyzed using a systematic set of hydrodynamical grid simulations with resolutions of up to 10243 cells. We perform a series of numerical experiments with root-mean-square (rms) Mach number {M} ranging from the nearly incompressible, subsonic ( {M}=0.1) to the highly compressible, supersonic ( {M}=15) regime. We study the influence of two extreme cases for the driving mechanism by applying a purely solenoidal (divergence-free) and a purely compressive (curl-free) forcing field to drive the turbulence. We find that our measurements fit the linear relation between the rms Mach number and the standard deviation (std. dev.) of the density distribution in a wide range of Mach numbers, where the proportionality constant depends on the type of forcing. In addition, we propose a new linear relation between the std. dev. of the density distribution σρ and that of the velocity in compressible modes, i.e., the compressible component of the rms Mach number, {M}_{{comp}}. In this relation the influence of the forcing is significantly reduced, suggesting a linear relation between σρ and {M}_{{comp}}, independent of the forcing, and ranging from the subsonic to the supersonic regime.
2007-01-01
PHYSICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRON-PROTON TEMPERATURE EQUILIBRATION AND MACH NUMBER IN FAST COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS Parviz Ghavamian,1 J. Martin Laming,2...neutrals have had little time to equilibrate with electrons and 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- more, MD; parviz
Collisionless relaxation of downstream ion distributions in low-Mach number shocks
Gedalin, M.; Friedman, Y.; Balikhin, M.
2015-07-15
Collisionlessly formed downstream distributions of ions in low-Mach number shocks are studied. General expressions for the asymptotic value of the ion density and pressure are derived for the directly transmitted ions. An analytical approximation for the overshoot strength is suggested for the low-β case. Spatial damping scale of the downstream magnetic oscillations is estimated.
A two-dimensional, TVD numerical scheme for inviscid, high Mach number flows in chemical equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, S.; Palmer, G.
1986-01-01
A new algorithm has been developed for hypervelocity flows in chemical equilibrium. Solutions have been achieved for Mach numbers up to 15 with no adverse effect on convergence. Two methods of coupling an equilibrium chemistry package have been tested, with the simpler method proving to be more robust. Improvements in boundary conditions are still required for a production-quality code.
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.; Picano, F.; Casciola, C. M.
2014-05-01
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures - the so-called ligaments - in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Shankar; Feldman, Hume A.
2013-06-01
We calculate the cosmic Mach number M - the ratio of the bulk flow of the velocity field on scale R to the velocity dispersion within regions of scale R. M is effectively a measure of the ratio of large-scale to small-scale power and can be a useful tool to constrain the cosmological parameter space. Using a compilation of existing peculiar velocity surveys, we calculate M and compare it to that estimated from mock catalogues extracted from the Large Suite of Dark Matter Simulations (LasDamas, a Λ cold dark matter cosmology) numerical simulations. We find agreement with expectations for the LasDamas cosmology at ˜1.5σ confidence level. We also show that our Mach estimates for the mocks are not biased by selection function effects. To achieve this, we extract dense and nearly isotropic distributions using Gaussian selection functions with the same width as the characteristic depth of the real surveys, and show that the Mach numbers estimated from the mocks are very similar to the values based on Gaussian profiles of the corresponding widths. We discuss the importance of the survey window functions in estimating their effective depths. We investigate the non-linear matter power spectrum interpolator PKANN as an alternative to numerical simulations, in the study of Mach number.
Application of a transitional boundary-layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1975-01-01
An investigation is made to assess the capability of a finite-difference boundary-layer procedure to predict the mean profile development across a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the low hypersonic Mach-number regime. The boundary-layer procedure uses an integral form of the turbulence kinetic-energy equation to govern the development of the Reynolds apparent shear stress. The present investigation shows the ability of this procedure to predict Stanton number, velocity profiles, and density profiles through the transition region and, in addition, to predict the effect of wall cooling and Mach number on transition Reynolds number. The contribution of the pressure-dilatation term to the energy balance is examined and it is suggested that transition can be initiated by the direct absorption of acoustic energy even if only a small amount (1 per cent) of the incident acoustic energy is absorbed.
Computation of two-dimensional turbulent flow at subsonic Mach numbers over thick trailing edges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drescher, P.
1982-01-01
An implicit time marching finite difference method is used to predict two dimensional turbulent flow at a Reynolds number of 440,000 and a Mach number of 0.574 over a shortened NACA 0012 airfoil with a trailing edge of 4.5% thickness and semicircular shape. The flow is found to be unsteady but periodic in the trailing edge region. Thus, lift and drag fluctuate at small amplitudes around mean values and at distinct frequencies.
Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1972-01-01
An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Syvertson, Clarence A.; Savin, Raymond C.
1951-01-01
Two theoretical procedures are developed for designing asymmetric supersonic nozzles for which the calculated exit flow is nearly uniform over a range of Mach numbers. One procedure is applicable at Mach numbers less than approximately 3. This approach yields, without iteration, a nozzle for which the calculated exit flow is uniform at two Mach numbers and, with proper design, is nearly uniform at Mach numbers between, slightly above, and slightly below these two. The use of an inclined and curved sonic line is an essential feature of this approach, The second procedure requires iteration and is used far designs at Mach numbers exceeding 3. Although it is not a necessary feature, an inclined and curved sonic line is also used in this procedure. In both approaches the flow field dawn stream of the sonic line is determined using the method of characteristics.
Low-Mach-number turbulence in interstellar gas revealed by radio polarization gradients.
Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; Burkhart, B; Newton-McGee, K J; Ekers, R D; Lazarian, A; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Robishaw, T; Dickey, J M; Green, A J
2011-10-05
The interstellar medium of the Milky Way is multiphase, magnetized and turbulent. Turbulence in the interstellar medium produces a global cascade of random gas motions, spanning scales ranging from 100 parsecs to 1,000 kilometres (ref. 4). Fundamental parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the sonic Mach number (the speed of sound) have been difficult to determine, because observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motion. Observations of linear polarization and Faraday rotation in radio emission from the Milky Way have identified unusual polarized structures that often have no counterparts in the total radiation intensity or at other wavelengths, and whose physical significance has been unclear. Here we report that the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q, U), where Q and U are parameters describing the polarization state of radiation, provides an image of magnetized turbulence in diffuse, ionized gas, manifested as a complex filamentary web of discontinuities in gas density and magnetic field. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that turbulence in the warm, ionized medium has a relatively low sonic Mach number, M(s) ≲ 2. The development of statistical tools for the analysis of polarization gradients will allow accurate determinations of the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength in interstellar turbulence over a wide range of conditions.
Effect of convective Mach number on mixing of coaxial circular and rectangular jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gutmark, E.; Schadow, K. C.; Wilson, K. J.
1991-01-01
Rectangular supersonic free and coaxial jets were used to enhance mixing relative to a circular jet in a convective Mach number range of 0.5 to 2.2. The different convective Mach numbers were obtained by changing the central jet gas composition, the temperatures of the inner and outer flows, and the velocity of the coaxial flow. The experimental techniques used were schlieren photography, total pressure, and gas-sampling measurements. For all test conditions the rectangular jets showed substantial improved mixing relative to a circular jet. The free jets showed high mixing in the circumferential region of the jet while the coaxial jet had a high mixing rate inside the central jet.
Statistics of the cosmic Mach number from numerical simulations of a cold dark matter universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1992-01-01
Results are presented of an analysis of the cosmic Mach number, M, the ratio of the streaming velocity, v, to the random velocity dispersion, sigma, of galaxies in a given patch of the universe, which was performed on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of the cold dark matter scenario. Galaxy formation is modeled by application of detailed physical processes rather than by the ad hoc assumption of 'bias' between dark matter and galaxy fluctuations. The correlation between M and sigma is found to be very weak for both components. No evidence is found for a physical 'velocity bias' in the quantities which appear in the definition of M. Standard cold-dark-matter-dominated universes are in conflict, at a statistically significant level, with the available observation, in that they predict a Mach number considerably lower than is observed.
Upstream and downstream wave packets associated with low-Mach number interplanetary shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharov, O.; Å afránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Přech, L.; PitÅa, A.; Zastenker, G. N.
2014-11-01
Wave packets are frequently observed upstream and/or downstream of shocks in a magnetized plasma. We present a comparison of Wind and Spektr-R observations of 27 interplanetary low-Mach number (<5.5) shocks that reveals that (1) the wavelengths of both upstream and downstream waves conserve over the spacecraft separation, (2) in the frequency range of 0.5-5 Hz, their wavelengths are directly proportional to the shock ramp thickness that is controlled by the ion thermal gyroradius, and (3) the phase shift between density and temperature variations within downstream wave packets is about 90°. These results emphasize a role of kinetic processes in the formation of low-Mach number shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balikhin, M. A.; Malkov, M.; Sagdeev, R.; Dudnikova, G.
2015-12-01
The structure of subcritical (laminar) collisionless shocks has been understood long time ago. When the Mach number exceeds a critical value, some of the incident ions are reflected. This needs to be included into the description of the shock structure and entropy production at the shock front. We present an analytical model of ion reflection from a quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock and the formation of the foot region associated with this reflection. Reflected ions perturb the electrostatic and magnetic fields in the foot region which we self-consistently include in determining the fraction of reflected ions, depending on the Mach number of the shock. The subsequent motion of the shock reflected ions downstream and formation of the downstream field structure is analyzed. Models for thermalization of the downstream plasma and approaches to Rankine-Hugoniot relations will also be discussed. The obtained overall shock structure is compared with the Cluster observations.
Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.
1985-01-01
A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bangert, Linda S.; Carson, George T., Jr.
1992-01-01
A parametric study was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on an isolated nonaxisymmetic fuselage model that simulates a twin-engine fighter. The effects of aft-end closure distribution (top/bottom) nozzle-flap boattail angle versus nozzle-sidewall boattail angle) and afterbody and nozzle corner treatment (sharp or radius) were investigated. Four different closure distributions with three different corner radii were tested. Tests were conducted over a range of Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.25 and over a range of angles of attack from -3 to 9 degrees. Solid plume simulators were used to simulate the jet exhaust. For a given closure distribution in the range of Mach numbers tested, the sharp-corner nozzles generally had the highest drag, and the 2-in. corner-radius nozzles generally had the lowest drag. The effect of closure distribution on afterbody drag was highly dependent on configuration and flight condition.
A two phase Mach number description of the equilibrium flow of nitrogen in ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bursik, J. W.; Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.
1979-01-01
Some additional thermodynamic properties of the usual two-phase form which is linear in the moisture fraction are derived which are useful in the analysis of many kinds of duct flow. The method used is based on knowledge of the vapor pressure and Gibbs function as functions of temperature. With these, additional two-phase functions linear in moisture fraction are generated, which ultimately reveal that the squared ratio of mixture specific volume to mixture sound speed depends on liquid mass fraction and temperature in the same manner as do many weighted mean two-phase properties. This leads to a simple method of calculating two-phase Mach numbers for various duct flows. The matching of one- and two-phase flows at a saturated vapor point with discontinuous Mach number is also discussed.
Flow-induced cylinder noise formulated as a diffraction problem for low Mach numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gloerfelt, X.; Pérot, F.; Bailly, C.; Juvé, D.
2005-10-01
The role of surfaces in the mechanism of sound generation by low Mach number flows interacting with solid nonvibrating surfaces is well established by the classical aeroacoustic papers by Powell, Doak, Ffowcs Williams, Crighton, or Howe. It can be formulated as a problem of diffraction of the flow sources by the rigid body. The present study illustrates this statement in the case of flow-induced cylinder noise. Curle's formulation is analytically and numerically compared to a formulation based on an exact Green's function tailored to a cylindrical geometry. The surface integral of Curle's formulation represents exactly the diffraction effects by the rigid body. The direct and scattered parts of the sound field are studied. In this low Mach number configuration, the cylinder is compact, and the scattered (dipole) field dominates the direct (quadrupole) field. The classical properties of the scattering by a cylinder are retrieved by considering a point quadripole source near the cylinder surface.
Prediction of nacelle aerodynamic interference effects at low supersonic Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulfan, R. M.
1980-01-01
The accuracy of analytical predictions of nacelle aerodynamic interference effects at low supersonic speeds are studied by means of test versus theory comparisons. Comparisons shown include: (1) isolated wing body lift, drag, and pitching moments; (2) isolated nacelle drag and pressure distributions; (3) nacelle interference shock wave patterns and pressure distributions on the wing lower surface; (4) nacelle interference effects on wing body lift, drag, and pitching moments; and (5) total installed nacelle interference effects on lift, drag, and pitching moment. The comparisons also illustrate effects of nacelle location, nacelle spillage, angle of attack, and Mach numbers on the aerodynamic interference. The initial results seem to indicate that the methods can satisfactorily predict lift, drag, pitching moment, and pressure distributions of installed engine nacelles at low supersonic Mach numbers with mass flow ratios from 0.7 to 1.0 for configurations typical of efficient supersonic cruise airplanes.
Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stephens, David B.
2012-01-01
An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.
The density variance-Mach number relation in isothermal and non-isothermal adiabatic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolan, C. A.; Federrath, C.; Sutherland, R. S.
2015-08-01
The density variance-Mach number relation of the turbulent interstellar medium is relevant for theoretical models of the star formation rate, efficiency, and the initial mass function of stars. Here we use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations with grid resolutions of up to 10243 cells to model compressible turbulence in a regime similar to the observed interstellar medium. We use FYRIS ALPHA, a shock-capturing code employing a high-order Godunov scheme to track large density variations induced by shocks. We investigate the robustness of the standard relation between the logarithmic density variance (σ _s^2) and the sonic Mach number M of isothermal interstellar turbulence, in the non-isothermal regime. Specifically, we test ideal gases with diatomic molecular (γ = 7/5) and monatomic (γ = 5/3) adiabatic indices. A periodic cube of gas is stirred with purely solenoidal forcing at low wavenumbers, leading to a fully developed turbulent medium. We find that as the gas heats in adiabatic compressions, it evolves along the relationship in the density variance-Mach number plane, but deviates significantly from the standard expression for isothermal gases. Our main result is a new density variance-Mach number relation that takes the adiabatic index into account: σ _s^2=ln (1+b^2 M^{(5γ +1)/3}) and provides good fits for b M≲ 1. A theoretical model based on the Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions is derived, σ _s^2 = ln {1 + (γ +1)b^2{M}^2/[(γ -1)b^2{M}^2+2]}, and provides good fits also for b M>1. We conclude that this new relation for adiabatic turbulence may introduce important corrections to the standard relation, if the gas is not isothermal (γ ≠ 1).
Sub-adiabatic perpendicular electron heating across high-Mach number collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundkvist, D. J.; Mozer, F.
2012-12-01
Spacecraft observations of a high Mach number quasi-perpendicular bow shock with high plasma beta have revealed electrons that were sub-adiabatic through the shock ramp because they were less heated than expected from conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. This stands out in contrast to existing theories of electron heating at collisionless shocks in which the electrons are adiabatically heated through compression or more-than-adiabatically heated due to additional effects such as anomalous resistivity induced by microinstabilites.
Laminar friction and heat transfer at Mach numbers from 1 to 10
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klunker, E B; Mclean, F Edward
1951-01-01
Velocity and temperature profiles and laminar boundary-layer characteristics have been computed for Mach numbers from 1 to 10, utilizing experimental values of the heat capacity, viscosity, and conductivity. The analysis shows that effective temperature, which is a function of the surface temperature and stream conditions, arises naturally and is the proper reference temperature to be used in heat-transfer calculations. The effective temperature and the recovery temperature become identical for the condition of zero heat transfer.
Simulation of transient flow in a shock tunnel and a high Mach number nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. A.
1991-01-01
A finite volume Navier-Stokes code was used to simulate the shock reflection and nozzle starting processes in an axisymmetric shock tube and a high Mach number nozzle. The simulated nozzle starting processes were found to match the classical quasi-1-D theory and some features of the experimental measurements. The shock reflection simulation illustrated a new mechanism for the driver gas contamination of the stagnated test gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bispen, Georgij; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, Mária; Yelash, Leonid
2017-04-01
In this paper we will present and analyze a new class of the IMEX finite volume schemes for the Euler equations with a gravity source term. We will in particular concentrate on a singular limit of weakly compressible flows when the Mach number M ≪ 1. In order to efficiently resolve slow dynamics we split the whole nonlinear system in a stiff linear part governing the acoustic and gravity waves and a non-stiff nonlinear part that models nonlinear advection effects. For time discretization we use a special class of the so-called globally stiffly accurate IMEX schemes and approximate the stiff linear operator implicitly and the non-stiff nonlinear operator explicitly. For spatial discretization the finite volume approximation is used with the central and Rusanov/Lax-Friedrichs numerical fluxes for the linear and nonlinear subsystem, respectively. In the case of a constant background potential temperature we prove theoretically that the method is asymptotically consistent and asymptotically stable uniformly with respect to small Mach number. We also analyze experimentally convergence rates in the singular limit when the Mach number tends to zero.
Influence of Mach Number and Incoming Boundary Layer on Shock Boundary Layer Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stab, Ilona; Threadgill, James; Little, Jesse
2016-11-01
Wall pressure fluctuations, schlieren imaging, oil flow visualization and PIV measurements have been performed on the shock boundary layer interaction (SBLI) formed by a 10° compression ramp. The incoming Mach number and boundary layer characteristics are varied to examine their influence on the SBLI. Focus is placed on understanding the effect of these parameters on the structure and unsteadiness of the resultant interaction. Lower Mach numbers M = 2 . 3 (δ0 = 1 . 7 mm , θ = 0 . 29 mm , Reθ = 3115 , H = 1 . 4) and M = 3 (δ0 = 1 . 3 mm , θ = 0 . 25 mm , Reθ = 1800 , H = 1 . 8) show a turbulent or transitional approach boundary layer with no apparent separation at the ramp. Mach 4 has a large separated region which is seemingly a result of a now laminar or transitional approach boundary layer. Pulsations in the separated region correspond to the expected low frequency SBLI dynamics showing a broad peak around a Strouhal number of St = fLint /U∞ = 0 . 27 which is lower than the characteristic frequency of the turbulent boundary layer. Additional results examining the influence of boundary layer modifications (e.g. sweep) and wind tunnel side-walls are also included. Supported by Raytheon Missile Systems.
Particle-in-cell simulations of particle energization from low Mach number fast mode shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jaehong; Workman, Jared C.; Blackman, Eric G.; Ren, Chuang; Siller, Robert
2012-06-01
Astrophysical shocks are often studied in the high Mach number limit but weakly compressive fast shocks can occur in magnetic reconnection outflows and are considered to be a site of particle energization in solar flares. Here we study the microphysics of such perpendicular, low Mach number collisionless shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with a reduced ion/electron mass ratio and employ a moving wall boundary method for initial generation of the shock. This moving wall method allows for more control of the shock speed, smaller simulation box sizes, and longer simulation times than the commonly used fixed wall, reflection method of shock formation. Our results, which are independent of the shock formation method, reveal the prevalence shock drift acceleration (SDA) of both electron and ions in a purely perpendicular shock with Alfvén Mach number MA=6.8 and ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β=8. We determine the respective minimum energies required for electrons and ions to incur SDA. We derive a theoretical electron distribution via SDA that compares to the simulation results. We also show that a modified two-stream instability due to the incoming and reflecting ions in the shock transition region acts as the mechanism to generate collisionless plasma turbulence that sustains the shock.
Relationship between solar energetic oxygen flux and MHD shock mach number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, K.; Wu, C.-C.; Dryer, M.; Wu, S. T.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Plunkett, S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mason, G. M.
2012-05-01
This study correlates the time-intensity profile of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock with the corresponding solar energetic oxygen for a coronal mass ejection (CME) event that occurred on October 28, 2003. The intensity of MHD shock, in terms of Mach number, is simulated using a 1.5D MHD code, whereas the solar energetic oxygen flux is observed by the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. A good correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient: r = 0.70 - 0.84) is found between the forward fast-mode shock Mach number and the hourly-averaged, logarithmic oxygen differential energy flux for 7 energy channels (7.3 - 63.8 MeV). We suspect that the intensity-time profile of high energy SEP events is manifested by the strength (Mach number) of CME-driven propagation shocks. While further studies with more events are required to be more conclusive, this study result provides a direction for future studies or predictions of SEP fluxes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hejranfar, Kazem; Kamali-Moghadam, Ramin
2012-06-01
Preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions (BCs) are implemented at artificial boundaries for the solution of the two- and three-dimensional preconditioned Euler equations at low Mach number flows. The preconditioned compatibility equations and the corresponding characteristic variables (or the Riemann invariants) based on the characteristic forms of preconditioned Euler equations are mathematically derived for three preconditioners proposed by Eriksson, Choi and Merkle, and Turkel. A cell-centered finite volume Roe's method is used for the discretization of the preconditioned system of equations on unstructured meshes. The accuracy and performance of the preconditioned characteristic BCs applied at artificial boundaries are evaluated in comparison with the non-preconditioned characteristic BCs and the simplified BCs in computing steady low Mach number flows. The two-dimensional flow over the NACA0012 airfoil and three-dimensional flow over the hemispherical headform are computed and the results are obtained for different conditions and compared with the available numerical and experimental data. The sensitivity of the solution to the size of computational domain and the variation of the angle of attack for each type of BCs is also examined. Indications are that the preconditioned characteristic BCs implemented in the preconditioned system of Euler equations greatly enhance the convergence rate of the solution of low Mach number flows compared to the other two types of BCs.
The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David; Scholer, Manfred; Masters, Adam; Sulaiman, Ali H.
2017-02-01
Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pendley, Robert E; Robinson, Harold L
1950-01-01
An investigation of three NACA 1-series nose inlets, two of which were fitted with protruded central bodies, was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. An elliptical-nose body, which had a critical Mach number approximately equal to that of one of the nose inlets, was also tested. Tests were made near zero angle of attack for a Mach number range from 0.4 to 0.925 and for the supersonic Mach number of 1.2. The inlet-velocity-ratio range extended from zero to a maximum value of 1.34. Measurements included pressure distribution, external drag, and total-pressure loss of the internal flow near the inlet. Drag was not measured for the tests at the supersonic Mach number. Over the range of inlet-velocity ratio investigated, the calculated external pressure-drag coefficient at a Mach number of 1.2 was consecutively lower for the nose inlets of higher critical Mach number, and the pressure-drag coefficient of the longest nose inlet was in the range of pressure-drag coefficient for two solid noses of fineness ratio 2.4 and 6.0. For Mach numbers below the Mach number of the supercritical drag rise, extrapolation of the test data indicated that the external drag of the nose inlets was little affected by the addition of central bodies at or slightly below the minimum inlet-velocity ratio for unseparated central-body flow. The addition of central bodies to the nose inlets also led to no appreciable effects on either the Mach number of the supercritical drag rise, or, for inlet-velocity ratios high enough to avoid a pressure peak at the inlet lip, on the critical Mach number. The total-pressure recovery of the inlets tested, which were of a subsonic type, was sensibly unimpaired at the supersonic Mach number of 1.2 Low-speed measurements of the minimum inlet-velocity ratio for unseparated central-body flow appear to be applicable for Mach numbers extending to 1.2.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.
1982-01-01
Three airfoils designed for helicopter rotor application were investigated in the Langley 6- by 28-inch Transonic Tunnel to determine the two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers from 0.34 to 0.88 and respective Reynolds numbers from about 4.4 x 10(6) power to 9.5 x 10(6) power. The airfoils have thickness-to-chord ratios of 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12. Trailing-edge reflex was applied to minimize pitching moment. The maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC(3)-12 airfoil is from 0.1 to 0.2 higher, depending on Mach number M, than that of the NACA 0012 airfoil tested in the same facility. The maximum normal-force coefficient of the RC(3)-10 is about equal to that of the NACA 0012 at Mach numbers to 0.40 and is higher than that of the NACA 0012 at Mach numbers above 0.40. The maximum normal force coefficient of the RC(3)-08 is about 0.19 lower than that of the NACA 0012 at a Mach number of 0.35 and about 0.05 lower at a Mach number of 0.54. The drag divergence Mach number of the RC(3)-08 airfoil at normal-force coefficients below 0.1 was indicated to be greater than the maximum test Mach number of 0.88. At zero lift, the drag-divergence Mach numbers of the RC(3)-12 and the RC(3)-10 are about 0.77 and 0.82, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zingale, M.; Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Orvedahl, R. J.
2013-02-01
We assess the robustness of a low Mach number hydrodynamics algorithm for modeling helium shell convection on the surface of a white dwarf in the context of the sub-Chandrasekhar model for Type Ia supernovae. We use the low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, to perform three-dimensional, spatially adaptive simulations of convection leading up to the point of the ignition of a burning front. We show that the low Mach number hydrodynamics model provides a robust description of the system.
CURRENT - A Computer Code for Modeling Two-Dimensional, Chemically Reaccting, Low Mach Number Flows
Winters, W.S.; Evans, G.H.; Moen, C.D.
1996-10-01
This report documents CURRENT, a computer code for modeling two- dimensional, chemically reacting, low Mach number flows including the effects of surface chemistry. CURRENT is a finite volume code based on the SIMPLER algorithm. Additional convergence acceleration for low Peclet number flows is provided using improved boundary condition coupling and preconditioned gradient methods. Gas-phase and surface chemistry is modeled using the CHEMKIN software libraries. The CURRENT user-interface has been designed to be compatible with the Sandia-developed mesh generator and post processor ANTIPASTO and the post processor TECPLOT. This report describes the theory behind the code and also serves as a user`s manual.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, L. D.
1985-01-01
Advanced design propellers on a JetStar aircraft were tested at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. A calibration of the flow field at the test location to obtain local Mach number and flow direction was performed. A pitot-static probe and flow direction vane installation was installed and tested at Mach 0.3 to 0.8 and altitudes from 3000 m (10,000 ft) to 9100 m (30,000 ft). Local Mach number and flow direction relationships were obtained and related to their noseboom counterparts. Effects of varying angles of sideslip to + or - 3 deg. were investigated.
In-flight acoustic results from an advanced-design propeller at Mach numbers to 0.8
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackall, K. G.; Lasagna, P. L.; Walsh, K.; Dittmar, J. H.
1982-01-01
Acoustic data for the advanced-design SR-3 propeller at Mach numbers to 0.8 and helical tip Mach numbers to 1.14 are presented. Several advanced-design propellers, previously tested in wind tunnels at the Lewis Research Center, are being tested in flight at the Dryden Flight Research Facility. The flight-test propellers are mounted on a pylon on the top of the fuselage of a JetStar airplane. Instrumentation provides near-field acoustic data for the SR-3. Acoustic data for the SR-3 propeller at Mach numbers up to 0.8, for propeller helical tip Mach numbers up to 1.14, and comparison of wind tunnel to flight data are included. Flowfield profiles measured in the area adjacent to the propeller are also included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, George T., Jr.; Lamb, Milton
1988-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the aeropropulsive performance characteristics (the aerodynamic quantities affected by propulsion) of 13 isolated combined turbojet/ramjet nozzle configurations. These configurations simulated the variable-geometry features of two nozzle designs designated as the multiple-expansion ramp nozzle (MERN) and the composite contour nozzle (CCN). Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20 with jet exhaust simulated by high-pressure air. The results showed that the CCN had the higher performance over the Mach number range than the MERN, as indicated by the difference of thrust minus drag divided by ideal thrust. Increasing the ramjet throat area for the MERN resulted in an increase in performance that increased with Mach number. For the CCN at Mach numbers less than 1.20, increasing the ramjet throat area resulted in a loss in performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dixon, G. V.; Barringer, S. R.; Gray, C. E.; Leatherman, A. D.
1975-01-01
Computer programs and resulting tabulations are presented of pipeline length-to-diameter ratios as a function of Mach number and pressure ratios for compressible flow. The tabulations are applicable to air, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for compressible isothermal flow with friction and compressible adiabatic flow with friction. Also included are equations for the determination of weight flow. The tabulations presented cover a wider range of Mach numbers for choked, adiabatic flow than available from commonly used engineering literature. Additional information presented, but which is not available from this literature, is unchoked, adiabatic flow over a wide range of Mach numbers, and choked and unchoked, isothermal flow for a wide range of Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6), 60 x 10(exp 6), and 120 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
A variable-geometry annular cascade-type inlet at Mach numbers of 1.9 and 3.05
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connors, James F; Meyer, Rudolph C
1956-01-01
A variable-geometry annular cascade-type inlet is proposed and demonstrated. Such an inlet yielded total-pressure recoveries of 0.84 and 0.53 at Mach numbers of 1.9 and 3.05., respectively. Unity mass-flow ratios were obtained at each Mach number with only marginal subcritical stability ranges of mass-flow ratio (?0.03). Angles of attack up to 6 percent produced only moderate decreases in performance.
Bumblebee program, aerodynamic data. Part 2: Flow fields at Mach number 2.0. [supersonic missiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.
1979-01-01
Available flow field data which can be used in validating theoretical procedures for computing flow fields around supersonic missiles are presented. Tabulated test data are given which define the flow field around a conical-nosed cylindrical body in a crossflow plane corresponding to a likely tail location. The data were obtained at a Mach number of 2.0 for an angle of attack of 0 to 23 degrees. The data define the flow field for cases both with and without a forward wing present.
The Experimental Measurement of Aerodynamic Heating About Complex Shapes at Supersonic Mach Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma C.
2011-01-01
In 2008 a wind tunnel test program was implemented to update the experimental data available for predicting protuberance heating at supersonic Mach numbers. For this test the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel was also used. The significant differences for this current test were the advances in the state-of-the-art in model design, fabrication techniques, instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities. This current paper provides a focused discussion of the results of an in depth analysis of unique measurements of recovery temperature obtained during the test.
A fluctuating surface pressure test technique utilizing Mach number sweeps at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanly, R. D.
1974-01-01
A multichannel on-line RMS data acquisition and reduction system has been developed using commercial RMS computing modules and a programmable calculator. Details of this system, which has the capability of acquiring 96 channels of RMS data and computing and printing desired parameters in near real-time, are presented. In addition, raw data can be recorded at a much higher rate for computation and printing later. Results are presented showing the benefits of this system in 'sweep' tests where one parameter such as Mach number or angle of attack is slowly varied with time.
Characteristics of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings at Supercritical Mach Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, John; Lindsey, W F
1949-01-01
The separation of the flow over wings precipitated by the compression shock that forms as speeds are increased into the supercritical Mach number range has imposed serious difficulties in the improvement of aircraft performance. Three difficulties rise principally as a consequence of the rapid drag rise and the loss of lift that causes serious stability changes when the wing shock-stalls. Favorable relieving effects due to the three-dimensional flow around the tips were obtained and these effects were of such magnitude that it is indicated that low-aspect-ratio wings offer a possible solution of the problems encountered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.; Hirn, J. J.
1975-01-01
The results of an analytical study to investigate internal and external surface Mach numbers on several inlet geometries for possible application to the nacelle of the Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) are presented. The effects of external forebody geometry and internal lip geometry were illustrated at both low-speed and cruise conditions. Boundary-layer analyses were performed on several geometries to determine if lip flow separation might exist. The results indicated that inner-surface Mach number level and gradient could be reduced with inlets at a 50 deg incidence angle by blunting the external forebody geometry. The external Mach numbers at cruise conditions indicated that a compromise in the external forebody bluntness might be required to satisfy both low-speed and cruise conditions. For a fixed value of bluntness parameter, no lip flow separation was indicated for the 1.46- and 1.57-area-contraction-ratio inlets at low-speed conditions. However, a lip separation condition was obtained with the 1.37-contraction-ratio inlet. The QCSEE nacelle design takeoff operating condition (incidence angle of 50 deg and free-stream Mach number of 0.12) resulted in higher peak surface Mach numbers than the design crosswind (incidence angle of 90 deg and free-stream Mach number of 0.05) or static condition.
Effects of nonuniform Mach-number entrance on scramjet nozzle flowfield and performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Pu; Xu, Jinglei; Quan, Zhibin; Mo, Jianwei
2016-12-01
Considering the non-uniformities of nozzle entrance influenced by the upstream, the effects of nonuniform Mach-number coupled with shock and expansion-wave on the flowfield and performances of single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) are numerically studied using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The adopted Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methodology is validated by comparing the numerical results with the cold experimental data, and the average method used in this paper is discussed. Uniform and nonuniform facility nozzles are designed to generate different Mach-number profile for the inlet of SERN, which is direct-connected with different facility nozzle, and the whole flowfield is simulated. Because of the coupling of shock and expansion-wave, flow direction of nonuniform SERN entrance is distorted. Compared with Mach contour of uniform case, the line is more curved for coupling shock-wave entrance (SWE) case, and flatter for the coupling expansion-wave entrance (EWE) case. Wall pressure distribution of SWE case appears rising region, whereas decreases like stairs of EWE case. The numerical results reveal that the coupled shock and expansion-wave play significant roles on nozzle performances. Compared with the SERN performances of uniform entrance case at the same work conditions, the thrust of nonuniform entrance cases reduces by 3-6%, pitch moment decreases by 2.5-7%. The negative lift presents an incremental trend with EWE while the situation is the opposite with SWE. These results confirm that considering the entrance flow parameter nonuniformities of a scramjet nozzle coupled with shock or expansion-wave from the upstream is necessary.
An Investigation of Convergent-Divergent Diffusers at Mach Number 1.85
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyatt, Demarquis D; Hunczak, Henry R
1947-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland 18- by 18-inch supersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 1.85 and angles of attack from 0 deg to 5 deg to determine optimum design configurations for a convergent-divergent type of supersonic diffuser with a subsonic diffuser of 5 deg included divergence angle. Total pressure recoveries in excess of theoretical recovery across a normal shock at a free-stream Mach number of 1.85 wore obtained with several configurations. The highest recovery for configurations without a cylindrical throat section was obtained with an inlet having an included convergence angle of 20 deg. Insertion of a 2-inch throat section between a 10 deg included angle inlet and the subsonic diffuser stabilized the shock inside the diffuser and resulted in recoveries as high as 0.838 free-stream total pressure at an angle of attack of 0 deg, corresponding to recovery of 92.4 percent of the kinetic energy of the free air stream. Use of the throat section also lessened the reduction in recovery of all configurations due to angle of attack.
On the high Mach number shock structure singularity caused by overreach of Maxwellian molecules
Myong, R. S.
2014-05-15
The high Mach number shock structure singularity arising in moment equations of the Boltzmann equation was investigated. The source of the singularity is shown to be the unbalanced treatment between two high order kinematic and dissipation terms caused by the overreach of Maxwellian molecule assumption. In compressive gaseous flow, the high order stress-strain coupling term of quadratic nature will grow far faster than the strain term, resulting in an imbalance with the linear dissipation term and eventually a blow-up singularity in high thermal nonequilibrium. On the other hand, the singularity arising from unbalanced treatment does not occur in the case of velocity shear and expansion flows, since the high order effects are cancelled under the constraint of the free-molecular asymptotic behavior. As an alternative method to achieve the balanced treatment, Eu's generalized hydrodynamics, consistent with the second law of thermodynamics, was revisited. After introducing the canonical distribution function in exponential form and applying the cumulant expansion to the explicit calculation of the dissipation term, a natural platform suitable for the balanced treatment was derived. The resulting constitutive equation with the nonlinear factor was then shown to be well-posed for all regimes, effectively removing the high Mach number shock structure singularity.
Revised tables of airspeed, altitude, and Mach number presented in the International system of units
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benner, M. S.; Sawyer, R. H.
1973-01-01
Because inception of a national program to implement the International System of Units (SI) appears to be inevitable and imminent, the tables of airspeed, altitude, and Mach number prepared by Livingston and Gracey to serve for airspeed meter and altimeter calibrations and for the conversion of flight measurements of these quantities to related parameters - Mach number, true airspeed, equivalent airspeed, etc. - have been revised to the SI. Tables of airspeed in knots are also included because of the significance of this quantity in navigation. In addition, the data in the altitude tables have been revised to the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962. The latter data reflect increased knowledge of the higher atmosphere and more precise determination of basic quantities, including the redefinition of the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale by the Tenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1954. The U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1962, corresponds to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standard Atmosphere up to 20 kilometers (geopotential altitude). A table of conversion factors for various pressure units is presented in SI Units.
Nonthermal Electrons at High Mach Number Shocks: Electron Shock Surfing Acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, M.; Shimada, N.
2002-06-01
We study the suprathermal electron acceleration mechanism in a perpendicular magnetosonic shock wave in a high Mach number regime by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We find that shock surfing/surfatron acceleration producing suprathermal electrons occurs in the shock transition region, where a series of large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are excited by Buneman instability under the interaction between the reflected ions and the incoming electrons. It is shown that the electrons are likely to be trapped by ESWs, and during the trapping phase they can be effectively accelerated by the shock motional/convection electric field. We discuss that suprathermal electrons can be accelerated up to mic2(v0/c), where mic2 is the ion rest mass energy and v0 is the shock upstream flow velocity. Furthermore, some of these suprathermal electrons may be effectively trapped for an infinitely long time when the Alfvén Mach number MA exceeds several tens, and they are accelerated up to the shock potential energy determined by the global shock size.
The influence of incident shock Mach number on radial incident shock wave focusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin; Tan, Sheng; He, Liming; Rong, Kang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaobin
2016-04-01
Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate radial incident shock focusing on a test section where the planar incident shock wave was divided into two identical ones. A conventional shock tube was used to generate the planar shock. Incident shock Mach number of 1.51, 1.84 and 2.18 were tested. CCD camera was used to obtain the schlieren photos of the flow field. Third-order, three step strong-stability-preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta method, third-order weighed essential non-oscillation (WENO) scheme and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm were adopted to simulate the complicated flow fields characterized by shock wave interaction. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Complex shock wave configurations and interactions (such as shock reflection, shock-vortex interaction and shock focusing) were observed in both the experiments and numerical results. Some new features were observed and discussed. The differences of structure of flow field and the variation trends of pressure were compared and analyzed under the condition of different Mach numbers while shock wave focusing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.
2001-08-01
Electron pre-acceleration from thermal to mildly relativistic energies in high Mach number shocks (the injection problem) is an outstanding issue in understanding synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants. At high Alfv´enic Mach numbers, collisionless perpendicular shocks reflect a fraction of the upstream ions. This gives rise to two-stream instabilities which in turn can accelerate ions, see eg (M. E. Dieckmann et al., Astron. Astrophys. 356, 377 (2000)). However in astrophysical plasmas the value of β - the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure - is not well known. We have used a particle in cell simulation code to investigate the influence of β on the shock structure and on the electron acceleration. Previous simulations at low values of β (N. Shimada and M. Hoshino, Astrophys. J. 543, L67 (2000)) showed that the phase space distributions of electrons and ions became highly structured: characteristic holes appear in the electron phase space and the shock dynamics exhibit reformation processes. However, we find that all these features disappear at higher β due to the high initial thermal velocity of the electrons. It follows that the electron cosmic ray injection mechanism depends strongly on β, that is, the electron temperature and magnetic field strength upstream.
Entropy Splitting for High Order Numerical Simulation of Vortex Sound at Low Mach Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, B.; Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A method of minimizing numerical errors, and improving nonlinear stability and accuracy associated with low Mach number computational aeroacoustics (CAA) is proposed. The method consists of two levels. From the governing equation level, we condition the Euler equations in two steps. The first step is to split the inviscid flux derivatives into a conservative and a non-conservative portion that satisfies a so called generalized energy estimate. This involves the symmetrization of the Euler equations via a transformation of variables that are functions of the physical entropy. Owing to the large disparity of acoustic and stagnation quantities in low Mach number aeroacoustics, the second step is to reformulate the split Euler equations in perturbation form with the new unknowns as the small changes of the conservative variables with respect to their large stagnation values. From the numerical scheme level, a stable sixth-order central interior scheme with a third-order boundary schemes that satisfies the discrete analogue of the integration-by-parts procedure used in the continuous energy estimate (summation-by-parts property) is employed.
MAESTRO: An Adaptive Low Mach Number Hydrodynamics Algorithm for Stellar Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nonaka, Andrew; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Zingale, M.
2010-01-01
Many astrophysical phenomena are highly subsonic, requiring specialized numerical methods suitable for long-time integration. We present MAESTRO, a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code that can be used to simulate long-time, low-speed flows that would be prohibitively expensive to model using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO is based on an equation set that we have derived using low Mach number asymptotics; this equation set does not explicitly track acoustic waves and thus allows a significant increase in the time step. MAESTRO is suitable for two- and three-dimensional local atmospheric flows as well as three-dimensional full-star flows, and uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to locally refine grids in regions of interest. Our initial scientific applications include the convective phase of Type Ia supernovae and Type I X-ray Bursts on neutron stars. The work at LBNL was supported by the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The work at Stony Brook was supported by the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448. We made use of the Jaguar via a DOE INCITE allocation at the OLCF at ORNL and Franklin at NERSC at LBNL.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dollyhigh, S. M.
1979-01-01
Two 0.085-scale full span wind-tunnel models of a Mach 1.60 design supercruiser configuration were tested at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.70. One model incorporated a varying dihedral (swept-up) wing to obtain the desired lateral-directional characteristics; the other incorporated more conventional twin vertical tails. The data from the wind-tunnel tests are presented without analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spearman, M. L.; Tice, David C.; Braswell, Dorothy O.
1992-01-01
Experimental and theoretical results are presented for a family of aerodynamic configurations for flight Mach numbers as high as Mach 8. All of these generic configurations involved 70-deg sweep delta planform wings of three different areas and three fuselage shapes with circular-to-elliptical cross sections. It is noted that fuselage ellipticity enhances lift-curve slope and maximum L/D, while decreasing static longitudinal stability (especially with smaller wing areas).
Arbitrary amplitude kinetic Alfven solitary waves in two temperature electron superthermal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh Saini, Nareshpal; Ghai, Yashika
2016-07-01
Through various satellite missions it is observed that superthermal velocity distribution for particles is more appropriate for describing space and astrophysical plasmas. So it is appropriate to use superthermal distribution, which in the limiting case when spectral index κ is very large ( i.e. κ→∞), shifts to Maxwellian distribution. Two temperature electron plasmas have been observed in auroral regions by FAST satellite mission, and also by GEOTAIL and POLAR satellite in the magnetosphere. Kinetic Alfven waves arise when finite Larmor radius effect modifies the dispersion relation or characteristic perpendicular wavelength is comparable to electron inertial length. We have studied the kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in a plasma comprising of positively charged ions, superthermal hot electrons and Maxwellian distributed cold electrons. Sagdeev pseudo-potential has been employed to derive an energy balance equation. The critical Mach number has been determined from the expression of Sagdeev pseudo-potential to see the existence of solitary structures. It is observed that sub-Alfvenic compressive solitons and super-Alfvenic rarefactive solitons exist in this plasma model. It is also observed that various parameters such as superthermality of hot electrons, relative concentration of cold and hot electron species, Mach number, plasma beta, ion to cold electron temperature ratio and ion to hot electron temperature ratio have significant effect on the amplitude and width of the KAWs. Findings of this investigation may be useful to understand the dynamics of coherent non-linear structures (i.e. KAWs) in space and astrophysical plasmas.
The least-squares finite element method for low-mach-number compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Sheng-Tao
1994-01-01
The present paper reports the development of the Least-Squares Finite Element Method (LSFEM) for simulating compressible viscous flows at low Mach numbers in which the incompressible flows pose as an extreme. Conventional approach requires special treatments for low-speed flows calculations: finite difference and finite volume methods are based on the use of the staggered grid or the preconditioning technique; and, finite element methods rely on the mixed method and the operator-splitting method. In this paper, however, we show that such difficulty does not exist for the LSFEM and no special treatment is needed. The LSFEM always leads to a symmetric, positive-definite matrix through which the compressible flow equations can be effectively solved. Two numerical examples are included to demonstrate the method: first, driven cavity flows at various Reynolds numbers; and, buoyancy-driven flows with significant density variation. Both examples are calculated by using full compressible flow equations.
An experimental investigation of the NASA space shuttle external tank at hypersonic Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wittliff, C. E.
1975-01-01
Pressure and heat transfer tests were conducted simulating flight conditions which the space shuttle external tank will experience prior to break-up. The tests were conducted in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel and simulated entry conditions for nominal, abort-once-around (AOA), and return to launch site (RTLS) launch occurrences. Surface pressure and heat-transfer-rate distributions were obtained with and without various protuberences (or exterior hardware) on the model at Mach numbers from 15.2 to 17.7 at angles of attack from -15 deg to -180 deg and at several roll angles. The tests were conducted over a Reynolds number range from 1300 to 58,000, based on model length.
On the precise implications of acoustic analogies for aerodynamic noise at low Mach numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
2013-05-01
We seek a clear statement of the scaling which may be expected with rigour for transportation or other noise at low Mach numbers M, based on Lighthill's and Curle's theories of 1952 and 1955. In the presence of compact solid bodies, the leading term in the acoustic intensity is of order M6. Contrary to the belief held since that time that it is of order M8, the contribution of quadrupoles, in the presence of dipoles, is of order only M7. Retarded-time-difference effects are also of order M7. Curle's widely used approximation based on unsteady forces neglects both effects. Its order of accuracy is thus lower than was thought, and the common estimates of the value of M below which it applies appear precarious. The M6 leading term is modified by powers up to the fourth of (1-Mr), where Mr is the relative Mach number between source and observer; at speeds of interest the effect is several dB. However, this is only one of the corrections of order M7, which makes its value debatable. The same applies to the difference between emission distance and reception distance. The scaling with M6 is theoretically correct to leading order, but this prediction may be so convincing, like the M8 scaling for jet noise, that some authors rush to confirm it when their measurements are in conflict with it. We survey experimental studies of landing-gear noise, and argue that the observed power of M is often well below 6. We also object to comparisons across Mach numbers at fixed frequency; they should be made at fixed Strouhal number St instead. Finally, the compact-source argument does not only require M≪1; it requires MSt≪1. This is more restrictive if the relevant St is well above 1, a situation which can be caused by interference with a boundary or by wake impingement, among other effects. The best length scales to define St for this purpose are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noonan, K. W.; Bingham, G. J.
1977-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 6- by 28-inch transonic tunnel and the 6- by 19-inch transonic tunnel to determine the two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several rotorcraft airfoils at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 0.90. The airfoils differed in thickness, thickness distribution, and camber. The FX69-H-098, the BHC-540, and the NACA 0012 airfoils were investigated in the 6- by 28-inch tunnel at Reynolds numbers (based on chord) from about 4.7 to 9.3 million at the lowest and highest test Mach numbers respectively. The FX69-H-098, the NLR-1, the BHC-540, and the NACA 23012 airfoils were investigated in the 6- by 19-inch tunnel at Reynolds numbers from about 0.9 to 2.2 million at the lowest and highest test Mach numbers respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jillie, Don W.; Hopkins, Edward J.
1961-01-01
The effects of leading-edge bluntness and sweep on boundary-layer transition on flat plate models were investigated at Mach numbers of 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, and 4.00. The effect of sweep on transition was also determined on a flat plate model equipped with an elliptical nose at a Mach number of 0.27. Models used for the supersonic investigation had leading-edge radii varying from 0.0005 to 0.040 inch. The free-stream unit Reynolds number was held constant at 15 million per foot for the supersonic tests and the angle of attack was 0 deg. Surface flow conditions were determined by visual observation and recorded photographically. The sublimation technique was used to indicate transition, and the fluorescent-oil technique was used to indicate flow separation. Measured Mach number and sweep effects on transition are compared with those predicted from shock-loss considerations as described in NACA Rep. 1312. For the models with the blunter leading edges, the transition Reynolds number (based on free-stream flow conditions) was approximately doubled by an increase in Mach number from 2.50 to 4.00; and nearly the same result was predicted from shock-loss considerations. At all super- sonic Mach numbers, increases in sweep reduced the transition Reynolds number and the amount of reduction increased with increases in bluntness. The shock-loss method considerably underestimated- the sweep effects, possibly because of the existence of crossflow instability associated with swept wings. At a Mach number of 0.27, no reduction in the transition Reynolds number with sweep was measured (as would be expected with no shock loss) until the sweep angle was attained where crossflow instability appeared.
Parametric investigation of single-expansion-ramp nozzles at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, Francis J.; Re, Richard J.; Bare, E. Ann
1992-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of varying six nozzle geometric parameters on the internal and aeropropulsive performance characteristics of single-expansion-ramp nozzles. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, nozzle pressure ratios from 1.5 to 12, and angles of attack of 0 deg +/- 6 deg. Maximum aeropropulsive performance at a particular Mach number was highly dependent on the operating nozzle pressure ratio. For example, as the nozzle upper ramp length or angle increased, some nozzles had higher performance at a Mach number of 0.90 because of the nozzle design pressure was the same as the operating pressure ratio. Thus, selection of the various nozzle geometric parameters should be based on the mission requirements of the aircraft. A combination of large upper ramp and large lower flap boattail angles produced greater nozzle drag coefficients at Mach number greater than 0.80, primarily from shock-induced separation on the lower flap of the nozzle. A static conditions, the convergent nozzle had high and nearly constant values of resultant thrust ratio over the entire range of nozzle pressure ratios tested. However, these nozzles had much lower aeropropulsive performance than the convergent-divergent nozzle at Mach number greater than 0.60.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Yosuke; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro
2012-08-01
Electron accelerations at high Mach number collisionless shocks are investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with various Alfvén Mach numbers, ion-to-electron mass ratios, and the upstream electron β e (the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure). We find electrons are effectively accelerated at a super-high Mach number shock (MA ~ 30) with a mass ratio of M/m = 100 and β e = 0.5. The electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for accelerating the particles toward the relativistic regime even in two dimensions with a large mass ratio. Buneman instability excited at the leading edge of the foot in the super-high Mach number shock results in a coherent electrostatic potential structure. While multi-dimensionality allows the electrons to escape from the trapping region, they can interact with the strong electrostatic field several times. Simulation runs in various parameter regimes indicate that the electron shock surfing acceleration is an effective mechanism for producing relativistic particles in extremely high Mach number shocks in supernova remnants, provided that the upstream electron temperature is reasonably low.
The Mach number of the cosmic flow - A critical test for current theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Suto, Yusushi
1990-01-01
A new cosmological, self-contained test using the ratio of mean velocity and the velocity dispersion in the mean flow frame of a group of test objects is presented. To allow comparison with linear theory, the velocity field must first be smoothed on a suitable scale. In the context of linear perturbation theory, the Mach number M(R) which measures the ratio of power on scales larger than to scales smaller than the patch size R, is independent of the perturbation amplitude and also of bias. An apparent inconsistency is found for standard values of power-law index n = 1 and cosmological density parameter Omega = 1, when comparing values of M(R) predicted by popular models with tentative available observations. Nonstandard models based on adiabatic perturbations with either negative n or small Omega value also fail, due to creation of unacceptably large microwave background fluctuations.
A high-energy-density, high-Mach number single jet experiment
Hansen, J. F.; Dittrich, T. R.; Elliott, J. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Cotrell, D. L.
2011-08-15
A high-energy-density, x-ray-driven, high-Mach number (M{>=} 17) single jet experiment shows constant propagation speeds of the jet and its bowshock into the late time regime. The jet assumes a characteristic mushroom shape with a stalk and a head. The width of the head and the bowshock also grow linearly in time. The width of the stalk decreases exponentially toward an asymptotic value. In late time images, the stalk kinks and develops a filamentary nature, which is similar to experiments with applied magnetic fields. Numerical simulations match the experiment reasonably well, but ''exterior'' details of the laser target must be included to obtain a match at late times.
Cosmic Mach Number: a sensitive probe for the growth of structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yin-Zhe; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2012-06-01
We investigate the potential power of the Cosmic Mach Number (CMN), which is the ratio between the mean velocity and the velocity dispersion of galaxies as a function of cosmic scales, to constrain cosmologies. We first measure the CMN from 4 catalogs of galaxy peculiar velocity surveys at low redshift (zin[0.002,0.03]), and use them to contrast cosmological models. Overall, current data is consistent with the WMAP7 ΛCDM model. We find that the CMN is highly sensitive to the growth of structure on scales kin[0.01,0.1] h/Mpc in Fourier space. Therefore, modified gravity models, and models with massive neutrinos, in which the structure growth generically deviates from that of the ΛCDM model in a scale-dependent way, can be well differentiated from the ΛCDM model by using future CMN data.
Ion scales of quasi-perpendicular low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
NěMečEk, Z.; Å AfráNková, J.; Goncharov, O.; PřEch, L.; Zastenker, G. N.
2013-08-01
A formation of low-Mach-number quasi-perpendicular shocks is expected to be well understood. From theoretical considerations as well as from observations, it follows that the shock ramp thickness would scale with the ion inertial length. We present analysis of 12 subcritical or marginally critical interplanetary shocks that reveals that (1) the ion transition scale determined from direct measurements of plasma moments (speed, temperature, and density) are of the same order as the ramp thickness determined from the magnetic field and (2) the ion transition scale is directly proportional to the ion thermal gyroradius, Rth; it was found to be ≈3.2 Rth in a broad range of solar wind and shock parameters. These results stress a role of the ion kinetics in the shock formation.
Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.
2015-01-01
As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.
Magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration in high Mach number shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiuza, Frederico
2015-11-01
The amplification of magnetic fields is a central ingredient in understanding particle acceleration in supernova remnant shocks. I will present results from multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of shock formation and particle acceleration for different magnetization levels. These first principles simulations, for unprecedented temporal and spatial scales, help bridge the gap between fully kinetic and hybrid modeling. The results show that depending on the magnetization the turbulence responsible for particle injection and acceleration is determined by different processes, which include Weibel and Bell-type instabilities, but also magnetic reconnection. At high Mach numbers both electrons and ions are shown to be efficiently injected and accelerated. I will discuss the importance of these results for current astrophysical models and the possibility of studying these magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration processes in near future high energy density laboratory experiments.
Flight tests of Viking parachute system in three Mach number regimes. 2: Parachute test results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bendura, R. J.; Lundstrom, R. R.; Renfroe, P. G.; Lecroy, S. R.
1974-01-01
Tests of the Viking 16.15-meter nominal-diameter disk-gap-band parachute were conducted at Mach number and dynamic pressure conditions which bracketed the range postulated for the Viking '75 mission to Mars. Parachutes were deployed at supersonic, transonic, and subsonic speeds behind a simulated Viking entry capsule. All parachutes successfully deployed, inflated, and exhibited sufficient drag and stability for mission requirements. Basic parachute data including loads, drag coefficients, pull-off angles, and canopy area ratios are presented. Trajectory reconstruction and onboard camera data methods were combined to yield continuous histories of both parachute and test-vehicle angular motions which are presented for the period from parachute deployment through steady inflation.
Stability Analysis of a mortar cover ejected at various Mach numbers and angles of attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwab, Jane; Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Andrejczyk, Joe; Kandis, Mike
2011-11-01
This study utilized CFD software to predict the aerodynamic coefficient of a wedge-shaped mortar cover which is ejected from a spacecraft upon deployment of its Parachute Recovery System (PRS). Concern over recontact or collision between the mortar cover and spacecraft served as the impetus for this study in which drag and moment coefficients were determined at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.6 at 30-degree increments. These CFD predictions were then used as inputs to a two-dimensional, multi-body, three-DoF trajectory model to calculate the relative motion of the mortar cover and spacecraft. Based upon those simulations, the study concluded a minimal/zero risk of collision with either the spacecraft or PRS. Sponsored by Pioneer Aerospace.
On the proper Mach number and ratio of specific heats for modeling the Venus bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.
1984-01-01
Observational data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are used to investigate the physical characteristics of the Venus bow shock, and to explore some general issues in the numerical simulation of collisionless shocks. It is found that since equations from gas-dynamic (GD) models of the Venus shock cannot in general replace MHD equations, it is not immediately obvious what the optimum way is to describe the desired MHD situation with a GD code. Test case analysis shows that for quasi-perpendicular shocks it is safest to use the magnetospheric Mach number as an input to the GD code. It is also shown that when comparing GD predicted temperatures with MHD predicted temperatures total energy should be compared since the magnetic energy density provides a significant fraction of the internal energy of the MHD fluid for typical solar wind parameters. Some conclusions are also offered on the properties of the terrestrial shock.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, Jim A
1957-01-01
Pressure-distribution and force tests of a circular cylinder have been made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.88, a Reynolds number of 129,000, and angles of attack up to 90 degrees. The results are compared with the hypersonic approximation of Grimminger, Williams, and Young and a simple modification of the Newtonian flow theory. An evaluation of the crossflow theory is made through comparison of present results with available crossflow Mach number drag coefficients.
Low Mach Number Simulations of Nuclear Flames Using Spectral Deferred Corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orvedahl, Ryan; Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann; Bell, John; Nonaka, Andrew
2014-06-01
Many phenomena in Astrophysics are largely subsonic and require special techniques for long-time integration. MAESTRO is a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code that can be used to simulate long-time, low-speed flows that would be extremely time consuming to simulate using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO filters sound waves while retaining both local and large-scale compressibility which gives increased accuracy and efficiency. In this project we describe the results of applying MAESTRO to thermonuclear flames (thin propagating thermonuclear fusion fronts) as well as the convective layer of a nova. The nova is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a hydrogen-helium envelope in tight hydrostatic equilibrium. As the envelope increases in mass, the pressure and temperature increase at the base of the accreted layer. When the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, nuclear fusion (burning) occurs. To capture this burning, we use the extensive reaction network of the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) code to model the reactions in the flow. We apply a spectral deferred corrections (SDC) algorithm to couple the reactions to the hydrodynamics. We present the results of applying the SDC temporal integration strategy in low Mach number simulations of thermonuclear flames. The SDC approach provides a better coupling between the various physical processes with greater accuracy and reduced computational cost as compared to a Strang splitting approach. This work was supported in part by a DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 to Stony Brook.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawing, P. L.; Adcock, J. B.; Ladson, C. L.
1980-01-01
Calibration data for the two dimensional test section of the Langley 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel were used to develop a Mach number-Reynolds number correlation for the fan pressure ratio in terms of test section conditions. Well established engineering relationships combined to form an equation which is functionally analogous to the correlation. A geometric loss coefficient which is independent of Reynolds number or Mach number was determined. Present and anticipated uses of this concept include improvement of tunnel control schemes, comparison of efficiencies for operationally similar wind tunnels, prediction of tunnel test conditions and associated energy usage, and determination of Reynolds number scaling laws for similar fluid flow systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Naifu; Yang, Yue
2016-11-01
We investigate the evolution of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) in viscous compressible Taylor-Green flows. The VSF is applied to the direct numerical simulation of the Taylor-Green flows at a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0 . 6 to Ma = 2 . 2 for characterizing the Mach-number effects on evolving vortical structures. We find that the dilatation and baroclinic force strongly influence the geometry of vortex surfaces and the energy dissipation rate in the transitional stage. The vortex tubes in compressible flows are less curved than those in incompressible flows, and the maximum dissipation rate occurs earlier in high-Mach-number flows perhaps owing to the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. Moreover, the relations between the evolutionary geometry of vortical structures and flow statistics are discussed. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, J. P.; Jones, T. V.; LaGraff, J. E.
2007-01-01
A series of experiments are described which examine the growth of turbulent spots on a flat plate at Reynolds and Mach numbers typical of gas-turbine blading. A short-duration piston tunnel is employed and rapid-response miniature surface-heat-transfer gauges are used to asses the state of the boundary layer. The leading- and trailing-edge velocities of spots are reported for different external pressure gradients and Mach numbers. Also, the lateral spreading angle is determined from the heat-transfer signals which demonstrate dramatically the reduction in spot growth associated with favorable pressure gradients. An associated experiment on the development of turbulent wedges is also reported where liquid-crystal heat-transfer techniques are employed in low-speed wind tunnel to visualize and measure the wedge characteristics. Finally, both liquid crystal techniques and hot-film measurements from flight tests at Mach number of 0.6 are presented.
Dynamic-stability tests on an aircraft escape module at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 2.16
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davenport, E. E.; Kilgore, R. A.
1975-01-01
Wind-tunnel measurements of the aerodynamic damping and oscillatory stability of a model of a proposed escape module for a military aircraft have been made using a small-amplitude forced-oscillation technique in pitch and yaw at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 2.16 and in roll at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20. The results in pitch indicate regions in the angle-of-attack range where the model exhibits large and rapid changes in both damping and stability with angle of attack, probably caused by vortex flow over the fins. There was no pronounced effect of change in angle of attack on damping in yaw. Except for the highest Mach number, negative damping in roll was produced at high negative angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kyser, A. C.
1977-01-01
Results are presented from an elementary analysis of the effect of sweep angle on the idealized structural weight of swept wings, with cruise Mach number M and lift coefficient C sub L as parameters. The analysis indicates that sweep is unnecessary for cruise Mach numbers below about 0.80, whereas for the higher subsonic speeds, a well defined minimum-weight condition exists at a sweep angle in the neighborhood of 35 deg or 40 deg, depending on M and C sub L. The results further indicate that wing-structure weight increases sharply with Mach number in the high subsonic range, with Mach 0.85 wings weighing half again as much as Mach 0.75 wings. Weight is also shown to increase with cruise lift coefficient, but the effect is not strong for the usual range of design lift coefficients. Minimum wing-structure weight is found to occur at a ratio of thickness to normal chord of about 18 percent, but it is concluded that the thickness ratio for optimum wing design would probably lie in the range of 12 to 15 percent.
Variation in Heat Transfer During Transient Heating of a Hemisphere at a Mach Number of 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
English, Roland D.; Carter, Howard S.
1960-01-01
Convective heat-transfer tests were made on a 5-inch-diameter hemisphere to determine the variation of Stanton number with the ratio of wall temperature to total temperature. The tests were made at a nominal Mach number of 2 for stagnation temperatures of 760 deg R, 1,030 deg R, and 1,380 deg R. The model was constructed so that radiation effects and also streamwise conduction effects within the model skin were minimized. The results of the tests verified that these effects were small. Tests which were made with different masses of air inside the model to check for conduction effects to the internal air cavity showed these effects to be negligible. For laminar flow on the hemisphere, the Stanton number remained essentially constant as the ratio of wall temperature to total temperature increased. However, for fully established turbulent flow, the Stanton number at some stations decreased on the order of 50 percent as the ratio of wall temperature to total temperature increased. A theory which agreed fairly well with the trend of this decrease is shown for comparison.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.
1993-01-01
An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.
Opacity Broadening of 13CO Linewidths and its Effect on the Variance-Sonic Mach Number Relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correia, C.; Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.; Kainulainen, J.; Kowal, G.; de Medeiros, J. R.
2014-04-01
We study how the estimation of the sonic Mach number (Ms ) from 13CO linewidths relates to the actual three-dimensional sonic Mach number. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations that include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects into account. As expected, we find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin tracers. However, we find that opacity broadening causes Ms to be overestimated by a factor of ≈1.16-1.3 when calculated from optically thick 13CO lines. We also find that there is a dependence on the magnetic field: super-Alfvénic turbulence shows increased line broadening compared with sub-Alfvénic turbulence for all values of optical depth for supersonic turbulence. Our results have implications for the observationally derived sonic Mach number-density standard deviation (σρ/langρrang) relationship, \\sigma ^2_{\\rho /\\langle \\rho \\rangle }=b^2M_s^2, and the related column density standard deviation (σ N/langNrang) sonic Mach number relationship. In particular, we find that the parameter b, as an indicator of solenoidal versus compressive driving, will be underestimated as a result of opacity broadening. We compare the σ N/langNrang-Ms relation derived from synthetic dust extinction maps and 13CO linewidths with recent observational studies and find that solenoidally driven MHD turbulence simulations have values of σ N/langNrangwhich are lower than real molecular clouds. This may be due to the influence of self-gravity which should be included in simulations of molecular cloud dynamics.
Performance Characteristics of Flush and Shielded Auxiliary Exits at Mach Numbers of 1.5 to 2.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdalla, Kaleel L.
1959-01-01
The performance characteristics of several flush and shielded auxiliary exits were investigated at Mach numbers of 1.5 to 2.0, and jet pressure ratios from jet off to 10. The results indicate that the shielded configurations produced better overall performance than the corresponding flush exits over the Mach-number and pressure-ratio ranges investigated. Furthermore, the full-length shielded exit was highest in performance of all the configurations. The flat-exit nozzle block provided considerably improved performance compared with the curved-exit nozzle block.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canning, Thomas N.; Edwards, Thomas M.
1988-04-01
The results of surveys of the near and far wake of the Galileo Probe are presented for Mach numbers from 0.25 tp 0.95. The trends in the data resulting from changes in Mach number, radial and axial distance, angle of attack, and a small change in model shape are shown in crossplots based on the data. A rationale for selecting an operating volume suitable for parachute inflation based on low Mach number flight results is outlined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mugler, John P., Jr.
1960-01-01
An iteration method is presented by which the detailed aerodynamic loading and twist characteristics of a flexible wing with known elastic properties may be calculated. The method is applicable at Mach numbers approaching 1.0 as well as at subsonic Mach numbers. Calculations were made for a wing-body combination; the wing was swept back 45 deg and had an aspect ratio of 4. Comparisons were made with experimental results at Mach numbers from.0.80 to 0.98.
Heat transfer predictions for two turbine nozzle geometries at high Reynolds and Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyle, R. J.; Jackson, R.
1995-01-01
Predictions of turbine vane and endwall heat transfer and pressure distributions are compared with experimental measurements for two vane geometries. The differences in geometries were due to differences in the hub profile, and both geometries were derived from the design of a high rim speed turbine (HRST). The experiments were conducted in the Isentropic Light Piston Facility (ILPF) at Pyestock at a Reynolds number of 5.3 x 10(exp 6), a Mach number of 1.2, and a wall-to-gas temperature ratio of 0.66. Predictions are given for two different steady-state three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational analyses. C-type meshes were used, and algebraic models were employed to calculate the turbulent eddy viscosity. The effects of different turbulence modeling assumptions on the predicted results are examined. Comparisons are also given between predicted and measured total pressure distributions behind the vane. The combination of realistic engine geometries and flow conditions proved to be quite demanding in terms of the convergence of the CFD solutions. An appropriate method of grid generation, which resulted in consistently converged CFD solutions, was identified.
Revisiting Turbulence Model Validation for High-Mach Number Axisymmetric Compression Corner Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Huang, George P.
2015-01-01
Two axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) cases are used to benchmark one- and two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models. This validation exercise was executed in the philosophy of the NASA Turbulence Modeling Resource and the AIAA Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group. Both SWBLI cases are from the experiments of Kussoy and Horstman for axisymmetric compression corner geometries with SWBLI inducing flares of 20 and 30 degrees, respectively. The freestream Mach number was approximately 7. The RANS closures examined are the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the Menter family of kappa - omega two equation models including the Baseline and Shear Stress Transport formulations. The Wind-US and CFL3D RANS solvers are employed to simulate the SWBLI cases. Comparisons of RANS solutions to experimental data are made for a boundary layer survey plane just upstream of the SWBLI region. In the SWBLI region, comparisons of surface pressure and heat transfer are made. The effects of inflow modeling strategy, grid resolution, grid orthogonality, turbulent Prandtl number, and code-to-code variations are also addressed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartlett, G. R.
1985-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine propfan installation and slipstream interference effects on an unswept supercritical wing. This data can be used for verification of existing and developing theoretical codes as well as giving an understanding of the flow interactions associated with propeller/nacelle/wing integration. The investigation was conducted over a Mach number range of 0.5 to 0.8 and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 3 deg. The propeller was powered by an air turbine simulator and the exhaust from the air turbine was used to simulate the exhaust from the propfan nacelle. Reynolds number based on wing chord varied from 3 to 4 million. Results indicate that the propfan causes an increase in the wing lift coefficient. It was found that most of the propeller induced swirl is recovered by the wing. The propeller slipstream also causes a large favorable leading edge suction peak on the upwash side and a smaller unfavorable decrease on the downwash side.
A Study of the Unstable Modes in High Mach Number Gaseous Jets and Shear Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassett, Gene Marcel
1993-01-01
Instabilities affecting the propagation of supersonic gaseous jets have been studied using high resolution computer simulations with the Piecewise-Parabolic-Method (PPM). These results are discussed in relation to jets from galactic nuclei. These studies involve a detailed treatment of a single section of a very long jet, approximating the dynamics by using periodic boundary conditions. Shear layer simulations have explored the effects of shear layers on the growth of nonlinear instabilities. Convergence of the numerical approximations has been tested by comparing jet simulations with different grid resolutions. The effects of initial conditions and geometry on the dominant disruptive instabilities have also been explored. Simulations of shear layers with a variety of thicknesses, Mach numbers and densities perturbed by incident sound waves imply that the time for the excited kink modes to grow large in amplitude and disrupt the shear layer is taug = (546 +/- 24) (M/4)^{1.7 } (Apert/0.02) ^{-0.4} delta/c, where M is the jet Mach number, delta is the half-width of the shear layer, and A_ {pert} is the perturbation amplitude. For simulations of periodic jets, the initial velocity perturbations set up zig-zag shock patterns inside the jet. In each case a single zig-zag shock pattern (an odd mode) or a double zig-zag shock pattern (an even mode) grows to dominate the flow. The dominant kink instability responsible for these shock patterns moves approximately at the linear resonance velocity, nu_ {mode} = cextnu_ {relative}/(cjet + c_ {ext}). For high resolution simulations (those with 150 or more computational zones across the jet width), the even mode dominates if the even penetration is higher in amplitude initially than the odd perturbation. For low resolution simulations, the odd mode dominates even for a stronger even mode perturbation. In high resolution simulations the jet boundary rolls up and large amounts of external gas are entrained into the jet. In low
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald
1968-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.
On the Mach number Effects on Droplet Breakup in Laminar Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syahdan, Irfan Miladi
A Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase numerical study was conducted using the commercial simulation software ANSYS Fluent to understand the effects of compressibility on droplet breakup in the laminar flow regime. A 2D axisymmetric domain which consists of four subdomains was used for the simulations. Validation of the setup and mesh was conducted by comparing to analytical shock tube equation, Engel's, and Boger et al.'s work. Two regimes of flows, subsonic and supersonic, were used and were obtained by selection of the operating pressure, velocity, density, dynamic viscosity, and temperature to keep the Reynolds, Weber, and Mach numbers at fixed values between cases. The Reynolds number was held constant at 100. Significant differences within the stripping breakup mode between the supersonic and subsonic cases for similar values of the Weber and Reynolds numbers were observed. The difference was observed in terms of droplet deformation, droplet deformed shape, and droplet lifetime. A Weber number effect is also observed to influence the droplet lifetime. Differences in the pressure distribution were found to drive the different degrees of vertical elongation while the viscous stress mainly acts to bend the droplet downstream. The pressure was found to be the major factor while viscous stress acts as the smaller factor in the physics during most of the deformation process, but viscous stress shows to be the major role at the beginning of the process. Comparison to the solid sphere case provided confirmation of the pressure distribution difference observed between supersonic and subsonic case was expected. Comparison to solid sphere also shows how droplet deformation itself plays a role in effecting the flow field.
Wind-Tunnel Results of Advanced High-Speed Propellers at Takeoff, Climb, and Landing Mach Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stefko, George L.; Jeracki, Robert J.
1985-01-01
Low-speed wind-tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers have been completed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program. The 62.2 cm (24.5 in.) diameter adjustable-pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds (i.e., from Mach 0.10 to 0.34) at zero angle of attack in the NASA Lewis 10 by 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise-design-point operating condition of Mach 0.80, and 10.668 km (35,000 ft) I.S.A. altitude, a 243.8 m/s (800 ft/sec) tip speed, and a high power loading of 301 kW/sq m (37.5 shp/sq ft). Each model had its own integrally designed area-ruled spinner, but used the same specially contoured nacelle. These features reduced blade-section Mach numbers and relieved blade-root choking at the cruise condition. No adverse or unusual low-speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propeller. Typical efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propellers were 50.2 and 54.9 percent, respectively, at a takeoff condition of Mach 0.20 and 53.7 and 59.1 percent, respectively, at a climb condition of Mach 0.34.
Flow vector, Mach number and abundance of the Warm Breeze of neutral He observed by IBEX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubiak, Marzena A.; McComas, David; Galli, Andre; Kucharek, Harald; Wurz, Peter; Schwadron, Nathan; Sokol, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Heirtzler, David M.; Möbius, Eberhard; Fuselier, Stephen; Swaczyna, Paweł; Leonard, Trevor; Park, Jeewoo
2016-07-01
With the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He recently obtained with high precision from a coordinated analysis by the IBEX Science Team, we analyzed the IBEX observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the interstellar neutral observation seasons 2010---2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze persists. The Warm Breeze is a newly discovered population of neutral He in the heliosphere. We search for the inflow velocity vector and the temperature of the Warm Breeze and used the same simulation model and a very similar parameter fitting method to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximate the parent population of the Warm Breeze in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and find a temperature of ~9 500 K, an inflow speed of ~11.3 km/s, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.6°, 12.0°. The abundance of the Warm Breeze relative to the interstellar neutral He is 5.6% and the Mach number of the flow is 1.97. We discuss implications of this result for the heliospheric physics and an insight into the behavior of interstellar plasma in the outer heliosheath.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callegari, A. J.
1979-01-01
A nonlinear theory for sound propagation in variable area ducts carrying a nearly sonic flow is presented. Linear acoustic theory is shown to be singular and the detailed nature of the singularity is used to develop the correct nonlinear theory. The theory is based on a quasi-one dimensional model. It is derived by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. In a nearly chocked flow, the theory indicates the following processes to be acting: a transonic trapping of upstream propagating sound causing an intensification of this sound in the throat region of the duct; generation of superharmonics and an acoustic streaming effect; development of shocks in the acoustic quantities near the throat. Several specific problems are solved analytically and numerical parameter studies are carried out. Results indicate that appreciable acoustic power is shifted to higher harmonics as shocked conditions are approached. The effect of the throat Mach number on the attenuation of upstream propagating sound excited by a fixed source is also determined.
Transmitted, reflected, quasi-reflected, and multiply reflected ions in low-Mach number shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gedalin, M.
2016-11-01
The dependence of ion dynamics on the cross-shock potential and upstream βi in low-Mach number marginally critical shocks is studied using advanced test particle analysis,. The directly transmitted ions provide the main contribution to the downstream ion pressure. The fraction of reflected ions increases with the increase of the cross-shock potential and βi. This fraction is small and their contribution to the downstream ion pressure is negligible in marginally critical shocks. A population of quasi-reflected ions is identified. These ions make a loop inside the ramp and do not appear upstream. They acquire energies comparable to the energies of the true reflected ions, are observed as a halo in the downstream ion distribution, and contribute significantly to the downstream pressure. Thus, the transmitted and quasi-reflected ions shape the downstream magnetic profile. At higher cross-shock potentials and βi the reflected ions cause formation of a magnetic dip just ahead of the ramp. A small fraction of ions are multiply reflected at the shock front. All these ions escape into the upstream region and all escaping ions are mutliply reflected.
Electron Acceleration in a Nonrelativistic Shock with Very High Alfvén Mach Number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Y.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.
2013-11-01
Electron acceleration associated with various plasma kinetic instabilities in a nonrelativistic shock with very high Alfvén Mach number (MA˜45) is revealed by means of a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation. Electromagnetic (ion Weibel) and electrostatic (ion-acoustic and Buneman) instabilities are strongly activated at the same time in different regions of the two-dimensional shock structure. Relativistic electrons are quickly produced predominantly by the shock surfing mechanism with the Buneman instability at the leading edge of the foot. The energy spectrum has a high-energy tail exceeding the upstream ion kinetic energy accompanying the main thermal population. This gives a favorable condition for the ion-acoustic instability at the shock front, which in turn results in additional energization. The large-amplitude ion Weibel instability generates current sheets in the foot, implying another dissipation mechanism via magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional shock structure in the very-high-MA regime.
Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin
2011-09-01
In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.
Rescaling of the Roe scheme in low Mach-number flow regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boniface, Jean-Christophe
2017-01-01
A rescaled matrix-valued dissipation is reformulated for the Roe scheme in low Mach-number flow regions from a well known family of local low-speed preconditioners popularized by Turkel. The rescaling is obtained explicitly by suppressing the pre-multiplication of the preconditioner with the time derivative and by deriving the full set of eigenspaces of the Roe-Turkel matrix dissipation. This formulation preserves the time consistency and does not require to reformulate the boundary conditions based on the characteristic theory. The dissipation matrix achieves by construction the proper scaling in low-speed flow regions and returns the original Roe scheme at the sonic line. We find that all eigenvalues are nonnegative in the subsonic regime. However, it becomes necessary to formulate a stringent stability condition to the explicit scheme in the low-speed flow regions based on the spectral radius of the rescaled matrix dissipation. With the large disparity of the eigenvalues in the dissipation matrix, this formulation raises a two-timescale problem for the acoustic waves, which is circumvented for a steady-state iterative procedure by the development of a robust implicit characteristic matrix time-stepping scheme. The behaviour of the modified eigenvalues in the incompressible limit and at the sonic line also suggests applying the entropy correction carefully, especially for complex non-linear flows.
A projection hybrid finite volume/element method for low-Mach number flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermúdez, A.; Ferrín, J. L.; Saavedra, L.; Vázquez-Cendón, M. E.
2014-08-01
The purpose of this article is to introduce a projection hybrid finite volume/element method for low-Mach number flows of viscous or inviscid fluids. Starting with a 3D tetrahedral finite element mesh of the computational domain, the equation of the transport-diffusion stage is discretized by a finite volume method associated with a dual mesh where the nodes of the volumes are the barycenters of the faces of the initial tetrahedra. The transport-diffusion stage is explicit. Upwinding of convective terms is done by classical Riemann solvers as the Q-scheme of van Leer or the Rusanov scheme. Concerning the projection stage, the pressure correction is computed by a piecewise linear finite element method associated with the initial tetrahedral mesh. Passing the information from one stage to the other is carefully made in order to get a stable global scheme. Numerical results for several test examples aiming at evaluating the convergence properties of the method are shown.
Pressure distributions on a cambered wing body configuration at subsonic Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, W. P.
1975-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.20 and 0.40 and angles of attack up to about 22 deg to measure the pressure distributions on two cambered-wing configurations. The wings had the same planform (aspect ratio of 2.5 and a leading-edge-sweep angle of 44 deg) but differed in amounts of camber and twist (wing design lift coefficient of 0.35 and 0.70). The effects of wing strake on the wing pressure distributions were also studied. The results indicate that the experimental chordwise pressure distribution agrees reasonably well with the design distribution over the forward 60 percent of nearly all the airfoil sections for the lower cambered wing. The measured lifting pressures are slightly less than the design pressures over the aft part of the airfoil. For the highly cambered wing, there is a significant difference between the experimental and the design pressure level. The experimental distribution, however, is still very similar to the prescribed distribution. At angles of attack above 12 deg, the addition of a wing-fuselage strake results in a significant increase in lifting pressure coefficient at all wing stations outboard of the strake-wing intersection.
Noise Sources in a Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Jet at Mach 0.9
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, Jonathan B.
2001-01-01
The mechanisms of sound generation in a Mach 0.9, Reynolds number 3600 turbulent jet are investigated by direct numerical simulation. Details of the numerical method are briefly outlined and results are validated against an experiment at the same flow conditions. Lighthill's theory is used to define a nominal acoustic source in the jet, and a numerical solution of Lighthill's equation is compared to the simulation to verify the computational procedures. The acoustic source is Fourier transformed in the axial coordinate and time and then filtered in order to identify and separate components capable of radiating to the far field. This procedure indicates that the peak radiating component of the source is coincident with neither the peak of the full unfiltered source nor that of the turbulent kinetic energy. The phase velocities of significant components range from approximately 5% to 50% of the ambient sound speed which calls into question the commonly made assumption that the noise sources convect at a single velocity. Space-time correlations demonstrate that the sources are not acoustically compact in the streamwise direction and that the portion of the source that radiates at angles greater than 45 deg. is stationary. Filtering non-radiating wavenumber components of the source at single frequencies reveals that a simple modulated wave forms for the source, as might be predicted by linear stability analysis. At small angles from the jet axis the noise from these modes is highly directional, better described by an exponential than a standard Doppler factor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wesoky, H. L.; Abbott, J. M.; Dietrich, D. A.
1978-01-01
Acoustics data obtained in experiments with two low pressure ratio 50.8 cm (20 in.) diameter model fans differing in design tip speed were compared. Determination of the average throat Mach number used to compare high Mach inlet noise reduction characteristics was based on a correlation of inlet wall static pressure measurements with a flow field calculation. The largest noise reductions were generally obtained with the higher tip speed fan. At a throat Mach number of 0.79, the difference in noise reduction was about 3.5 db with static test conditions. Although the noise reduction increased for the lower tip speed fan with a simulated flight velocity of 41 m/sec (80 knots), it was still about 2 db less than that of the high tip speed fan which was only tested at the static condition. However, variations in acoustic performance could not be absolutely attributed to the different fan designs because of differences in inlet lip contours which resulted in small variations of peak wall Mach number and axial extend of supersonic and near-sonic flow.
Towards a generalized computational fluid dynamics technique for all Mach numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walters, R. W.; Slack, D. C.; Godfrey, A. G.
1993-01-01
Currently there exists no single unified approach for efficiently and accurately solving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems across the Mach number regime, from truly low speed incompressible flows to hypersonic speeds. There are several CFD codes that have evolved into sophisticated prediction tools with a wide variety of features including multiblock capabilities, generalized chemistry and thermodynamics models among other features. However, as these codes evolve, the demand placed on the end user also increases simply because of the myriad of features that are incorporated into these codes. In order for a user to be able to solve a wide range of problems, several codes may be needed requiring the user to be familiar with the intricacies of each code and their rather complicated input files. Moreover, the cost of training users and maintaining several codes becomes prohibitive. The objective of the current work is to extend the compressible, characteristic-based, thermochemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes code GASP to very low speed flows and simultaneously improve convergence at all speeds. Before this work began, the practical speed range of GASP was Mach numbers on the order of 0.1 and higher. In addition, a number of new techniques have been developed for more accurate physical and numerical modeling. The primary focus has been on the development of optimal preconditioning techniques for the Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations with general finite-rate chemistry models and both equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics models. We began with the work of Van Leer, Lee, and Roe for inviscid, one-dimensional perfect gases and extended their approach to include three-dimensional reacting flows. The basic steps required to accomplish this task were a transformation to stream-aligned coordinates, the formulation of the preconditioning matrix, incorporation into both explicit and implicit temporal integration schemes, and modification of the numerical
Lift-Drag Ratios for an Arrow Wing With Bodies at Mach Number 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, Leland H.
1959-01-01
Force and moment characteristics, including lift-drag ratios, have been measured for bodies of circular and elliptic cross section alone and combined with a warped arrow wing. The test Mach number was 2.94, and the Reynolds number was 3.5 x 10(exp 6) (based on wing mean aerodynamic chord). The experimental results show that for equal volume the use of an elliptical body can result in a noticeably higher maximum lift-drag ratio than that obtained through use of a circular body. Methods for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics have been assessed by comparing computed with experimental results. Because of good agreement of the predictions with experiment, maximum lift-drag ratios have been computed for the arrow wing in combination with bodies of various sizes. These calculations have shown that, for an efficient wing-body combination, little loss in maximum lift-drag ratio results from considerable extension of afterbody length. For example, for a wing-body configuration having a maximum lift-drag ratio of about 7.1, a loss in maximum lift-drag ratio of less than 0.2 results from a 40-percent increase in body volume by extension of afterbody length. It also appears that with body length fixed, maximum lift-drag ratio decreases almost linearly with increase in body diameter. For a wing- body combination employing a body of circular cross section, a decrease in maximum lift-drag ratio from about 9.1 for zero body diameter to about 4.6 for a body diameter of 13.5 percent of the body length was computed.
Bumblebee program: Aerodynamic data. Part 3: Pressure fields at Mach numbers 1.5 and 2.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.
1979-01-01
A large amount of fundamental aerodynamic missile data, which were stored for a number of years at the Applied Physics Laboratory, are reported. Data that supplements the M = 2.0 flow field data are provided. The Mach number effect by means of pressure fields only, at M = 1.5 and 2.0, and at angles of attack up to 23 deg at a mid-body station where a wing might be located is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pedrosa, A. C. F.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Hinckel, J. A.
1984-01-01
Heat transfer measurements were determined for a flat plate with and without pressure gradient for various free stream temperatures, wall temperature ratios, and Reynolds numbers for an inlet flow Mach number of 0.45, which is a representative inlet Mach number for gas turbine rotor blades. A shock tube generated the high temperature and pressure air flow, and a variable geometry test section was used to produce inlet flow Mach number of 0.45 and accelerate the flow over the plate to sonic velocity. Thin-film platinum heat gages recorded the local heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The free stream temperatures varied from 611 R (339 K) to 3840 R (2133 K) for a T(w)/T(r,g) temperature ratio of 0.87 to 0.14. The Reynolds number over the heat gages varied from 3000 to 690,000. The experimental heat transfer data were correlated with laminar and turbulent boundary layer theories for the range of temperatures and Reynolds numbers and the transition phenomenon was examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seiff, Alvin; Wilkins, Max E.
1961-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic glider configuration, consisting of a slender ogive cylinder with three highly swept wings, spaced 120 apart, with the wing chord equal to the body length, were investigated experimentally at a Mach number of 6 and at Reynolds numbers from 6 to 16 million. The objectives were to evaluate the theoretical procedures which had been used to estimate the performance of the glider, and also to evaluate the characteristics of the glider itself. A principal question concerned the viscous drag at full-scale Reynolds number, there being a large difference between the total drags for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. It was found that the procedures which had been applied for estimating minimum drag, drag due to lift, lift curve slope, and center of pressure were generally accurate within 10 percent. An important exception was the non-linear contribution to the lift coefficient which had been represented by a Newtonian term. Experimentally, the lift curve was nearly linear within the angle-of-attack range up to 10 deg. This error affected the estimated lift-drag ratio. The minimum drag measurements indicated that substantial amounts of turbulent boundary layer were present on all models tested, over a range of surface roughness from 5 microinches maximum to 200 microinches maximum. In fact, the minimum drag coefficients were nearly independent of the surface smoothness and fell between the estimated values for turbulent and laminar boundary layers, but closer to the turbulent value. At the highest test Reynolds numbers and at large angles of attack, there was some indication that the skin friction of the rough models was being increased by the surface roughness. At full-scale Reynolds number, the maximum lift-drag ratio with a leading edge of practical diameter (from the standpoint of leading-edge heating) was 4.0. The configuration was statically and dynamically stable in pitch and yaw, and the center of pressure was less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moran-Lopez, Tiberius; Schilling, Oleg
2014-11-01
Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing for various gas pairs and large shock Mach numbers is simulated using a third-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) implementation of a new K- ɛ multicomponent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model. Experiments previously performed at the University of Provence with gas pairs CO2 /He, CO2 /Ar, and CO2 /Kr (with At = - 0 . 73 , - 0 . 05 , and 0 . 3 , respectively) and incident shock Mach numbers Ma = 2 . 4 , 3 . 1 , 3 . 7 , 4 . 2 , and 4 . 5 are considered. The evolution of the mixing layer widths is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Budgets of the turbulent transport equations are used to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to turbulent mixing in large Mach number reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. These results are contrasted with those from previous modeling of smaller Mach number experiments to identify the physical effects which require accurate modeling, including mean and turbulent enthalpy diffusion, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation dissipation. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
HADES code for numerical simulations of high-mach number astrophysical radiative flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michaut, C.; Di Menza, L.; Nguyen, H. C.; Bouquet, S. E.; Mancini, M.
2017-03-01
The understanding of astrophysical phenomena requires to deal with robust numerical tools in order to handle realistic scales in terms of energy, characteristic lengths and Mach number that cannot be easily reproduced by means of laboratory experiments. In this paper, we present the 2D numerical code HADES for the simulation of realistic astrophysical phenomena in various contexts, first taking into account radiative losses. The version of HADES including a multigroup modeling of radiative transfer will be presented in a forthcoming study. Validation of HADES is performed using several benchmark tests and some realistic applications are discussed. Optically thin radiative loss is modeled by a cooling function in the conservation law of energy. Numerical methods involve the MUSCL-Hancock finite volume scheme as well as HLLC and HLLE Riemann solvers, coupled with a second-order ODE solver by means of Strang splitting algorithm that handles source terms arising from geometrical or radiative contributions, for cartesian or axisymmetric configurations. A good agreement has been observed for all benchmark tests, either in hydrodynamic cases or in radiative cases. Furthermore, an overview of the main astrophysical studies driven with this code is proposed. First, simulations of radiative shocks in accretion columns and supernova remnant dynamics at large timescales including Vishniac instability have improved the understanding of these phenomena. Finally, astrophysical jets are investigated and the influence of the cooling effect on the jet morphology is numerically demonstrated. It is also found that periodic source enables to recover pulsating jets that mimic the structure of Herbig-Haro objects. HADES code has revealed its robustness, especially for the wall-shock test and for the so-called implosion test which turns out to be a severe one since the hydrodynamic variables are self-similar and become infinite at finite time. The simulations have proved the efficiency of
Plasma Depletion in a Low-Alfvénic-Mach-Number Magnetosheath: Observations at Mercury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershman, D. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Baker, D. N.; Solomon, S. C.
2013-12-01
A plasma depletion layer (PDL) forms in a planet's magnetosheath as a result of magnetic flux that is piled-up and draped around a magnetosphere. These layers are typically composed of plasmas with low values of β, the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure, which can affect reconnection rates at the magnetopause. In contrast to the average behavior at Earth, the low average upstream Alfvénic Mach number (MA ~3-5) in the solar wind at Mercury often results in large-scale plasma depletion in the magnetosheath between the subsolar magnetopause and the bow shock. Measurements from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer and Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during ~40 orbits about Mercury are used to characterize the PDL just exterior to the planet's dayside magnetopause. Some amount of flux pile-up is observed to occur downstream of both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel bow-shock geometries for all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Substantial variability in the observed depletion can occur during times with low shear at the magnetopause, implying that PDL formation can be suppressed for strongly northward IMF. The consistently low value of plasma β at Mercury's magnetopause associated with the low average upstream MA is believed to be the cause for the high average reconnection rate at Mercury, reported to be nearly 3 times that observed at Earth. We find a characteristic plasma depletion length, i.e., the size of depletion region required to reduce the plasma β by a factor of 1/e, of ~300 km for Mercury. This value scales among planetary bodies with the average stand-off distance of the magnetopause.
Exploring the Effects of Large Networks on Evolution in Low Mach Number Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orvedahl, Ryan; Zingale, M.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.; Nonaka, A.
2013-01-01
Many phenomena in Astrophysics are largely subsonic and require special techniques for long-time integration. MAESTRO is a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code that can be used to simulate long-time, low-speed flows that would be extremely time consuming using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO filters sound waves while retaining both local and large-scale compressibility which gives increased accuracy and efficiency. In this project we describe the results of applying MAESTRO to thermonuclear flames (thin propagating thermonuclear fusion fronts) as well as the convective layer of a nova. The nova is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a hydrogen-helium envelope in tight hydrostatic equilibrium. As the envelope increases in mass, the pressure and temperature increase at the base of the accreted layer. When the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, nuclear fusion (burning) occurs. To capture this burning, MAESTRO models multiple species using the mass density of the fluid and the mass fraction of the species. A typical MAESTRO carbon burning reaction network only carries 3 species; C12, O16 and Mg24. We present the results of combining the extensive reaction network of the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) code with the MAESTRO code. MESA provides various values including atomic mass and atomic weight for over 5400 isotopes. We apply these large networks to study the dynamics of the convective layer in the nova as well as the dynamics of thermonuclear flames. This work was supported in part by a DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 to Stony Brook.
The Very High Alfvén Mach Number Bow Shock of Saturn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulaiman, A.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.
2014-12-01
Collisionless shock waves are ubiquitous in the universe and fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. The interplay between particles (ions and electrons) and fields (electromagnetic) introduces a variety of both physical and geometrical parameters such as Mach numbers (e.g. MA, Mf), β, and θbn. These vary drastically from terrestrial to astrophysical regimes resulting in radically different characteristics of shocks. This poses two complexities. Firstly, separating the influences of these parameters on physical mechanisms such as energy dissipation. Secondly, correlating observations of shock waves over a wide range of each parameter, enough to span across different regimes. Investigating the latter has been restricted since the majority of studies on shocks at exotic regimes (such as supernova remnants) have been achieved either remotely or via simulations, but rarely by means of in-situ observations. It is not clear what happens in the higher MA regime. Here we show the parameter space of MA for all bow shock crossings from 2004-2012 as measured by the Cassini spacecraft. We found that the Saturnian bow shock exhibits characteristics akin to both terrestrial and astrophysical regimes (MA of order 100), which is principally controlled by the upstream magnetic field strength. Moreover, we estimated the θbn of each crossing and were able to further constrain the sample into categories of similar features. Our results demonstrate how MA plays a central role in controlling the onset of physical mechanisms in collisionless shocks, particularly instabilities, non-time stationarity and electron acceleration. We anticipate our comprehensive assessment to give deeper insight to high MA collisionless shocks and provide a broader scope for understanding the structures and mechanisms of collisionless shocks. This can potentially bridge the gap between more modest MA observed in near-Earth space and more exotic astrophysical regimes where shock
In-flight boundary-layer measurements on a hollow cylinder at a Mach number of 3.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinn, R. D.; Gong, L.
1980-01-01
Skin temperatures, shear forces, surface static pressures, boundary layer pitot pressures, and boundary layer total temperatures were measured on the external surface of a hollow cylinder that was 3.04 meters long and 0.437 meter in diameter and was mounted beneath the fuselage of the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained at a nominal free stream Mach number of 3.0 (a local Mach number of 2.9) and at wall to recovery temperature ratios of 0.66 to 0.91. The local Reynolds number had a nominal value of 4,300,000 per meter. Heat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients were derived from skin temperature time histories and shear force measurements, respectively. In addition, boundary layer velocity profiles were derived from pitot pressure measurements, and a Reynolds analogy factor was obtained from the heat transfer and skin friction measurements. The measured data are compared with several boundary layer prediction methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clousing, Lawrence A; Turner, William N; Rolls, L Stewart
1946-01-01
Pressure-distribution measurements were made on the right wing of a pursuit-type airplane at values of Mach number up to 0.80. The results showed that a considerable portion of the lift was carried by components of the airplane other than the wings, and that the proportion of lift carried by the wings may vary considerably with Mach number, thus changing the bending moment at the wing root whether or not there is a shift in the lateral position of the center of pressure. It was also shown that the center of pressure does not necessarily move outward at high Mach numbers, even though the wing-thickness ratio decreases toward the wing tip. The wing pitching-moment coefficient increased sharply in a negative direction at a Mach lift-curve slope increased with Mach number up to values of above the critical value. Pressures inside the wing were small and negative.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kucherov, A. N.
2017-02-01
Combined action on a source that flows into a submerged area or vacuum in the constant Mach number regime has been studied. The action by an external force has been defined with a constant distribution function (the force is given per unit volume) and with a distribution function proportional to the gas density (the force is given per unit mass). The investigations have been carried out for cylindrical and spherical sources. Similarity and differences, advantages and drawbacks of the above-mentioned cases and variants have been analyzed. It has been shown that the enthalpy increases significantly in subsonic flow (for the Mach number smaller than unity) by several times in the cylindrical source and by more than an order of magnitude in the spherical source. The total enthalpy increment increases with the length of the action zone or with the coordinate of the closing section.
Plasma wave profiles of earth's bow shock at low Mach numbers - ISEE 3 observations on the far flank
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenstadt, E. W.; Coroniti, F. V.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.
1992-01-01
A survey of selected crossings far downstream from the subsolar shock is presented in which the overall plasma wave (PW) behavior of a selected set of nearly perpendicular crossings and another set of limited Mach number but broad geometry are delinated. The result is a generalizable PW signature, or signatures, of low Mach number shocks and some likely implications of those signatures for the weak shock's plasma physical processes on the flank. The data are found to be consistent with the presence of ion beam interactions producing noise ahead of the shock in the ion acoustic frequency range. The presence or absence, and the amplitudes, of PW activity are explainable by the presence or absence of a population of upstream ions controlled by the component of the interplanetary magnetic field normal to the solar wind flow.
Surface-flow, pressure, and heat-transfer studies on two conical delta wings at a Mach number of 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, J. N.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
An experimental investigation of the surface flow, pressures, and heat transfer on two conical delta wings having attached leading-edge shocks has been conducted at a Mach number of 6. The angle of attack was varied between 0 deg and 12 deg. The pressure data were compared with predictions obtained by the method-of-lines technique, and the heating data were compared with the heating levels predicted by the Spalding-Chi method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, G. A.; Cronvich, L. L.
1979-01-01
Individual wing panel aerodynamic characteristics are provided for rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 0.25, 0.75, and 1.00 each panel at Mach numbers if 1.5 and 2.0 for angles of attack to 23 degrees. Data plots produced from reports of wind tunnel tests show normal force coefficients, and the spanwise and chordwise center of pressure locations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorrells, R. B., III; Landrum, E. J.
1976-01-01
Data are provided for the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of a series of twisted and cambered delta wings designed for a Mach number of 3.5. Systematic force and pressure data are also presented for comparison with theory. Force tests were made at Mach numbers of 2.3, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.6. Design lift coefficients of 0.0 and 0.1 were employed on the 55 deg and 68 deg sweep wings, and design lift coefficients of 0.0, 0.05, and 0.1 were employed on the 76 deg sweep wings. Pressure tests were conducted on the 55 deg and 76 deg sweep flat wings and on the 0.1 design lift coefficient 76 deg sweep wing. The results indicate that for the sweep angles tested, an increase in the zero-lift pitching-moment coefficient is the primary benefit of twist and camber at a Mach number of 3.5. Comparison of the experimental results with results obtained from several lift theories indicates that the Carlson-Middleton linear theory method gave the best overall agreement. The pressure data indicate, however, that there is a cancellation of error at high angle of attack where the lower surface pressures are significantly underpredicted over the inboard region of the wing and where the upper and lower surface pressures are overpredicted over the outboard region of the wing.
Meerson, Baruch; Fouxon, Itzhak; Vilenkin, Arkady
2008-02-01
We employ hydrodynamic equations to investigate nonstationary channel flows of freely cooling dilute gases of hard and smooth spheres with nearly elastic particle collisions. This work focuses on the regime where the sound travel time through the channel is much shorter than the characteristic cooling time of the gas. As a result, the gas pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the typical Mach number of the flow drops well below unity. Eliminating the acoustic modes and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the hydrodynamic equations to a single nonlinear and nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of channel flows and, in particular, can follow the development of the clustering instability from a weakly perturbed homogeneous cooling state to strongly nonlinear states. If the heat diffusion is neglected, the reduced equation becomes exactly soluble, and the solution develops a finite-time density blowup. The blowup has the same local features at singularity as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations [I. Fouxon, Phys. Rev. E 75, 050301(R) (2007); I. Fouxon,Phys. Fluids 19, 093303 (2007)]. The heat diffusion, however, always becomes important near the attempted singularity. It arrests the density blowup and brings about previously unknown inhomogeneous cooling states (ICSs) of the gas, where the pressure continues to decay with time, while the density profile becomes time-independent. The ICSs represent exact solutions of the full set of granular hydrodynamic equations. Both the density profile of an ICS and the characteristic relaxation time toward it are determined by a single dimensionless parameter L that describes the relative role of the inelastic energy loss and heat diffusion. At L>1 the intermediate cooling dynamics proceeds as a competition between "holes": low-density regions of the gas. This competition resembles Ostwald
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.
2016-11-01
Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.
Effects of body shape on the aerodynamics of a body of revolution at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spearman, M. L.
1985-01-01
The aerodnamic characteristics for several bodies of revolution have been determined from wind tunnel tests at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.63. Six bodies, each having a length-to-diameter ratio of 6.67, were investigated. Geometric modifications included forebody shape, afterbody shape, and midsection slope. Significant aerodynamic changes were observed to be functions of geometric change and Mach number. Because of the aerodynamic dependence on geometry as well as Mach number, it is obvious that a number of trades must be considered in selecting a projectile shape.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Re, Richard J.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Abeyounis, William K.
2001-01-01
Investigations have been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel (at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.25) and in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (at Mach numbers from 2.16 to 2.86) at an angle of attack of 0 deg to determine the isolated performance of several expendable nozzle concepts for supersonic nonaugmented turbojet applications. The effects of centerbody base shape, shroud length, shroud ventilation, cruciform shroud expansion ratio, and cruciform shroud flap vectoring were investigated. The nozzle pressure ratio range, which was a function of Mach number, was between 1.9 and 11.8 in the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and between 7.9 and 54.9 in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Discharge coefficient, thrust-minus-drag, and the forces and moments generated by vectoring the divergent shroud flaps (for Mach numbers of 0.60 to 1.25 only) of a cruciform nozzle configuration were measured. The shortest nozzle had the best thrust-minus-drag performance at Mach numbers up to 0.95 but was approached in performance by other configurations at Mach numbers of 1.15 and 1.25. At Mach numbers above 1.25, the cruciform nozzle configuration having the same expansion ratio (2.64) as the fixed geometry nozzles had the best thrust-minus-drag performance. Ventilation of the fixed geometry divergent shrouds to the nozzle external boattail flow generally improved thrust-minus-drag performance at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.25, but decreased performance above a Mach number of 1.25.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steers, L. L.
1979-01-01
Afterbody pressure distribution data were obtained in flight from an airplane having twin side-by-side jet exhausts. The data were obtained in level flight at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.60 and at elevated load factors for Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.90, and 1.20. The test altitude varied from 2300 meters (7500 feet) to 15,200 meters (50,000 feet) over a speed range that provided a matrix of constant Mach number and constant unit Reynolds number test conditions. The results of the full-scale flight afterbody pressure distribution program are presented in the form of plotted pressure distributions and tabulated pressure coefficients with Mach number, angle of attack, engine nozzle pressure ratio, and unit Reynolds number as controlled parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, Atlee M., Jr.; Spragle, Gregory S.
1987-01-01
The influence of Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as airfoil and planform geometry on the phenomenon of constant shock jump pressure coefficient for conditions of shock induced trailing edge separation (SITES) was studied. It was demonstrated that the phenomenon does exist for a wide variety of two and three dimensional flow cases and that the influence of free stream Mach number was not significant. The influence of Reynolds number was found to be important but was not strong. Airfoil and planform geometric characteristics were found to be very important where the pressure coefficient jump was shown to vary with the sum of: (1) airfoil curvature at the upper surface crest, and (2) camber surface slope at the trailing edge. It was also determined that the onset of SITES could be defined as a function of airfoil geometric parameters and Mach number normal to the leading edge. This onset prediction was shown to predict the angle of onset to within + or - 1 deg accuracy or better for about 90% of the cases studied.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Slender Cone-cylinder Body of Revolution at a Mach Number of 3.85
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jack, John R
1951-01-01
An experimental investigation of the aerodynamics of a slender cone-cylinder body of revolution was conducted at a Mach number of 3.85 for angles of attack of 0 degree to 10 degrees and a Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6). Boundary-layer measurements at zero angle of attack are compared with the compressible-flow formulations for predicting laminar boundary-layer characteristics. Comparison of experimental pressure and force values with theoretical values showed relatively good agreement for small angles of attack. The measured mean skin-friction coefficients agreed well with theoretical values obtained for laminar flow over cones.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strutz, L. W.
1972-01-01
The HL-10 lifting body stability and control derivatives were determined by using an analog-matching technique and compared with derivatives obtained from wind-tunnel results. The flight derivatives were determined as a function of angle of attack for a subsonic configuration at Mach 0.7 and for a transonic configuration at Mach 0.7, 0.9, and 1.2. At an angle of attack of 14 deg, data were obtained for a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4. The flight and wind-tunnel derivatives were in general agreement, with the possible exception of the longitudinal and lateral damping derivatives. Some differences were noted between the vehicle dynamic response characteristics calculated from flight-determined derivatives and those predicted by the wind-tunnel results. However, the only difference the pilots noted between the response of the vehicle in flight and the response of a simulator programed with wind-tunnel-predicted data was that the damping generally was higher in the flight vehicle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.; Hatfield, Elaine W.
1959-01-01
A diamond wing and body combination was designed to have an area distribution which would result in near optimum zero-lift wave-drag coefficients at a Mach number of 1.00, and decreasing wave-drag coefficient with increasing Mach number up to near sonic leading-edge conditions for the wing. The airfoil section were computed by varying their shape along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The exposed wing section had an average maximum thickness of about 3 percent of the local chords, and the maximum thickness of the center-line chord was 5.49 percent. The wing had an aspect ratio of 2 and a leading-edge sweep of 45 deg. Test data were obtained throughout the Mach number range from 0.20 to 3.50 at Reynolds numbers based on the mean aerodynamic chord of roughly 6,000,000 to 9,000,000. The zero-lift wave-drag coefficients of the diamond model satisfied the design objectives and were equal to the low values for the Mach number 1.00 equivalent body up to the limit of the transonic tests. From the peak drag coefficient near M = 1.00 there was a gradual decrease in wave-drag coefficient up to M = 1.20. Above sonic leading-edge conditions of the wing there was a rise in the wave-drag coefficient which was attributed in part to the body contouring as well as to the wing geometry. The diamond model had good lift characteristics, in spite of the prediction from low-aspect-ratio theory that the rear half of the diamond wing would carry little lift. The experimental lift-curve slope obtained at supersonic speeds were equal to or greater than the values predicted by linear theory. Similarly the other basic aerodynamic parameters, aerodynamic center position, and maximum lift-drag ratios were satisfactorily predicted at supersonic speeds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powers, Sheryll Goecke; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The effectiveness of a trailing disk, or trapped vortex concept, in reducing the base drag of a large body of revolution was studied from measurements made both in flight and in a wind tunnel. Pressure data obtained for the flight experiment, and both pressure and force balance data were obtained for the wind tunnel experiment. The flight test also included data obtained from a hemispherical base. The experiment demonstrated the significant base drag reduction capability of the trailing disk to Mach 0.93 and to Reynolds numbers up to 80 times greater than for earlier studies. For the trailing disk data from the flight experiment, the maximum decrease in base drag ranged form 0.08 to 0.07 as Mach number increased from 0.70 to 0.93. Aircraft angles of attack ranged from 3.9 to 6.6 deg for the flight data. For the trailing disk data from the wind tunnel experiment, the maximum decrease in base and total drag ranged from 0.08 to 0.05 for the approximately 0 deg angle of attack data as Mach number increased from 0.30 to 0.82.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Howard L.; Cooper, George E.
1948-01-01
A brief investigation was made of the longitudinal-stability characteristics of a YF-84A airplane (Army Serial No. 45-79488). The airplane developed a pitching-up tendency at approximately 0.80 Mach number which necessitated large push forces and down-elevator deflections for further increases in speed. In steady turns at 35,000 feet with the center of gravity at 28.3 percent mean aerodynamic chord for normal accelerations up to the maximum test value, the control-force gradients were excessive at Mach numbers over 0.78. Airplane buffeting did not present a serious problem in accelerated or unaccelerated flight at 15,000 and 35,000 feet up to the maximum test Mach number of 0.84. It is believed that excessive control force would be the limiting factor in attaining speeds in excess of 0.84 Mach number, especially at altitudes below 35,000 feet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xinyi; Sironi, Lorenzo; Narayan, Ramesh
2014-10-01
Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (Ms <~ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with Ms = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ~= 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.
Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo
2014-10-20
Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with M{sub s} = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ≅ 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.
Flight evaluation of HL-10 lifting body handling qualities at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.86
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kempel, R. W.; Manke, J. A.
1974-01-01
The longitudinal and lateral-directional handling qualities of the HL-10 lifting body vehicle were evaluated in flight at Mach numbers up to 1.86 and altitudes up to approximately 27,450 meters (90,000 feet). In general, the vehicle's handling qualities were considered to be good. Approximately 91 percent of the pilot ratings were 3.5 or better, and 42.4 percent were 2.0. Handling qualities problems were encountered during the first flight due to problems with the control system and vehicle aerodynamics. Modifications of the flight vehicle corrected all deficiencies, and no other significant handling qualities problems were encountered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jagger, James M; Mirels, Harold
1949-01-01
An investigation was conducted at a Mach number of 1.91 to determine spanwise pressure distribution over a wing tip in a region influenced by a sharp subsonic leading edge swept back at 70 degrees. Except for pressure distribution on the top surface in the immediate vicinity of the subsonic leading edge, the maximum difference between linearized theory and experimental data was 2 1/2 percent (of free-stream dynamic pressure) for angles of attack up to 4 degrees and 7 percent for angles of attack up to 8 degrees. Pressures on the top surface nearest the subsonic edge indicated local expansions beyond values predicted by linearized theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Mikhalev, A. N.; Sudakov, A. G.
2014-11-01
Various approaches to modeling super- and hypersonic turbulent airflow past cylindrical bodies with a nontraditional nose in the form of a protruding rod-supported disk have been compared. Aeroballistic experiments on a light-gas propulsion setup were combined with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations using VP2/3 program package based on multiblock computational techniques and a model of shear stress transport with flow-line curvature corrections. The phenomenon of the head and wave drag reduction for the stepped body is analyzed at high Mach numbers (up to 10) and variation of the supporting rod length under conditions of existence of the frontal flow separation zone.
Turbulence measurement in a reacting and non-reacting shear layer at a high subsonic Mach number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, C. T.; Marek, C. J.; Wey, C.; Jones, R. A.; Smith, M. J.
1993-01-01
The results of two component velocity and turbulence measurements are presented which were obtained on a planar reacting shear layer burning hydrogen. Quantitative LDV and temperature measurements are presented with and without chemical reaction within the shear layer at a velocity ratio of 0.34 and a high speed Mach number of 0.7. The comparison showed that the reacting shear layer grew faster than that without reaction. Using a reduced width coordinate, the reacting and non-reacting profiles were very similar. The peak turbulence for both cases was 20 percent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Ross B.; Morris, Odell A.
1960-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch of a two-stage-rocket model configuration which simulated the last two stages of the launching vehicle for an inflatable sphere. Tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from -6 deg to 18 deg at dynamic pressures of 102 and 255 pounds per square foot with corresponding Mach numbers of 1.89 and 1.98 for the model both with and without a bumper arrangement designed to protect the rocket casing from the outer shell of the vehicle.
Comparison of reacting and non-reacting shear layers at a high subsonic Mach number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, C. T.; Marek, C. J.; Wey, C.; Jones, R. A.; Smith, M. J.
1993-01-01
The flow field in a hydrogen-fueled planar reacting shear layer was measured with an LDV system and is compared with a similar air to air case without combustion. Measurements were made with a speed ratio of 0.34 with the highspeed stream at Mach 0.71. They show that the shear layer with reaction grows faster than one without, and both cases are within the range of data scatter presented by the established database. The coupling between the streamwise and the cross-stream turbulence components inside the shear layer is slow, and reaction only increased it slightly. However, a more organized pattern of the Reynolds stress is present in the reacting shear layer, possibly as a result of larger scale structure formation in the layer associated with heat release.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foley, J. E.
1972-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to survey the lee side vortex flow field about an ogive-cylinder-frustum-cylinder at angles of attack to 25 degrees for two Reynolds numbers at Mach number 0.8, and one Reynolds number at Mach number 1.96. The data were obtained using miniature 5-port conical pressure probes calibrated for angle of attack and roll angle over a Mach number range of 0.6 to 3.0. The results are presented here as local flow field properties and circulation strengths for various body stations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, D. F.
1978-01-01
In-flight measurements of boundary layer and skin friction data were made on YF-12 airplanes for Mach numbers between 2.0 and 3.0. Boattail pressures were also obtained for Mach numbers between 0.7 and 3.0 with Reynolds numbers up to four hundred million. Boundary layer data measured along the lower fuselage centerline indicate local displacement and momentum thicknesses can be much larger than predicted. Skin friction coefficients measured at two of five lower fuselage stations were significantly less than predicted by flat plate theory. The presence of large differences between measured boattail pressure drag and values calculated by a potential flow solution indicates the presence of vortex effects on the upper boattail surface. At both subsonic and supersonic speeds, pressure drag on the longer of two boattail configurations was equal to or less than the pressure drag on the shorter configuration. At subsonic and transonic speeds, the difference in the drag coefficient was on the order of 0.0008 to 0.0010. In the supersonic cruise range, the difference in the drag coefficient was on the order of 0.002. Boattail drag coefficients are based on wing reference area.
Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Balloon as Decelerator at Mach Numbers from 1.47 to 2.50
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1961-01-01
Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Balloon as Decelerator at Mach Numbers from 1.47 to 2.50. A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to study the characteristics of a towed spherical balloon as a drag device at Mach numbers from 1.47 to 2.50, Reynolds numbers from 0.36 x 10(exp 6) to 1.0 x 10(exp 6) , and angles of attack from -15 to 15 degrees. Tow-cable length was approximately 24 inches from asymmetric body to cone on the upstream side of the balloon. As the tow cable was lengthened the balloon reached a point in the test section where wall-reflected shocks intersected the balloon and caused severe oscillations. As a result, the tow cable broke and the inflatable balloon model was destroyed. Further tests used a model rigid plastic sphere 6.75 inches in diameter. Tow cable length was approximately 24 inches from asymmetric body to the upstream side of the sphere. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030967. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Rogers, Lawrence W.
1992-01-01
A wind tunnel data base was established for the effects of chine-like forebody strakes and Mach number on the longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a generalized 55 degree cropped delta wing-fuselage-centerline vertical tail configuration. The testing was conducted in the 7- by 10-Foot Transonic Tunnel at the David Taylor Research Center at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 to 1.10 and Reynolds numbers based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord of 1.60 x 10(exp 6) to 2.59 x 10(exp 6). The best matrix included angles of attack from 0 degree to a maximum of 28 degree, angles of sidesip of 0, +5, and -5 degrees, and wing leading-edge flat deflection angles of 0 and 30 degrees. Key flow phenomena at subsonic and transonic conditions were identified by measuring off-body flow visualization with a laser screen technique. These phenomena included coexisting and interacting vortex flows and shock waves, vortex breakdown, vortex flow interactions with the vertical tail, and vortices induced by flow separation from the hinge line of the deflected wing flap. The flow mechanisms were correlated with the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic data trends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leite, Paulo H. M.; Santos, Wilson F. N.
2014-12-01
A computational analysis of a hypersonic flow over a combined gap/step configuration at zero degree angle of attack, in chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium is presented in this work. Effects on pressure and heating loads due to changes on the freestream Mach number and on the step frontal-face height have been investigated by employing the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The work focuses the attention of designers of hypersonic configurations on the fundamental parameter of surface discontinuity, which can have an important impact on even initial design. The analysis showed that heating and pressure loads increased with increasing not only the step height but also with the freestream Mach number. In addition, peak values for both loads took place at the vicinity of the step convex corner, a similar behavior observed for a forward-facing step configuration. It was also found that these loads for the gap/step configuration are slightly smaller than those for a forward-facing step.
Performance characteristics of two multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzles at Mach numbers up to 1.28
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wing, David J.; Capone, Francis J.
1993-01-01
The thrust-vectoring axisymmetric (VA) nozzle and a spherical convergent flap (SCF) thrust-vectoring nozzle were tested along with a baseline nonvectoring axisymmetric (NVA) nozzle in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.28 and nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 8. Test parameters included geometric yaw vector angle and unvectored divergent flap length. No pitch vectoring was studied. Nozzle drag, thrust minus drag, yaw thrust vector angle, discharge coefficient, and static thrust performance were measured and analyzed, as well as external static pressure distributions. The NVA nozzle and the VA nozzle displayed higher static thrust performance than the SCF nozzle throughout the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) range tested. The NVA nozzle had higher overall thrust minus drag than the other nozzles throughout the NPR and Mach number ranges tested. The SCF nozzle had the lowest jet-on nozzle drag of the three nozzles throughout the test conditions. The SCF nozzle provided yaw thrust angles that were equal to the geometric angle and constant with NPR. The VA nozzle achieved yaw thrust vector angles that were significantly higher than the geometric angle but not constant with NPR. Nozzle drag generally increased with increases in thrust vectoring for all the nozzles tested.
Wind-tunnel investigation of a flush airdata system at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 1.4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, Terry J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Siemers, Paul M., III
1990-01-01
Flush pressure orifices installed on the nose section of a 1/7-scale model of the F-14 airplane were evaluated for use as a flush airdata system (FADS). Wing-tunnel tests were conducted in the 11- by 11-ft Unitary Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. A full-scale FADS of the same configuration was previously tested using an F-14 aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden). These tests, which were published, are part of a NASA program to assess accuracies of FADS for use on aircraft. The test program also provides data to validate algorithms for the shuttle entry airdata system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The wind-tunnel test Mach numbers were 0.73, 0.90, 1.05, 1.20, and 1.39. Angles of attack were varied in 2 deg increments from -4 deg to 20 deg. Sideslip angles were varied in 4 deg increments from -8 deg to 8 deg. Airdata parameters were evaluated for determination of free-stream values of stagnation pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and Mach number. These parameters are, in most cases, the same as the parameters investigated in the flight test program. The basic FADS wind-tunnel data are presented in tabular form. A discussion of the more accurate parameters is included.
Flutter Tests of Some Simple Models at a Mach Number of 7.2 in Helium Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Homer G.; Miller, Robert W.
1959-01-01
Results of hypersonic flutter tests on some simple models are presented. The models had rectangular plan forms of panel aspect ratio 1.0, no sweepback, and bending-to-torsion frequency ratios of about 1/3. Two airfoil sections were included in the tests; double wedges of 5-, 10-, and 15-percent thickness and flat plates with straight, parallel sides and beveled leading and trailing edges. The models were supported by a cantilevered shaft. The double-wedge wings were tested in helium at a Mach number of 7.2. An effect of airfoil thickness on flutter speed was found, thicker wings requiring more stiffness to avoid flutter. A few tests in air at a Mach number of 6.9 showed the same thickness effect and also indicated that tests in helium would predict conservative flutter boundaries in air. The data in air and helium seemed to be correlated by piston-theory calculations. Piston-theory calculations agreed well with experiment for the thinner models but began to deviate as the thickness parameter MT approached and exceeded 1.0. A few tests on flat-plate models with various elastic-axis locations were made. Piston-theory calculations would not satisfactorily predict the flutter of these models, probably because of their blunt leading edges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip
1990-01-01
During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.
Spreading of Exhaust Jet from 16 Inch Ream Jet at Mach Number 2.0 / Fred Wilcox, Donald Pennington
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, Fred; Pennington, Donald
1952-01-01
An investigation of the jet-spreading characteristics of a 16 inch ram-jet engine was conducted in the 8 by 6 foot supersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 2.0; both a converging nozzle having a contraction ratio of 0.71 and a cylindrical extension to the combustion chamber were used. The jet boundaries determined by means of pitot pressure surveys were compared with boundaries calculated from one-dimensional continuity and momentum relations. For the cylindrical nozzle, the jet reaches its maximum diameter, 4 percent greater than calculated, about 0.6 nozzle-exit diameter downstream of the nozzle exit. The maximum diameter for the converging nozzle was 7 percent greater than calculated from one dimensional relations and occurred from 1 to 1.5 nozzle-exit diameters downstream of the exit. Non dimensional maximum jet diameters agreed closely with results of an investigation by Rousso and Baughman; these data were obtained with low-temperature jets exhausting into a stream at a Mach number of 1.91 from nozzles having exit diameters of 0.75 inch.
Preliminary Base Pressures Obtained from the X-15 Airplane at Mach Numbers from 1.1 to 3.2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saltzman, Edwin J.
1961-01-01
Base pressure measurements have been made on the fuselage, 10 deg.-wedge vertical fin, and side fairing of the X-15 airplane. Data are presented for Mach numbers between 1.1 and 3.2 for both powered and unpowered flight. Comparisons are made with data from small-scale-model tests, semiempirical estimates, and theory. The results of this preliminary study show that operation of the interim rocket engines (propellant flow rate approximately 70 lb/sec) reduces the base drag of the X-15 by 25 to 35 percent throughout the test Mach number range. Values of base drag coefficient for the side fairing and fuselage obtained from X-15 wind-tunnel models were adequate for predicting the overall full-scale performance of the test airplane. The leading-edge sweep of the upper movable vertical fin was not an important factor affecting the fin base pressure. The power-off base pressure coefficients of the upper movable vertical fin (a 10 deg. wedge with chord-to-thickness ratio of 5.5 and semispan-to-thickness ratio of 3.2) are in general agreement with the small-scale blunt-trailing-edge-wing data of several investigators and with two-dimensional theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.
2002-05-01
Electron preacceleration from thermal to mildly relativistic energies in high Mach number shocks (the injection problem) is an outstanding issue in understanding synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants. At high Alfvénic Mach numbers, collisionless perpendicular shocks reflect a fraction of the upstream ions. This gives rise to two-stream instabilities, which in turn can accelerate ions. However, in astrophysical plasmas, the value of β-the ratio of kinetic pressure to magnetic pressure-is not well known. We have used a particle in cell simulation code to investigate the influence of β on the shock structure and on the electron acceleration (assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the undisturbed plasma, β=βi=βe). Previous simulations at low values of β showed that the phase space distributions of electrons and ions became highly structured: characteristic holes appear in the electron phase space, and the shock dynamics exhibit reformation processes. However, we find that all these features disappear at higher β due to the high initial thermal velocity of the electrons. It follows that the electron cosmic-ray injection mechanism depends strongly on β, that is, on the electron temperature normalized to the magnetic field upstream.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magri, Luca; Tammisola, Outi; See, Yee Chee; Ihme, Matthias; Juniper, Matthew
2014-11-01
We propose a method to reduce the complexity of the reacting compressible Navier-Stokes equations for global/sensitivity analyses of thermo-acoustic systems. We use multiple space-scale analysis and consider a low Mach number. We assume that reacting hydrodynamic phenomena evolve at small space scales whereas acoustics evolve at larger space scales, a common situation in thermo-acoustics. The reacting hydrodynamics (RH) is governed by the reacting low Mach number equations, and the acoustics (AC) by the reacting Euler equations. The RH feeds into the AC via the heat release by the flame and the AC, in turn, feed back into the RH via the acoustic-pressure gradient (Klein's limit). These two coupling terms enable the thermo-acoustic system to be linearized around time-averaged LES flows and studied as an eigenproblem. We perform global, adjoint and sensitivity analyses, investigating the reciprocal influence of RH/AC interactions and suggest strategies for open-loop control. The analysis is applied to a dump combustor and a complex industrial combustor (Meier's).
Numerical Solution of the Flow of a Perfect Gas Over A Circular Cylinder at Infinite Mach Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamaker, Frank M.
1959-01-01
A solution for the two-dimensional flow of an inviscid perfect gas over a circular cylinder at infinite Mach number is obtained by numerical methods of analysis. Nonisentropic conditions of curved shock waves and vorticity are included in the solution. The analysis is divided into two distinct regions, the subsonic region which is analyzed by the relaxation method of Southwell and the supersonic region which was treated by the method of characteristics. Both these methods of analysis are inapplicable on the sonic line which is therefore considered separately. The shapes of the sonic line and the shock wave are obtained by iteration techniques. The striking result of the solution is the strong curvature of the sonic line and of the other lines of constant Mach number. Because of this the influence of the supersonic flow on the sonic line is negligible. On comparison with Newtonian flow methods, it is found that the approximate methods show a larger variation of surface pressure than is given by the present solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Syvertson, Clarence A; Gloria, Hermilo R; Sarabia, Michael F
1958-01-01
A study is made of aerodynamic performance and static stability and control at hypersonic speeds. In a first part of the study, the effect of interference lift is investigated by tests of asymmetric models having conical fuselages and arrow plan-form wings. The fuselage of the asymmetric model is located entirely beneath the wing and has a semicircular cross section. The fuselage of the symmetric model was centrally located and has a circular cross section. Results are obtained for Mach numbers from 3 to 12 in part by application of the hypersonic similarity rule. These results show a maximum effect of interference on lift-drag ratio occurring at Mach number of 5, the Mach number at which the asymmetric model was designed to exploit favorable lift interference. At this Mach number, the asymmetric model is indicated to have a lift-drag ratio 11 percent higher than the symmetric model and 15 percent higher than the asymmetric model when inverted. These differences decrease to a few percent at a Mach number of 12. In the course of this part of the study, the accuracy to the hypersonic similarity rule applied to wing-body combinations is demonstrated with experimental results. These results indicate that the rule may prove useful for determining the aerodynamic characteristics of slender configurations at Mach numbers higher than those for which test equipment is really available. In a second part of the study, the aerodynamic performance and static stability and control characteristics of a hypersonic glider are investigated in somewhat greater detail. Results for Mach numbers from 3 to 18 for performance and 0.6 to 12 for stability and control are obtained by standard text techniques, by application of the hypersonic stability rule, and/or by use of helium as a test medium. Lift-drag ratios of about 5 for Mach numbers up to 18 are shown to be obtainable. The glider studied is shown to have acceptable longitudinal and directional stability characteristics through the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grant, Frederick C.; Sevier, John R., Jr.
1960-01-01
Wind-tunnel force tests of a number of wing-body combinations designed for high lift-drag ratio at a Mach number of 1.41 are reported. Five wings and six bodies were used in making up the various wing-body combinations investigated. All the wings had the same highly swept dis- continuously tapered plan form with NACA 65A-series airfoil sections 4 percent thick at the root tapering linearly to 3 percent thick at the tip. The bodies were based on the area distribution of a Sears-Haack body of revolution for minimum drag with a given length and volume. These wings and bodies were used to determine the effects of wing twist., wing twist and camber, wing leading-edge droop, a change from circular to elliptical body cross-sectional shape, and body indentation by the area-rule and streamline methods. The supersonic test Mach numbers were 1.41 and 2.01. The transonic test Mach number range was from 0.6 to 1.2. For the transition-fixed condition and at a Reynolds number of 2.7 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord, the maximum value of lift- drag ratio at a Mach number of 1.41 was 9.6 for a combination with a twisted wing and an indented body of elliptical cross section. The tests indicated that the transonic rise in minimum drag was low and did not change appreciably up to the highest test Mach number of 2.01. The lower values of lift-drag ratio obtained at a Mach number of 2.01 can be attributed to the increase of drag due to lift with Mach number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 36 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at a Reynolds number of 6 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
Experimental Reacting Hydrogen Shear Layer Data at High Subsonic Mach Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, C. T.; Marek, C. J.; Wey, C.; Wey, C. C.
1996-01-01
The flow in a planar shear layer of hydrogen reacting with hot air was measured with a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) system, a schlieren system, and OH fluorescence imaging. It was compared with a similar air-to-air case without combustion. The high-speed stream's flow speed was about 390 m/s, or Mach 0.71, and the flow speed ratio was 0.34. The results showed that a shear layer with reaction grows faster than one without; both cases are within the range of data scatter presented by the established data base. The coupling between the streamwise and the cross-stream turbulence components inside the shear layers was low, and reaction only increased it slightly. However, the shear layer shifted laterally into the lower speed fuel stream, and a more organized pattern of Reynolds stress was present in the reaction shear layer, likely as a result of the formation of a larger scale structure associated with shear layer corrugation from heat release. Dynamic pressure measurements suggest that coherent flow perturbations existed inside the shear layer and that this flow became more chaotic as the flow advected downstream. Velocity and thermal variable values are listed in this report for a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) benchmark.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pfyl, Frank A.
1955-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the performance characteristics an underslung nose-scoop air-induction system for a supersonic airplane. Five different nose shapes, three lip shapes, and two internal diffusers were investigated. Tests were made at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.9, angles of attack from 0 deg to approximately l5 deg, and mass-flow ratios from 0 to maximum obtainable. It was found that the underslung nose-scoop inlet was able to operate at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.9 over a large positive angle-of-attack range without adverse effects on the pressure recovery. Although there was no one inlet configuration that was markedly superior over the entire range of operating variables, the arrangement having a nose designed to give increased supersonic compression at low angles of attack, and a sharp lip (configuration designated N3L3) showed the most favorable performance characteristics over the supersonic Mach number range. Inlets with sizable lip radii gave satisfactory performance up to a Mach number of 1.5; however, as a result of an increase in drag, the performance of such inlets was markedly inferior to the sharp-lip configuration above Mach numbers of 1.5. Throughout the range of test Mach numbers all inlet configurations evidenced stable air-flow characteristics over the mass-flow range for normal engine operation. Analysis of the inlet performance on the basis of a propulsive thrust parameter showed that a fixed inlet area could be used for Mach numbers up to 1.5 with only a small sacrifice in performance.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a canard-controlled missile at Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kassner, D. L.; Wettlaufer, B.
1977-01-01
A typical missile model with nose mounted canards and cruciform tail surfaces was tested in the Ames 6- by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the contributions of the component aerodynamic surfaces to the static aerodynamic characteristics at Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 and Reynolds number of 1 million based on body diameter. Data were obtained at angles of attack ranging from -3 deg to 12 deg for various stages of model build-up (i.e., with and without canard and/or tail surfaces). Results were obtained both with the model unrolled and rolled 45 deg. For the canard and tail arrangements investigated, the model was trimmable at angles of attack up to about 10 deg with canard deflections of 9 deg. Also, the tail arrangements studied provided ample pitch stability. there were no appreciable effects of model roll orientation.
Aerothermal tests of quilted dome models on a flat plate at a Mach number of 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, Christopher E.; Hunt, L. Roane
1988-01-01
Aerothermal tests were conducted in the NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT) at a Mach number of 6.5 on simulated arrays of thermally bowed metallic thermal protection system (TPS) tiles at an angle of attack of 5 deg. Detailed surface pressures and heating rates were obtained for arrays aligned with the flow and skewed 45 deg diagonally to the flow with nominal bowed heights of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 inch submerged in both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Aerothermal tests were made at a nominal total temperature of 3300 R, a total pressure of 400 psia, a total enthalpy of 950 Btu/lbm, a dynamic pressure of 2.7 psi, and a unit Reynolds number of 400,000 per foot. The experimental results form a data base that can be used to help protect aerothermal load increases from bowed arrays of TPS tiles.
Wind tunnel investigation of an oblique wing transport model at mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Black, R. L.; Beamish, J. K.; Alexander, W. K.
1975-01-01
Models of three practical oblique-wing transport configurations were tested in the NASA Ames 11 foot wind tunnel. The three configurations used a common forward fuselage, wing, and support system but employed different aft fuselage sections simulating alternate propulsion system installations. These included an integrated propulsion system, pylon-mounted nacelles, and clean (no propulsion system) configuration. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4 and at sweep angles from 0 to 60 degrees. The nominal unit Reynolds number was 1.83 million per meter and the angle of attack range was -3 to +6 degrees. The models were mounted in the tunnel by means of a lower blade support system. The interference effects of this lower blade and the flow inclination were determined by using an image blade system and testing the configuration in both the upright and inverted positions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.
1961-01-01
Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at several stations on the 15 deg total-angle conical nose of a rocket-propelled model in free flight at Mach numbers up to 5.2. Data are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the boundary layer from 1.40 to 4.65 and a range of local Reynolds number from 3.8 x 10(exp 6) to 46.5 x 10(exp 6), based on length from the nose tip to a measurement station. Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were measured. The laminar data were in agreement with laminar theory for cones, and the turbulent data agreed well with turbulent theory for cones using Reynolds number based on length from the nose tip. At a nearly constant ratio of wall to local static temperature of 1.2 the Reynolds number of transition increased from 14 x 10(exp 6) to 30 x 10(exp 6) as Mach number increased from 1.4 to 2.9 and then decreased to 17 x 10(exp 6) as Mach number increased to 3.7. At Mach numbers near 3.5, transition Reynolds numbers appeared to be independent of skin temperature at skin temperatures very cold with respect to adiabatic wall temperature. The transition Reynolds number was 17.7 x 10(exp 6) at a condition of Mach number and ratio of wall to local static temperature near that for which three-dimensional disturbance theory has been evaluated and has predicted laminar boundary-layer stability to very high Reynolds numbers (approximately 10(exp 12)).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ladson, Charles L.
1988-01-01
A comprehensive data base is given for the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012 airfoil section. The Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel is the facility used to obtain the data. Included in the report are the effects of Mach number and Reynolds number and transition fixing on the aerodynamic characteristics. Presented are also comparisons of some of the results with previously published data and with theoretical estimates. The Mach number varied from 0.05 to 0.36. The Reynolds number, based on model chord, varied from 3 x 10 to the 6th to 12 x 10 to the 6th power.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, Jim A
1954-01-01
Pressure-distribution and force tests of a circular cylinder have been made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.86, a Reynolds number of 129,000 based on diameter, and angles of attack up to 90 degrees. The results are compared with the hypersonic approximation of Grimminger, Williams, and Young and with a simple modification of the Newtonian flow theory. The comparison of experimental results shows that either theory gives adequate general aerodynamic characteristics but that the modified Newtonian theory gives a more accurate prediction of the pressure distribution. The calculated crossflow drag coefficients plotted as a function of crossflow Mach number were found to be in reasonable agreement with similar results obtained from other investigations at lower supersonic Mach numbers. Comparison of the results of this investigation with data obtained at a lower Mach number indicates that the drag coefficient of a cylinder normal to the flow is relatively constant for Mach numbers above about 4.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Re, R. J.
1975-01-01
An investigation to determine the performance of eight NACA 1-series inlets at massflow ratios near 1.0 was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The inlet diameter ratios (ratio of inlet diameter to maximum diameter) were 0.85 and 0.89 for an inlet length ratio (ratio of inlet length to maximum diameter) of 1.0. Inlet lip radius varied from 0.061 cm to 0.251 cm, and internal contraction area ratio (ratio of inlet area to throat area) varied from 1.006 to 1.201. Reynolds number based on model maximum diameter ranged from 3,600,000 at a Mach number of 400,000 to 5,900,000 at a Mach number of 1.29. The results indicate that nearly uniform pressure distributions on a given inlet were obtained over a limited range of mass-flow ratios and Mach numbers. When inlet lip thickness was increased by means of lip radius or contraction ratio, the inlet critical Mach number decreased. Drag-divergence Mach number inferred from forebody pressure integrations was above 0.94 for most of the inlets tested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Robert D., Jr.
1959-01-01
An investigation has been conducted on the Langley helicopter test tower to determine experimentally the maximum mean lift-coefficient characteristics at low tip Mach number and a limited amount of drag- divergence data at high tip Mach number of a helicopter rotor having an NACA 64(1)AO12 airfoil section and 8 deg of linear washout. Data are presented for blade tip Mach numbers M(t) of 0.29 to 0.74 with corresponding values 6 6 of tip Reynolds number of 2.59 x 10(exp 6) and 6.58 x 10(exp 6). Comparisons are made between the data from the present rotor with results previously obtained from two other rotors: one having NACA 0012 airfoil sections and the other having an NACA 0009 airfoil tip section. At low tip Mach numbers, the maximum mean lift coefficient for the blade having the NACA 64(1)AO12 section was about 0.08 less than that obtained with the blade having the NACA 0009 tip section and 0.21 less than the value obtained with the blade having the NACA 0012 tip section. Blade maximum mean lift coefficient values were not obtained for Mach number values greater than 0.47 because of a blade failure encountered during the tests. The effective mean lift-curve slope required for predicting rotor thrust varied from 5.8 for the tip Mach nuniber range of 0.29 to 0.55 to a value of 6.65 for a tip Mach number of 0.71. The blade pitching-moment coefficients were small and relatively unaffected by changes in thrust coefficient and Mach number. In the instances in which stall was reached, the break in the blade pitching-moment curve was in a stable direction. The efficiency of the rotor decreased with an increase in tip speed. Expressed as figure of merit, at a tip Mach number of 0.29 the maximum value was about 0.74. Similar measurements made on another rotor having an NACA 0012 airfoil and with a rotor having an NACA 0009 tip section, showed a value of 0.75. Synthesized section lift and profile-drag characteristics for the rotor-blade airfoil section are presented as an
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spearman, M. Leroy; Braswell, Dorothy O.
1994-01-01
A study has been made of the experimental and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics for some generic high-speed missile concepts at Mach numbers from 2 to 6.8. The basic body for this study had a length-to-diameter ratio of 10 with the forward half being a modified blunted ogive and the rear half being a cylinder. Modifications made to the basic body included the addition of an after body flare, the addition of highly swept cruciform wings and the addition of highly swept aft tails. The effects of some controls were also investigated with all-moving wing controls on the flared body and trailing-edge flap controls on the winged body. The results indicated that the addition of a flare, wings, or tails to the basic body all provided static longitudinal stability with varying amounts of increased axial force. The control arrangements were effective in producing increments of normal-force and pitching-moment at the lower Mach numbers. At the highest Mach number, the flap control on the winged body was ineffective in producing normal-force or pitching-moment but the all-moving wing control on the flared body, while losing pitch effectiveness, still provided normal-force increments. Calculated results obtained through the use of hypersonic impact theory were in generally good agreement with experiment at the higher Mach numbers but were not accurate at the lower Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dugan, Duane W.
1959-01-01
The possibility of obtaining useful estimates of the static longitudinal stability of aircraft flying at high supersonic Mach numbers at angles of attack between 0 and +/-180 deg is explored. Existing theories, empirical formulas, and graphical procedures are employed to estimate the normal-force and pitching-moment characteristics of an example airplane configuration consisting of an ogive-cylinder body, trapezoidal wing, and cruciform trapezoidal tail. Existing wind-tunnel data for this configuration at a Mach number of 6.86 provide an evaluation of the estimates up to an angle of attack of 35 deg. Evaluation at higher angles of attack is afforded by data obtained from wind-tunnel tests made with the same configuration at angles of attack between 30 and 150 deg at five Mach numbers between 2.5 and 3.55. Over the ranges of Mach numbers and angles of attack investigated, predictions of normal force and center-of-pressure locations for the configuration considered agree well with those obtained experimentally, particularly at the higher Mach numbers.
A Reynolds Number Study of Wing Leading-Edge Effects on a Supersonic Transport Model at Mach 0.3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, M. Susan; Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Chu, Julio
1999-01-01
A representative supersonic transport design was tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) in its original configuration with small-radius leading-edge flaps and also with modified large-radius inboard leading-edge flaps. Aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of Reynolds numbers at a Mach number of 0.3 and angles of attack up to 16 deg. Increasing the radius of the inboard leading-edge flap delayed nose-up pitching moment to a higher lift coefficient. Deflecting the large-radius leading-edge flap produced an overall decrease in lift coefficient and delayed nose-up pitching moment to even higher angles of attack as compared with the undeflected large- radius leading-edge flap. At angles of attack corresponding to the maximum untrimmed lift-to-drag ratio, lift and drag coefficients decreased while lift-to-drag ratio increased with increasing Reynolds number. At an angle of attack of 13.5 deg., the pitching-moment coefficient was nearly constant with increasing Reynolds number for both the small-radius leading-edge flap and the deflected large-radius leading-edge flap. However, the pitching moment coefficient increased with increasing Reynolds number for the undeflected large-radius leading-edge flap above a chord Reynolds number of about 35 x 10 (exp 6).
Phase Averaged Measurements of the Coherent Structure of a Mach Number 0.6 Jet. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emami, S.
1983-01-01
The existence of a large scale structure in a Mach number 0.6, axisymmetric jet of cold air was proven. In order to further characterize the coherent structure, phase averaged measurements of the axial mass velocity, radial velocity, and the product of the two were made. These measurements yield information about the percent of the total fluctuations contained in the coherent structure. These measured values were compared to the total fluctuation levels for each quantity and the result expressed as a percent of the total fluctuation level contained in the organized structure at a given frequency. These measurements were performed for five frequencies (St=0.16, 0.32, 0.474, 0.95, and 1.26). All of the phase averaged measurements required that the jet be artificially excited.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Pooja; She, Dan; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James
2015-11-01
The qualitative and quantitative effect of initial conditions (linear and non-linear) and high Mach number (1.3 and 1.45) is studied on the turbulent mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in idealized ICF conditions. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeds Rayleigh-taylor instabilities in ICF experiments and is one of the factors that contributes to reduced performance of ICF experiments. Its also found in collapsing cores of stars and supersonic combustion. We use the Stony Brook University code, FronTier, which is verified via a code comparison study against the AMR multiphysics code FLASH, and validated against vertical shock tube experiments done by the LANL Extreme Fluids Team. These simulations are designed as a step towards simulating more realistic ICF conditions and quantifying the detrimental effects of mixing on the yield.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emami, Saied; Trexler, Carl A.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Weidner, John P.
1995-01-01
This report details experimentally derived operational characteristics of numerous two-dimensional planar inlet-combustor isolator configurations at a Mach number of 4. Variations in geometry included (1) inlet cowl length; (2) inlet cowl rotation angle; (3) isolator length; and (4) utilization of a rearward-facing isolator step. To obtain inlet-isolator maximum pressure-rise data relevant to ramjet-engine combustion operation, configurations were mechanically back pressured. Results demonstrated that the combined inlet-isolator maximum back-pressure capability increases as a function of isolator length and contraction ratio, and that the initiation of unstart is nearly independent of inlet cowl length, inlet cowl contraction ratio, and mass capture. Additionally, data are presented quantifying the initiation of inlet unstarts and the corresponding unstart pressure levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winters, Andrew R.; Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2017-03-01
We describe a unique averaging procedure to design an entropy stable dissipation operator for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and compressible Euler equations. Often in the derivation of an entropy conservative numerical flux function much care is taken in the design and averaging of the entropy conservative numerical flux. We demonstrate in this work that if the discrete dissipation operator is not carefully chosen as well it can have deleterious effects on the numerical approximation. This is particularly true for very strong shocks or high Mach number flows present, for example, in astrophysical simulations. We present the underlying technique of how to construct a unique averaging technique for the discrete dissipation operator. We also demonstrate numerically the increased robustness of the approximation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.; Reda, Daniel C.
1992-01-01
A unique, low-disturbance supersonic wind tunnel is being developed at NASA-Ames to support supersonic laminar flow control research at cruise Mach numbers of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The distinctive design features of this new quiet tunnel are a low-disturbance settling chamber, laminar boundary layers along the nozzle/test section walls, and steady supersonic diffuser flow. This paper discusses these important aspects of our quiet tunnel design and the studies necessary to support this design. Experimental results from an 1/8th-scale pilot supersonic wind tunnel are presented and discussed in association with theoretical predictions. Natural laminar flow on the test section walls is demonstrated and both settling chamber and supersonic diffuser performance is examined. The full-scale wind tunnel should be commissioned by the end of 1993.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.
1961-01-01
Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at six stations on the 40-inch-long 10 deg. total-angle conical nose of a rocket- propelled model which was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 5.9. are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the bound- ary layer on the cone from 1.57 to 5.50, and a range of local Reynolds number from 6.6 x 10(exp 6) to 55.2 x 10(exp 6) based on length from the nose tip.
Forces and Moments on Pointed Blunt-nosed Bodies of Revolution at Mach Numbers from 2.75 to 5.00
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dennis, David H; Cunningham, Bernard E
1952-01-01
Results of tests to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments on bodies of revolution at angles of attack from 0 degrees to 25 degrees are presented and compared with theory. Cones and ogives of fineness ratios 3 to 7 and two blunt-nosed body shapes with fineness ratios 3 and 5 were tested at Mach numbers from 2.75 to 5.00. Reynolds numbers were from 0.5 million to 6.4 million, depending on Mach number and body fineness ratio.
Flight Test of a 30-Foot Nominal Diameter Cross Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 1.57
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1968-01-01
Flight Test of a 30-Foot Nominal Diameter Cross Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 1.57 and a Dynamic Pressure of 9.7 Pounds per Square Foot. A 30-foot (9.1-meter) nominal-diameter cross-type parachute with a cloth area (reference area) of 709 square feet (65.9 square meters) was flight tested in the rocket-launched portion of the NASA Planetary Entry Parachute Program (PEPP). The test parachute was ejected from an instrumented payload by means of a mortar when the system was at a Mach number of 1.57 and a dynamic pressure of 9.7 psf. The parachute deployed to suspension-line stretch in 0.44 second with a resulting snatch-force loading of 1100 pounds (4900 newtons), Canopy inflation began at 0.58 second and a first full inflation was achieved at approximately 0.77 second. The maximum opening load occurred at 0.81 second and was 4255 pounds (18,930 newtons). Thereafter, the test item exhibited a canopy-shape instability in that the four panel arms experienced fluctuations, a 'scissoring' type of motion predominating throughout the test period. Calculated values of axial-force coefficient during the deceleration portion of the test varied between 0.35 and 1.05, with an average value of 0.69. During descent, canopy-shape variations had reduced to small amplitudes and resultant pitch-yaw angles of the payload with respect to the local vertical averaged less than 10 degrees. The effective drag coefficient, based on the vertical components of velocity and acceleration during system descent, was 0.78. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030994. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, P. E.
1972-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/MSFC 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel from Sept. 27 to Oct. 7, 1972 on a 0.004 scale model of the NR ATP baseline shuttle orbiter configuration. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded at 0 deg sideslip angle over an angle of attack range from 0 to 20 deg for Mach numbers of 0.6 to 4.96, 20 to 40 deg for Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, 2.99, and 4.96, and 40 to 60 deg for Mach numbers of 2.99 and 4.96. Data were obtained over a sideslip range of -10 to 10 deg at 0, 10, and 20 deg angles of attack over the Mach range and 30 and 50 deg at Mach numbers of 2.99 and 4.96. The purpose of the test was to define the buildup, performance, stability, and control characteristics of the orbiter configuration. The model parameters, were: body alone; body-wing; body-wing-tail; elevon deflections of 0, 10, -20, and -40 deg both full and split); aileron deflections of plus or minus 10 deg (full and split); rudder flares of 10 and 40 deg, and a rudder deflection of 15 deg about the 10 and 40 deg flare positions.
Effect of Reynolds number variation on aerodynamics of a hydrogen-fueled transport concept at Mach 6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, Jim A.; Marcum, Don C., Jr.
1987-01-01
Two separate tests have been made on the same blended wing-body hydrogen-fueled transport model at a Mach number of about 6 and a range of Reynolds number (based on theoretical body length) of 1.577 to 55.36 X 10 to the 6th power. The results of these tests, made in a conventional hypersonic blowdown tunnel and a hypersonic shock tunnel, are presented through a range of angle of attack from -1 to 8 deg, with an extended study at a constant angle of attack of 3 deg. The model boundary layer flow appeared to be predominately turbulent except for the low Reynolds number shock tunnel tests. Model wall temperatures varied considerably; the blowdown tunnel varied from about 255 F to 340 F, whereas the shock tunnel had a constant 70 F model wall temperature. The experimental normal-force coefficients were essentially independent of Reynolds number. A current theoretical computer program was used to study the effect of Reynolds number. Theoretical predictions of normal-force coefficients were good, particularly at anticipated cruise angles of attack, that is 2 to 5 deg. Axial-force coefficients were generally underestimated for the turbulent skin friction conditions, and pitching-moment coefficients could not be predicted reliably.
Design and Calibration of the ARL Mach 3 High Reynolds Number Facility
1975-01-01
polytropically during the depressurization process (a function of mass flow, run time and tank volume), and by the cooling (Joule- Thomson effect ) associated...Reynolds numbers, where the mass flows are largest. Joule- Thomson effects will be more pronounced at the lower Reynolds numbers, due to the greater
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Thomas, C. L.
1971-01-01
Aerodynamic characteristics of a model designed to represent an all body, hypersonic cruise aircraft are presented for Mach numbers from 0.65 to 10.6. The configuration had a delta planform with an elliptic cone forebody and an afterbody of elliptic cross section. Detailed effects of varying angle of attack (-2 to +15 deg), angle of sideslip (-2 to +8 deg), Mach number, and configuration buildup were considered. In addition, the effectiveness of horizontal tail, vertical tail, and canard stabilizing and control surfaces was investigated. The results indicate that all configurations were longitudinally stable near maximum lift drag ratio. The configurations with vertical tails were directionally stable at all angles of attack. Trim penalties were small at hypersonic speeds for a center of gravity location representative of the airplane, but because of the large rearward travel of the aerodynamic center, trim penalties were severe at transonic Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, W. C.; Sangiorgio, G.
1979-01-01
An investigation was conducted of a monoplanar maneuverable missile concept having a nose forebody with a circular cross section and a centerbody and afterbody with elliptical cross sections. The tests involved several component changes and were conducted in the low Mach number test section of the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.60, 2.16, and 2.86, at angles of attack ranging from -4 degs to 28 degs and at sideslip angles ranging from -4 degs to 8 degs. The most significant result was that at the highest Mach number (2.86), the configuration with the infrared nose produced nearly twice the axial force as the same configuration with the radar nose. The cranked wing had a destabilizing effect on the longitudinal stability and had no effect on the lateral-directional stability. The nose strakes had no effect longitudinally and were detrimental to the lateral-directional stability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClinton, C.; Rondakov, A.; Semenov, V.; Kopehenov, V.
1991-01-01
NASA has contracted with the Central Institute of Aviation Motors CIAM to perform a flight test and ground test and provide a scramjet engine for ground test in the United States. The objective of this contract is to obtain ground to flight correlation for a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine operating point at a Mach number of 6.5. This paper presents results from a flow path performance and thermal evaluation performed on the design proposed by the CIAM. This study shows that the engine will perform in the scramjet mode for stoichiometric operation at a flight Mach number of 6.5. Thermal assessment of the structure indicates that the combustor cooling liner will provide adequate cooling for a Mach number of 6.5 test condition and that optional material proposed by CIAM for the cowl leading-edge design are required to allow operation with or without a type IV shock-shock interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, A. J.
1975-01-01
A short annular diffuser equipped with wall bleed (suction)capability was evaluated at inlet Mach numbers of 0.186 to 0.5. The diffuser had an area ratio of 4.0 and a length-to-inlet height ratio of 1.6. Test results show that the exit velocity profiles, typical of annular jet flow without suction, could be considerably flattened by application of wall suction. This improved performance was also reflected in diffuser effectiveness (static-pressure recovery) and total-pressure loss results. At the inlet Mach number of 0.5 diffuser static-pressure recovery is equal to or better than at lower inlet Mach numbers for comparable suction rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shrout, B. L.; Fournier, R. H.
1979-01-01
An investigation was made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.30, 2.96, and 3.30 to determine the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a supersonic cruise airplane. The configuration, with a design Mach number of 3.0, has a highly swept arrow wing with tip panels of lesser sweep, a fuselage chine, outboard vertical tails, and outboard engines mounted in nacelles beneath the wings. For wind tunnel test conditions, a trimmed value above 6.0 of the maximum lift-drag ratio was obtained at the design Mach number. The configuration was statically stable, both longitudinally and laterally. Data are presented for variations of vertical-tail roll-out and toe-in and for various combinations of components. Some roll control data are shown as are data for the various sand grit sizes used in fixing the boundary layer transition location.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.
1973-01-01
Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a gas turbine combustor. Combustor inlet air temperature ranged from 506 K (450 F) to 838 K (1050 F). The tests were primarily run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NOx emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet air humidity at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx0e-19H (where H is the humidity and the subscript 0 denotes the value at zero humidity). the emission index increased exponentially with increasing normalized inlet air temperature to the 1.14 power. Additional tests made to determine the effect of pressure and reference Mach number on NOx showed that the NOx emission index varies directly with pressure to the 0.5 power and inversely with reference Mach number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, T. L.; Dods, J. B., Jr.
1972-01-01
The turbulent boundary layer on the wall of a 9 by 7 foot wind tunnel was measured with 12 different transducers at Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.5. The results indicated that the wall surface-pressure-fluctuation field was more homogeneous at a Mach number of 2.5 than at Mach numbers of 1.6 or 2.0. A comparison of power-spectral-density data at Mach 2.5 with a summary of similar data (Mach 0.1 to 3.45) showed good agreement. The measurement uncertainty was greatest when frequencies were low and the surface-pressure-fluctuation field was homogeneous. The uncertainty at higher frequencies increased as the surface-pressure-fluctuation field became more inhomogeneous. Since transducer mounting effects and system noise levels were determined not to have contributed appreciably to measurement uncertainties, the result was attributed to an interaction between the surface-pressure-fluctuation field and the transducers. Corcos' correction for size effects improved the comparison between transducers at the high frequencies, but did not eliminate an apparent size effect at the lower frequencies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, C. E.
1972-01-01
Results of an investigation at static conditions and at Mach numbers up to 1.82 are presented for 12 nozzle configurations which have jet convergence angle and jet throat area as geometric parameters. The variation of jet convergence angle from 15 to 40 deg had little effect on the performance of the nozzles having the large value of primary throat area; however, increasing jet convergence angle generally had an adverse effect on performance of the nozzles having the smaller value of primary throat area. The performance of the nozzle configurations with the larger primary throat area is competitive with nozzles designed for operation over the Mach number range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Burley, James R., II; Bare, E. Ann
1986-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of upper and lower external nozzle flap geometry on the external afterbody/nozzle drag of nonaxisymmetric two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles having parallel external sidewalls installed on a generic twin-engine, fighter-aircraft model. Tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 1.20 and over an angle-of-attack range from -5 to 9 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off (1.0) to approximately 10.0, depending on Mach number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olstad, Walter B.; Fischetti, Thomas L.
1958-01-01
An investigation was made of the effects of body shape on the drag of a 45 deg sweptback-wing-body combination at Mach numbers from 0.90 to 1.43. Both the expansion and compression fields induced by body indentation were swept back as the stream Mach number increased from 0.94. The line of zero pressure change was generally tangent to the Mach lines associated with the local velocities over the wing and body. The strength of the induced pressure fields over the wing were attenuated with spanwise distance and the major effects were limited to the inboard 60 percent of the wing semispan. Asymmetrical body indentation tended to increase the lift on the forward portion of the wing and reduce the lift on the rearward portion. This redistribution of lift had a favorable effect on the wave drag due to lift. Symmetrical body indentation reduced the drag loading near the wing-body juncture at all Mach numbers. The reduction in drag loading increased in spanwise extent as the Mach number increased and the line of zero induced pressure became more nearly aligned with the line of maximum wing thickness. Calculations of the wave drag due to thickness, the wave drag due to lift, and the vortex drag of the basic and symmetrical M = 1.2 body and wing combinations at an angle of attack of 0 deg predicted the effects of indentation within 11 percent of the wing-basic-body drag throughout the Mach number range from 1.0 to 1.43. Calculations of the wave drag due to thickness, the wave drag due to lift, and the vortex drag for the basic, symmetrical M = 1.2, and asymmetrical M = 1.4 body and wing combinations predicted the total pressure drag to within 8 percent of the experimental value at M = 1.43.
Observation of mode conversion of m = minus 1 fast waves on the Alfven resonance layer
Amagishi, Y. )
1990-03-12
Fast waves or MHD surface waves of {ital m}={minus}1 (poloidal mode number of left-hand rotation) have been observed to be mode converted on the Alfven resonance layer. The converted waves are a quasielectrostatic form of the shear Alfven waves, i.e., kinetic Alfven wave and/or the resistive mode.
PULSED ALFVEN WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND
Gosling, J. T.; Tian, H.; Phan, T. D.
2011-08-20
Using 3 s plasma and magnetic field data from the Wind spacecraft located in the solar wind well upstream from Earth, we report observations of isolated, pulse-like Alfvenic disturbances in the solar wind. These isolated events are characterized by roughly plane-polarized rotations in the solar wind magnetic field and velocity vectors away from the directions of the underlying field and velocity and then back again. They pass over Wind on timescales ranging from seconds to several minutes. These isolated, pulsed Alfven waves are pervasive; we have identified 175 such events over the full range of solar wind speeds (320-550 km s{sup -1}) observed in a randomly chosen 10 day interval. The large majority of these events are propagating away from the Sun in the solar wind rest frame. Maximum field rotations in the interval studied ranged from 6 Degree-Sign to 109 Degree-Sign . Similar to most Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind at 1 AU, the observed changes in velocity are typically less than that predicted for pure Alfven waves (Alfvenicity ranged from 0.28 to 0.93). Most of the events are associated with small enhancements or depressions in magnetic field strength and small changes in proton number density and/or temperature. The pulse-like and roughly symmetric nature of the magnetic field and velocity rotations in these events suggests that these Alfvenic disturbances are not evolving when observed. They thus appear to be, and probably are, solitary waves. It is presently uncertain how these waves originate, although they may evolve out of Alfvenic turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johns, A. L.; Jones, M. L.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the Lewis Research Center 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel to determine the vent discharge coefficient for the Centaur standard shroud/liquid hydrogen tank compartment vent. The test was conducted from Mach 0.70 to 1.96 with the vent mounted in a flat plate. Full scale simulated flight hardware, such as the vent, corrugations, aft field joint ring and ice bag clip was used. Air was discharged from a plenum chamber, located on the tunnel sidewall behind the plate, through five 6.35 cm diameter vent orifices into the free stream. Boundary layer thickeners, analytically predicted displacement thickness for the vehicle nominal flight trajectory could be simulated over the Mach number range. The highest vent discharge coefficient for any given Mach number and vent pressure ratio generally occurred at the maximum displacement thickness.
Performance Limiting Flow Processes in High-State Loading High-Mach Number Compressors
2008-03-13
the Doctoral Thesis Committee of the doctoral student. 3 3.0 Technical Background A strong incentive exists to reduce airfoil count in aircraft engine ...Advanced Turbine Engine ). A basic constraint on blade reduction is seen from the Euler turbine equation, which shows that, although a design can be carried...on the vane to rotor blade ratio of 8:11). Within the MSU Turbo code, specifying a small number of time steps requires more iteration at each time
Turbulent boundary-layer velocity profiles on a nonadiabatic at Mach number 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keener, E. R.; Hopkins, E. J.
1972-01-01
Velocity profiles were obtained from pitot-pressure and total-temperature measurements within a turbulent boundary layer on a large sharp-edged flat plate. Momentum-thickness Reynolds number ranged from 2590 to 8860 and wall-to-adiabatic-wall temperature ratios ranged from 0.3 to 0.5. Measurements were made both with and without boundary layer trips. Five methods are evaluated for correlating the measured velocity profiles with the incompressible law-of-the-wall and the velocity defect law. The mixing-length generalization of Van Driest gives the best correlation.
Flight-Tests Measurements of Aileron Control Surface Behaviour at Supercritical Mach Numbers
1947-04-01
location, percent chord 75«0 Type of aileron No aorodynmnic balance, piano hinge on urper surface, power-boost control system, approximately statically...fir.. 1) to compute the moment coeffislcnts rbout the 7-percent- chord line. These data are orcacntcd In figure 6 and show that for zero...this difference in cehr.viour. ff r i Flii’.üt-test Ecas^rcientE of tho chord ^lse location of the shock at the supercritical lisch numbers at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gasperin, F.; Intema, H. T.; van Weeren, R. J.; Dawson, W. A.; Golovich, N.; Wittman, D.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.
2015-11-01
Diffuse radio emission in the form of radio haloes and relics has been found in a number of merging galaxy clusters. These structures indicate that shock and turbulence associated with the merger accelerate electrons to relativistic energies. We report the discovery of a radio relic + radio halo system in PSZ1 G108.18-11.53 (z = 0.335). This cluster hosts the second most powerful double radio relic system ever discovered. We observed PSZ1 G108.18-11.53 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. We obtained radio maps at 147, 323, 607 and 1380 MHz. We also observed the cluster with the Keck telescope, obtaining the spectroscopic redshift for 42 cluster members. From the injection index, we obtained the Mach number of the shocks generating the two radio relics. For the southern shock, we found M= 2.33^{+0.19}_{-0.26}, while the northern shock Mach number goes from M= 2.20^{+0.07}_{-0.14} in the north part down to M= 2.00^{+0.03}_{-0.08} in the southern region. If the relation between the injection index and the Mach number predicted by diffusive shock acceleration theory holds, this is the first observational evidence for a gradient in the Mach number along a galaxy cluster merger shock.
On the efficiency of active flow control with pneumatic jets at Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickel, C.; Sonnemann, D.; Ehlert, M.; Kähler, C. J.
2014-04-01
The project generally investigates the effect of pneumatic vortex generators on flows within a Mach number range of 0.3-0.7. The efficiency of pneumatic jet actuators to control flow separation was investigated since years. It has been shown that at low Mach numbers the separation of boundary layers can be delayed and avoided, if the velocity ratio between the actuator jet and the free-stream is sufficiently high and the orientation of the jet axis is properly chosen. However, with increasing free-stream velocity, the ratio decreases as w jet must stay below the speed of sound to avoid significant losses due to shock-waves. Thus, the effectivity of slotted pneumatic jet actuators becomes questionable. The scope of this investigation is to identify the potential of this active flow control method at technical relevant Mach numbers. The blowing height is shown as a function of varying Mach number M ∞, velocity ratio w jet/ u ∞ and Reynolds number Re set by the total pressure of the test facility p t.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Thomas C.
1961-01-01
Aerodynamic loads results have been obtained in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 for a 1/10-scale model of the upper three stages of the Scout vehicle. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range from -8 deg to 8 deg at an average test Reynolds number per foot of about 4.0 x 10(exp 6). Results indicated that the peak negative pressures associated with expansion corners at the nose and transition flare exhibit sizeable variations which occur over a relatively small Mach number range. The magnitude of the variations may cause the critical local loading condition for the full-scale vehicle to occur at a Mach number considerably lower than that at which the maximum dynamic pressure occurs in flight. The addition of protuberances simulating antennas and wiring conduits had slight, localized effects. The lift carryover from the nose and transition flare on the cylindrical portions of the model generally increased with an increase in Mach number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouillard, A. P.; Illya, P.; Zucca, P.; Tylka, A. J.; Vainio, R. O.; Vourlidas, A.
2015-12-01
Identifying the physical mechanisms that produce the most energetic particles is a long-standing observational and theoretical challenge in astrophysics. Strong shock waves have been proposed as efficient accelerators both in the solar physics and astrophysical contexts via various acceleration mechanisms. The proposed processes rely on shock waves being super-critical or moving several times faster than the characteristic speed of the medium they propagate through (a high MA). Using recent imaging of the NASA STEREO, SOHO and SDO spacecraft, we provide the first observations of the time-dependent 3-dimensional distribution of the expansion speed and MA of a coronal shock wave. These observations show that the high-energy particles measured near Earth are produced at the time of the sharp rise in the shock Mach number (>10) magnetically connected to Earth. These findings provide direct evidence to energetic particles being accelerated during the formation of a strong coronal shock. Using our new technique, we study the longitudinal spread and timing of a number of other energetic particle events during cycle 24.
A GPU-based High-order Multi-resolution Framework for Compressible Flows at All Mach Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forster, Christopher J.; Smith, Marc K.
2016-11-01
The Wavelet Adaptive Multiresolution Representation (WAMR) method is a general and robust technique for providing grid adaptivity around the evolution of features in the solutions of partial differential equations and is capable of resolving length scales spanning 6 orders of magnitude. A new flow solver based on the WAMR method and specifically parallelized for the GPU computing architecture has been developed. The compressible formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is solved using a preconditioned dual-time stepping method that provides accurate solutions for flows at all Mach numbers. The dual-time stepping method allows for control over the residuals of the governing equations and is used to complement the spatial error control provided by the WAMR method. An analytical inverse preconditioning matrix has been derived for an arbitrary number of species that allows preconditioning to be efficiently implemented on the GPU architecture. Additional modifications required for the combination of wavelet-adaptive grids and preconditioned dual-time stepping on the GPU architecture will be discussed. Verification using the Taylor-Green vortex to demonstrate the accuracy of the method will be presented.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CONVERSION TO ALFVEN WAVES IN SUNSPOTS
Khomenko, E.; Cally, P. S. E-mail: paul.cally@monash.edu
2012-02-10
We study the conversion of fast magnetoacoustic waves to Alfven waves by means of 2.5D numerical simulations in a sunspot-like magnetic configuration. A fast, essentially acoustic, wave of a given frequency and wave number is generated below the surface and propagates upward through the Alfven/acoustic equipartition layer where it splits into upgoing slow (acoustic) and fast (magnetic) waves. The fast wave quickly reflects off the steep Alfven speed gradient, but around and above this reflection height it partially converts to Alfven waves, depending on the local relative inclinations of the background magnetic field and the wavevector. To measure the efficiency of this conversion to Alfven waves we calculate acoustic and magnetic energy fluxes. The particular amplitude and phase relations between the magnetic field and velocity oscillations help us to demonstrate that the waves produced are indeed Alfven waves. We find that the conversion to Alfven waves is particularly important for strongly inclined fields like those existing in sunspot penumbrae. Equally important is the magnetic field orientation with respect to the vertical plane of wave propagation, which we refer to as 'field azimuth'. For a field azimuth less than 90 Degree-Sign the generated Alfven waves continue upward, but above 90 Degree-Sign downgoing Alfven waves are preferentially produced. This yields negative Alfven energy flux for azimuths between 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign . Alfven energy fluxes may be comparable to or exceed acoustic fluxes, depending upon geometry, though computational exigencies limit their magnitude in our simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, T. A.; Spring, D. J.
1973-01-01
Wind tunnel test results are presented to show aerodynamic characteristics over the Mach number range of 0.64 to 2.50 of the DCAT missile. Data are presented showing the interference created by the rear mounted reaction control system. Two candidate fins were installed on the model during tests: a flat folding fin and a curved wrap around fin.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, S.
1972-01-01
An investigation was conducted in a 12.5-meter-diameter vacuum sphere to determine the impingement loads due to air jets issuing from and perpendicular to a circular base and reflecting off a square platform, that is, a simulation of rendezvous maneuvering, docking, launch, impact dampers etc. The nozzles had exit Mach numbers of 1, 3, 5, and 7. The ambient pressures were 0.0006, 5, 225, and 760 torr. Under near-field separation distances and at 0.0006 torr, reflections were significant; and ratios of the impingement force to thrust on both plates in the biplane arrangement varied from about 750 for exit Mach number 1 to 120 for exit Mach number 7. The far-field force ratios were near unity for the platform and zero for the base and indicated few, if any, reflections. Some reversals and rapid changes in loads were obtained at transition distances between the near and far fields. In general, increasing the exit Mach number or ambient pressure reduced the impingement loads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vink, Jacco; Yamazaki, Ryo
2014-01-01
It is shown that, under some generic assumptions, shocks cannot accelerate particles unless the overall shock Mach number exceeds a critical value M\\gt\\sqrt{5}. The reason is that for M\\le \\sqrt{5} the work done to compress the flow in a particle precursor requires more enthalpy flux than the system can sustain. This lower limit applies to situations without significant magnetic field pressure. In case that the magnetic field pressure dominates the pressure in the unshocked medium, i.e., for low plasma beta, the resistivity of the magnetic field makes it even more difficult to fulfill the energetic requirements for the formation of shock with an accelerated particle precursor and associated compression of the upstream plasma. We illustrate the effects of magnetic fields for the extreme situation of a purely perpendicular magnetic field configuration with plasma beta β = 0, which gives a minimum Mach number of M = 5/2. The situation becomes more complex, if we incorporate the effects of pre-existing cosmic rays, indicating that the additional degree of freedom allows for less strict Mach number limits on acceleration. We discuss the implications of this result for low Mach number shock acceleration as found in solar system shocks, and shocks in clusters of galaxies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, R. J.
1974-01-01
Wing models were tested in the high-speed section of the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to study the effects of the leading-edge sweep angle and the design lift coefficient on aerodynamic performance and efficiency. The models had leading-edge sweep angles of 69.44 deg, 72.65 deg, and 75.96 deg which correspond to values of the design Mach-number-sweep-angle parameter (beta cotangent A) sub DES of 0.6, 0.75, and 0.9, respectively. For each sweep angle, camber surfaces having design lift coefficients of 0,0.08, and 0.12 at a design Mach number of 2.6 were generated. The wind-tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.3, 2.6, and 2.96 with a stagnation temperature of 338.7 K (150 F) and a Reynolds number per meter of 9.843 times 10 to the 6th power. The results of the tests showed that only a moderate sweeping of the wing leading edge aft of the Mach line along with a small-to-moderate amount of camber and twist was needed to significantly improve the zero-lift (flat camber surface) wing performance and efficiency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Jim Rogers; Bray, Richard S; COOPER GEORGE E
1950-01-01
The calibrations of four airspeed systems installed in a North American F-86A airplane have been determined in flight at Mach numbers up to 1.04 by the NACA radar-phototheodolite method. The variation of the static-pressure error per unit indicated impact pressure is presented for three systems typical of those currently in use in flight research, a nose boom and two different wing-tip booms, and for the standard service system installed in the airplane. A limited amount of information on the effect of airplane normal-force coefficient on the static-pressure error is included. The results are compared with available theory and with results from wind-tunnel tests of the airspeed heads alone. Of the systems investigated, a nose-boom installation was found to be most suitable for research use at transonic and low supersonic speeds because it provided the greatest sensitivity of the indicated Mach number to a unit change in true Mach number at very high subsonic speeds, and because it was least sensitive to changes in airplane normal-force coefficient. The static-pressure error of the nose-boom system was small and constant above a Mach number of 1.03 after passage of the fuselage bow shock wave over the airspeed head.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.
1984-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the interference effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness of a twin engine, general research fighter model at approach and in-flight speeds. Twin vertical tails at three longitudinal locations were tested at a cant angle of 0 deg. One configuration was also tested at a cant angle of 20 deg. Two nonaxisymmetric nozzle reverser concepts were studied. Test data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.15, 0.60, and 0.90 and at angles of attack from -3 to 9 deg. Nozzle pressure ratios varied from jet off to 7.0, depending upon Mach number. At landing approach speed (Mach number 0.15), thrust reverser operation usually resulted in large variations (up to 70% increase) in horizontal tail effectiveness as nozzle pressure ratio was varied at zero angle of attack or as angle of attack was varied at constant nozzle pressure ratio. There was always a decrease in effectiveness at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.90 as a result of reverser operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahto, Navin Kumar; Choubey, Gautam; Suneetha, Lakka; Pandey, K. M.
2016-11-01
The two equation standard k-ɛ turbulence model and the two-dimensional compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations have been used to computationally simulate the double cavity scramjet combustor. Here all the simulations are performed by using ANSYS 14-FLUENT code. At the same time, the validation of the present numerical simulation for double cavity has been performed by comparing its result with the available experimental data which is in accordance with the literature. The results are in good agreement with the schlieren image and the pressure distribution curve obtained experimentally. However, the pressure distribution curve obtained numerically is under-predicted in 5 locations by numerical calculation. Further, investigations on the variations of the effects of the length-to-depth ratio of cavity and Mach number on the combustion characteristics has been carried out. The present results show that there is an optimal length-to-depth ratio for the cavity for which the performance of combustor significantly improves and also efficient combustion takes place within the combustor region. Also, the shifting of the location of incident oblique shock took place in the downstream of the H2 inlet when the Mach number value increases. But after achieving a critical Mach number range of 2-2.5, the further increase in Mach number results in lower combustion efficiency which may deteriorate the performance of combustor.
Inviscid Flow Computations of the Orbital Sciences X-34 Over a Mach Number Range of 1.25 to 6.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhu, Ramadas K.
2001-01-01
This report documents the results of an inviscid computational study conducted on the Orbital Sciences X-34 vehicle to compute its inviscid longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics over a Mach number range of 1.25 to 6.0. The unstructured grid software FELISA was used and th e aerodynamic characteristics were computed at Mach numbers 1.25, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 4.63, and 6.0, and an angle of attack range of -4 to 32 degrees. These results were compared with available aerodynamic data from wind tunnel test on X-34 models. The comparison showed excellent agreement in C(sub N). The computed pitching moment compared well at Mach numbers 2.5 and higher, and at angles of attack of up to 12 deg. The agreement was not good at higher angles of attack possibly due to viscous effects. At lower Mach numbers there were significant differences between computed and measured C(sub m) values. This could not be explained. Since the present computations are inviscid, the computed C(sub A) was consistently lower than the measured values as expected.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grow, R. Bruce; Preisser, John S.
1971-01-01
A reefed 12.2-meter nominal-diameter (40-ft) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic High Altitude Parachute Experiment (SHAPE) program. A three-stage rocket was used to drive the instrumented payload to an altitude of 43.6 km (143,000 ft), a Mach number of 2.58, and a dynamic pressure of 972 N/m(exp 2) (20.3 lb/ft(exp 2)) where the parachute was deployed by means of a mortar. The parachute deployed satisfactorily and reached a partially inflated condition characterized by irregular variations in parachute projected area. A full, stable reefed inflation was achieved when the system had decelerated to a Mach number of about 1.5. The steady, reefed projected area was 49 percent of the steady, unreefed area and the average drag coefficient was 0.30. Disreefing occurred at a Mach number of 0.99 and a dynamic pressure of 81 N/m(exp 2) (1.7 lb/ft(exp 2)). The parachute maintained a steady inflated shape for the remainder of the deceleration portion of the flight and throughout descent. During descent, the average effective drag coefficient was 0.57. There was little, if any, coning motion, and the amplitude of planar oscillations was generally less than 10 degrees. The film also shows a wind tunnel test of a 1.7-meter-diameter parachute inflating at Mach number 2.0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, L. C.; Lux, D. P.
1975-01-01
Wing pressure distributions obtained in flight with flush orifice and external tubing orifice installations for Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.97 are compared. The procedure used to install the external tubing orifice is discussed. The results indicate that external tubing orifice installations can give useful results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacArt, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.
2016-12-01
Two formally second-order accurate, semi-implicit, iterative methods for the solution of scalar transport-reaction equations are developed for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows. The first is a monolithic scheme based on a linearly implicit midpoint method utilizing an approximately factorized exact Jacobian of the transport and reaction operators. The second is an operator splitting scheme based on the Strang splitting approach. The accuracy properties of these schemes, as well as their stability, cost, and the effect of chemical mechanism size on relative performance, are assessed in two one-dimensional test configurations comprising an unsteady premixed flame and an unsteady nonpremixed ignition, which have substantially different Damköhler numbers and relative stiffness of transport to chemistry. All schemes demonstrate their formal order of accuracy in the fully-coupled convergence tests. Compared to a (non-)factorized scheme with a diagonal approximation to the chemical Jacobian, the monolithic, factorized scheme using the exact chemical Jacobian is shown to be both more stable and more economical. This is due to an improved convergence rate of the iterative procedure, and the difference between the two schemes in convergence rate grows as the time step increases. The stability properties of the Strang splitting scheme are demonstrated to outpace those of Lie splitting and monolithic schemes in simulations at high Damköhler number; however, in this regime, the monolithic scheme using the approximately factorized exact Jacobian is found to be the most economical at practical CFL numbers. The performance of the schemes is further evaluated in a simulation of a three-dimensional, spatially evolving, turbulent nonpremixed planar jet flame.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papaxanthos, N.; Perrey-Debain, E.; Bennouna, S.; Ouedraogo, B.; Moreau, S.; Ville, J. M.
2017-04-01
The use of unsteady incompressible-flow simulations has become very popular for aeroacoustic noise predictions at low Mach numbers, as it provides a good compromise between computational time and reliable predictions. The acoustic radiation of the aerodynamic sources is calculated in a second step by solving an appropriate system of acoustic equations. In order to predict the noise produced by confined flows, two integral formulations of Lighthill-Curle's analogy are developed. Both formulations require only the knowledge of the incompressible-flow pressure. The first one, which is based on Ribner's reformulation of Lighthill's source terms, is exact and shall serve as a reference to the second approximate formulation which involves only the pressure on the boundary of the fluid domain. The two formulations are shown to be in excellent agreement for the case of a long straight duct obstructed by a diaphragm which makes the simplified integral formulation a reliable alternative to usual computational methods. The sound power levels as well as the modal contributions compare favorably with measurements. Moreover, it is shown that the computed radiated sound is independent of the outlet condition of the flow simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sovardi, Carlo; Jaensch, Stefan; Polifke, Wolfgang
2016-09-01
A numerical method to concurrently characterize both aeroacoustic scattering and noise sources at a duct singularity is presented. This approach combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with techniques of System Identification (SI): In a first step, a highly resolved LES with external broadband acoustic excitation is carried out. Subsequently, time series data extracted from the LES are post-processed by means of SI to model both acoustic propagation and noise generation. The present work studies the aero-acoustic characteristics of an orifice placed in a duct at low flow Mach numbers with the "LES-SI" method. Parametric SI based on the Box-Jenkins mathematical structure is employed, with a prediction error approach that utilizes correlation analysis of the output residuals to avoid overfitting. Uncertainties of model parameters due to the finite length of times series are quantified in terms of confidence intervals. Numerical results for acoustic scattering matrices and power spectral densities of broad-band noise are validated against experimental measurements over a wide range of frequencies below the cut-off frequency of the duct.
Measurements of Free-Space Oscillating Pressures Near Propellers at Flight Mach Numbers to 0.72
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurbjun, Max C; Vogeley, Arthur W
1958-01-01
In the course of a short flight program initiated to check the theory of Garrick and Watkins (NACA rep. 1198), a series of measurements at three stations were made of the oscillating pressures near a tapered-blade plan-form propeller and rectangular-blade plan form propeller at flight Mach numbers up to 0.72. In contradiction to the results for the propeller studied in NACA rep. 1198, the oscillating pressures in the plane ahead of the propeller were found to be higher than those immediately behind the propeller. Factors such as variation in torque and thrust distribution, since the blades of the present investigation were operating above their design forward speed, may account for this contradiction. The effect of blade plan form shows that a tapered-blade plan-form propeller will produce lower sound-pressure levels than a rectangular-blade plan-form propeller for the low blade-passage harmonics (the frequencies where structural considerations are important) and produce higher sound-pressure levels for the higher blade-passage harmonics (frequencies where passenger comfort is important).
Aerothermal tests of spherical dome protuberances on a flat plate at a Mach number of 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, C. E.; Hunt, L. R.
1986-01-01
Aerothermal tests were conducted in the Langley 8-Foot High-Temperature Tunnel at a Mach number of 6.5 on a series of spherical dome protuberances mounted on a flat-plate test apparatus. Detailed surface pressure and heating-rate distributions were obtained for various dome heights and diameters submerged in both laminar and turbulent boundary layers including a baseline geometric condition representing a thermally bowed metallic thermal protection system (TPS) tile. The present results indicated that the surface pressures on the domes were increased on the windward surface and reduced on the leeward surface as predicted by linearized small-perturbation theory, and the distributions were only moderately affected by boundary-layer variations. Surface heating rates for turbulent flow increased on the windward surface and decreased on the leeward surface similar to the pressure; but for laminar boundary layers, the heating rates remained high on the leeward surface, probably due to local transition. Transitional flow effects cause heat load augmentation to increase by 30 percent for the maximum dome height in a laminar boundary layer. However, the corresponding augmentation for a dome with a height of 0.1 in. and a diameter of 14 in. representative of a bowed TPS tile was 14 percent or less for either a laminar or turbulent boundary layer.
Alfvén Mach number and IMF clock angle dependencies of sunward flow channels in the magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksson, S.; RastäTter, L.
2013-04-01
Interplanetary coronal mass ejections associated with strong interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By have been shown to enhance the neutral density in low Earth orbit. The enhancement has been linked to strong downward Poynting fluxes embedded within ionospheric channels of significant sunward ExB drift (2000-3000 m/s). Here we present MHD results describing the magnetospheric counterpart of the ionospheric flow channel that Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) encountered on 15 May 2005. It is shown that the clock angle of maximum sunward flow (θFC) depends on the IMF clock angle θFC = α * θIMF - 1.3° with α = (0.30, 0.38, 0.43, 0.45) at X = (4, 2, 0, -2) RE. This is poleward of the magnetic null point region. The flow also depends on the solar wind Alfvén Mach number Vx = Vx0 - δv * MA. The critical MA = Vx0 / δV for Vx = 0 decreases from MA = 3.42 (X = 4 RE) to MA = 2.40 (X = -2 RE). The low MA and θIMF conditions that characterized the X = 2 RE flow and resulted in strong Poynting flux occurred for 16% of all 167 h in 1998-2008 with Dst < -180 nT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Shiyao; Driscoll, James
2005-11-01
Flow past cavity has been of interest due to its geometrical simplicity and complex flow characteristics. A dual-camera Cinematographic Particle Image Velocimetry (CPIV) system has been developed to study low Mach number flow over a rectangular cavity. This system consists of two high-repetition rate Nd:YAG lasers and two high-speed CMOS cameras registered to have sub-pixel alignment errors. A rectangular cavity with a length-to-depth ratio of 2 was mounted in the test section of a recirculating water tunnel providing free-stream flow speeds between 5˜26 m/s. Consecutive CPIV images with a spatial resolution of 1632 x 800 pixels and 20 μs time delay were obtained at frame rate of 1.5 KHz. Time traces of surface pressures at the bottom of the cavity are acquired simultaneously by using flush-mounted dynamic pressure transducers. The temporal evolution of velocity and vortical fields reveals the time-dependence of the mixing and mass transport between the shear layer and the cavity. The simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements also show the unsteady interaction between vortical structures and the trailing edge of the cavity under resonating and non-resonating conditions. [Sponsored by National Science Foundation Grant: CTM 0203140
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro
2009-10-01
Nonlinear evolution of the Buneman instability and its application to electron acceleration in collisionless shocks are discussed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the saturation level of the instability is reduced from one-dimensional simulation results. It is demonstrated that the reduced saturation level is due to the resonant wave-particle interactions with large amplitude obliquely propagating waves. A new estimate for the saturation level is given by considering the interactions with oblique modes. The effects of the large amplitude oblique modes on electron shock surfing acceleration that is mainly controlled by the Buneman instability are also investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the shock transition region are performed by adopting a local model with the periodic boundary condition. The results indicate that the presence of oblique modes introduces a stochastic behavior to the trajectories of energetic electrons. The maximum energy is limited by the finite lifetime of the instability in the present periodic model. However, this will not be the case in the realistic shock transition region. The application to realistic shocks with Mach numbers typical of supernova remnants is also discussed.
Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro
2009-10-15
Nonlinear evolution of the Buneman instability and its application to electron acceleration in collisionless shocks are discussed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the saturation level of the instability is reduced from one-dimensional simulation results. It is demonstrated that the reduced saturation level is due to the resonant wave-particle interactions with large amplitude obliquely propagating waves. A new estimate for the saturation level is given by considering the interactions with oblique modes. The effects of the large amplitude oblique modes on electron shock surfing acceleration that is mainly controlled by the Buneman instability are also investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the shock transition region are performed by adopting a local model with the periodic boundary condition. The results indicate that the presence of oblique modes introduces a stochastic behavior to the trajectories of energetic electrons. The maximum energy is limited by the finite lifetime of the instability in the present periodic model. However, this will not be the case in the realistic shock transition region. The application to realistic shocks with Mach numbers typical of supernova remnants is also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhu, Ramadas K.
2001-01-01
This report documents the results of an inviscid computational study conducted on two aeroshell configurations for a proposed '07 Mars Lander. The aeroshell configurations are asymmetric due to the presence of the tabs at the maximum diameter location. The purpose of these tabs was to change the pitching moment characteristics so that the aeroshell will trim at a non-zero angle of attack and produce a lift-to-drag ratio of approximately -0.25. This is required in the guidance of the vehicle on its trajectory. One of the two configurations is called the shelf and the other is called the tab. The unstructured grid software FELISA with the equilibrium Mars gas option was used for these computations. The computations were done for six points on a preliminary trajectory of the '07 Mars Lander at nominal Mach numbers of 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 24. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics namely lift, drag, and pitching moment were computed for 10, 15, and 20 degrees angles of attack. The results indicated that the two configurations have aerodynamic characteristics that have very similar aerodynamic characteristics, and provide the desired trim LID of approximately -0.25.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eghlima, Z.; Mansour, K.
2017-04-01
Drag reduction at high speed flows around blunt bodies is one of the major challenges in the field of aerodynamics. Using of spikes and counterflow jets each of them separately for reducing of drag force is well known. The present work is description of flow field around a hemispherical nose cylinder with a new combination of spike and counterflow jet at free stream of Mach number of 6.The air gas was injected through the nozzle at the nose of the hemispherical model at sonic speed. In this numerical analysis, axisymmetric Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was solved by k-ω (SST) turbulence model. The results were validated with experimental results for spiked body without jet condition. Then the results presented for different lengths of spike and different pressures of counterflow jets. The results show a significant reduction in the drag coefficient about 86-90% compared to the spherical cylinder model without jet and spike for practical models (L/D=1.5 and 2). Furthermore also our results indicate that the drag reduction is increased even more with increasing of the length of the spike.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, B. A.; Dastoli, B. J.; Wesoky, H. L.
1975-01-01
Results of scale model tests of high-throat-Mach-number inlets designed to suppress inlet-emitted engine machinery noise produced in a V/STOL wind tunnel are presented. A vacuum system was used to induce inlet airflow with a siren as a noise source. Inlet mass flow was 11.68 kilograms (25.75 lb. min) per second at a throat Mach number of 0.79. The effect of entry-lip design (contraction ratio and diameter ratio) on inlet total-pressure recovery, steady-state pressure distortion, performance at high incidence angles, and noise suppression was determined. With proper entry-lip design, total-pressure recovery in excess of 0.988 could be obtained statically at an average throat Mach number of 0.79. Total-pressure distortion was 5 percent. The reduction in the siren tone sound pressure level transmitted through the inlet was 10 to 14 db relative to that measured at throat Mach 0.6.
Resonant Alfven Wave Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hameiri, Eliezer
1999-11-01
Much of the theory of the Alfven wave resonance phenomenon was developed for a tokamak configuration where the magnetic field winds around the torus without entering the boundary. Thus, boundary conditions did not have to be considered.( J. Tataronis and W. Grossmann, Z. Phys. 261), 203 (1973). In most space plasma situations such as the magnetosphere or the Sun, as well as in the scrape-off layer of a divertor tokamak, this is not the case. When boundary conditions are considered, it is generally assumed for simplicity that the boundary is perfectly conducting, which implies that the Alfven wave bounce frequencies are real and the resonance phenomenon can be detected by some singularity in the equations. The nature of the singularity is usually described in terms of a Frobenius series.( A.N. Wright and M.J. Thompson, Phys. Plamsas 1), 691 (1994). In this work we consider resistive boundaries, which imply that the fast wave eigenfrequency is real, but the Alfven frequency is not. Thus, there is no exact resonance and no singularity in the equations. The solution of the problem is carried out asymptotically by finding an exact Laplace integral representation for the solution and then matching various regions. The energy transferred to the Alfven wave appears to be rather small.
Evaluation of Blended Wing-Body Combinations with Curved Plan Forms at Mach Numbers Up to 3.50
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.
1960-01-01
This investigation is a continuation of the experimental and theoretical evaluation of the effects of wing plan-form variations on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of blended wing-body combinations. The present report compares previously tested straight-edged delta and arrow models which have leading-edge sweeps of 59.04 and 70-82 deg., respectively, with related models which have plan forms with curved leading and trailing edges designed to result in the same average sweeps in each case. All the models were symmetrical, without camber, and were generally similar having the same span, length, and aspect ratios. The wing sections had an average value of maximum thickness ratio of about 4 percent of the local wing chords in a streamwise direction. The wing sections were computed by varying their shapes along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The models were tested with transition fixed at Reynolds numbers of roughly 4,000,000 to 9,000,000, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing. The characteristic effect of the wing curvature of the delta and arrow models was an increase at subsonic and transonic speeds in the lift-curve slopes which was partially reflected in increased maximum lift-drag ratios. Curved edges were not evaluated on a diamond plan form because a preliminary investigation indicated that the curvature considered would increase the supersonic zero-lift wave drag. However, after the test program was completed, a suitable modification for the diamond plan form was discovered. The analysis presented in the appendix indicates that large reductions in the zero-lift wave drag would be obtained at supersonic Mach numbers if the leading- and trailing-edge sweeps are made to differ by indenting the trailing edge and extending the root of the leading edge.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, Gary T.
1961-01-01
The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 2.8 to 5.3, with model surface temperatures small compared to boundary-layer recovery temperature. The effects of Mach number, temperature ratio, unit Reynolds number, leading-edge diameter, and angle of attack were investigated in an exploratory fashion. The effect of heat-transfer condition (i.e., wall temperature to total temperature ratio) and Mach number can not be separated explicitly in free-flight tests. However, the data of the present report, as well as those of NACA TN 3473, were found to be more consistent when plotted versus temperature ratio. Decreasing temperature ratio increased the transition Reynolds number. The effect of unit Reynolds number was small as was the effect of leading-edge diameter within the range tested. At small values of angle of attack, transition moved forward on the windward surface and rearward on the leeward surface. This trend was reversed at high angles of attack (6 deg to 18 deg). Possible reasons for this are the reduction of crossflow on the windward side and the influence of the lifting vortices on the leeward surface. When the transition results on the 740 delta wing were compared to data at similar test conditions for an unswept leading edge, the results bore out the results of earlier research at nearly zero heat transfer; namely, sweep causes a large reduction in the transition Reynolds number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lord, Douglas R; Czarnecki, K R
1956-01-01
An investigation has been made at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01 and Reynolds numbers from 1.7 X 10 to 7.6 X 10 to determine the pressure distributions over a 60 deg. delta wing having 20 different control configurations. Measurements were made at angles of attack from O deg to 15 deg for control deflections from -30 deg to 30 deg. This report presents the complete tabulated pressure data for the range of test conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaves, R. H.; Buchanan, T. D.; Warmbrod, J. D.; Johnson, C. B.
1972-01-01
Heat transfer tests for two delta wing configurations were conducted in the hypervelocity wind tunnel. The 24-inch long models were tested at a Mach number of approximately 10.5 and at angles of attack of 20, 40, and 60 degrees over a length Reynolds number range from 5 million to 23 million on 4 May to 4 June 1971. Heat transfer results were obtained from model surface heat gage measurements and thermographic phosphor paint.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclellan, Charles H; Bertram, Mitchel H; Moore, John A
1957-01-01
The results of pressure-distribution and force tests of four wings at a Mach number of about 6.9 and a Reynolds number of 0.98 x 10(6) in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel are presented. The wings had a square plan form, a 5-percent-chord maximum thickness, and diamond, half-diamond, wedge, and half-circular sections.
In-flight transition measurement on a 10 deg cone at Mach numbers from 0.5 to 2.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, D. F.; Dougherty, N. S., Jr.
1982-01-01
Boundary layer transition measurements were made in flight on a 10 deg transition cone tested previously in 23 wind tunnels. The cone was mounted on the nose of an F-15 aircraft and flown at Mach numbers room 0.5 to 2.0 and altitudes from 1500 meters (5000 feet) to 15,000 meters (50,000 feet), overlapping the Mach number/Reynolds number envelope of the wind tunnel tests. Transition was detected using a traversing pitot probe in contact with the surface. Data were obtained near zero cone incidence and adiabatic wall temperature. Transition Reynolds number was found to be a function of Mach number and of the ratio of wall temperature to adiabatic all temperature. Microphones mounted flush with the cone surface measured free-stream disturbances imposed on the laminar boundary layer and identified Tollmien-Schlichting waves as the probable cause of transition. Transition Reynolds number also correlated with the disturbance levels as measured by the cone surface microphones under a laminar boundary layer as well as the free-stream impact.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.
2016-04-01
Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010-2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ˜9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s-1, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Tsunehiko N.
2015-04-01
We herein investigate shock formation and particle acceleration processes for both protons and electrons in a quasi-parallel high-Mach-number collisionless shock through a long-term, large-scale, particle-in-cell simulation. We show that both protons and electrons are accelerated in the shock and that these accelerated particles generate large-amplitude Alfvénic waves in the upstream region of the shock. After the upstream waves have grown sufficiently, the local structure of the collisionless shock becomes substantially similar to that of a quasi-perpendicular shock due to the large transverse magnetic field of the waves. A fraction of protons are accelerated in the shock with a power-law-like energy distribution. The rate of proton injection to the acceleration process is approximately constant, and in the injection process, the phase-trapping mechanism for the protons by the upstream waves can play an important role. The dominant acceleration process is a Fermi-like process through repeated shock crossings of the protons. This process is a “fast” process in the sense that the time required for most of the accelerated protons to complete one cycle of the acceleration process is much shorter than the diffusion time. A fraction of the electrons are also accelerated by the same mechanism, and have a power-law-like energy distribution. However, the injection does not enter a steady state during the simulation, which may be related to the intermittent activity of the upstream waves. Upstream of the shock, a fraction of the electrons are pre-accelerated before reaching the shock, which may contribute to steady electron injection at a later time.
Asymmetry of magnetosheath flows and magnetopause shape during low Alfvén Mach number solar wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavraud, B.; Larroque, E.; Budnik, E.; Génot, V.; Borovsky, J. E.; Dunlop, M. W.; Foullon, C.; Hasegawa, H.; Jacquey, C.; Nykyri, K.; Ruffenach, A.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Dandouras, I.; Rème, H.
2013-03-01
works have emphasized the significant influence of the solar wind Alfvén Mach number (MA) on magnetospheric dynamics. Here we report statistical, observational results that pertain to changes in the magnetosheath flow distribution and magnetopause shape as a function of solar wind MA and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle orientation. We use all Cluster 1 data in the magnetosheath during the period 2001-2010, using an appropriate spatial superposition procedure, to produce magnetosheath flow distributions as a function of location in the magnetosheath relative to the IMF and other parameters. The results demonstrate that enhanced flows in the magnetosheath are expected at locations quasi-perpendicular to the IMF direction in the plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line; in other words, for the special case of a northward IMF, enhanced flows are observed on the dawn and dusk flanks of the magnetosphere, while much lower flows are observed above the poles. The largest flows are adjacent to the magnetopause. Using appropriate magnetopause crossing lists (for both high and low MA), we also investigate the changes in magnetopause shape as a function of solar wind MA and IMF orientation. Comparing observed magnetopause crossings with predicted positions from an axisymmetric semi-empirical model, we statistically show that the magnetopause is generally circular during high MA, while is it elongated (albeit with moderate statistical significance) along the direction of the IMF during low MA. These findings are consistent with enhanced magnetic forces that prevail in the magnetosheath during low MA. The component of the magnetic forces parallel to the magnetopause produces the enhanced flows along and adjacent to the magnetopause, while the component normal to the magnetopause exerts an asymmetric pressure on the magnetopause that deforms it into an elongated shape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Rixin; Yu, Jiangfei; Bai, Xue-Song
2012-06-01
We present an improved numerical scheme for numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport. The method is based on a semi-implicit operator-splitting scheme with a stiff solver for integration of the chemical kinetic rates, developed by Knio et al. [O.M. Knio, H.N. Najm, P.S. Wyckoff, A semi-implicit numerical scheme for reacting flow II. Stiff, operator-split formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 154 (2) (1999) 428-467]. Using the material derivative form of continuity equation, we enhance the scheme to allow for large density ratio in the flow field. The scheme is developed for direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flow by employing high-order discretization for the spatial terms. The accuracy of the scheme in space and time is verified by examining the grid/time-step dependency on one-dimensional benchmark cases: a freely propagating premixed flame in an open environment and in an enclosure related to spark-ignition engines. The scheme is then examined in simulations of a two-dimensional laminar flame/vortex-pair interaction. Furthermore, we apply the scheme to direct numerical simulation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process in an enclosure studied previously in the literature. Satisfactory agreement is found in terms of the overall ignition behavior, local reaction zone structures and statistical quantities. Finally, the scheme is used to study the development of intrinsic flame instabilities in a lean H2/air premixed flame, where it is shown that the spatial and temporary accuracies of numerical schemes can have great impact on the prediction of the sensitive nonlinear evolution process of flame instability.
Kato, Tsunehiko N.
2015-04-01
We herein investigate shock formation and particle acceleration processes for both protons and electrons in a quasi-parallel high-Mach-number collisionless shock through a long-term, large-scale, particle-in-cell simulation. We show that both protons and electrons are accelerated in the shock and that these accelerated particles generate large-amplitude Alfvénic waves in the upstream region of the shock. After the upstream waves have grown sufficiently, the local structure of the collisionless shock becomes substantially similar to that of a quasi-perpendicular shock due to the large transverse magnetic field of the waves. A fraction of protons are accelerated in the shock with a power-law-like energy distribution. The rate of proton injection to the acceleration process is approximately constant, and in the injection process, the phase-trapping mechanism for the protons by the upstream waves can play an important role. The dominant acceleration process is a Fermi-like process through repeated shock crossings of the protons. This process is a “fast” process in the sense that the time required for most of the accelerated protons to complete one cycle of the acceleration process is much shorter than the diffusion time. A fraction of the electrons are also accelerated by the same mechanism, and have a power-law-like energy distribution. However, the injection does not enter a steady state during the simulation, which may be related to the intermittent activity of the upstream waves. Upstream of the shock, a fraction of the electrons are pre-accelerated before reaching the shock, which may contribute to steady electron injection at a later time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hingst, Warren R.; Williams, Kevin E.
1991-01-01
A preliminary experimental investigation was conducted to study two crossing, glancing shock waves of equal strengths, interacting with the boundary-layer developed on a supersonic wind tunnel wall. This study was performed at several Mach numbers between 2.5 and 4.0. The shock waves were created by fins (shock generators), spanning the tunnel test section, that were set at angles varying from 4 to 12 degrees. The data acquired are wall static pressure measurements, and qualitative information in the form of oil flow and schlieren visualizations. The principle aim is two-fold. First, a fundamental understanding of the physics underlying this flow phenomena is desired. Also, a comprehensive data set is needed for computational fluid dynamic code validation. Results indicate that for small shock generator angles, the boundary-layer remains attached throughout the flow field. However, with increasing shock strengths (increasing generator angles), boundary layer separation does occur and becomes progressively more severe as the generator angles are increased further. The location of the separation, which starts well downstream of the shock crossing point, moves upstream as shock strengths are increased. At the highest generator angles, the separation appears to begin coincident with the generator leading edges and engulfs most of the area between the generators. This phenomena occurs very near the 'unstart' limit for the generators. The wall pressures at the lower generator angles are nominally consistent with the flow geometries (i.e. shock patterns) although significantly affected by the boundary-layer upstream influence. As separation occurs, the wall pressures exhibit a gradient that is mainly axial in direction in the vicinity of the separation. At the limiting conditions the wall pressure gradients are primarily in the axial direction throughout.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stivers, Louis S., Jr.; Levy, Lionel L., Jr.
1961-01-01
Measurements were made to determine the effects of sting-support diameter on the base pressures of an elliptic cone with ratio of cross-section thickness to width of 1/3 and a plan-form, semi-apex angle of 15 deg. The investigation was made for model angles of attack from -2 deg to +20 deg at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.40, and for a constant Reynolds number of 1.4 million, based on the length of the model. The results indicated that the sting interference decreased the base axial-force coefficients by substantial amounts up to a maximum of about one-third the value of the coefficient for no sting interference. There was no practical diameter of the sting for which the effects of the sting on the base pressures would be negligible throughout the Mach number and angle-of-attack ranges of the investigation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messing, Wesley E; Simpkinson, Scott H
1950-01-01
Free-flight performance of five 16-inch-diameter ram-jet units was determined over range of free-stream Mach numbers of 0.50 to 1.86 and gas total-temperature ratios between 1.0 and 6.1 Time histories of performance data are presented for each unit. Correlations illustrate effect of free-stream Mach number and gas total-temperature ratio on diffuser total-pressure recovery, net-thrust coefficient, and external drag coefficient. One unit had smooth steady burning throughout the entire flight and encountered a maximum free-stream Mach number of 1.86 with a net acceleration of approximately 4.2 g's.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Thomas C.
1959-01-01
Results have been obtained in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 1.43 and at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 24 deg which indicate the static-aerodynamic-loads characteristics for a 2-percent-thick trapezoidal wing in combination with a body. Included are the effects of changing Reynolds number and of fixing boundary-layer transition. The results show that aerodynamic loading characteristics at a Mach number of 1.43 are similar to those reported in NACA RM L56Jl2a for the same configuration at a Mach number of 1.115. Reducing the Reynolds number resulted in reductions in the deflection of the wing and caused a slight increase in the relative loading over the outboard wing sections since the deflections were in a direction to unload the tip sections. Little or no effects were seen to result from fixing boundary-layer transition at a tunnel stagnation pressure of 1,950 pounds per square foot.
Phenomenon of Alfvenic Vortex Shedding
Gruszecki, M.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Arber, T. D.
2010-07-30
Generation of Alfvenic (magnetohydrodynamic) vortices by the interaction of compressible plasma flows with magnetic-field-aligned blunt obstacles is modeled in terms of magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that periodic shedding of vortices with opposite vorticity is a robust feature of the interaction in a broad range of plasma parameters: for plasma beta from 0.025 to 0.5, and for the flow speeds from 0.1 to 0.99 of the fast magnetoacoustic speed. The Strouhal number is the dimensionless ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the inflow speed. It is found to be consistently in the range 0.15-0.25 in the whole range of parameters. The induced Alfvenic vortices are compressible and contain spiral-armed perturbations of the magnetic field strength and plasma mass density up to 50%-60% of the background values. The generated electric current also has the spiral-armed structuring.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.; Lummus, J. R.
1980-01-01
A wind tunnel test was conducted to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of two horizontal attitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts. In one concept, a jet diffuser ejector was used for the vertical lift system; the other used a remote augmentation lift system (RALS). Wind tunnel tests to investigate the aerodynamic uncertainties and to establish a data base for these types of concepts were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 2.0. The present report covers tests, conducted in the 11 foot transonic wind tunnel, for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Detailed effects of varying the angle of attack (up to 27 deg), angle of sideslip (-4 deg to +8 deg), Mach number, Reynolds number, and configuration buildup were investigated. In addition, the effects of wing trailing edge flap deflections, canard incidence, and vertical tail deflections were explored. Variable canard longitudinal location and different shapes of the inboard nacelle body strakes were also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Re, Richard J.; Abeyounis, William K.
1993-01-01
Pressure distributions on three inlets having different cowl lengths were obtained in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The cowl diameter ratio (highlight diameter to maximum diameter) was 0.85 and the cowl length ratios (cowl length to maximum diameter) were 0.337, 0.439, and 0.547. The cowls had identical nondimensionalized (with respect to cowl length) external geometry and identical internal geometry. The internal contraction ratio (highlight area to throat area) was 1.250. The inlets had longitudinal rows of static pressure orifices on the top and bottom (external) surfaces and on the contraction (internal) and diffuser surfaces. The afterbody was cylindrical in shape, and its diameter was equal to the maximum diameter of the cowl. Depending on the cowl configuration and free-stream Mach number, the mass-flow ratio varied between 0.27 and 0.87 during the tests. Angle of attack varied from 0 to 4.1 deg at selected Mach numbers and mass-flow ratios, and the Reynolds number varied with the Mach number from 3.2x10(exp 6) to 4.2x10(exp 6) per foot.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, J. A.; Fournier, R. H.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation of the static longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept double-delta wing was conducted in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The configuration variables included wing planform, tip fins, center fin, and scramjet engine modules. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 2.86 and at a constant Reynolds number, based on fuselage length, of 3,330,000. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range from about -4 deg to 24 deg with angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 3 deg and at elevon deflections of 0, -10, and -20 deg. The complete configuration was trimmable up to angles of attack of about 22 deg with the exception of regions at low angles of attack where positive elevon deflections should provide trim capability. The angle-of-attack range for which static longitudinal stability also exists was reduced at the higher Mach numbers due to the tendency of the complete configuration to pitch up at the higher angles of attack. The complete configuration was statically stable directionally up to trimmed angles of attack of at least 20 deg for all Mach numbers M with the exception of a region near 4 deg at M = 2.86 and exhibited positive effective dihedral at all positive trimmed angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan, Brian G.; Owens, Lewis R.
2006-01-01
This paper will investigate the validation of the NASA developed, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver, OVERFLOW, for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset (S-shaped) inlet in transonic flow with passive and active flow control devices as well as a baseline case. Numerical simulations are compared to wind tunnel results of a BLI inlet experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Comparisons of inlet flow distortion, pressure recovery, and inlet wall pressures are performed. The numerical simulations are compared to the BLI inlet data at a free-stream Mach number of 0.85 and a Reynolds number of approximately 2 million based on the fanface diameter. The numerical simulations with and without tunnel walls are performed, quantifying tunnel wall effects on the BLI inlet flow. A comparison is made between the numerical simulations and the BLI inlet experiment for the baseline and VG vane cases at various inlet mass flow rates. A comparison is also made to a BLI inlet jet configuration for varying actuator mass flow rates at a fixed inlet mass flow rate. Overall, the numerical simulations were able to predict the baseline circumferential flow distortion, DPCP avg, very well within the designed operating range of the BLI inlet. A comparison of the average total pressure recovery showed that the simulations were able to predict the trends but had a negative 0.01 offset when compared to the experimental levels. Numerical simulations of the baseline inlet flow also showed good agreement with the experimental inlet centerline surface pressures. The vane case showed that the CFD predicted the correct trends in the circumferential distortion levels for varying inlet mass flow but had a distortion level that was nearly twice as large as the experiment. Comparison to circumferential distortion measurements for a 15 deg clocked 40 probe rake indicated that the circumferential distortion levels are very sensitive to the symmetry of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan Brian G.; Owens, Lewis, R.
2006-01-01
This paper will investigate the validation of a NASA developed, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver, OVERFLOW, for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset (S-shaped) inlet in transonic flow with passive and active flow control devices as well as the baseline case. Numerical simulations are compared to wind tunnel results of a BLI inlet conducted at the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Comparisons of inlet flow distortion, pressure recovery, and inlet wall pressures are performed. The numerical simulations are compared to the BLI inlet data at a freestream Mach number of 0.85 and a Reynolds number of approximately 2 million based on the length of the fan-face diameter. The numerical simulations with and without wind tunnel walls are performed, quantifying effects of the tunnel walls on the BLI inlet flow measurements. The wind tunnel test evaluated several different combinations of jet locations and mass flow rates as well as a vortex generator (VG) vane case. The numerical simulations will be performed on a single jet configuration for varying actuator mass flow rates at a fix inlet mass flow condition. Validation of the numerical simulations for the VG vane case will also be performed for varying inlet mass flow rates. Overall, the numerical simulations were able to predict the baseline circumferential flow distortion, DPCPavg, very well for comparisons made within the designed operating range of the BLI inlet. However the CFD simulations did predict a total pressure recovery that was 0.01 lower than the experiment. Numerical simulations of the baseline inlet flow also showed good agreement with the experimental inlet centerline surface pressures. The vane case showed that the CFD predicted the correct trends in the circumferential distortion for varying inlet mass flow but had a distortion level that was nearly twice as large as the experiment. Comparison to circumferential distortion measurements for a 15 deg clocked 40 probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Disher, John H; Kohl, Robert C; Jones, Merle L
1953-01-01
The investigation of air-launched ram-jet engines has been extended to include a study of models with a nominal design free-stream Mach number of 2.40. These models require auxiliary thrust in order to attain a flight speed at which the ram jet becomes self-accelerating. A rocket-boosting technique for providing this auxiliary thrust is described and time histories of two rocket-boosted ram-jet flights are presented. In one flight, the model attained a maximum Mach number of 2.20 before a fuel system failure resulted in the destruction of the engine. Performance data for this model are presented in terms of thrust and drag coefficients, diffuser pressure recovery, mass-flow ratio, combustion efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and over-all engine efficiency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Creagh, John W R
1956-01-01
Performance data are presented for a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor designed to operate at a tip speed of 1300 ft/sec with maximum relative tip Mach number of 1.37. The compressor had an inlet diameter of 16 inches, a hub-tip diameter ratio of 0.5 and design specific weight flow of 31.1 (lb/sec/(sq ft frontal area). Experimental values of relative total-pressure-loss coefficient were considerably higher than the assumed values. This disparity, hub choking, and application of the simple radial-equilibrium concept are discussed. The data of this report are used to extend previously presented correlation plots of compressor design parameters to higher Mach numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimmock, A. P.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Walker, S. N.; Bale, S. D.; Hobara, Y.
2012-02-01
The cross-shock electrostatic potential at the front of collision-less shocks plays a key role in the distribution of energy at the shock front. Multipoint measurements such as those provided by the Cluster II mission provide an ideal framework for the study of the cross-shock potential because of their ability to distinguish between temporal and spacial variations at the shock front. We present a statistical study of the cross-shock potential calculated for around 50 crossings of the terrestrial bow shock. The statistical dependency of the normalized (with resect to upstream ion kinetic energy) cross-shock potential (ΦK) on the upstream Alfvén Mach number is in good agreement with analytical results that predict decrease of Φk with increasing Mach number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dollyhigh, S. M.; Morris, O. A.; Adams, M. S.
1976-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate a method for the integration of a fighter-type fuselage with a theoretical wing to preserve desirable wing aerodynamic characteristics for efficient maneuvering. The investigation was conducted by using semispan wing fuselage models mounted on a splitter plate. The models were tested through an angle of attack range at a Mach number of 1.41. The wing had a leading edge sweep angle of 50 deg and an aspect ratio of 2.76; the wing camber surface was designed for minimum drag due to lift and was to be self trimming at a lift coefficient of 0.2 and at a Mach number of 1.40. A series of five fuselages of various camber was tested on the wing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, Richard D., Jr.; Pine, W. Clint; Henderson, Arthur, Jr.
1961-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted in the 2-inch helium tunnel at the Langley Research Center at a Mach number of 19.4 to determine the pressure distributions and heat-transfer characteristics of a family of reentry nose shapes. The pressure and heat-transfer-rate distributions on the nose shapes are compared with theoretical predictions to ascertain the limitations and validity of the theories at hypersonic speeds. The experimental results were found to be adequately predicted by existing theories. Two of the nose shapes were tested with variable-length flow-separation spikes. The results obtained by previous investigators of spike-nose bodies were found to prevail at the higher Mach number of the present investigation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, Albert J; Liner, George
1958-01-01
An investigation of the characteristics of a full-scale supersonic-type propeller has been made in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel with the 6000-horsepower propeller dynamometer. The tests covered a range of blade angles from 20.2 degrees to 60.2 degrees at forward Mach numbers up to 0.96. The results showed that envelope efficiency at an advance ratio of 2.8 decreased from 86 percent to 72 percent when the forward Mach number was increased from 0.70 to 0.96. A comparison of the experimental results with calculated results showed that maximum propeller efficiency can be calculated with good accuracy by using ordinary subsonic strip theory when the blade-section speeds are supersonic. The investigation also showed favorable power-absorption properties of the supersonic-type propeller at high speeds.
1975-08-01
BOATTAIL ANGLES AND LENGTHS AT MACH NUMBERS FROM 0.5 THROUGH 2.5 I m m I PROPULSION WIND TUNNEL FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER AIR... Wind T u n n e l ( 4 T ) , P r o p u l s i o n Wind T u n n e l F a c i l i t y (PWT). The t e s t s w e r e p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i...with a variable stagnation pressure from 2.1 to 23.6 psia at all Mach numbers. The test section is 4 ft square and 12.5 ft long with variable ~orosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Krasinski, S. J.; Fan, Y.
Drag measurements were conducted in a dry liquid foam from subsonic to high supersonic Mach numbers. A shooting range was set up and spherical bullets were used crossing a foam column. Because of a very low velocitty of sound in liquid foams, high Mach numbers could be reached with very low projectile velocities. The results in the range from subsonic to high supersonic speeds justified the method giving numerical values identical to those in the air. Sound wave attenuation in a viscoelastic fluid is discussed and compared to expressions in Newtonian fluids. For a liquid foam which is viscoelastic, an equation is derived giving the attenuation constant as function of the surface tension, velocity of the fluid, diameter of the bubbles, frequency of the oscillations and the velocity of sound in the liquid foam. The experimental results confirm this approach and give attenuation constants considerably higher than for a polyurethane dry foam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shrout, B. L.; Robins, A. W.
1982-01-01
Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a configuration consisting of an elliptical body with an in plane horizontal tail were investigated. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 2.3, 2.96, 4.0, and 4.63. In some cases, the configuration with negative tail deflections yielded higher values of maximum lift drag ratio than did the configuration with an undeflected tail. This was due to body upwash acting on the tail and producing an additional lift increment with essentially no drag penalty. Linear theory methods used to estimate some of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the model yielded results which compared well with experimental data for all Mach numbers in this investigation and for both small angles of attack and larger angles of attack where nonlinear (vortex) flow phenomena were present.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bohon, Herman L.; Miserentino, Robert
1970-01-01
Deployment characteristics and steady-state performance data were obtained over the Mach number range from 2.2 to 4.4 and at angles of attack from 0 degrees to l0 degrees. All attached inflatable decelerator (AID) models deployed successfully and exhibited flutter-free performance after deployment. Shock loads commonly associated with inflation of parachutes during deployment were not experienced. Force and moment data and ram-air pressure data were obtained throughout the Mach number range and at angles of attack from 0 degrees to l0 degrees. The high drag coefficient of 1.14 was in good agreement with the value predicted by the theory used in the design and indicated other AID shapes may be designed on a rational basis with a high degree of confidence.
2015-01-02
Stall in a Wide Range of Mach Numbers by Plasma Actuators with Combined Energy/ Momentum Action The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...Plasma Actuators with Combined Energy/ Momentum Action Report Title This equipment grant supported the design and construction of a subsonic variable speed...Actuators with Combined Energy/ Momentum Action FINAL REPORT ARO DURIP Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0328 Start Date: 09/01/2013 PRINCIPAL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eckstrom, Clinton V.
1970-01-01
A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2-meter) modified ringsail parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic High Altitude Parachute Experiment (SHAPE) program. The 41-pound (18.6-kg) test parachute system was deployed from a 239.5-pound (108.6-kg) instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at an altitude of 171,400 feet (52.3 km), a Mach number of 2.95, and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 9.2 lb/sq ft (440 N/m(exp 2)). The parachute deployed properly, suspension line stretch occurring 0.54 second after mortar firing with a resulting snatch-force loading of 932 pounds (4146 newtons). The maximum loading due to parachute opening was 5162 pounds (22 962 newtons) at 1.29 seconds after mortar firing. The first near full inflation of the canopy at 1.25 seconds after mortar firing was followed immediately by a partial collapse and subsequent oscillations of frontal area until the system had decelerated to a Mach number of about 1.5. The parachute then attained a shape that provided full drag area. During the supersonic part of the test, the average axial-force coefficient varied from a minimum of about 0.24 at a Mach number of 2.7 to a maximum of 0.54 at a Mach number of 1.1. During descent under subsonic conditions, the average effective drag coefficient was 0.62 and parachute-payload oscillation angles averaged about &loo with excursions to +/-20 degrees. The recovered parachute was found to have slight damage in the vent area caused by the attached deployment bag and mortar lid.
Exploratory investigation at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95 of the effects of jets blown over a wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putnam, L. E.
1973-01-01
An exploratory investigation has been made at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.95 to determine the effects on lift, drag, and pitching moment of blowing a jet exhaust over the upper surface of a 50 deg swept leading-edge wing. Also investigated were the effects of varying the longitudinal and vertical location of the nozzle exit on the induced effects of jet blowing.
Aerodynamic tests of a Strypi II/NASA/ECHO at Mach numbers of 4. 98 and 7. 82 (Test VI-101)
Tate, R.E.
1980-10-01
A Strypi II/NASA/ECHO model was tested in the Sandia 18-Inch Hypersonic Wind Tunnel to obtain six-component force data. Body-fin-rocket, body-fin, and body configurations were tested at Mach numbers of 4.98 and 7.82, three roll attitudes, (0, 45, and 90 degrees) and angles of attach from -6 to 8 degrees. All the data are presented in graphical and tabular forms in this report.
1976-05-01
WHEN RELEASED FROM THE F-111 AIRCRAFT AT MACH NUMBERS FROM 0.70 TO 1.25 PROPULSION WIND TUNNEL FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER- AIR...PREFACE The work reported herein was conducted by the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), at the request...U. S. Government drawings specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than a definitely related Government procurement operation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, J. P.; Jacobs, P. F.
1978-01-01
Tests on a 0.015 scale model of a supersonic transport were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. Tests of the complete model with three wing planforms, two different leading-edge radii, and various combinations of component parts, including both leading- and trailing-edge flaps, were made over an angle-of-attack range from about -6 deg to 13 deg and at sideslip angles of 0 deg and 2 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.
1977-01-01
Transonic pressure and wind tunnel studies were performed to determine the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle which utilizes an all metallic, hot structure, thermal protection system resulting in low planform loading. The model was tested over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 4.63 for angles of attack from -4 deg to 32 deg at both 0 deg and 5 deg sideslip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freeman, D. C., Jr.; Fournier, R. H.
1978-01-01
The Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel used to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a winged single-state-to-orbit vehicle was investigated. The model was tested over a Mach number range from 0.3 to 4.63 for an angle-of-attack range from 4 to 30 D at both 0 and 5 D sideslip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruz, Christopher I.; Ware, George M.
1995-01-01
Wind tunnel tests were made with a scale model of the HL-20 in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Pitch control was investigated by deflecting the elevon surfaces on the outboard fins and body flaps on the fuselage. Yaw control tests were made with the all movable center fin deflected 5 deg. Almost full negative body flap deflection (-30 deg) was required to trim the HL-20 (moment reference center at 0.54-percent body length from nose) to positive values of life in the Mach number range from 1.6 to 2.5. Elevons were twice as effective as body flaps as a longitudinal trim device. The elevons were effective as a roll control, but because of tip-fin dihedral angle, produced about as much adverse yawing moment as rolling moment. The body flaps were less effective in producing rolling moment, but produced little adverse yawing moment. The yaw effectiveness of the all movable center fin was essentially constant over the angle-of-attack range at each Mach number. The value of yawing moment, however, was small. Center-fin deflection produced almost no rolling moments. The model was directionally unstable over most of the Mach number range with tip-fin dihedral angles less than the baseline value of 50 deg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Pak Shing; Martin, Daniel F.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.
2012-02-01
Performing a stable, long-duration simulation of driven MHD turbulence with a high thermal Mach number and a strong initial magnetic field is a challenge to high-order Godunov ideal MHD schemes because of the difficulty in guaranteeing positivity of the density and pressure. We have implemented a robust combination of reconstruction schemes, Riemann solvers, limiters, and constrained transport electromotive force averaging schemes that can meet this challenge, and using this strategy, we have developed a new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) MHD module of the ORION2 code. We investigate the effects of AMR on several statistical properties of a turbulent ideal MHD system with a thermal Mach number of 10 and a plasma β0 of 0.1 as initial conditions; our code is shown to be stable for simulations with higher Mach numbers ({{\\cal M}_rms}= 17.3) and smaller plasma beta (β0 = 0.0067) as well. Our results show that the quality of the turbulence simulation is generally related to the volume-averaged refinement. Our AMR simulations show that the turbulent dissipation coefficient for supersonic MHD turbulence is about 0.5, in agreement with unigrid simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, Richard E.; Reisert, Donald
1959-01-01
The maximum Mach number and altitude capabilities of the Bell X-2 research airplane were achieved during a program conducted by the U.S. Air Force with Bell Aircraft Corp. providing operational support and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration providing instrumentation and advisory engineering assistance. A maximum geometric altitude of 126,200 feet was attained at a static pressure of 9.4 pounds per square foot and a dynamic pressure of 19.1 pounds per square foot. During the last flight of the airplane, a maximum Mach number of 3.20 was reached. The directionally divergent maneuver which terminated the final high Mach number flight was precipitated by the loss in directional stability that resulted from increasing the angle of attack. The yawing moment from the lateral control was sufficient to initiate the divergence and also to cause,, indirectly, rolling moments that were greater than the aileron capabilities of the airplane. The ensuing violent motions-resulting from inertial roll coupling caused the loss of the aircraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keenan, James A.; Kuhlman, John M.
1991-01-01
A computational study was conducted on two wings, of aspect ratios 1.244 and 1.865, each having 65 degree leading edge sweep angles, to determine the effects of nonplanar winglets at supersonic Mach numbers. A Mach number of 1.62 was selected as the design value. The winglets studied were parametrically varied in alignment, length, sweep, camber, thickness, and dihedral angle to determine which geometry had the best predicted performance. For the computational analysis, an available Euler marching technique was used. The results indicated that the possibility existed for wing-winglet geometries to equal the performance of wing-alone bodies in supersonic flows with both bodies having the same semispan. The first wing with winglet used NACA 1402 airfoils for the base wing and was shown to have lift-to-pressure drag ratios within 0.136 percent to 0.360 percent of the NACA 1402 wing-alone. The other base wing was a natural flow wing which was previously designed specifically for a Mach number of 1.62. The results obtained showed that the natural wing-alone had a slightly higher lift-to-pressure drag than the natural wing with winglets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cubbage, James M., Jr.
1959-01-01
An investigation has been conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6 to 1.27 to determine the effect of multiple-jet exits on the base pressure of a simple wing-body combination. The design Mach number of the nozzles ranged from 1 to 3 at jet exit diameters equal to 36.4 to 75 percent of the model thickness. Jet total-pressure to free-stream static-pressure ratios ranged from 1 (no flow) to 34.2. The results show that the variation of base pressure coefficient with jet pressure ratio for the model tested was similar to that obtained for single nozzles in bodies of revolution in other investigations. As in the case for single jets the base pressure coefficient for the present model became less negative as the jet exit diameter increased. For a constant throat diameter and an assumed schedule of jet pressure ratio over the speed range of these tests, nozzle Mach number had only a small effect on base pressure coefficient.
Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I.; Martin, Daniel F.; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: klein@astron.berkeley.edu E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.edu
2012-02-01
Performing a stable, long-duration simulation of driven MHD turbulence with a high thermal Mach number and a strong initial magnetic field is a challenge to high-order Godunov ideal MHD schemes because of the difficulty in guaranteeing positivity of the density and pressure. We have implemented a robust combination of reconstruction schemes, Riemann solvers, limiters, and constrained transport electromotive force averaging schemes that can meet this challenge, and using this strategy, we have developed a new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) MHD module of the ORION2 code. We investigate the effects of AMR on several statistical properties of a turbulent ideal MHD system with a thermal Mach number of 10 and a plasma {beta}{sub 0} of 0.1 as initial conditions; our code is shown to be stable for simulations with higher Mach numbers (M{sub rms}= 17.3) and smaller plasma beta ({beta}{sub 0} = 0.0067) as well. Our results show that the quality of the turbulence simulation is generally related to the volume-averaged refinement. Our AMR simulations show that the turbulent dissipation coefficient for supersonic MHD turbulence is about 0.5, in agreement with unigrid simulations.
Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.
2016-04-15
Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010–2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ∼9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s{sup −1}, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Willard S.
1953-01-01
Drag and longitudinal trim at low lift of the North American YF-100A airplane at Mach numbers from 0.76 to 1.77 as determined from the flight test of a 0.11-scale rocket model are presented herein. Also included are some longitudinal stability and some qualitative pitch-damping data. The subsonic external-drag-coefficient level was about 0.012, and the supersonic level was about 0.043. The drag rise occurred at a Mach number of 0.95. The longitudinal trim change at low lift consisted basically of a mild nose-up tendency at a Mach number of 0.90. An indication of wing flutter was present at Mach numbers from 0.95 to 1.11. However, the full-scale airplane wing has approximately twice the scaled first-bending frequency as the model tested and, hence, will probably be free of this type of flutter. The aerodynamic-center location was 71 percent behind the leading edge of the mean aerodynamic chord at a Mach number of 1.03 and 62 percent at a Mach number of 1.74. Qualitative measurement of damping in pitch indicates that at low lift coefficients damping will be low at a Mach number of 1.03.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, Michael G.; Anders, Scott G.; Johnson, Stuart K.
2005-01-01
A wind tunnel test was conducted on a six percent thick slightly cambered elliptical circulation control airfoil with both upper and lower surface blowing. Parametric evaluations of jet slot heights and Coanda surface shapes were conducted at mass flow coefficients (C(sub mu)) from 0.0 to 0.12. The test data was acquired in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.8 and 0.3 at Reynolds numbers per foot of 1.05 x 10(exp 6) and 2.43 x 10(exp 5) respectively. For the transonic condition, (Mach = 0.8 at alpha = +3 deg), it was generally found that the smaller slot and larger Coanda surface were more effective overall than other slot/Coanda surface combinations. Generally it was found at Mach = 0.3 at alpha = 6 deg that the smaller slot and smaller Coanda surface were more effective overall than other slot/Coanda surface combinations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biermann, A.E.; Braithwaite, Willis M.
1955-01-01
An investigation of the endurance characteristics, at high Mach number, of the J65-W-7 engine was made in an altitude chamber at the Lewis laboratory. The investigation was made to determine whether this engine can be operated at flight conditions of Mach 2 at 35,000-feet altitude (inlet temperature, 250 F) as a limited-service-life engine Failure of the seventh-stage aluminum compressor blades occurred in both engines tested and was attributed to insufficient strength of the blade fastenings at the elevated temperatures. For the conditions of these tests, the results showed that it is reasonable to expect 10 to 15 minutes of satisfactory engine operation before failure. The high temperatures and pressures imposed upon the compressor housing caused no permanent deformation. In general, the performance of the engines tested was only slightly affected by the high ram conditions of this investigation. There was no discernible depreciation of performance with time prior to failure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steffen, F. W.
1974-01-01
An isolated 1.15 pressure ratio turbofan engine simulator was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.85. At Mach 0.75 the net propulsive force of the fan and nacelle (excluding core thrust) was 73 percent of the ideal fan net thrust. Internal losses amounted to 7 percent, and external drag amounted to 20 percent of the ideal fan net thrust. External pressure and friction drag were about equal. The propulsive efficiency with a 90 percent efficient fan would have been 63 percent. For the aerodynamic characteristics of the nacelle that was tested, increasing the fan pressure ratio to approximately 1.35 would have resulted in a maximum propulsive efficiency of 67 percent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buglia, James J.
1961-01-01
A highly polished hemisphere-cone having a ratio of nose radius to base radius of 0.74 and a half-angle of 14.5 was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 4.70. Temperature and pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers up to 3.14 and a free-stream Reynolds number of 24 x 10(exp 6) based on body diameter. The nose of the model had a surface roughness of 2 to 5 microinches as measured with an interferometer. The measured Stanton numbers were in good agreement with theory. Transition Reynolds numbers based on the laminar boundary-layer momentum thickness at transition ranged from 2,190 to 794. Comparison with results from previous tests of blunt shapes having a surface roughness of 20 to 40 microinches showed that the high degree of polish was instrumental in delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spahr, J. R.
1954-01-01
The lift, pitching-moment, and drag characteristics of a missile configuration having a body of fineness ratio 9.33 and a cruciform triangular wing and tail of aspect ratio 4 were measured at a Mach number of 1.99 and a Reynolds number of 6.0 million, based on the body length. The tests were performed through an angle-of-attack range of -5 deg to 28 deg to investigate the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of roll angle, wing-tail interdigitation, wing deflection, and interference among the components (body, wing, and tail). Theoretical lift and moment characteristics of the configuration and its components were calculated by the use of existing theoretical methods which have been modified for application to high angles of attack, and these characteristics are compared with experiment. The lift and drag characteristics of all combinations of the body, wing, and tail were independent of roll angle throughout the angle-of-attack range. The pitching-moment characteristics of the body-wing and body-wing-tail combinations, however, were influenced significantly by the roll angle at large angles of attack (greater than 10 deg). A roll from 0 deg (one pair of wing panels horizontal) to 45 deg caused a forward shift in the center of pressure which was of the same magnitude for both of these combinations, indicating that this shift originated from body-wing interference effects. A favorable lift-interference effect (lift of the combination greater than the sum of the lifts of the components) and a rearward shift in the center of pressure from a position corresponding to that for the components occurred at small angles of attack when the body was combined with either the exposed wing or tail surfaces. These lift and center-of-pressure interference effects were gradually reduced to zero as the angle of attack was increased to large values. The effect of wing-tail interference, which influenced primarily the pitching-moment characteristics, is dependent on the distance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spahr, J Richard
1954-01-01
The lift, pitching-moment, and drag characteristics of a missile configuration having a body of fineness ratio 9.33 and a cruciform triangular wing and tail of aspect ratio 4 were measured at a Mach number of 1.99 and a Reynolds number of 6.0 million, based on the body length. The tests were performed through an angle-of-attack range of -5 deg to 28 deg to investigate the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of roll angle, wing-tail interdigitation, wing deflection, and interference among the components (body, wing, and tail). Theoretical lift and moment characteristics of the configuration and its components were calculated by the use of existing theoretical methods which have been modified for application to high angles of attack, and these characteristics are compared with experiment. The lift and drag characteristics of all combinations of the body, wing, and tail were independent of roll angle throughout the angle-of-attack range. The pitching-moment characteristics of the body-wing and body-wing- tail combinations, however, were influenced significantly by the roll angle at large angles of attack (greater than 10 deg). A roll from 0 deg (one pair of wing panels horizontal) to 45 deg caused a forward shift in the center of pressure which was of the same magnitude for both of these combinations, indicating that this shift originated from body-wing interference effects. A favorable lift - interference effect (lift of the combination greater than the sum of the lifts of the components) and a rearward shift in the center of pressure from a position corresponding to that for the components occurred at small angles of attack when the body was combined with either the exposed wing or tail surfaces. These lift and center-of-pressure interference effects were gradually reduced to zero as the angle of attack was increased to large values. The effect of wing-tail interference, which influenced primarily the pitching-moment characteristics, is dependent on the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perkins, Edward W; Jorgensen, Leland H; Sommer, Simon C
1958-01-01
Experimental drag measurements at zero angle of attack for various theoretical minimum drag nose shapes, hemispherically blunted cones, and other more common profiles of fineness ratios of about 3 are compared with theoretical results for a Mach number and Reynolds number range of 1.24 to 7.4 and 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 7.5 x 10 to the 6th power (based on body length), respectively. The results of experimental pressure-distribution measurements are used for the development of an empirical expression for predicting the pressure drag of hemispherically blunted cones.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sakamoto, G. M.
1976-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of the angle of attack vane and the angle of sideslip vane are summarized. The test conditions ranged in free stream Mach number from 0.40 to 2.54, in angle of attack from -2 deg to 22 deg, in angle of sideslip from -2 deg to 12 deg, and in Reynolds number from 590,000 per meter to 1.8 million per meter. The results of the wind tunnel investigation are compared with results obtained with similar vane configurations. Comparisons with a NACA vane configuration are also made. In addition, wind tunnel-derived upwash for the test installation is compared with analytical predictions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katzen, Elliott D; Kaattari, George E
1956-01-01
The drag of a body alone, six triangular wings of various aspect ratios, and the combinations were measured at Mach numbers of 1.50 and 2.02 at a Reynolds number of 5.5 million (based on the body length). The experimental drag-interference results were in accordance with calculations based on NACA RM A9E19, 1949, with skin-friction effects taken into account, the interference effect being principally the result of fixing transition on the body by adding a wing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brewer, E. B.; Haberman, D. R.
1974-01-01
Heat transfer rates and pressures were measured on a 0.0175-scale model of the space shuttle external tank (ET), model MCR0200. Tests were conducted with the ET model separately and while mated with a 0.0175-scale model of the orbiter, model 21-OT (Grumman). The tests were conducted in the AEDC-VKF Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel (F) at Mach numbers 16 and 19. The primary data consisted of the interaction heating rates experienced by the ET while mated with the orbiter in the flight configuration. Data were taken for a range of Reynolds numbers from 50,000 to 65,000 under laminar flow conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaves, R. H.; Buchanan, T. D.
1972-01-01
Heat transfer tests for the delta wing orbiter were conducted in a hypervelocity wind tunnel. A 1.1 percent scale model was tested at a Mach number of approximately 10.5 over an angle of attack range from 10 to 60 degrees over a length Reynolds number range from 5 times 10 to the 6th power to 24 times 10 to the 6th power. Heat transfer results were obtained from model surface heat gage measurements and thermographic phosphor paint. Limited pressure measurements were obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferri, Antonio
1945-01-01
Two-dimensional data were obtained in Mach range of from 0.40 to 0.94 and Reynolds Number range of (3.4 - 4.2) X 10 Degrees. Results indicate that thickness ratio is dominating shape parameter at high Mach numbers and that aerodynamic advantages are attainable by using thinnest possible sections. Effects of jet boundaries, Reynolds Number, and Data presented are free from jet-boundary and humidity effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.
1993-01-01
Since mission profiles for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane include single-stage-to-orbit requirements, real gas effects may become important with respect to engine performance. The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane (where gamma=1.22) and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air (where gamma=1.4). In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.
1993-01-01
The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic 3D sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air. In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiang
The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kainulainen, J.; Tan, J. C.
2013-01-01
Context. Measuring the mass distribution of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) over the wide dynamic range of their column densities is a fundamental obstacle in determining the initial conditions of high-mass star formation and star cluster formation. Aims: We present a new technique to derive high-dynamic-range, arcsecond-scale resolution column density data for IRDCs and demonstrate the potential of such data in measuring the density variance - sonic Mach number relation in molecular clouds. Methods: We combine near-infrared data from the UKIDSS/Galactic Plane Survey with mid-infrared data from the Spitzer/GLIMPSE survey to derive dust extinction maps for a sample of ten IRDCs. We then examine the linewidths of the IRDCs using 13CO line emission data from the FCRAO/Galactic Ring Survey and derive a column density - sonic Mach number relation for them. For comparison, we also examine the relation in a sample of nearby molecular clouds. Results: The presented column density mapping technique provides a very capable, temperature independent tool for mapping IRDCs over the column density range equivalent to AV ≃ 1-100 mag at a resolution of 2″. Using the data provided by the technique, we present the first direct measurement of the relationship between the column density dispersion, σN/⟨N⟩, and sonic Mach number, ℳs, in molecular clouds. We detect correlation between the variables with about 3-σ confidence. We derive the relation σN/⟨N⟩ ≈ (0.047 ± 0.016)ℳs, which is suggestive of the correlation coefficient between the volume density and sonic Mach number, σρ/⟨ρ⟩ ≈ (0.20-0.22+0.37)ℳs, in which the quoted uncertainties indicate the 3-σ range. When coupled with the results of recent numerical works, the existence of the correlation supports the picture of weak correlation between the magnetic field strength and density in molecular clouds (i.e., B ∝ ρ0.5). While our results remain suggestive because of the small number of clouds in our
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reubush, D. E.; Runckel, J. F.
1973-01-01
An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of fineness ratio on the drag of circular-arc boattails at subsonic and low supersonic speeds. The boattails had closure ratios of 0.50 and incorporated convergent nozzles. The investigation was conducted statically and at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.30 at 0 deg angle of attack with jet total-pressure ratios varying from jet off to about 6, depending on Mach number. Low-fineness-ratio boattails had large separated-flow regions and the highest drag at all Mach numbers. Subsonic pressure-plus-friction drag levels were generally similar for boattails which did not have large separated regions. Drag-rise Mach number increased as boattail fineness ratio increased.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Richard; Dennis, David H
1951-01-01
The damping-in-Toll stability derivatives of a missile configuration and its components were determined both experimentally and theoretically. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 1.52 and at a Reynolds number, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing, of 0.82 x 10(exp 6). The experimental damping derivative of the wing-body combination was 67 percent of the theoretical value. The difference is believed to have resulted mainly from the fact that the theory is not strictly applicable when the Mach number normal to the leading edge is almost unity, which was the case in the present investigation. For the tail-body combination the damping derivative was 86 percent of the theoretical value. In this case, the difference is believed to have been caused partially by mutual interference between the tail surfaces and partially by the low Reynolds number of the flow over the tail. It was found that the damping of the complete configuration was not equal to the sum of the damping derivatives of the components because of the effect of the wing downwash on the damping of the tail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xinyi; Sironi, Lorenzo; Narayan, Ramesh
2014-12-01
Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (Ms <~ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (Ms = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (gsim 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.
Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo
2014-12-10
Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leavitt, L. D.
1983-01-01
The Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel was used to determine the effects of several empennage and afterbody parameters on the aft-end aerodynamic characteristics of a twin-engine fighter-type configuration. Model variables were as follows: horizontal tail axial location and incidence, vertical tail axial location and configuration (twin- versus single-tail arrangements), tail booms, and nozzle power setting. Tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.2 and over an angle-of-attack from -2 deg to 10 deg. Jet total-pressure ratio was varied from jet off to approximately 10.0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donaldson, J. C.; Sinclair, D. W.
1990-01-01
Measurements of fluctuating flow and mean flow parameters were made in the boundary layer on a cooled wall hollow cylinder model in an investigation of the stability of laminar boundary layers in hypersonic flow. The flow fluctuation measurements were made using constant current hot wire anemometry techniques. Boundary layer profile and model surface conditions were measured to supplement the hot wire data. Testing was done at Mach 8 with free stream unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 and 1.5 million per foot. The test equipment, test techniques, and the data acquisition and reduction procedures are described. Analysis of the hot wire anemometer data is beyond the scope.
1980-10-01
Ericsson, Lars E. and Reding , J. Peter, "Aerodynamic Effects of Bulbous Bases." NASA CR-1339, August 1969. 21. Wehrend, William R., Jr. "An Experimental...Flight at Mach Numbers from 0.7 to 1.3." NACA-RM-L52E06, September 1952. 36. Ericsson, Lars E. and Reding , J. Peter. "Viscous Interactions or Support...Interference -The Dynamicist’s Dilemma." AJAA Journal, Vol. 16, No.4, April 1978, pp. 363-368. 37. Reding , J. Peter and Ericsson, Lars E. "Dynamic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beke, Andrew
1957-01-01
A spike-type nose inlet with sharp-lip cowl was investigated at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 with water injection in its 16-inch diameter, 11-foot-long subsonic diffuser section. Inlet total temperature of exit with liquid-air ratios of about 0.04 with no apparent change in the critical pressure recovery. The observed temperature drops were less than the theoretically predicted values, and the amount of water evaporated was 35 to 50 percent less than that theoretically possible.
1974-12-20
PHI (A) 121-132 Aerodynamic Stability Coefficients- MACH CR/D w 1.75, THETA - 112.5 PHI (A) 133-144 Effect of Reynolds Number - Body Alone Aerodynamic...Stability PT (B) 145-146 ;i3 INDEX OF DATA FIGURES (Continued) PLOTTED CONDITIONS COEFFICIENTS TITLE VARYING SCHEDULE PAGE Effect of Step Down Body...THETA 0.0 Configura- (B) 147-148 tion Effect of Roll on Aerodynamic Coef- ficients, CR/D = 1.75, LAMBDA = 46.9 Degrees PHI (B) 149-150 Effect of Roll on
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beke, Andrew; Allen, John L; Williams, Thomas
1955-01-01
Pressure-recovery characteristics of a nacelle-type-spike inlet in combination with a vertical-wedge auxiliary scoop are presented for a free-stream Mach number of 1.9 at zero angle of attack. The auxiliary scoop provided 17 percent additional air flow with a drop in critical pressure recovery from 0.86 to 0.81. However, in terms of inlet-engine matching, the pressure recovery of the undersized spike inlet operating at a specified corrected air flow increased with the scoop open, for example, from 0.69 to 0.81.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tyson, R. W.; Muraca, R. J.
1975-01-01
The local linearization method for axisymmetric flow is combined with the transonic equivalence rule to calculate pressure distribution on slender bodies at free-stream Mach numbers from .8 to 1.2. This is an approximate solution to the transonic flow problem which yields results applicable during the preliminary design stages of a configuration development. The method can be used to determine the aerodynamic loads on parabolic arc bodies having either circular or elliptical cross sections. It is particularly useful in predicting pressure distributions and normal force distributions along the body at small angles of attack. The equations discussed may be extended to include wing-body combinations.
Conventional and nonconventional global Alfven eigenmodes in stellarators
Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; Geiger, J.; Fesenyuk, O. P.
2007-10-15
Conditions of the existence of the Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE) and Nonconventional Global Alfven Eigenmodes (NGAE) predicted for stellarators by Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 165004 (2005)] have been obtained. It is found that they depend on the nature of the rotational transform and that conditions for NGAE can be most easily satisfied in currentless stellarators. It is shown that the plasma compressibility may play an important role for the modes with the frequency about or less than that of the Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes. It is found that features of the Alfven continuum in the vicinity of the k{sub parallel}=0 radius (k{sub parallel}) is the longitudinal wave number) can be very different, depending on a parameter which we refer to as 'the sound parameter'. Specific calculations modeling low-frequency Alfven instabilities in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-AS [A. Weller et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 931 (2001)] are carried out, which are in reasonable agreement with the observations. It is emphasized that experimental data on low-frequency Alfvenic activity can be used for the reconstruction of the profile of the rotational transform. The mentioned results are obtained with the use of the equations derived in this paper for the GAE/NGAE modes and of the codes COBRAS and BOA-fe.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Albertson, Cindy W.
1989-01-01
Fluctuating pressures were measured beneath a Mach 5, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with an array of piezoresistive sensors. The data were obtained with a digital signal acquisition system during a test run of 4 seconds. Data sampling rate was such that frequency analysis up to 62.5 kHz could be performed. To assess in situ frequency response of the sensors, a specially designed waveguide calibration system was employed to measure transfer functions of all sensors and related instrumentation. Pressure time histories were approximated well by a Gaussian prohibiting distribution. Pressure spectra were very repeatable over the array span of 76 mm. Total rms pressures ranged from 0.0017 to 0.0046 of the freestream dynamic pressure. Streamwise, space-time correlations exhibited expected decaying behavior of a turbulence generated pressure field. Average convection speed was 0.87 of freestream velocity. The trendless behavior with sensor separation indicated possible systematic errors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bencze, D. P.
1977-01-01
Detailed interference force-and-pressure data were obtained on a representative supersonic transport wing-body-nacelle combination at Mach numbers of 0.9 to 1.4. The basic model consisted of a delta wing-body aerodynamic model with a length of 158.0 cm (62.2 in.) and a wingspan of 103.6 cm (40.8 in.) and four independently supported nacelles positioned beneath the model. The experimental program was conducted in the Ames 11- by 11-Foot Wind Tunnel at a constant unit Reynolds number. The primary variables examined included Mach number, angle of attack, nacelle position, and nacelle mass-flow ratio. Under the most favorable conditions, the net interference drag was equal to 50 percent the drag of four isolated nacelles at M = 1.4, 75 percent at M = 1.15, and 144 percent at M = 0.90. The overall interference effects were found to be rather constant over the operating angle-of-attack range of the configuration. The effects of mass-flow ratio on the interference pressure distributions were limited to the lip region of the nacelle and the local wing surface in the immediate vicinity of the nacelle lip. The net change in the measured interference forces resulting from variations in the nacelle mass-flow ratio were found to be quite small.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devade, Kiran D.; Pise, Ashok T.
2017-01-01
Ranque Hilsch vortex tube is a device that can produce cold and hot air streams simultaneously from pressurized air. Performance of vortex tube is influenced by a number of geometrical and operational parameters. In this study parametric analysis of vortex tube is carried out. Air is used as the working fluid and geometrical parameters like length to diameter ratio (15, 16, 17, 18), exit valve angles (30°-90°), orifice diameters (5, 6 and 7 mm), 2 entry nozzles and tube divergence angle 4° is used for experimentation. Operational parameters like pressure (200-600 kPa), cold mass fraction (0-1) is varied and effect of Mach number at the inlet of the tube is investigated. The vortex tube is tested at sub sonic (0 < Ma < 1), sonic (Ma = 1) and supersonic (1 < Ma < 2) Mach number, and its effect on thermal performance is analysed. As a result it is observed that, higher COP and low cold end temperature is obtained at subsonic Ma. As CMF increases, COP rises and cold and temperature drops. Optimum performance of the tube is observed for CMF up to 0.5. Experimental correlations are proposed for optimum COP. Parametric correlation is developed for geometrical and operational parameters.
Gas-jet and tangent-slot film cooling tests of a 12.5 deg cone at Mach number of 6.7
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nowak, Robert J.
1988-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to determine the aerothermal effects of gaseous nitrogen-coolant ejection on a 3-ft base-diameter, 12.5 degree half-angle cone. Free-stream Mach number, total temperature, and unit Reynolds number per foot were 6.7, 3300 deg R, and 1.4 million, respectively. Two coolant ejection noses were tested, an ogive frustum with a forward-facing 0.8-in radius gas-jet tip, and a 3-in radius hemisphere with a 0.243-in high rearward-facing tangent slot. Data include surface pressures and heating rates, shock shapes, and shock-layer profiles; results are compared with no-cooling data obtained with 1-in and 3-in radius solid noses. Surface pressures were reduced with gas-jet ejection but were affected little by tangent-slot ejection. For both gas-jet and tangent-slot ejection, high coolant flow rates reduced heating even far downstream from the region of ejection; however, low coolant rates caused transition to turbulence and increased heating. Shock-layer profiles of pitot pressure, Mach number, and total temperature were reduced for both gas-jet and tangent-slot ejection. Insight into the gas-jet heat-flux mechanisms was obtained by using shock-layer rake data and established, no-cooling, heat-transfer equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Bianca Trujillo; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.
1990-01-01
The results are discussed of the variable sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE). The VSTFE was a natural laminar flow experiment flown on the swing wing F-14A aircraft. The main objective of the VSTFE was to determine the effects of wing sweep on boundary layer transition at conditions representative of transport aircraft. The experiment included the flight testing of two laminar flow wing gloves. Glove 1 was a cleanup of the existing F-14A wing. Glove 2, not discussed herein, was designed to provide favorable pressure distributions for natural laminar flow at Mach number (M) 0.700. The transition locations presented for glove 1 were determined primarily by using hot film sensors. Boundary layer rake data was provided as a supplement. Transition data were obtained for leading edge wing sweeps of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degs, with Mach numbers ranging from 0.700 to 0.825, and altitudes ranging from 10,000 to 35,000 ft. Results show that a substantial amount of laminar flow was maintained at all the wing sweeps evaluated. The maximum transition Reynolds number of 13.7 x 10(exp 6) was obtained for the condition of 15 deg of sweep, M = 0.800, and an altitude of 20,000 ft.
The parametric decay of Alfven waves into shear Alfven waves and dust lower hybrid waves
Jamil, M.; Shah, H. A.; Zubia, K.; Zeba, I.; Uzma, Ch.; Salimullah, M.
2010-07-15
The parametric decay instability of Alfven wave into low-frequency electrostatic dust-lower-hybrid and electromagnetic shear Alfven waves has been investigated in detail in a dusty plasma in the presence of external/ambient uniform magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic fluid equations of plasmas have been employed to find the linear and nonlinear response of the plasma particles for this three-wave nonlinear coupling in a dusty magnetoplasma. Here, relatively high frequency electromagnetic Alfven wave has been taken as the pump wave. It couples with other two low-frequency internal possible modes of the dusty magnetoplasma, viz., the dust-lower-hybrid and shear Alfven waves. The nonlinear dispersion relation of the dust-lower-hybrid wave has been solved to obtain the growth rate of the parametric decay instability. The growth rate is maximum for small value of external magnetic field B{sub s}. It is noticed that the growth rate is proportional to the unperturbed electron number density n{sub oe}.
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an Alfven resonant layer of a solar coronal loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Uchimoto, E.; Strauss, H. R.; Lawson, W. S.
1991-01-01
A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been identified numerically on an azimuthally symmetric Alfven resonant layer in an axially bounded, straight cylindrical coronal loop. The set of equations is solved numerically as an initial value problem. The linear growth rate of this instability is shown to be approximately proportional to the Alfven driving amplitude and inversely proportional to the width of the Alfven resonant layer. It is also shown that the linear growth rate increases linearly with m - 1 up to a certain m, reaches its maximum value for the mode whose half wavelength is comparable to the Alfven resonant layer width, and decreases at higher azimuthal mode number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Disher, John H; Rabinowitz, Leonard
1950-01-01
Performance of four 16-inch-diameter ram-jet units was determined at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.49 to 1.78 over range of gas total-temperature ratios of 1.0 to 6.1. Time histories of each flight and data on thrust, drag, diffuser efficiency, and combustion are presented. A maximum thrust coefficient of 0.88 and a maximum net acceleration of 5.13 g's were observed for the four units.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Jim J.
1959-01-01
The heat-transfer rates were measured on a series of cones of various surface finishes at a Mach number of 4.95 and Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 20 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6). The range of surface finish was from a very smooth polish to smooth machining with no polish (65 micro inches rms). Some laminar boundary-layer data were obtained, since transition was not artificially tripped. Emphasis, however, is centered on the turbulent boundary layer. The results indicated that the turbulent heat-transfer rate for the highest roughness tested was only slightly greater than that for the smoothest surface. The laminar-sublayer thickness was calculated to be about half the roughness height for the roughest model at the highest value of unit Reynolds number tested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Sutton, Kenneth (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report documents the results of a study conducted to compute the inviscid longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of three aeroshell configurations of the proposed '07 Mars lander. This was done in support of the activity to design a smart lander for the proposed '07 Mars mission. In addition to the three configurations with tabs designated as the shelf, the canted, and the Ames, the baseline configuration (without tab) was also studied. The unstructured grid inviscid CFD software FELISA was used, and the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the four configurations were computed for Mach number of 2.3, 2.7, 3.5, and 4.5, and for an angle of attack range of -4 to 20 degrees. Wind tunnel tests had been conducted on scale models of these four configurations in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, NASA Langley Research Center. Present computational results are compared with the data from these tests. Some differences are noticed between the two results, particularly at the lower Mach numbers. These differences are attributed to the pressures acting on the aft body. Most of the present computations were done on the forebody only. Additional computations were done on the full body (forebody and afterbody) for the baseline and the Shelf configurations. Results of some computations done (to simulate flight conditions) with the Mars gas option and with an effective gamma are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jaehong; Ren, Chuang; Workman, Jared C.; Blackman, Eric G.
2013-03-01
Low Mach number, high beta fast mode shocks can occur in the magnetic reconnection outflows of solar flares. These shocks, which occur above flare loop tops, may provide the electron energization responsible for some of the observed hard X-rays and contemporaneous radio emission. Here we present new two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of low Mach number/high beta quasi-perpendicular shocks. The simulations show that electrons above a certain energy threshold experience shock-drift-acceleration. The transition energy between the thermal and non-thermal spectrum and the spectral index from the simulations are consistent with some of the X-ray spectra from RHESSI in the energy regime of E <~ 40 ~ 100 keV. Plasma instabilities associated with the shock structure such as the modified-two-stream and the electron whistler instabilities are identified using numerical solutions of the kinetic dispersion relations. We also show that the results from PIC simulations with reduced ion/electron mass ratio can be scaled to those with the realistic mass ratio.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musial, Norman T.; Ward, James J.
1961-01-01
A generalized study of base flow phenomena has been conducted with four 500-pound-thrust JP-4 fuel-liquid-oxygen rocket motors installed in the base of a 12-inch-diameter cylindrical model. Data were obtained over a Mach number and nozzle pressure ratio range of 2.0 to 3.5 and 340 to 600, respectively. Base heat flux, gas temperature, and pressure were highest in the center of the cluster core and decreased in a radial direction. Although a maximum heat flux of 93 Btu per square foot per second was measured within the cluster core, peripheral heat fluxes were low, averaging about 5 Btu per square foot per second for all configurations. Generally base heat flux was found to be independent of Mach number over the range investigated. Base heat flux within the cluster core was decreased by increasing motor spacing, motor extension, a combination of increasing nozzle area ratio and decreasing exit angle and gimbaling the two side engines. Small amounts of nitrogen injected within the cluster core sharply reduced core heat flux.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dryer, Murray; Beke, Andrew
1952-01-01
The performance characteristics of a downward canted normal-shock side (scoop) inlet located downstream of a triangular control surface are presented for free-stream Mach numbers of 1.5 and 1.8 in terms of total pressure recovery and mass flow ratio for various boundary-layer removal systems,angles of attack, control surface deflections and adverse yaw. An engine operating condition for a hypothetical turbojet engine is established, and the match point characteristics of the engine-inlet configuration are summarized. 520::It is shown that the diffuser performance increases with increased boundary-layer removal and decreases because of the presence of the wake from the forward control surface. At the higher angles of attack the wake passes over the inlet and does not affect the inlet performance. Adverse yaw reduces the total pressure recovery values below those for the unawed case. Magnitudes of the total pressure recovery were below the theoretical normal-shock recovery for the respective test Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bencze, D. P.
1976-01-01
Detailed interference force and pressure data were obtained on a representative wing-body nacelle combination at Mach numbers of 0.9 to 1.4. The model consisted of a delta wing-body aerodynamic force model with four independently supported nacelles located beneath the wing-body combination. The primary variables examined included Mach number, angle of attack, nacelle position, and nacelle mass flow ratio. Four different configurations were tested to identify various interference forces and pressures on each component; these included tests of the isolated nacelle, the isolated wing-body combination, the four nacelles as a unit, and the total wing-body-nacelle combination. Nacelle axial location, relative to both the wing-body combination and to each other, was the most important variable in determining the net interference among the components. The overall interference effects were found to be essentially constant over the operating angle-of-attack range of the configuration, and nearly independent of nacelle mass flow ratio.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nason, Martin L.; Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Rock, Rupert S.
1955-01-01
A linear stability analysis and flight-test investigation has been performed on a rolleron-type roll-rate stabilization system for a canard-type missile configuration through a Mach number range from 0.9 to 2.3. This type damper provides roll damping by the action of gyro-actuated uncoupled wing-tip ailerons. A dynamic roll instability predicted by the analysis was confirmed by flight testing and was subsequently eliminated by the introduction of control-surface damping about the rolleron hinge line. The control-surface damping was provided by an orifice-type damper contained within the control surface. Steady-state rolling velocities were at all times less than 1 radian per second between the Mach numbers of 0.9 to 2.3 on the configurations tested. No adverse longitudinal effects were experienced in flight because of the tendency of the free-floating rollerons to couple into the pitching motion at the low angles of attack and disturbance levels investigated herein after the introduction of control-surface damping.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mack, Robert J.
1988-01-01
A wind-tunnel study was conducted to determine the capability of a method combining linear theory and shock-expansion theory to design optimum camber surfaces for wings that will fly at high-supersonic/low-hypersonic speeds. Three force models (a flat-plate reference wing and two cambered and twisted wings) were used to obtain aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching-moment data. A fourth pressure-orifice model was used to obtain surface-pressure data. All four wing models had the same planform, airfoil section, and centerbody area distribution. The design Mach number was 4.5, but data were also obtained at Mach numbers of 3.5 and 4.0. Results of these tests indicated that the use of airfoil thickness as a theoretical optimum, camber-surface design constraint did not improve the aerodynamic efficiency or performance of a wing as compared with a wing that was designed with a zero-thickness airfoil (linear-theory) constraint.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pittman, J. L.
1979-01-01
Aerodynamic predictions from supersonic linear theory and hypersonic impact theory were compared with experimental data for three hypersonic research airplane concepts over a Mach number range from 1.10 to 2.86. The linear theory gave good lift prediction and fair to good pitching-moment prediction over the Mach number (M) range. The tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone/tangent-wedge method gave the least accurate prediction of lift and pitching moment. The zero-lift drag was overestimated, especially for M less than 2.0. The linear theory drag prediction was generally poor, with areas of good agreement only for M less than or equal to 1.2. For M more than or equal to 2.), the tangent-cone method predicted the zero-lift drag most accurately.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Bianca Trujillo; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.
1990-01-01
The variable sweep transition flight experiment (VSTFE) was conducted on an F-14A variable sweep wing fighter to examine the effect of wing sweep on natural boundary layer transition. Nearly full span upper surface gloves, extending to 60 percent chord, were attached to the F-14 aircraft's wings. The results are presented of the glove 2 flight tests. Glove 2 had an airfoil shape designed for natural laminar flow at a wing sweep of 20 deg. Sample pressure distributions and transition locations are presented with the complete results tabulated in a database. Data were obtained at wing sweeps of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 deg, at Mach numbers ranging from 0.60 to 0.79, and at altitudes ranging from 10,000 to 35,000 ft. Results show that a substantial amount of laminar flow was maintained at all the wing sweeps evaluated. The maximum transition Reynolds number obtained was 18.6 x 10(exp 6) at 15 deg of wing sweep, Mach 0.75, and at an altitude of 10,000 ft.
Global Alfven eigenmodes in WELDELSTEIN 7-AS
Weller, A.; Goerner, C.; Jaenicke, R.
1995-09-01
In the presence of fast particle populations marginally stable global modes in the shear Alfven branch can be destabilized by wave particle resonances. This is particularly of concern in future large devices, where losses of resonant particles ({alpha}-particles in a reactor) may then limit the available heating power and also may cause damage of the first wall. In tokamaks TAE modes inside toroidicity induced gaps of the shear Alfven continua have been found. In stellarators with very weak shear like W7-AS low-n TAE-gaps do not occur but gaps below the shear Alfven continua with mode numbers m and n, if the resonant values {tau} = n/m do not exist in the plasma volume (k{sub {parallel}} = (m{sm_bullet}{tau} - n )/R {ne} 0 ). Under these conditions GAE modes with frequencies {omega}{sub GAE} < (k{sub {parallel}}{sm_bullet}V{sub A}){sub min} are the favoured modes. The investigation of GAE modes could also be of relevance in the case of advanced tokamak equilibria with flat or inverted q-profiles in the central region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lord, D. R.
1957-01-01
An investigation has been made at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01 and Reynolds numbers of 1.7 x l0(exp 6) and 3.6 x l0(exp 6) to determine the pressure distributions over a swept wing with a series of 14 control configurations. The wing had 40 deg of sweep of the quarter-chord line, an aspect ratio of 3.1, and a taper ratio of 0.4. Measurements were made at angles of attack from 0 deg to +/- 15 deg for control deflections from -60 deg to 60 deg. This report contains tabulated pressure data for the complete range of test conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robins, A. W.; Lamb, M.; Miller, D. S.
1979-01-01
An exploratory, experimental, and theoretical investigation was made of a cambered, twisted, and blended wing-body concept with and without integral canard surfaces. Theoretical calculations of the static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-body configurations were compared with the characteristics obtained from tests of a model in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. Mach numbers of 1.5, 1.8, and 2.0 and a Reynolds number per meter of 6.56 million were used in the calculations and tests. Overall results suggest that planform selection is extremely important and that the supplemental application of new calculation techniques should provide a process for the design of supersonic wings in which spanwise distribution of upwash and leading-edge thrust might be rationally controlled and exploited.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Gerald V.
1959-01-01
An investigation of the static stability characteristics of several hypersonic boost-glide configurations has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01 (with Reynolds numbers per foot of 2.90 x 10(exp 6) and 2.41 x 10(exp 6) respectively). This series of configurations consisted of a cone, with and without cruciform fins, a trihedron, two low-aspect-ratio delta wings that differed primarily in cross-sectional shape, and two wing-body configurations. All configurations indicated reasonably linear pitching-, yawing-, and rolling-moment characteristics for angles of attack to at least 12 deg. The maximum lift-drag ratio for the zero-thrust condition (base drag included) was about 3 for the delta-wing configurations and about 4 for the wing-body configurations.
Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Balloon as a Towed Decelerator at Mach Numbers from 1.47 to 2.50
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McShera, John T.; Keyes, J. Wayne
1961-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to study the characteristics of a towed spherical balloon as a drag device at Mach numbers from 1.47 to 2.50, Reynolds numbers from 0.36 x 10(exp 6) to 1.0 x 10(exp 6) , and angles of attack from -15 to 15 deg. Towed spherical balloons were found to be stable at supersonic speeds. The drag coefficient of the balloon is reduced by the presence of a tow cable and a further reduction occurs with the addition of a payload. The balloon inflation pressure required to maintain an almost spherical shape is about equal to the free-stream dynamic pressure. Measured pressure and temperature distribution around the balloon alone were in fair agreement with predicted values. There was a pronounced decrease in the pressure coefficients on the balloon when attached to a tow cable behind a payload.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davenport, E. E.
1972-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 2.30 and 4.63 to determine the static aerodynamic characteristics of three 60 deg half-angle cone models. Configuration 1 was obtained by raking off a symmetrical cone at a base angle of 6.15 deg, and configuration 2 and 3 were obtained by adding flaps to a symmetrical cone. The models were tested at angles of attack from about -5 deg to about 20 deg at roll angles of 0 deg to -180 deg and at a freestream Reynolds number of 1.09 x one million, based on body diameter. The results showed that all three configurations produced finite values of lift-drag ratio useful for lifting planetary entry. All three configurations exhibited increases in yawing moment and side force with roll angle; thus, the capability for lateral trajectory control is provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, J. C.; Collins, I. K.; Howell, D. T.; Hayes, C.
1979-01-01
Tabulated surface pressure data for a series of forebodies which have analytically defined cross sections and are based on a 20 degs half-angle cone are presented without analysis. Five of the cross sections were ellipses having axis ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2, and 1/3. The sixth cross section was defined by a curve having a single lobe. The data generally cover angles of attack from -5 degs to 20 degs at angles of sideslip from 0 degs to 5 degs for Mach numbers of 1.70, 2.50, 3.95, and 4.50 at a constant Reynolds number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen E.; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results of visualization of separated flow around a generic entry capsule that resembles the Apollo Command Module (CM) and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The model was tested at flow speeds up to Mach 0.4 at a single angle of attack of 28 degrees. For manned spacecraft using capsule-shaped vehicles, certain flight operations such as emergency abort maneuvers soon after launch and flight just prior to parachute deployment during the final stages of entry, the command module may fly at low Mach number. Under these flow conditions, the separated flow generated from the heat-shield surface on both windward and leeward sides of the capsule dominates the wake flow downstream of the capsule. In this paper, flow visualization of the separated flow was conducted using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method, which has the capability of visualizing significantly separated wake flows without the particle seeding required by other techniques. Experimental results herein show that BOS has detection capability of density changes on the order of 10(sup-5).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Ira J.; Covell, Peter F.; Forrest, Dana K.
1993-01-01
An experimental investigation of the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic research vehicle was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). A parametric study was performed to determine the interference effects of various model components. Configuration variables included delta and trapezoidal canards; large and small centerline-mounted vertical tails, along with a set of wing-mounted vertical tails; and a set of model noses with different degrees of bluntness. Wing position was varied by changing the longitudinal location and the incidence angle. The test Mach numbers were 1.5 and 2.0 at Reynolds numbers of 1 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 2 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Angle of attack was varied from -4 degrees to 27 degrees, and sideslip angle was varied from -8 degrees to 8 degrees. Generally, the effect of Reynolds number did not deviate from conventional trends. The longitudinal stability and lift-curve slope decreased with increasing Mach number. As the wing was shifted rearward, the lift-curve slope decreased and the longitudinal stability increased. Also, the wing-mounted vertical tails resulted in a more longitudinally stable configuration. In general, the lift-drag ratio was not significantly affected by vertical-tail arrangement. The best lateral-directional stability was achieved with the large centerline-mounted tail, although the wing-mounted vertical tails exhibited the most favorable characteristics at the higher angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keener, E. R.; Chapman, G. T.; Taleghani, J.; Cohen, L.
1977-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of four forebodies at high angles of attack. The forebodies tested were a tangent ogive with fineness ratio of 5, a paraboloid with fineness ratio of 3.5, a 20 deg cone, and a tangent ogive with an elliptic cross section. The investigation included the effects of nose bluntness and boundary-layer trips. The tangent-ogive forebody was also tested in the presence of a short afterbody and with the afterbody attached. Static longitudinal and lateral/directional stability data were obtained. The investigation was conducted to investigate the existence of large side forces and yawing moments at high angles of attack and zero sideslip. It was found that all of the forebodies experience steady side forces that start at angles of attack of from 20 deg to 35 deg and exist to as high as 80 deg, depending on forebody shape. The side is as large as 1.6 times the normal force and is generally repeatable with increasing and decreasing angle of attack and, also, from test to test. The side force is very sensitive to the nature of the boundary layer, as indicated by large changes with boundary trips. The maximum side force caries considerably with Reynolds number and tends to decrease with increasing Mach number. The direction of the side force is sensitive to the body geometry near the nose. The angle of attack of onset of side force is not strongly influenced by Reynolds number or Mach number but varies with forebody shape. Maximum normal force often occurs at angles of attack near 60 deg. The effect of the elliptic cross section is to reduce the angle of onset by about 10 deg compared to that of an equivalent circular forebody with the same fineness ratio. The short afterbody reduces the angle of onset by about 5 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Little, B H , Jr; Wilbur, Stafford W
1954-01-01
For each of two inlet-boundary-layer thicknesses, performance and boundary-layer characteristics have been determined for a 12 degree, 10-inch-inlet-diameter diffuser, a 12 degree, 21-inch-inlet-diameter diffuser, and a 23 degree, 21-inch-inlet-diameter diffuser. The investigation covered an inlet Mach number range from about 0.10 to coking. The corresponding inlet Reynolds number, based on inlet diameter, varied from about 0.5 x 10(6) to 7.5 x 10(6).
Phenomenology of Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes
E.D. Fredrickson; N.N. Gorelenkov; J. Menard
2004-05-13
Coherent oscillations with frequency 0.3 {le} {omega}/{omega}{sub ci} {le} 1, are seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y-K.M. Peng, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. This paper presents new data and analysis comparing characteristics of the observed modes to the model of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE). The toroidal mode number has been measured and is typically between 7 < n < 9. The polarization of the modes, measured using an array of four Mirnov coils, is found to be compressional. The frequency scaling of the modes agrees with the predictions of a numerical 2-D code, but the detailed structure of the spectrum is not captured with the simple model. The fast ion distribution function, as calculated with the beam deposition code in TRANSP [R.V. Budny, Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)], is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the constraints of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance drive model. This model also predicts the observed scaling of the low frequency limit for CAE.
Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 2.72
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1968-01-01
Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 2.72 and a Dynamic Pressure of 9.7 Pounds per Square Foot. A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2 meter) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator (SPED-I) Program. The test parachute was deployed from an instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at an altitude of 158,500 feet (48.2 kilometers), a Mach number of 2.72, and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 9.7 pounds per foot(exp 2) (465 newtons per meter(exp 2)). Suspension line stretch occurred 0.46 second after mortar firing and the resulting snatch force loading was -8.lg. The maximum acceleration experienced by the payload due to parachute opening was -27.2g at 0.50 second after the snatch force peak for a total elapsed time from mortar firing of 0.96 second. Canopy-shape variations occurred during the higher Mach number portion of the flight test (M greater than 1.4) and the payload was subjected to large amplitude oscillatory loads. A calculated average nominal axial-force coefficient ranged from about 0.25 immediately after the first canopy opening to about 0.50 as the canopy attained a steady inflated shape. One gore of the test parachute was damaged when the deployment bag with mortar lid passed through it from behind approximately 2 seconds after deployment was initiated. Although the canopy damage caused by the deployment bag penetration had no apparent effect on the functional capability of the test parachute, it may have affected parachute performance since the average effective drag coefficient of 0.48 was 9 percent less than that of a previously tested parachute of the same configuration. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031009. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, Aleck C.; Rumsey, Charles B.
1957-01-01
Skin temperatures and surface pressures have been measured on a slightly blunted cone-cylinder-flare configuration to a maximum Mach number of 9.89 with a rocket-propelled model. The cone had a t o t a l angle of 25 deg and the flare had a 10 deg half-angle. Temperature data were obtained at eight cone locations, four cylinder locations, and seven flare locations; pressures were measured at one cone location, one cylinder location, and three flare locations. Four stages of propulsion were utilized and a reentry type of trajectory was employed in which the high-speed portion of flight was obtained by firing the last two stages during the descent of the model from a peak altitude of 99,400 feet. The Reynolds number at peak Mach number was 1.2 x 10(exp 6) per foot of model length. The model length was 6.68 feet. During the higher speed portions of flight, temperature measurements along one element of the nose cone indicated that the boundary layer was probably laminar, whereas on the opposite side of the nose the measurements indicated transitional or turbulent flow. Temperature distributions along one meridian of the model showed the flare to have the highest temperatures and the cylinder generally to have the lowest. A maximum temperature of 970 F was measured on the cone element showing the transitional or turbulent flow; along the opposite side of the model, the maximum temperatures of the cone, cylinder, and flare were 545 F, 340 F, and 680 F, respectively, at the corresponding time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham-van-Diep, Gerald C.; Muntz, E. Phillip; Erwin, Daniel A.
1990-06-01
Shock wave thickness predictions from Monte Carlo Direct Simulations, using differential scattering and the Maitland-Smith-Aziz interatomic potential, underpredict experiments as shock Mach numbers increase above about 4. Examination of several sources of data has indicated that at relatively high energies the repulsive portion of accepted potentials such as the Maitland-Smith-Aziz may be too steep. An Exponential-6 potential due to Ross, based on high energy molecular beam scattering data and shock velocity measurements in liquid argon, has been combined with the lower energy portion of the Maitland-Smith-Aziz potential. When this hybrid potential is used in Monte Carlo Direct Simulations, agreement with experiments is improved over the previous predictions using the pure Maitland-Smith-Aziz form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dods, J. B., Jr.; Hanly, R. D.; Efting, J. H.
1973-01-01
Overall fluctuating pressure levels of seven space shuttle launch configurations are presented. The model was a 4-percent-scale space shuttle vehicle, tested in both a 11- by 11-foot transonic wind tunnel and a 9- by 7-foot supersonic wind tunnel. Mach numbers varied from 0.8 to 2.2, and the angle of attack range was from -8 deg to 8 deg at angles of sideslip of -5 deg, and 5 deg. The model configurations included both series-burn and parallel-burn configurations, two canopy configurations, two positions of the orbiter nose relative to the HO tank nose and two HO tank nose-cone angles (15 deg and 20 deg). The fluctuating pressure levels are presented in three forms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Muntz, E. Phillip; Erwin, Daniel A.
1990-01-01
Shock wave thickness predictions from Monte Carlo Direct Simulations, using differential scattering and the Maitland-Smith-Aziz interatomic potential, underpredict experiments as shock Mach numbers increase above about 4. Examination of several sources of data has indicated that at relatively high energies the repulsive portion of accepted potentials such as the Maitland-Smith-Aziz may be too steep. An Exponential-6 potential due to Ross, based on high energy molecular beam scattering data and shock velocity measurements in liquid argon, has been combined with the lower energy portion of the Maitland-Smith-Aziz potential. When this hybrid potential is used in Monte Carlo Direct Simulations, agreement with experiments is improved over the previous predictions using the pure Maitland-Smith-Aziz form.
Effects of Yaw on the Heat Transfer to a Blunt Cone-Cylinder Configuration at a Mach Number of 1.98
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
English, Roland D.
1958-01-01
A heat-transfer investigation has been made on a blunt cone-cylinder model at a Mach number of 1.98 at yaw angles from 0 deg to 9 deg. The results indicate that, except for the hemispherical nose, the heat-transfer coefficient increased on the windward side and decreased on the leeward side as yaw angle was increased. In general, the increase in heat transfer on the windward side was higher than the corresponding decrease on the leeward side. A comparison with theory (NACA Technical Note 4208) yielded agreement which was, in general, within 10 percent on the cone at all test conditions and on the cylinder at an angle of yaw of 0 deg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, A. M.; Zingale, M.; Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.
2016-08-01
The dynamics of helium shell convection driven by nuclear burning establish the conditions for runaway in the sub-Chandrasekhar-mass, double-detonation model for SNe Ia, as well as for a variety of other explosive phenomena. We explore these convection dynamics for a range of white dwarf core and helium shell masses in three dimensions using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code MAESTRO. We present calculations of the bulk properties of this evolution, including time-series evolution of global diagnostics, lateral averages of the 3D state, and the global 3D state. We find a variety of outcomes, including quasi-equilibrium, localized runaway, and convective runaway. Our results suggest that the double-detonation progenitor model is promising and that 3D dynamic convection plays a key role.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miser, James W; Stewart, Warner L
1957-01-01
A blade design study is presented for a two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at a Mach number of 2.5 for which velocity diagrams have been previously obtained. The detailed procedure used in the design of the blades is given. In addition, the design blade shapes, surface velocity distributions, inner and outer wall contours, and other design data are presented. Of all the blade rows, the first-stage rotor has the highest solidity, with a value of 2.289 at the mean section. The second-stage stator also had a high mean-section solidity of 1.927, mainly because of its high inlet whirl. The second-stage rotor has the highest value of the suction-surface diffusion parameter, with a value of 0.151. All other blade rows have values for this parameter under 0.100.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramsey, P.; Robertson, M. K.
1973-01-01
A test of a 0.004-scale MCR 0074 Baseline Launch Configuration Space Shuttle model was conducted in the NASA-MSFC 14 x 14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel (MSFC TWT 566). The objective of the test was to determine the effects of model parametric variations on aerodynamic static stability characteristics over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 4.96. Angles-of-attack from minus 10 deg to plus 10 deg at 0 deg sideslip and angles-of-sideslip from minus 10 deg to plus 10 deg at minus 5 deg, 0 deg, and plus 5 deg angle-of-attack were investigated. The basic configuration investigated was the integrated vehicle consisting of the orbiter, and external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. It was designated 03T9S3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, M. L.; Putnam, L. E.
1979-01-01
The flow field behind a circular arc nozzle with exhaust jet was studied at subsonic free stream Mach numbers. A conical probe was used to measure the pitot pressure in the jet and free stream regions. Pressure data were recorded for two nozzle configurations at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0, 2.9, and 5.0. At each set of test conditions, the probe was traversed from the jet center line into the free stream region at seven data acquisition stations. The survey began at the nozzle exit and extended downstream at intervals. The pitot pressure data may be applied to the evaluation of computational flow field models, as illustrated by a comparison of the flow field data with results of inviscid jet plume theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cortright, Edgar M , Jr; Schroeder, Albert H
1951-01-01
Experimental side and bade pressure distributions over a series of conical boattails without and with jet flow from the base are presented at a Mach number of 1.91. For the case of no jet flow the methods of characteristics and linearized theory are shown to overpredict the side pressure drag. A semi-empirical theory is presented to predict the effect of boattail angle on base pressure. With the boattail extending to a sharp edge at the nozzle exit, the over-pressure jet is shown to decrease the side pressure drag. Presence of an annular base may eliminate the effect of the jet on the side pressure drag, but the jet effect on the base pressure drag may greatly increase or decrease the total boattail drag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voit, Charles H; Guentert, Donald C; Dugan, James F
1950-01-01
A complete stage of an axial-flow compressor was designed and built to investigate the possibility of obtaining a high pressure ratio with an acceptable efficiency through the use of the optimum combination of high blade loading and high relative inlet Mach number. Over-all stage performance was investigated over a range of flows at equivalent tip speeds of 418 to 836 feet per second. At design speed (836 ft/sec), a peak total-pressure ration of 1.445 was obtained with an adiabatic efficiency of 0.89. For design angle of attack at the mean radius, a total-pressure ratio of 1.392 was obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reubush, D. E.; Mercer, C. E.
1974-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the exhaust-nozzle aerodynamic and propulsive characteristics for a twin-jet variable-wing-sweep fighter airplane model. The powered model was tested in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel and in the Langley 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers to 2.2 and at angles of attack from about minus 2 to 6 deg. Compressed air was used to simulate the nozzle exhaust flow at values of jet total-pressure ratio from approximately 1 (jet off) to about 21. Effects of configuration variables such as speed-brake deflection, store installation, and boundary-layer thickness on the the nozzle characteristics were also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maglieri, D. J.; Huckel, V.; Henderson, H. R.
1972-01-01
Sonic-boom pressure signatures produced by the SR-71 aircraft at altitudes from 10,668 to 24,384 meters and Mach numbers 1.35 to 3.0 were obtained as an adjunct to the sonic boom evaluation program relating to structural and subjective response which was conducted in 1966-1967 time period. Approximately 2000 sonic-boom signatures from 33 flights of the SR-71 vehicle and two flights of the F-12 vehicle were recorded. Measured ground-pressure signatures for both on-track and lateral measuring station locations are presented and the statistical variations of the overpressure, positive impulse, wave duration, and shock-wave rise time are illustrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lanfranco, M. J.; Sparks, V. W.; Kavanaugh, A. T.
1973-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in a 9- by 7-foot supersonic wind tunnel to determine the effect of plume-induced flow separation and aspiration effects due to operation of both the orbiter and the solid rocket motors on a 0.019-scale model of the launch configuration of the space shuttle vehicle. Longitudinal and lateral-directional stability data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.2 with and without the engines operating. The plumes exiting from the engines were simulated by a cold gas jet supplied by an auxiliary 200 atmosphere air supply system, and by solid body plume simulators. Comparisons of the aerodynamic effects produced by these two simulation procedures are presented. The data indicate that the parameters most significantly affected by the jet plumes are the pitching moment, the elevon control effectiveness, the axial force, and the orbiter wing loads.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, H. W.
1979-01-01
A new linearized-theory pressure-coefficient formulation was studied. The new formulation is intended to provide more accurate estimates of detailed pressure loadings for improved stability analysis and for analysis of critical structural design conditions. The approach is based on the use of oblique-shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion relationships for accurate representation of the variation of pressures with surface slopes in two-dimensional flow and linearized-theory perturbation velocities for evaluation of local three-dimensional aerodynamic interference effects. The applicability and limitations of the modification to linearized theory are illustrated through comparisons with experimental pressure distributions for delta wings covering a Mach number range from 1.45 to 4.60 and angles of attack from 0 to 25 degrees.
Experimental Investigation of a Two-dimensional Split-wing Ram-jet Inlet at Mach Number of 3.85
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connors, James F; Woollett, Richard R
1952-01-01
Performance characteristics of a two-dimensional isentropic diffuser have been experimentally determined at a Mach number of 3.85. At zero angle of attack, a maximum total-pressure recovery of 0.41 was obtained with a supercritical mass-flow ratio of 0.95. As a consequence of the twin-duct arrangement of the diffuser, a large discontinuity in pressure recovery and mass flow with a characteristic hysteresis was encountered between critical and subcritical operation. An asymmetric shock pattern with large-scale separation and flow reversal in one of the passages occurred at reduced mass flows. Pressure and force data presented for an angle-of-attack range from zero to 4 degrees.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, F. J.
1975-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Norman J.
1959-01-01
Exploratory tests of a circular internal-contraction inlet were made at Mach numbers of 2.00 and 2.35 to determine the effect of a cowl-type boundary-layer control located downstream of the inlet throat. The inlet was designed for a Mach number of 2.5. Tests were also made of the inlet modified to correspond to design Mach numbers of 2.35 and 2.25. Surveys near the minimum area section of the inlet without boundary-layer control indicated maximum averaged pressure recoveries between 0.90 and 0.92 at a free-stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.35 for the inlets. Farther downstream, after partial subsonic diffusion, a maximum pressure recovery of 0.842 was obtained with the inlet at M(sub infinity) = 2.35. The pressure recovery of the inlet was increased by 0.03 at a Mach number of 2.35 and decreased by 0.02 at a Mach number of 2.00 by the application of cowl-type boundary-layer control. Further investigation with the inlet without bleed demonstrated that an increase of angle of attack from 0 deg to 3 deg reduced the pressure recovery 0.04. The effect of Reynolds number was to increase pressure recovery 0.07 (from 0.785 to 0.855) with an increase in Reynolds number (based on inlet diameter) from 0.79 x 10(exp 6) to 3.19 x 10(exp 6).
Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal-Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 1.91
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1968-01-01
Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal-Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 1.91 and a Dynamic Pressure of 11.6 Pounds per Square Foot. A 40-foot (12.2 meter) nominal-diameter disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator Program (SPED-I). The test parachute was ejected by a deployment mortar from an instrumented payload at an altitude of 140,000 feet (42.5 kilometers). The payload was at a Mach number of 1.91 and the dynamic pressure was 11.6 pounds per square foot (555 newtons per square meter) at the time the parachute deployment mortar was fired. The parachute reached suspension line stretch in 0.43 second with a resultant snatch force loading of 1990 pounds (8850 newtons). The maximum parachute opening load of 6500 pounds (28,910 newtons) came 0.61 second later at a total elapsed time from mortar firing of 1.04 seconds. The first full inflation occurred at 1.12 seconds and stable inflation was achieved at approximately 1.60 seconds. The parachute had an average axial-force coefficient of 0.53 during the deceleration period. During the steady-state descent portion of the flight test, the average effective drag coefficient was also 0.53 and pitch-yaw oscillations of the canopy averaged less than 10 degrees in the altitude region above 100,000 feet (30.5 meters). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030991. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 3.31
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 3.31 and a Dynamic Pressure of 10.6 Pounds per Square Foot. A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2 meter) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA supersonic high altitude parachute experiment (SHAPE) program. The test parachute (which included an experimental energy absorber in the attachment riser) was deployed from an instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at a Mach number of 3.31 and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 10.6 pounds per square foot (508 newtons per square meter). The parachute deployed properly, the canopy inflating to a full-open condition at 1.03 seconds after mortar firing. The first full inflation of the canopy was immediately followed by a partial collapse with subsequent oscillations of the frontal area from about 30 to 75 percent of the full-open frontal area. After 1.07 seconds of operation, a large tear appeared in the cloth near the canopy apex. This tear was followed by two additional tears shortly thereafter. It was later determined that a section of the canopy cloth was severely weakened by the effects of aerodynamic heating. As a result of the damage to the disk area of the canopy, the parachute performance was significantly reduced; however, the parachute remained operationally intact throughout the flight test and the instrumented payload was recovered undamaged. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031012. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.
2015-10-01
We analyzed observations of interstellar neutral helium (ISN He) obtained from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) satellite during its first six years of operation. We used a refined version of the ISN He simulation model, presented in the companion paper by Sokół et al. (2015b), along with a sophisticated data correlation and uncertainty system and parameter fitting method, described in the companion paper by Swaczyna et al. We analyzed the entire data set together and the yearly subsets, and found the temperature and velocity vector of ISN He in front of the heliosphere. As seen in the previous studies, the allowable parameters are highly correlated and form a four-dimensional tube in the parameter space. The inflow longitudes obtained from the yearly data subsets show a spread of ˜6°, with the other parameters varying accordingly along the parameter tube, and the minimum χ2 value is larger than expected. We found, however, that the Mach number of the ISN He flow shows very little scatter and is thus very tightly constrained. It is in excellent agreement with the original analysis of ISN He observations from IBEX and recent reanalyses of observations from Ulysses. We identify a possible inaccuracy in the Warm Breeze parameters as the likely cause of the scatter in the ISN He parameters obtained from the yearly subsets, and we suppose that another component may exist in the signal or a process that is not accounted for in the current physical model of ISN He in front of the heliosphere. From our analysis, the inflow velocity vector, temperature, and Mach number of the flow are equal to λISNHe = 255.°8 ± 0.°5, βISNHe = 5.°16 ± 0.°10, TISNHe = 7440 ± 260 K, vISNHe = 25.8 ± 0.4 km s-1, and MISNHe = 5.079 ± 0.028, with uncertainties strongly correlated along the parameter tube.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piercy, T. G.; Davis, O. H.
1957-01-01
The effect of missile armament on the performance of an interceptor-type aircraft model has been determined at Mach numbers 1.5, 1.7, and 1.9 and at angles of attack to 19 deg. With this configuration missiles were carried in a bay located on the bottom of the aircraft fuselage and mounted to a rotatable missile door. Rotation of the door then brought the missiles into the external or firing position. The aircraft model was characterized by triangular-shaped normal-shock inlets located at the wing roots. Relatively short and curved subsonic diffusers fed simulated twin side-by-side turbojet engines. Inasmuch as the missile bay extended considerably ahead of the inlet station, rotation of the missile door created considerable disturbance of the flow entering the inlets. In comparison with the internal missile arrangement, the external missile configurations increased the model lift, drag, and pitching moment. While the diffuser-exit flow distortion and static-pressure fluctuations were not greatly affected, diffuser total-pressure recovery was reduced as much as 0.058 at Mach number 1.9 for one missile configuration. The most detrimental effect of missile-door rotation occurred at the transient door positions, or with the door halfwzy between the missiles-in and -out conditions. At this door position the flow into the inlets was highly asymmetrical. Although the performance of both left and right ducts was generally reduced, the inlet duct on the cavity side of the missile door was most severely penalized, becoming unstable recovery losses and increases in flow distortion. The installation of fuselage fences along the missile bay was only partially effective in reducing these losses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmeer, James W.; Runckel, Jack F.
1962-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the interference from four exhaust jets on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model of a V/STOL airplane. The single- engine four-jet turbofan power plant of the airplane was simulated by inducing tunnel airflow through two large side inlets and injecting the decomposition products of hydrogen peroxide into the internal flow. The heated gas mixture was exhausted through four nozzles located on the sides of the fuselage under the wing, two near the wing leading edge and two forward of the trailing edge; the nozzles were deflected downward 1.5 deg and outward 5.0 deg to simulate cruise conditions. The wing of the model was a clipped delta with leading-edge sweep of 40 deg, aspect ratio of 3.06, taper ratio of 0.218, thickness-chord ratio of 0.09 at the root and 0.07 at the tip, and 10 deg negative dihedral. Aerodynamic and longitudinal stability coefficients were obtained for the model with the tail removed, and for horizontal-tail incidences of 0 deg and -5 deg. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.00, angles of attack from 0 deg to 12 deg, and with jet total-pressure ratios up to 3.1. Jet operation generally caused a decrease in lift, an increase in pitching-moment coefficient, and a decrease in longitudinal stability at subsonic speeds. The jet interference effects on drag were detrimental at a Mach number of 0.60 and favorable at higher speeds for cruising-flight attitudes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graves, E. B.; Fournier, R. H.
1974-01-01
Investigations have been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 4.63 to determine the stability and control characteristics of a cruciform air-to-air missile with triangular canard controls and a trapezoidal wing. The results indicate that canards are effective in producing pitching moment throughout most of the test angle-of-attack and Mach number range and that the variations of pitching moment with lift for trim conditions are relatively linear. There is a decrease in canard effectiveness with an increase in angle of attack up to about Mach 2.50 as evidenced by the beginning of coalescence of the pitching-moment curves. At a Mach number above 2.50, there is an increase in effectiveness at moderate to high angles of attack. Simulated launch straps have little effect on the lift and pitch characteristics but do cause an increase in drag, and this increase in drag induces a rolling moment at a zero roll attitude where the straps cause an asymmetric geometric shape. The canards are not suitable devices for roll control and, at some Mach numbers and roll attitudes, are not effective in producing pure yawing moments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Robert A.
1959-01-01
An investigation has been conducted at a Mach number of 3 of the effect of turbulence level and sandpaper-type roughness on transition for a flat plate. The Reynolds number varied from 0.8 x 10(exp 6) to 1.8 x 10(exp 6) per inch; the settling-chamber turbulence level varied from 0.7 percent to 35 percent; and the heat transfer between the plate and the stream was negligible. Transition locations were determined by an optical method. This method was indicative of a permanent change in the boundary-layer density distribution rather than the onset of turbulent bursts. Results showed that, when transition was influenced by roughness, it moved in a way similar to its movement on a smooth plate. That is, it gradually approached the roughness location with either an increase in unit Reynolds number or an increase in turbulence level. For roughness submerged in the linear portion of the boundary-layer velocity profile, the square root of the roughness Reynolds number and the ratio of roughness height to boundary-layer displacement thickness gave similar results as parameters for predicting the effects of roughness. A range of each of these parameters which moved transition less than 10 percent was found and this range was a function of turbulence level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loposer, J. Dan; Rumsey, Charles B.
1954-01-01
Measurement of average skin-friction coefficients have been made on six rocket-powered free-flight models by using the boundary-layer rake technique. The model configuration was the NACA RM-10, a 12.2-fineness-ratio parabolic body of revolution with a flat base. Measurements were made over a Mach number range from 1 to 3.7, a Reynolds number range 40 x 10(exp 6) to 170 x 10(exp 6) based on length to the measurement station, and with aerodynamic heating conditions varying from strong skin heating to strong skin cooling. The measurements show the same trends over the test ranges as Van Driest's theory for turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The measured values are approximately 7 percent higher than the values of the flat-plate theory. A comparison which takes into account the differences in Reynolds number is made between the present results and skin-friction measurements obtained on NACA RM-10 scale models in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel, the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic tunnel, and the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Good agreement is shown at all but the lowest tunnel Reynolds number conditions. A simple empirical equation is developed which represents the measurements over the range of the tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, R. A.; Davenport, E. E.
1974-01-01
Wind tunnel tests of a proposed HL-10 lifting body vehicle were conducted to determine the subsonic and transonic aerodynamic characteristics. The conditions under which the tests were conducted are described. The tests indicate that the configuration has slightly positive damping in pitch except at higher angles of attack at Mach numbers of 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0. At supersonic speeds, the configuration has positive damping in pitch for all test conditions. At subsonic and transonic speed, the configuration has positive damping and positive stability in yaw for all test conditions.
Ion-neutral collision effect on an Alfven wave
Amagishi, Y.; Tanaka, M. Department of High Energy Engineering Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 )
1993-07-19
This paper reports that ion-neutral collisions in a magnetized plasma cause a drastic change in the dispersion relation of the shear Alfven wave with poloidal mode number [ital m]=0, connecting to the branch of the [ital m]=+1 compressional Alfven wave at frequencies below the ion-cyclotron frequency. An anomaly of the dispersion then appears on the refractive index curve and a wave packet in this frequency range undergoes strong amplitude damping and profile deformation. It is confirmed that the Kramers-Kronig relation holds for the dielectric function, estimated from both the measured refractive index and damping rate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tag, I. A.; Lumsdaine, E.
1978-01-01
The general non-linear three-dimensional equation for acoustic potential is derived by using a perturbation technique. The linearized axisymmetric equation is then solved by using a finite element algorithm based on the Galerkin formulation for a harmonic time dependence. The solution is carried out in complex number notation for the acoustic velocity potential. Linear, isoparametric, quadrilateral elements with non-uniform distribution across the duct section are implemented. The resultant global matrix is stored in banded form and solved by using a modified Gauss elimination technique. Sound pressure levels and acoustic velocities are calculated from post element solutions. Different duct geometries are analyzed and compared with experimental results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messing, Wesley E; Rabb, Leonard; Disher, John H
1953-01-01
An air-launched cone-cylinder test vehicle designed to obtain data at Mach numbers above 4.0 was rocket boosted from a release Mach number of 5.18. The vehicle was launched at an altitude of 35,000 feet and reached peak velocity of 5150 feet per second at 28,500 feet. The total-drag coefficient (based on maximum cross-sectional area) decreased gradually from 0.31 at a Mach number of 1.75 to 0.145 at a Mach number of 5.18, while the Reynold's number (based on body length) increased from 31 x 10 to the 6th power to 107 x 10 to the 6th power. The skin friction coefficients, in general, were slightly lower than Van Driest's theoretical values for similar wall-temperature conditions. Convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained from a single skin-thermocouple measurement. The maximum wall temperature recorded was 1240 degrees r.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, G. C., Jr.
1974-01-01
Experimental data have been obtained for two series of bodies at Mach 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on model length, from 1.4 million to 9.5 million. One series consisted of axisymmetric power-law bodies geometrically constrained for constant length and base diameter with values of the exponent n of 0.25, 0.5, 0.6, 0.667, 0.75, and 1.0. The other series consisted of positively and negatively cambered bodies of polygonal cross section, each having a constant longitudinal area distribution conforming to that required for minimizing zero-lift wave drag at hypersonic speeds under the geometric constraints of given length and volume. At the highest Reynolds number, the power-law body for minimum drag is blunter (exponent n lower) than predicted by inviscid theory (n approximately 0.6 instead of n = 0.667); however, the peak value of lift-drag ratio occurs at n = 0.667. Viscous effects were present on the bodies of polygonal cross section but were less pronounced than those on the power-law bodies. The trapezoidal bodies with maximum width at the bottom were found to have the highest maximum lift-drag ratio and the lowest mimimum drag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaquet, Byron M.
1961-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was made at a Mach number of 3.10 (Reynolds number per foot of 16.3 x 10(exp 6) to 16.9 x 10(exp 6)) to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of various modifications of the payload section of the fourth stage of the Scout research vehicle. It was found that, for the combination of stages 3 and 4, increasing the size of the nose of the basic Scout to provide a cylindrical section of the same diameter as the third stage increased the normal-force slope by about 30 percent, the axial force by about 39 percent, and moved the center of pressure forward by about one fourth-stage base diameter. By reducing the diameter of the cylinder, at about one nose length behind the base of the enlarged nose frustum, to that of the basic Scout and thereafter retaining the shape of the basic Scout, the center of pressure was moved rearward by about one-half fourth-stage base diameter at the expense of an additional 19-percent increase in axial force. A spike-hemisphere configuration had the largest forces and moments and the most forward center-of-pressure location of the configurations considered. Except for the axial force and pitching-moment slope, the experimental trends or magnitudes could not be estimated with the desired accuracy by Newtonian or-slender body theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Carlton S.
1960-01-01
An aircraft configuration, previously conceived as a means to achieve favorable aerodynamic stability characteristics., high lift-drag ratio, and low heating rates at high supersonic speeds., was modified in an attempt to increase further the lift-drag ratio without adversely affecting the other desirable characteristics. The original configuration consisted of three identical triangular wing panels symmetrically disposed about an ogive-cylinder body equal in length to the root chord of the panels. This configuration was modified by altering the angular disposition of the wing panels, by reducing the area of the panel forming the vertical fin, and by reshaping the body to produce interference lift. Six-component force and moment tests of the modified configuration at combined angles of attack and sideslip were made at a Mach number of 3.3 and a Reynolds number of 5.46 million. A maximum lift-drag ratio of 6.65 (excluding base drag) was measured at a lift coefficient of 0.100 and an angle of attack of 3.60. The lift-drag ratio remained greater than 3 up to lift coefficient of 0.35. Performance estimates, which predicted a maximum lift-drag ratio for the modified configuration 27 percent greater than that of the original configuration, agreed well with experiment. The modified configuration exhibited favorable static stability characteristics within the test range. Longitudinal and directional centers of pressure were slightly aft of the respective centroids of projected plan-form and side area.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Scott D.
1993-01-01
Three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweeps of 30 deg and 70 deg were tested in the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel at a Mach number of 6 and a free-stream ratio of specific heats of 1.2. The parametric effects of leading-edge sweep, cowl position, contraction ratio, and Reynolds number were investigated. The models were instrumented with static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls, baseplate, and cowl. Schlieren movies were made of selected tunnel runs for flow visualization of the entrance plane and cowl region. Although these movies could not show the internal flow, the effect of the internal flow on the external flow was evident by way of spillage. The purpose is to provide a preliminary data release for the investigation. The models, facility, and testing methods are described, and the test matrix and a tabulation of tunnel runs are provided. Line plots highlighting the stated parametric effects and a representative set of schlieren photographs are presented without analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deveikis, William D.; Walker, Robert W.
1961-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine heat-transfer distributions on three steel sphere-ellipsoid bodies with surface roughnesses of 5, 100, and 200 microinches. Tests were conducted in the Langley 9- by 6-foot thermal structures tunnel at a Mach number of 3.0, free-stream Reynolds numbers (based on model spherical diameter) of 4.25 x 10(exp 6) and 2.76 x l0(exp 6), and at a stagnation temperature of 650 F. Pressure distributions were obtained also on a fourth model. The results indicated that the combination of surface roughness and boundary-layer cooling tended to promote early transition and nullify the advantages attributable to the blunt shape of the model for reducing local temperatures. Good correlation between experimental heating rates and those calculated from laminar theory was achieved up to the start of boundary-layer transition. The correlation also was good with the values predicted by turbulent theory for surface stations downstream from the 45 deg. station.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powers, Sheryll Goecke
1988-01-01
The use of external modifications in the base region to reduce the base drag of a blunt-base body in the presence of jet engine exhaust was investigated in flight. Base pressure data were obtained for the following configurations: (1) blunt base; (2) blunt base modified with splitter plate; and (3) blunt base modified with two variations of a vented cavity. Reynolds number based on the length of the aircraft ranged from 1.2 to 3.1 x 10 to the 8th. Mach number M ranges were 0.71 less than or = M less than or = 0.95 and 1.10 less than or = M less than or = 1.51. The data were analyzed using the blunt base for a reference, or baseline condition. For 1.10 less than or = M less than or = 1.51, the reduction in base drag coefficient provided by the vented cavity configuration ranged from 0.07 to 0.05. These increments in base drag coefficient at M = 1.31 and 1.51 result in base drag reductions of 27 and 24 percent, respectively, when compared to the blunt base drag. For M less than 1, the drag increment between the blunt base and the modification is not significant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dillon, J. L.; Pittman, J. L.
1977-01-01
An experimental investigation of the static aerodynamic characteristics of a model of one design concept for the proposed National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility was conducted in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel. The experiment consisted of configuration buildup from the basic body by adding a wing, center vertical tail, and a three module or six module scramjet engine. The freestream test Mach numbers were 0.33, 0.80, 0.90, 0.95, 0.98, 1.10, and 1.20 at Reynolds numbers per meter ranging from 4.8 x 1 million to 10.4 x 1 million. The test angle of attack range was approximately -4 deg to 22 deg at constant angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 4 deg; the angle of sideslip ranged from about -6 deg to 6 deg at constant angles of attack of 0 deg and 17 deg. The elevons were deflected 0 deg, -10 deg, and -20 deg with rudder deflections of 0 deg and 15.6 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, S. A.
1986-01-01
An incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) experimental data was completed and the results are presented. This analysis was undertaken for three reasons: to study laminar boundary-layer stability on a modern swept LFC airfoil; to calculate incompressible design limits of linear stability theory as applied to a modern airfoil at high subsonic speeds; and to verify the use of linear stability theory as a design tool. The experimental data were taken from the slotted LFC experiment recently completed in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Linear stability theory was applied and the results were compared with transition data to arrive at correlated n-factors. Results of the analysis showed that for the configuration and cases studied, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) amplification was the dominating disturbance influencing transition. For these cases, incompressible linear stability theory correlated with an n-factor for TS waves of approximately 10 at transition. The n-factor method correlated rather consistently to this value despite a number of non-ideal conditions which indicates the method is useful as a design tool for advanced laminar flow airfoils.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C; Delano, James B; Feldman, Lewis
1950-01-01
As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle. The magnitude of the efficiency losses varied from 9 percent to 22 percent per 0.1 increase in tip Mach number above the critical value. The range of advance ratio for peak efficiency decreased markedly with increase of forward speed. The general form of the changes in thrust and power coefficients was found to be similar to the changes in airfoil lift coefficient with changes in Mach number. Efficiency losses due to compressibility effects decreased with increase of blade width. The results indicated that the high level of propeller efficiency obtained at low speeds could be maintained to forward sea-level speeds exceeding 500 miles per hour.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Driver, Cornelius
1956-01-01
Tests have been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.61, and 2.01 to determine the static longitudinal stability and control characteristics of various arrangements of the Grumman F11F-1 airplane. Tests were made of the complete model and various combinations of its component parts and, in addition, the effects of various body modifications, a revised vertical tail, and wing fences on the longitudinal characteristics were determined. The results indicate that for a horizontal-tail incidence of -10 deg the trim lift coefficient varied from 0.29 at a Mach number of 1.61 to 0.23 at a Mach number of 2.01 with a corresponding decrease in lift-drag trim from 3.72 to 3.15. Stick-position instability was indicated in the low-supersonic-speed range. A photographic-type nose modification resulted in slightly higher values of minimum drag coefficient but did not significantly affect the static stability or lift-curve slope. The minimum drag coefficient for the complete model with the production nose remained essentially constant at 0.047 throughout the Mach number range investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinclair, Archibald R; Mace, William D
1956-01-01
A limited calibration of a combined pitot-static tube and vane-type flow-angularity indicator has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01. The results indicated that the angle-of-yaw indications were affected by unsymmetric shock effects at low angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zoby, Ernest V.; Rumsey, Charles B.
1971-01-01
Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer data were measured during a reentry flight at a Mach number of 20 on a 5 deg half-angle cone 3.962 m (13 ft) long with an initial nose tip radius of 0.254 cm (0.1 in.). The free-stream Reynolds number increased during the prime data period from 7.0 x 10(exp 6) to 51.5 x 10(exp 6) per meter (2.1 x 10(exp 6) to 15.7 x 10(exp 6) per foot) and the ratio of wall to total temperature varied from 0.053 to 0.12. The angle of attack was less than 1deg for the prime data period. The experimental laminar and turbulent heating rates are compared with results from existing flat-plate prediction methods. At conditions of minimal tip blunting and angle of attack (above 26.8 km (88 000 ft)), values from a flat-plate laminar method agreed within 20 percent with the laminar data. The Schultz-Grunow skin-friction equation with reference enthalpy; conditions, with the Reynolds number based on distance from the transition location, and with the Colburn Reynolds analogy agreed within 10 percent with the experimental turbuleiit heating data. The Van Driest n skin-friction equation with Reynolds number greater than 10(exp 7) based on distance from the peak heating point and the Colburn Reynolds analogy was also within approximately 10 percent of the experimental turbulent heating data. A data correlation jbf the extent of transition and a simple empirical transition-zone heating correlation were also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, H. Herbert
1955-01-01
A free-flight investigation over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 has been conducted to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and effect of rocket jet on zero-lift drag of 1/5-scale models of two ballistic-type missiles, the Hermes A-3A and A-3B. Models of both types of missiles exhibited very nearly linear normal forces and pitching moments over the angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to -4 deg and Mach number range tested. The centers of pressure for both missiles were not appreciably affected by Mach number over the subsonic range; however, between a Mach number of 1.02 and 1.50 the center of pressure for the A-3A model moved forward 0.34 caliber with increasing Mach number. At a trim angle-of-attack of approximately 30 deg, the A-3A model indicated a total drag coefficient 30% higher than the power-off zero-lift drag over the subsonic Mach number range and 10% higher over the supersonic range. Under the conditions of the present test, and excluding the effect of the jet on base drag, there was no indicated effect of the propulsive jet on the total drag of the A-3A model. The propulsive jet operating at a jet pressure ratio p(sub j)/p(sub o) of 0.8 caused approximately 100% increase in base drag over the Mach number range M = 0.6 to 1.0. This increase in base drag amounts to 15% of the total drag. An underexpanded jet operating at jet pressure ratios corresponding approximately to those of the full-scale missile caused a 22% reduction in base drag at M = 1.55 (p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.76) but indicated no change at M = 1.30 (p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.43). At M = 1.1 and p(sub j)/p(sub o) = 1.55, the jet caused a 50% increase in base drag.
Investigation of global Alfven instabilities in TFTR
Wong, K.L.; Paul, S.F.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Bell, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Cheng, C.Z.; Cohen, S.; Hammett, G.W.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, L.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Synakowski, E.J.; Durst, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Roberts, D.R.; Sabbagh, S.
1992-01-01
Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) were excited by the energetic neutral beam ions tangentially injected into TFTR plasmas at low magnetic field such that the injection velocities were comparable to the Alfven speed. The modes were identified by measurements from Mirnov coils and beam emission spectroscopy (BES). TAE modes appear in bursts whose repetition rate increases with beam power. The neutron emission rate exhibits sawtooth-like behavior and the crashes always coincide with TAE bursts. This indicates ejection of fast ions from the plasma until these modes are stabilized. The dynamics of growth and stabilization was investigated at various plasma current and magnetic field. The results indicate that the instability can effectively clamp the number of energetic ions in the plasma. The observed instability threshold is discussed in the light of recent theories. In addition to these TAE modes, intermittent oscillations at three times the fundamental TAE frequency were observed by Mirnov coils, but no corresponding signal was found in BES. It appears that these high frequency oscillations do not have direct effect on the plasma neutron source strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Adam Michael
The classic model of type Ia supernovae still taught in many textbooks describes a white dwarf primarily composed of carbon and oxygen accreting from a companion until it nears the critical Chandrasekhar mass, contracts, ignites carbon fusion and explodes. The research community, however, is seeing whatever consensus that may have existed on this model as the dominant channel to normal type Ia's erode in the face of both observational and theoretical challenges. In my dissertation I present the largest ever suite of three-dimensional models of an alternative type Ia progenitor model: the double detonation model. This model evades the requirement for a near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf, making it much easier to satisfy observational and theoretical constraints. The sub-Chandrasekhar systems I investigate are also relevant to a variety of other possible explosive outcomes such as helium novae, ".Ia" events, atypical/sub-luminous type Ia's, and shell deflagrations. I have deployed and further developed the low Mach number astrophysical fluid dynamics code Maestro to carry out my study. Most saliently, I have developed Maestro's nuclear reaction modules to target GPU accelerators in leadership supercomputers. I find that the double-detonation model is promising and warrants continued study by providing the broadest and most detailed characterization to date of the pre-explosive three-dimensional evolution. I also comment on what my models suggest about other explosive possibilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Charles M., Jr.; Harris, Roy V., Jr.
1960-01-01
An investigation has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 1.99 to determine the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a reentry model consisting of a lenticular-shaped body with two fin configurations (horizontal fins with end plates). Effects of deflecting the larger size fins as pitch-control surfaces were also investigated. The results indicate that the body alone was unstable from an angle of attack of 0 deg to about 55 deg where it became stable and remained so to 90 deg. The addition of fins provided positive longitudinal stability throughout the angle-of-attack range and increased the lift-drag ratio of the configuration. Reducing the horizontal-fin area at the inboard trailing edge of the fin had only a small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle for the condition of no fin deflection. Deflecting the fins, appeared to be an effective means of pitch control and had only a small effect on lift-drag ratio.
Seo, Jung Hee; Mittal, Rajat
2011-02-20
A new sharp-interface immersed boundary method based approach for the computation of low-Mach number flow-induced sound around complex geometries is described. The underlying approach is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique where the incompressible flow is first computed using a second-order accurate immersed boundary solver. This is followed by the computation of sound using the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). The primary contribution of the current work is the development of a versatile, high-order accurate immersed boundary method for solving the LPCE in complex domains. This new method applies the boundary condition on the immersed boundary to a high-order by combining the ghost-cell approach with a weighted least-squares error method based on a high-order approximating polynomial. The method is validated for canonical acoustic wave scattering and flow-induced noise problems. Applications of this technique to relatively complex cases of practical interest are also presented.
Seo, Jung Hee; Mittal, Rajat
2010-01-01
A new sharp-interface immersed boundary method based approach for the computation of low-Mach number flow-induced sound around complex geometries is described. The underlying approach is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique where the incompressible flow is first computed using a second-order accurate immersed boundary solver. This is followed by the computation of sound using the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). The primary contribution of the current work is the development of a versatile, high-order accurate immersed boundary method for solving the LPCE in complex domains. This new method applies the boundary condition on the immersed boundary to a high-order by combining the ghost-cell approach with a weighted least-squares error method based on a high-order approximating polynomial. The method is validated for canonical acoustic wave scattering and flow-induced noise problems. Applications of this technique to relatively complex cases of practical interest are also presented. PMID:21318129
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sayadi, Taraneh; Hamman, Curtis; Moin, Parviz
2011-11-01
Transition to turbulence via spatially evolving secondary instabilities in compressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat plate boundary layers is numerically simulated for both the Klebanoff K-type and Herbert H-type disturbances. The objective of this work is to evaluate the universality of the breakdown process between different routes through transition in wall-bounded shear flows. Each localized linear disturbance is amplified through weak non-linear instability that grows into lambda-vortices and then hairpin-shaped eddies with harmonic wavelength, which become less organized in the late-transitional regime once a fully populated spanwise turbulent energy spectrum is established. For the H-type transition, the computational domain extends from Rex =105 , where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and a pair of oblique waves, to fully turbulent stage at Rex = 10 . 6 ×105 . The computational domain for the K-type transition extends to Rex = 9 . 6 ×105 . The computational algorithm employs fourth-order central differences with non-reflective numerical sponges along the external boundaries. For each case, the Mach number is 0.2. Supported by the PSAAP program of DoE, ANL and LLNL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marconcini, Michele; Pacciani, Roberto; Arnone, Andrea
2015-11-01
The aerodynamic performance of a gas turbine nozzle vane cascade was investigated over a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers. The work is part of a vast research project aimed at the analysis of fluid dynamics and heat transfer phenomena in cooled blades. In this paper computed results on the "solid vane" (without cooling devices) are presented and discussed in comparison with experimental data. Detailed measurements were provided by the University of Bergamo where the experimental campaign was carried out by means of a subsonic wind tunnel. The impact of boundary layer transition is investigated by using a novel laminar kinetic energy transport model and the widely used Langtry-Menter γ- Re θ,t model. The comparison between calculations and measurements is presented in terms of blade loading distributions, total pressure loss coefficient contours downstream of the cascade, and velocity/turbulence-intensity profiles within the boundary layer at selected blade surface locations at mid-span. It will be shown how transitional calculations compare favorably with experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrecker, G. O.; Maus, J. R.
1974-01-01
An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise and flow field characteristics of internal-flow jet-augmented flap configurations (abbreviated by the term jet flap throughout the study) is presented. The first part is a parametric study of the influence of the Mach number (subsonic range only), the slot nozzle aspect ratio and the flap length on the overall radiated sound power and the spectral composition of the jet noise, as measured in a reverberation chamber. In the second part, mean and fluctuating velocity profiles, spectra of the fluctuating velocity and space correlograms were measured in the flow field of jet flaps by means of hot-wire anemometry. Using an expression derived by Lilley, an attempt was made to estimate the overall sound power radiated by the free mixing region that originates at the orifice of the slot nozzle (primary mixing region) relative to the overall sound power generated by the free mixing region that originates at the trailing edge of the flap (secondary mixing region). It is concluded that at least as much noise is generated in the secondary mixing region as in the primary mixing region. Furthermore, the noise generation of the primary mixing region appears to be unaffected by the presence of a flap.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamb, M.
1981-01-01
A wind-tunnel missile model with either a lower vertical tail fin with a pair of horizontal fins having 0 deg, 22.5 deg, or 30 deg dihedral or an upper vertical tail fin with horizontal fins having 0 deg, -22.5 deg, or -30 deg dihedral was investigated. The results indicated that those configurations with horizontal fins at or below the horizontal plane had nearly linear pitching-moment characteristics, while those with the horizontal fins above the horizontal plane experienced pitch-up which increased with increasing horizontal-fin-dihedral angle. At zero angle of attack, the configurations were directionally stable at most test Mach numbers. Generally, those configurations with the upper vertical fin had positive effective dihedral at zero angle of attack, while those with he lower vertical fin had negative effective dihedral. For roll control, three deflected tail fins produced more total roll control than two horizontal fins. For yaw control, three tail fins deflected equally or differentially produced more total yaw control than the single vertical fin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motheau, E.; Abraham, J.
2016-05-01
A novel and efficient algorithm is presented in this paper to deal with DNS of turbulent reacting flows under the low-Mach-number assumption, with detailed chemistry and a quasi-spectral accuracy. The temporal integration of the equations relies on an operating-split strategy, where chemical reactions are solved implicitly with a stiff solver and the convection-diffusion operators are solved with a Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev method. The spatial discretisation is performed with high-order compact schemes, and a FFT based constant-coefficient spectral solver is employed to solve a variable-coefficient Poisson equation. The numerical implementation takes advantage of the 2DECOMP&FFT libraries developed by [1], which are based on a pencil decomposition method of the domain and are proven to be computationally very efficient. An enhanced pressure-correction method is proposed to speed up the achievement of machine precision accuracy. It is demonstrated that a second-order accuracy is reached in time, while the spatial accuracy ranges from fourth-order to sixth-order depending on the set of imposed boundary conditions. The software developed to implement the present algorithm is called HOLOMAC, and its numerical efficiency opens the way to deal with DNS of reacting flows to understand complex turbulent and chemical phenomena in flames.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briggs, William B.
1952-01-01
A cascade of 65-(12)10 compressor blades was tested at one geometric setting over a range of inlet Mach number from 0.12 to 0.89. Two groups of data are presented and compared: the first from the cascade operating conventionally with no boundary-layer control, and the second with the boundary layer controlled by a combination of upstream slot suction and porous-wall suction at the blade tips. A criterion for two-dimensionality was used to specify the degree of boundary-layer control by suction to be applied. The data are presented and an analysis is made to show the effect of Mach number on turning angle, blade wake, pressure distribution about the blade profile and static-pressure rise. The influence of boundary-layer control on these parameters as well as on the secondary losses is illustrated. A system of correlating the measured static-pressure rise through the cascade with the theoretical isentropic values is presented which gives good agreement with the data. The pressure distribution about the blade profile for an inlet Mach number of 0.21 is corrected with the Prandtl-Glauert, Karman-Tsien, and vector-mean velocity - contraction coefficient compressibility correction factors to inlet Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.7. The resulting curves are compared with the experimental pressure distributions for inlet Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.7 so that the validity of applying the three corrections can be evaluated.
Highly Alfvenic Slow Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. Aaron
2010-01-01
It is commonly thought that fast solar wind tends to be highly Alfvenic, with strong correlations between velocity and magnetic fluctuations, but examples have been known for over 20 years in which slow wind is both Alfvenic and has many other properties more typically expected of fast solar wind. This paper will present a search for examples of such flows from more recent data, and will begin to characterize the general characteristics of them. A very preliminary search suggests that such intervals are more common in the rising phase of the solar cycle. These intervals are important for providing constraints on models of solar wind acceleration, and in particular the role waves might or might not play in that process.
Alfven Wave Generated Electron Time Dispersion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kletzing, C. A.; Hu, S.
2001-01-01
The results from a model of kinetic Alfven waves which includes varying magnetic field and density show that time-dispersed bursts of auroral electrons can be accelerated by Alfven, wave pulses propagating from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. The modeled electron signatures have similar energy range and temporal structure to those observed on sounding rockets and satellites suggesting that electron time dispersion is generated by Alfven waves.
Alfven Continuum and Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment
Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; White, R. B.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.
2004-09-17
The Alfven continuum (AC) in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is investigated with the AC code COBRA. The resonant interaction of Alfven eigenmodes and the fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is analyzed. Alfven eigenmodes residing in one of the widest gaps of the NCSX AC, the ellipticity-induced gap, are studied with the code BOA-E.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainback, Calvin
1960-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the heat-transfer characteristics of a hypersonic glide configuration having 79.5 deg of sweepback (measured in the plane of the leading edges) and 45 of dihedral. The tests were conducted at a nominal Mach number of 4.95 and a stagnation temperature of 400 F. The test-section unit Reynolds number was varied from 1.95 x 10(exp 6) to 12.24 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results indicated that the laminar-flow heat-transfer rate to the lower surface of the model decreased as the distance from the ridge line increased except for thermocouples located near the semispan at an angle of attack of 00 with respect to the plane of the leading edges. The heat-transfer distribution (local heating rate relative to the ridge-line heating rate) was similar to the theoretical heat-transfer distribution for a two-dimensional blunt body, if the ridge line was assumed to be the stagnation line, and could be predicted by this theory provided a modified Newtonian pressure distribution was used. Except in the vicinity of the apex, the ridge-line heat-transfer rate could also be predicted from two-dimensional blunt-body heat-transfer theory provided it was assumed that the stagnation-line heat-transfer rate varied as the cosine of the effective sweep (sine of the angle of attack of the ridge line). The heat-transfer level on the lower surface and the nondimensional heat-transfer distribution around the body on the lower surface were in qualitative agreement with the results of a geometric study of highly swept delta wings with large positive dihedrals made in reference 1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, B. W.
1961-01-01
A limited investigation of the deterioration characteristics of 22 refractory materials was conducted by exposing them to a stagnation temperature of 3,800 F in a Mach number 2 ceramic-heated jet at the Langley Research Center. The materials tested were six materials whose major constituent was silicon carbide, five cermets whose major constituent was titanium carbide, six materials whose major constituents were metal borides, four cermets containing alumina, and one silicon nitride model. Tests consisted of obtaining weight change and appearance changes for 1/2-inch-diameter hemispherical-nose cylindrical models exposed to the air jet for 30 seconds at a time for a total of four runs or 2 minutes exposure. Curves of weight changes plotted against the number of 30-second tests in the jet were obtained. Estimates of average surface temperature near the stagnation point of the model were obtained by use of a special temperature-measuring camera. The models were examined before and after the completion of the tests for possible changes in microstructure; no significant changes were found. The data obtained were analyzed with the view that the oxidation characteristics of the materials were the main factor in deterioration of the materials under the conditions of the tests. It was concluded that only those materials which changed in weight the least could be recommended for further extensive application-oriented evaluations. The following materials fell in this category: silicon carbide - silicon, chromium - 28-percent alumina cermet, titanium boride - 5-percent boron carbide. The remainder of the materials tested had oxidation characteristics which appeared to be too severely limiting of their general applications to flight vehicles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashby, George C., Jr.; Cary, Aubrey M., Jr.
1965-01-01
Force tests were conducted at a Mach number of 6.0 on nose-cylinder-flare bodies to determine the effect of nose shape, cylinder length, flare angle, and flare length on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. A particular investigation was conducted to determine the effect of flare angle for constant flare length, surface area, and diameter. Results indicated that at a Reynolds number of approximately 0.92 x l0 (exp 6) (based on body diameter), the boundary-layer separation effects were significant only with respect to the slope of the normal-force and pitching-moment curve at low angles of attack. The variations of the aerodynamic characteristics with the various parameters were, in general, similar to those predicted by Newtonian theory below a flare angle of 30 degrees and a ratio of flare base diameter to cylinder diameter of less than approximately 2.2. The limiting diameter ratio is consistent with the extent of the low-constant dynamic-pressure region near the body caused by the bow-shock influences as predicted by axisymmetric characteristic theory. The effects of the various parameters for the flares that exceeded the limiting diameter ratio follow the trends predicted by the computed flow-field properties. The axial force for these flare configurations at zero angle of attack was, in general, computed within 10 percent by using these properties. For a constant flare length and surface area the flare effectiveness increased with increasing flare angle; however, for constant flare diameter only the axial-force coefficient was affected by flare angle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keener, E. R.; Chapman, G. T.; Cohen, L.; Taleghani, J.
1977-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics, at high angles of attack, of a tangent ogive forebody with a fineness ratio of 3.5. The investigation included the effects of nose bluntness, nose strakes, nose booms, a simulated canopy, and boundary-layer trips. The forebody was also tested with a short afterbody attached. Static longitudinal and lateral-directional stability data were obtained at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.3 mil. to 3.8 mil. (based on base diameter) at a Mach number of 0.25, and at a Reynolds number of 0.8 mil. at Mach numbers ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to 88 deg at zero sideslip, and the sideslip angle was varied from -10 to 30 deg at angles of attack of 40, 55, and 70 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruse, R. L.; Lovette, G. H.; Spencer, B., Jr.
1977-01-01
The subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of a series of irregular planform wings were studied in wind tunnel tests conducted at M = 0.3 over a range of Reynolds numbers from 1.6 million to 26 million/m. The five basic wing planforms varied from a trapezoidal to a delta shape. Leading edge extensions, added to the basic shape, varied in approximately 5 deg increments from the wing leading edge sweep-back angle to a maximum 80 deg. Most of the tests were conducted using an NACA 0008 airfoil section with grit boundary layer trips. Tests were also conducted using an NACA 0012 airfoil section and an 8% thick wedge. In addition, the effect of free transition (no grit) was investigated. A body was used on all models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landrum, E. J.
1977-01-01
The tabulated results of wind tunnel pressure tests are presented without analysis. The data were obtained for a series of six bodies of revolution at Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.3, 2.96, and 4.63 for angles of attack from -4 deg. to 60 deg. The Reynolds number used for these tests was 6.6 x 6/million per meter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N; Katzen, Elliott D; Tang, Kenneth K
1956-01-01
The lift and pitching-moment characteristics of a body alone, six triangular wings of various aspect ratios, and the combinations were measured at Mach numbers of 1.50 and 2.02 at a Reynolds number of 5.5 million (based on the body length) for angles of attack up to 5.5 degrees. The total lift and pitching-moment interference were determined and compared with theory. The agreement was found to be good.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gapcynski, John P; Carlson, Harry W
1955-01-01
The changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of a body of revolution with a fineness ratio of 8 have been determined at Mach numbers of 1.41 and 2.01, a Reynolds number, based on body length, of 4.54 x 10 to the 6th power, and angles of incidence of 0 degrees and plus or minus 3 degrees as the position of the body is varied with respect to a reflection plane. The data are compared with theoretical results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Charles B; Lee, Dorothy B
1958-01-01
Skin-temperature measurements have been made at several locations on a flat-faced cone-cylinder nose which was flight tested on a fivestage rocket-propeller model to a Mach number of 14.64 and a free-stream Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6), based on flat-face diameter, at an altitude of 66,300 feet. The copper nose had a 29 deg total-angle conical section which was 1.6 flat-face diameters long. The aerodynamic-heating rates determined from the temperature measurements reached 1,440 Btu/( sec) (sq ft) on the flat face. The heating rates near the center of the flat face agreed well at Mach numbers up to 13.6 with those obtained by a theory for laminar stagnation-point heating in equilibrium dissociated air (Avco Res. Rep. 1). At Mach numbers above 13.6, the heating rates at locations near the center of the flat face became progressively lower than stagnation-point theory and. were 29 percent lower at Mach number 14.6 at the end. of the test. The reason for this behavior of the heating on the central part of the flat face was not determined. Excluding the relatively low heating rates that occurred on the central part of the nose at the highest Mach numbers, the distribution of experimental heating along the innermost 0.79 of the flat-face radius, expressed as a percentage of stagnation-point heating, was in fair agreement with the distribution predicted by laminar theory. At a location of 0.71 radii from the stagnation point, the experimental heating was very near 130 percent of the theoretical stagnation-point rate at Mach numbers from 11 to 14.5. The experimental beating rates on the conical section of the nose were in good agreement with laminar-cone theory using the assumption of theoretical sharp-cone static pressure on the conical section.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Re, R. J.
1974-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the performance of seven inlets having NACA 1-series contours and one inlet having an elliptical contour over a range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack. The inlet diameter ratio varied from 0.81 to 0.89; inlet length ratio varied from 0.75 to 1.25; and internal contraction ratio varied from 1.009 to 1.093. Reynolds number based on inlet maximum diameter varied from 3.4 million at a Mach number of 0.4 to 5.6 million at a Mach number of 1.29.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. D.; Braddock, W. F.
1975-01-01
A force test of a 2.112 percent scale Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), MSFC Model 454, was conducted in test section no. 2 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Sixteen (16) runs (pitch polars) were performed over an angle of attack range from 144 through 179 degrees. Test Mach numbers were 2.30, 2.70, 2.96, 3.48, 4.00 and 4.63. The first three Mach numbers had a test Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot. The remaining three were at 2.0 million per foot. The model was tested in the following configurations: (1) SRB without external protuberances, and (2) SRB with an electrical tunnel and a SRB/ET thrust attachment structure. Schlieren photographs were taken during the testing of the first configuration. The second configuration was tested at roll angles of 45, 90, and 135 degrees.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, O. A.; Fuller, D. E.; Watson, C. B.
1978-01-01
Tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.30. 2.70, and 2.95 to determine the performance, static stability, and control characteristics of a model of a fixed-wing supersonic cruise aircraft with a design Mach Number of 2.70 (SCAT 15-F-9898). The configuration had a 74 deg swept warped wing with a reflexed trailing edge and four engine nacelles mounted below the reflexed portion of the wing. A number of variations in the basic configuration were investigated; they included the effect of wing leading edge radius, the effect of various model components, and the effect of model control deflections.
Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas
Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.
2008-08-15
Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas are studied by considering the dust charge variation. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio on the soliton solution is discussed. The Sagdeev potential is derived analytically with constant dust charge and then calculated numerically by taking the dust charge variation into account. We show that the dust charge-to-mass ratio plays an important role in the soliton properties. The soliton solutions are comprised of two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is obviously smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is bell-shaped and it is much narrower than the compressive one. However, for the super-Alfvenic branch, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and narrower, and the rarefactive one is broadened. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton, in the super-Alfvenic branch, will broaden extremely and a electron depletion will be observed. It is also shown that the bell-shaped soliton can transition to a cusped structure when the velocity is sufficiently high.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Falanga, Ralph A.; Janos, Joseph J.
1961-01-01
An investigation at a Reynolds number per foot of 14.4 x 10(exp 6) was made to determine the pressure loads produced on a flat-plate wing by rocket jets exhausting in a spanwise direction beneath the wing and perpendicular to a free-stream flow of Mach number 2.0. The ranges of the variables involved were (1) nozzle types - one sonic (jet Mach number of 1.00), two supersonic (jet Mach numbers of 1.74 and 3.04),. and one two-dimensional supersonic (jet Mach number of 1.71); (2) vertical nozzle positions beneath the wing of 4, 8 and 12 nozzle-throat diameters; and (3) ratios of rocket-chamber total pressure to free- stream static pressure from 0 to 130. The incremental normal force due to jet interference on the wing varied from one to two times the rocket thrust and generally decreased as the pressure ratio increased. The chordwise coordinate of the incremental-normal-force center of pressure remained upstream of the nozzle center line for the nozzle positions and pressure ratios of the investigation. The chordwise coordinate approached zero as the jet vertical distance beneath the wing increased. In the spanwise direction there was little change due to varying rocket-jet position and pressure ratio. Some boundary-layer flow separation on the wing was observed for the rocket jets close to the wing and at the higher pressure ratios. The magnitude of the chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions due to jet interference was greatest for rocket jets close to the wing and decreased as the jet was displaced farther from the wing. The design procedure for the rockets used is given in the appendix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, Aleck C.; Swanson, Andrew G.
1953-01-01
A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.
Stabilizing effect of ionized background of trans-Alfvenic expansion of exploding plasmas
Zakharov, Yu.P.; Ponomarenko, A.G.; Dudnikova, G.I.; Vshivkov, V.A.
1995-12-31
Recently a lot of theoretical and numerical calculations have been performed devoted to the study of Large-Larmor-Flute Instability (LLFI). Such instability was discovered initially in laboratory and later in active experiments (AMPTE, CRRES) on expansion of a quasispherical plasma cloud in a ``vacuum`` magnetic field {rvec B}{sub 0}. In the laser-produced plasma experiments at KI-1 facility it was established for the first time, that such non-MHD instability and LHD-instability of skin-layer may effectively be suppressed by ionized background at high-Alfven Mach numbers M{sub A} {much_gt} 1 as well as in a transient regime M{sub A} {approximately} 1. In the present paper on the basis of laboratory and computer simulation the value of M{sub A} was defined more exactly and other similarity parameters characterizing the development of LLFI was founded. The laser experiments were realized in hydrogen and argon background plasmas. The computer simulations were carried out with 2D electromagnetic hybrid code. It was exposed the transition from flute increase to decrease one when M{sub A} changed from M{sub A} = 1 to M{sub A} = 3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perchonok, Eugene; Wilcox, Fred; Pennington, Donald
1951-01-01
An investigation of the performance of a 16-inch ram jet engine having a single oblique-shock all-external compression inlet designed for a flight Mach number of 1.8, was conducted in the NACA Lewis 8-by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 1.5 to 2.0 and angles of attack from 0 degrees to 10 degrees. Three exit nozzles were used; a cylindrical extension of the combustion chamber, a 4 degrees half-angle converging nozzle with a 0.71 contraction ratio, and a graphite converging-diverging nozzle having a 0.71 contraction ratio plus reexpansion to essentially major body diameter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, P.; Gruber, M.; Parzych, D.
1988-01-01
Unsteady blade surface pressure data for the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade operation with angular inflow, wake inflow and uniform flow over a range of inflow Mach numbers of 0.02 to 0.70 is provided. The data are presented as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency. Also presented is a brief discussion of the unsteady blade response observed at takeoff and cruise conditions with angular and wake inflow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaughn, J. E.; Daviet, J. T.
1975-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a .012 scale model of a NASA/Langley modified version of the Rockwell 089B Space Shuttle Orbiter. Using the forced oscillation test technique, dynamic stability derivatives were measured in the pitch, yaw and roll planes at a Mach number of 8 over an angle of attack range from -4 deg to 28 deg. Plotted and tabulated results are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.
1959-01-01
Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.