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Sample records for alfven wave energy

  1. Resonant Alfven Wave Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameiri, Eliezer

    1999-11-01

    Much of the theory of the Alfven wave resonance phenomenon was developed for a tokamak configuration where the magnetic field winds around the torus without entering the boundary. Thus, boundary conditions did not have to be considered.( J. Tataronis and W. Grossmann, Z. Phys. 261), 203 (1973). In most space plasma situations such as the magnetosphere or the Sun, as well as in the scrape-off layer of a divertor tokamak, this is not the case. When boundary conditions are considered, it is generally assumed for simplicity that the boundary is perfectly conducting, which implies that the Alfven wave bounce frequencies are real and the resonance phenomenon can be detected by some singularity in the equations. The nature of the singularity is usually described in terms of a Frobenius series.( A.N. Wright and M.J. Thompson, Phys. Plamsas 1), 691 (1994). In this work we consider resistive boundaries, which imply that the fast wave eigenfrequency is real, but the Alfven frequency is not. Thus, there is no exact resonance and no singularity in the equations. The solution of the problem is carried out asymptotically by finding an exact Laplace integral representation for the solution and then matching various regions. The energy transferred to the Alfven wave appears to be rather small.

  2. Energy dissipation of Alfven wave packets deformed by irregular magnetic fields in solar-coronal arches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.

  3. Alfven Wave Generated Electron Time Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletzing, C. A.; Hu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The results from a model of kinetic Alfven waves which includes varying magnetic field and density show that time-dispersed bursts of auroral electrons can be accelerated by Alfven, wave pulses propagating from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. The modeled electron signatures have similar energy range and temporal structure to those observed on sounding rockets and satellites suggesting that electron time dispersion is generated by Alfven waves.

  4. Stellar winds driven by Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Olbert, S.

    1973-01-01

    Models of stellar winds were considered in which the dynamic expansion of a corona is driven by Alfven waves propagating outward along radial magnetic field lines. In the presence of Alfven waves, a coronal expansion can exist for a broad range of reference conditions which would, in the absence of waves, lead to static configurations. Wind models in which the acceleration mechanism is due to Alfven waves alone and exhibit lower mass fluxes and higher energies per particle are compared to wind models in which the acceleration is due to thermal processes. For example, winds driven by Alfven waves exhibit streaming velocities at infinity which may vary between the escape velocity at the coronal base and the geometrical mean of the escape velocity and the speed of light. Upper and lower limits were derived for the allowed energy fluxes and mass fluxes associated with these winds.

  5. Quantification of the Energy Dissipated by Alfven Waves in a Polar Coronal Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a measurement of the energy carried and dissipated by Alfven waves in a polar coronal hole. Alfven waves have been proposed as the energy source that heats the corona and drives the solar wind. Previous work has shown that line widths decrease with height in coronal holes, which is a signature of wave damping, but have been unable to quantify the energy lost by the waves. This is because line widths depend on both the non-thermal velocity vnt and the ion temperature Ti. We have implemented a means to separate the Ti and vnt contributions using the observation that, at low heights, the waves are undamped and the ion temperatures do not change with height. This enables us to determine the amount of energy carried by the waves at low heights, which is proportional to vnt. We find the initial energy flux density present was 6.7×0.7×10^5 erg cm^-2 s^-1, which is sufficient to heat the coronal hole and accelerate the solar wind during the 2007 - 2009 solar minimum. Additionally, we find that about 85% of this energy is dissipated below 1.5 R_sun, sufficiently low that thermal conduction can transport the energy throughout the coronal hole, heating it and driving the fast solar wind. The remaining energy is roughly consistent with what models show is needed to provide the extended heating above the sonic point for the fast solar wind. We have also studied Ti, which we found to be in the range of 1 - 2 MK, depending on the ion species.

  6. Nonlinear Landau damping and Alfven wave dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Miller, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Landau damping has been often suggested to be the cause of the dissipation of Alfven waves in the solar wind as well as the mechanism for ion heating and selective preacceleration in solar flares. We discuss the viability of these processes in light of our theoretical and numerical results. We present one-dimensional hybrid plasma simulations of the nonlinear Landau damping of parallel Alfven waves. In this scenario, two Alfven waves nonresonantly combine to create second-order magnetic field pressure gradients, which then drive density fluctuations, which in turn drive a second-order longitudinal electric field. Under certain conditions, this electric field strongly interacts with the ambient ions via the Landau resonance which leads to a rapid dissipation of the Alfven wave energy. While there is a net flux of energy from the waves to the ions, one of the Alfven waves will grow if both have the same polarization. We compare damping and growth rates from plasma simulations with those predicted by Lee and Volk (1973), and also discuss the evolution of the ambient ion distribution. We then consider this nonlinear interaction in the presence of a spectrum of Alfven waves, and discuss the spectrum's influence on the growth or damping of a single wave. We also discuss the implications for wave dissipation and ion heating in the solar wind.

  7. Decay of magnetic helicity producing polarized Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    When a super-Alfvenic electron beam propagates along an ambient magnetic field, the left-hand circularly polarized Alfven wave is Cherenkov-emitted (two stream instability). This instability results in a spontaneous conversion of the background plasma helicity to the wave helicity. The background helicity induces a frequency (energy) shift in the eigenmodes, which changes the critical velocity for Cherenkov emission, and it becomes possible for a sub-Alfvenic electron beam to excite a nonsingular Alfven mode.

  8. Nonresonant Alfven waves driven by cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Melrose, Don

    2005-08-01

    Nonresonant growth of Alfven waves due to streaming cosmic rays is considered, emphasizing the relation between resonant and nonresonant growth and the polarization of the growing waves. The suggested application of this mechanism to the scattering of higher energy cosmic rays in diffusive shock acceleration is discussed critically.

  9. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CONVERSION TO ALFVEN WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, E.; Cally, P. S. E-mail: paul.cally@monash.edu

    2012-02-10

    We study the conversion of fast magnetoacoustic waves to Alfven waves by means of 2.5D numerical simulations in a sunspot-like magnetic configuration. A fast, essentially acoustic, wave of a given frequency and wave number is generated below the surface and propagates upward through the Alfven/acoustic equipartition layer where it splits into upgoing slow (acoustic) and fast (magnetic) waves. The fast wave quickly reflects off the steep Alfven speed gradient, but around and above this reflection height it partially converts to Alfven waves, depending on the local relative inclinations of the background magnetic field and the wavevector. To measure the efficiency of this conversion to Alfven waves we calculate acoustic and magnetic energy fluxes. The particular amplitude and phase relations between the magnetic field and velocity oscillations help us to demonstrate that the waves produced are indeed Alfven waves. We find that the conversion to Alfven waves is particularly important for strongly inclined fields like those existing in sunspot penumbrae. Equally important is the magnetic field orientation with respect to the vertical plane of wave propagation, which we refer to as 'field azimuth'. For a field azimuth less than 90 Degree-Sign the generated Alfven waves continue upward, but above 90 Degree-Sign downgoing Alfven waves are preferentially produced. This yields negative Alfven energy flux for azimuths between 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign . Alfven energy fluxes may be comparable to or exceed acoustic fluxes, depending upon geometry, though computational exigencies limit their magnitude in our simulations.

  10. SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Arregui, I.; Terradas, J.

    2012-07-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.

  11. Energy densities of Alfven waves between 0.7 and 1.6 AU. [in interplanetary medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Burchsted, R.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma and field data from Mariner 4 and 5 between 0.7 and 1.6 AU are used to study the radial dependence of the levels of microscale fluctuation associated with interplanetary Alfven waves. The observed decrease of these levels with increasing distance from the sun is consistent with little or no local generation or damping of the ambient Alfven waves over this range of radial distance.

  12. The effect of microscale random Alfven waves on the propagation of large-scale Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namikawa, T.; Hamabata, H.

    1983-04-01

    The ponderomotive force generated by random Alfven waves in a collisionless plasma is evaluated taking into account mean magnetic and velocity shear and is expressed as a series involving spatial derivatives of mean magnetic and velocity fields whose coefficients are associated with the helicity spectrum function of random velocity field. The effect of microscale random Alfven waves through ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces generated by them on the propagation of large-scale Alfven waves is also investigated.

  13. The transmission of Alfven waves through the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of Alfven wave propagation through the Io plasma torus was investigated using a one-dimensional model with uniform magnetic field and an exponential density decrease to a constant value. The solution was interpreted in terms of a wave that is incident upon the torus, a reflected wave, and a wave that is transmitted through the torus. The results obtained indicate that Io's Alfven waves may not propagate completely through the plasma torus, and, thus, the WKB theory and ray tracing may not provide meaningful estimates of the energy transport.

  14. Alfven wave. DOE Critical Review Series

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, A.; Uberoi, C.

    1982-01-01

    This monograph deals with the properties of Alfven waves and with their application to fusion. The book is divided into 7 chapters dealing with linear properties in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas. Absorption is treated by means of kinetic theory. Instabilities and nonlinear processes are treated in Chapters 1 to 6, and the closing chapter is devoted to theory and experiments in plasma heating by Alfven waves. (MOW)

  15. Nonlinear evolution of astrophysical Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, S.R.

    1984-11-01

    Nonlinear Alfven waves were studied using the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a model. The evolution of initial conditions, such as envelope solitons, amplitude-modulated waves, and band-limited noise was investigated. The last two furnish models for naturally occurring Alfven waves in an astrophysical plasma. A collapse instability in which a wave packet becomes more intense and of smaller spatial extent was analyzed. It is argued that this instability leads to enhanced plasma heating. In studies in which the waves are amplified by an electron beam, the instability tends to modestly inhibit wave growth. (ESA)

  16. Nonlinear standing Alfven wave current system at Io: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, F.M.

    1980-03-01

    We present a nonlinear analytical model of the Alfven current tubes continuing the currents through Io (or rather its ionosphere) generated by the unipolar inductor effect due to Io's motion relative to the magnetospheric plasma. We thereby extend the linear work by Drell et al. (1965) to the fully nonlinear, sub-Alfvenic situation also including flow which is not perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The following principal results have been obtained: (1) The portion of the currents feeding Io is aligned with the Alfven characteristics at an angle theta/sub A/ is the Alfven Mach number. (2) The Alfven tubes act like an external conductance ..sigma../sub A/=1/(..mu../sub 0/V/sub A/(1+M/sub A//sup 2/+2M/sub A/ sin theta)/sup 1/2/ where V/sub A/ is the Alfven wave propagation. Hence the Jovian ionospheric conductivity is not necessary for current closure. (3) In addition, the Alfven tubes may be reflected from either the torus boundary or the Jovian ionosphere. The efficiency of the resulting interaction with these boundaries varies with Io position. The interaction is particularly strong at extreme magnetic latitudes, thereby suggesting a mechanism for the Io control of decametric emissions. (4) The reflected Alfven waves may heat both the torus plasma and the Jovian ionosphere as well as produce increased diffusion of high-energy particles in the torus. (5) From the point of view of the electrodynamic interaction, Io is unique among the Jovian satellites for several reasons: these include its ionosphere arising from ionized volcanic gases, a high external Alfvenic conductance ..sigma../sub A/, and a high corotational voltage in addition to the interaction phenomenon with a boundary. (6) We find that Amalthea is probably strongly coupled to Jupiter's ionosphere while the outer Galilean satellites may occasionally experience super-Alfvenic conditions.

  17. Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-08-15

    Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas are studied by considering the dust charge variation. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio on the soliton solution is discussed. The Sagdeev potential is derived analytically with constant dust charge and then calculated numerically by taking the dust charge variation into account. We show that the dust charge-to-mass ratio plays an important role in the soliton properties. The soliton solutions are comprised of two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is obviously smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is bell-shaped and it is much narrower than the compressive one. However, for the super-Alfvenic branch, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and narrower, and the rarefactive one is broadened. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton, in the super-Alfvenic branch, will broaden extremely and a electron depletion will be observed. It is also shown that the bell-shaped soliton can transition to a cusped structure when the velocity is sufficiently high.

  18. Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-10-15

    This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process.

  19. Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-10-01

    This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process.

  20. Emission of radiation induced by pervading Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G. Q.; Wu, C. S.

    2013-03-15

    It is shown that under certain conditions, propagating Alfven waves can energize electrons so that consequently a new cyclotron maser instability is born. The necessary condition is that the plasma frequency is lower than electron gyrofrequency. This condition implies high Alfven speed, which can pitch-angle scatter electrons effectively and therefore the electrons are able to acquire free energy which are needed for the instability.

  1. Alfvenic waves in solar spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed O VI (1031.93 A) and O VI (1037.61 A line profiles from the time series of SOHO/SUMER data. The wavelet analysis is used to determine the fundamental mode and its first harmonic periods and their ratio. The period ratio, P_1/P_2 is obtained as 2.1 based on our calculations. To model the spicule oscillations, we consider an equilibrium configuration in the form of an expanding straight magnetic flux tube with varying density along tube. We used cylindrical coordinates r, phi, and z with the z-axis along tube axis. Standing Alfvenic waves with steady flows are studied. More realistic background magnetic field, plasma density, and spicule radios inferred from the actual magnetoseismology of observations are used. It is found that the oscillation periods and their ratio are shifted because of the steady flows. The observational values are reached in P_1/P_2, when the steady flows are 0.2-0.3, the values which are reported for classical spicules.

  2. Toroidal Alfven Waves in Advanced Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2003-10-01

    In burning plasma experiments, alpha particles have speeds that readily resonate with shear Alfven waves. It is essential to understand this Alfven wave spectrum for toroidal plasma confinement. Most interest has focused on the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), and a method of analysis has been developed to understand the structure of this mode at a flux surface with a given magnetic shear. However, this model fails when the shear is too low or reversed. In this case a new method of analysis is required, which must incorporate novel fluid-like effects from the energetic particles [1] and also include effects that are second order in the inverse toroidal aspect ratio. With this new method [2] we can obtain spectral features that agree with experimental results. In particular, this theory gives an explanation for the so-called Cascade modes that have been observed in JT-60 [3], JET [4], and TFTR [5]. For these Cascade modes, slow upward frequency sweeping is observed, beginning from frequencies below the TAE range but then often blending into the TAE range of frequencies. The theoretical understanding of the Cascades modes has evolved to the point where these modes can be used as a diagnostic "signature" [6] to experimentally optimize the formation of thermal barriers in reversed-shear operation when the minimum q value is an integer. [1] H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 185 (2002). [2] B. N. Breizman et al., submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2003). [3] H. Kimura et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 1303 (1998). [4] S. Sharapov et al., Phys. Lett. A 289, 127 (2001); S. Sharapov, Phys. Plasmas 9, 2027 (2002). [5] R. Nazikian, H. L. Berk, et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 47, 327 (2002). [6] E. Joffrin et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 44, 1739 (2002); E. Joffrin et al., in Proc. 2002 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, submitted to Nucl. Fusion.

  3. Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves

    SciTech Connect

    O.Ya. Kolesnychenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White

    2005-06-15

    Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered.

  4. Nonlinear Landau damping of Alfven waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that large-amplitude linearly or elliptically polarized Alfven waves propagating parallel to the average magnetic field can be dissipated by nonlinear Landau damping. The damping is due to the longitudinal electric field associated with the ion sound wave which is driven (in second order) by the Alfven wave. The damping rate can be large even in a cold plasma (beta much less than 1, but not zero), and the mechanism proposed may be the dominant one in many plasmas of astrophysical interest.

  5. On the generation of Alfven waves in the solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Yuriy; Stepanov, Alexander; Kopylova, Yulia

    The influence of collisions between neutrals and ions on the energy flux of Alfven waves in the weakly ionized plasma based on the three-fluid equations is considered. As distinguished from Vranjes et al. (2008) and Soler et al. (2013) it has been shown that amplitudes of Alfven waves that are generated in the solar photosphere do not depend on the ionization ratio and the initial conditions for ions, if the wave frequency is much less that the effective frequency of collisions between ions and neutral atoms. This is explained by the strong coupling due to ion-neutral collisions and the magnetic field freezing-in effect. Alfven waves can be effectively excited in the photosphere of the Sun by the convective motions.

  6. PULSED ALFVEN WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J. T.; Tian, H.; Phan, T. D.

    2011-08-20

    Using 3 s plasma and magnetic field data from the Wind spacecraft located in the solar wind well upstream from Earth, we report observations of isolated, pulse-like Alfvenic disturbances in the solar wind. These isolated events are characterized by roughly plane-polarized rotations in the solar wind magnetic field and velocity vectors away from the directions of the underlying field and velocity and then back again. They pass over Wind on timescales ranging from seconds to several minutes. These isolated, pulsed Alfven waves are pervasive; we have identified 175 such events over the full range of solar wind speeds (320-550 km s{sup -1}) observed in a randomly chosen 10 day interval. The large majority of these events are propagating away from the Sun in the solar wind rest frame. Maximum field rotations in the interval studied ranged from 6 Degree-Sign to 109 Degree-Sign . Similar to most Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind at 1 AU, the observed changes in velocity are typically less than that predicted for pure Alfven waves (Alfvenicity ranged from 0.28 to 0.93). Most of the events are associated with small enhancements or depressions in magnetic field strength and small changes in proton number density and/or temperature. The pulse-like and roughly symmetric nature of the magnetic field and velocity rotations in these events suggests that these Alfvenic disturbances are not evolving when observed. They thus appear to be, and probably are, solitary waves. It is presently uncertain how these waves originate, although they may evolve out of Alfvenic turbulence.

  7. Nonlinear Evolution of Alfvenic Wave Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buti, B.; Jayanti, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Alfven waves are a ubiquitous feature of the solar wind. One approach to studying the evolution of such waves has been to study exact solutions to approximate evolution equations. Here we compare soliton solutions of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger evolution equation (DNLS) to solutions of the compressible MHD equations.

  8. ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es

    2013-04-20

    Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.

  9. Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikov, M. B.; Taiurskii, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior.

  10. The parametric decay of Alfven waves into shear Alfven waves and dust lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, M.; Shah, H. A.; Zubia, K.; Zeba, I.; Uzma, Ch.; Salimullah, M.

    2010-07-15

    The parametric decay instability of Alfven wave into low-frequency electrostatic dust-lower-hybrid and electromagnetic shear Alfven waves has been investigated in detail in a dusty plasma in the presence of external/ambient uniform magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic fluid equations of plasmas have been employed to find the linear and nonlinear response of the plasma particles for this three-wave nonlinear coupling in a dusty magnetoplasma. Here, relatively high frequency electromagnetic Alfven wave has been taken as the pump wave. It couples with other two low-frequency internal possible modes of the dusty magnetoplasma, viz., the dust-lower-hybrid and shear Alfven waves. The nonlinear dispersion relation of the dust-lower-hybrid wave has been solved to obtain the growth rate of the parametric decay instability. The growth rate is maximum for small value of external magnetic field B{sub s}. It is noticed that the growth rate is proportional to the unperturbed electron number density n{sub oe}.

  11. First Results of PIC Modeling of Kinetic Alfven Wave Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We present first results of an investigation of the kinetic damping of Alfven wave turbulence. The methodology is based on a fully electromagnetic, three-dimensional, particle in cell code. The calculation is initialized by an Alfven wave spectrum. Subsequently, a cascade develops, and damping by coupling to both ions and electrons is observed. We discuss results of these calculations, and present first estimates of damping rates and of the effects of energy transfer on ion and electron distributions. The results pertain to solar wind heating and acceleration.

  12. Observational evidence for Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.

    2013-12-01

    Alfven waves have long been suspected of playing an important role in both heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind. Recently, more and more observational evidence for the presence of such waves has been reported in both the corona and the lower solar atmosphere. I will review observations of the properties and presence of Alfven waves from CoMP, Hinode, AIA and ground-based telescopes in both coronal lines and the lower solar atmosphere. I will discuss our current understanding of the importance of these waves for the energy balance of the corona. I will also present initial results of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) which was launched in June 2013 and obtains images and spectra in both the far and near ultraviolet.

  13. A Study of Alfven Wave Propagation and Heating the Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2013-12-01

    Alfven wave propagation, reflection and heating of the solar atmosphere are studied for a one-dimensional solar atmosphere by self-consistently solving plasma and neutral fluid equations and Maxwell's equations with incorporation of the Hall effect, strong electron-neutral, electron-ion, and ion-neutral collisions. The governing equations are very stiff because of the strong coupling between the charged and neutral fluids. We have developed a numerical model based on an implicit backward difference formula (BDF2) of second order accuracy both in time and space to overcome the stiffness. A non-reflecting boundary condition is applied to the top boundary of the simulation domain so that the wave reflection within the domain due to the density gradient can be unambiguously determined. It is shown that the Alfven waves are partially reflected throughout the chromosphere. The reflection is increasingly stronger at higher altitudes and the strongest reflection occurs at the transition region. The waves are damped in the lower chromosphere dominantly through Joule dissipation due to electron collisions with neutrals and ions. The heating resulting from the wave damping is strong enough to balance the radiation energy loss for the quiet chromosphere. The collisional dissipation of the Alfven waves in the weakly collisional corona is negligible. The heating rates are larger for weaker background magnetic fields. In addition, higher frequency waves are subject to heavier damping. There is an upper cutoff frequency, depending on the background magnetic field, above which the waves are completely damped. At the frequencies below which the waves are not strongly damped, the waves may be strongly reflected at the transition region. The reflected waves interacting with the upward propagating waves may produce power at their double frequencies, which leads to more damping. Due to the reflection and damping, the energy flux of the waves transmitted to the corona is one order of

  14. Simulation of Alfven wave-resonant particle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Pekker, M.

    1995-07-01

    New numerical simulations are presented on the self-consistent dynamics of energetic particles and a set of unstable discrete shear Alfven modes in a tokamak. Our code developed for these simulations has been previously tested in the simulations of the bump-on-tail instability model. The code has a Hamiltonian structure for the mode-particle coupling, with the superimposed wave damping, particle source and classical relaxation processes. In the alpha particle-Alfven wave problem, we observe a transition from a single mode saturation to the mode overlap and global quasilinear diffusion, which is qualitatively similar to that observed in the bump-on-tail model. We demonstrate a considerable enhancement in the wave energy due to the resonance overlap. We also demonstrate the effect of global diffusion on the energetic particle losses.

  15. Riemann solvers and Alfven waves in black hole magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Balsara, Dinshaw; Kim, Jinho; Garain, Sudip

    2016-09-01

    In the magnetosphere of a rotating black hole, an inner Alfven critical surface (IACS) must be crossed by inflowing plasma. Inside the IACS, Alfven waves are inward directed toward the black hole. The majority of the proper volume of the active region of spacetime (the ergosphere) is inside of the IACS. The charge and the totally transverse momentum flux (the momentum flux transverse to both the wave normal and the unperturbed magnetic field) are both determined exclusively by the Alfven polarization. Thus, it is important for numerical simulations of black hole magnetospheres to minimize the dissipation of Alfven waves. Elements of the dissipated wave emerge in adjacent cells regardless of the IACS, there is no mechanism to prevent Alfvenic information from crossing outward. Thus, numerical dissipation can affect how simulated magnetospheres attain the substantial Goldreich-Julian charge density associated with the rotating magnetic field. In order to help minimize dissipation of Alfven waves in relativistic numerical simulations we have formulated a one-dimensional Riemann solver, called HLLI, which incorporates the Alfven discontinuity and the contact discontinuity. We have also formulated a multidimensional Riemann solver, called MuSIC, that enables low dissipation propagation of Alfven waves in multiple dimensions. The importance of higher order schemes in lowering the numerical dissipation of Alfven waves is also catalogued.

  16. Alfven wave transport effects in the time evolution of parallel cosmic-ray modified shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the issues associated with a more complete treatment of Alfven transport in cosmic ray shocks are explored qualitatively. The treatment is simplified in some important respects, but some new issues are examined and for the first time a nonlinear, time dependent study of plane cosmic ray mediated shocks with both the entropy producing effects of wave dissipation and effects due to the Alfven wave advection of the cosmic ray relative to the gas is included. Examination of the direct consequences of including the pressure and energy of the Alfven waves in the formalism began.

  17. Alfven waves in current-carrying inhomogeneous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigueoka, H.; de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.; Sakanaka, P. H.

    The Hain and Lust (1958) equation is here used to numerically solve the Alfven modes in inhomogeneous cylindrical current-carrying plasmas. It is shown in this way that the distance of the eigenfrequencies for dc density from the lower edge of the Alfven continuum depends on its profile. The WKB approximation is used to show that a discrete MHD Alfven mode exists. These efforts are relevant to both solar prominence heating and oscillations and the Alfven wave-based heating and oscillations of the chromosphere.

  18. Gravitational damping of Alfven waves in stellar atmospheres and winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khabibrakhmanov, I. K.; Mullan, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    We consider how gravity affects the propagation of Alfven waves in a stellar atmosphere. We show that when the ion gyrofrequency exceeds the collision rate, the waves are absorbed at a rate proportional to the gravitational acceleration g. Estimates show that this mechanism can readily account for the observed energy losses in the solar chromosphere. The mechanism predicts that the pressure at the top of the chromosphere P(sub Tc) should scale with g as P(sub Tc) proportional to g(exp delta), where delta approximately equals 2/3; this is close to empirical results which suggest delta approximately equals 0.6. Gravitational damping leads to deposition of energy at a rate proportional to the mass of the particles. Hence, heavier ion are heated more effectively than protons. This is consistent with the observed proportionality between ion temperature and mass in the solar wind. Gravitational damping causes the local g to be effectively decreased by an amount proportional to the wave energy. This feature affects the acceleration of the solar wind. Gravitational damping may also lead to self-regulation of the damping of Alfven waves in stellar winds: this is relevant in the context of slow massive winds in cool giants.

  19. Reflection of Alfven waves in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogulec, M.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; Nerney, S. F.; Moore, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have revisited the problem of propagation of toroidal and linear Alfven waves formulated by Heinemann and Olbert (1980) to compare Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and non-WKB waves and their effects on the solar wind. They considered two solar wind models and showed that reflection is important for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one day and longer and that non-WKB Alfven waves are no more effective in accelerating the solar wind than in WKB waves. There are several recently published papers that seem to indicate that Alfven waves with periods of the order of several minutes should be treated as non-WKB waves and that these non-WKB waves exert a stronger acceleration force than WKB waves. The purposse of this paper is to study the origin of these discrepancies by performing parametric studies of the behavior of the waves under a variety of different conditions. In addition, we want to investigate two problems that have not been addressed by Heinimann and Olbert, namely, calculate the efficieny of Alfven wave reflection by using the reflection coefficient and identfy the region of strongest wave reflection in different wind models. To achieve these goals, we investigate the influence of temperature, electron desity distribution, wind velocity, and magnetic field strength on te waves. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that Alfven wave reflection is strongly model dependent and that the strongest reflection can be expected in models with the base temperatures higher than 10(exp 6) K and with the base densities lower than 7 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. In these models as well as in the models with lower temperatures and higher densities Alfven waves with periods as short as several minutes have negligible reflection so that they can be treated as WKB waves; however, for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one hour or longer reflection is significant, requiring a non-WKB treatment. We also show that non-WKB, linear Alfven waves are always less effective

  20. On reflection of Alfven waves in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogulec, M.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; Moore, R. L.; Nerney, S. F.

    1993-01-01

    We have revisited the problem of propagation of toroidal and linear Alfven waves formulated by Heinemann and Olbert (1980) to compare WKB and non-WKB waves and their effects on the solar wind. They considered two solar wind models and showed that reflection is important for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one day and longer, and that non-WKB Alfven waves are no more effective in accelerating the solar wind than WKB waves. There are several recently published papers which seem to indicate that Alfven waves with periods of the order of several minutes should be treated as non-WKB waves and that these non-WKB waves exert a stronger acceleration force than WKB waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the origin of these discrepancies by performing parametric studies of the behavior of the waves under a variety of different conditions. In addition, we want to investigate two problems that have not been addressed by Heinemann and Olbert, namely, calculate the efficiency of Alfven wave reflection by using the reflection coefficient and identify the region of strongest wave reflection in different wind models. To achieve these goals, we investigated the influence of temperature, electron density distribution, wind velocity and magnetic field strength on the waves. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that Alfven wave reflection is strongly model dependent and that the strongest reflection can be expected in models with the base temperatures higher than 10(exp 6) K and with the base densities lower than 7 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3). In these models as well as in the models with lower temperatures and higher densities, Alfven waves with periods as short as several minutes have negligible reflection so that they can be treated as WKB waves; however, for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one hour or longer reflection is significant, requiring a non-WKB treatment. We also show that non-WKB, linear Alfven waves are always less effective in accelerating the

  1. Cusp Dynamics-Particle Acceleration by Alfven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ergun, Robert E.; Parker, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Successful results were obtained from this research project. This investigation answered and/or made progresses on each of the four important questions that were proposed: (1) How do Alfven waves propagate on dayside open field lines? (2) How are precipitating electrons influenced by propagating Alfven waves? (3) How are various cusp electron distributions generated? (4) How are Alfven waves modified by electrons? During the first year of this investigation, the input parameters, such as density and temperature altitude profiles, of the gyrofluid code on the cusp field lines were constructed based on 3-point satellite observations. The initial gyrofluid result was presented at the GEM meeting by Dr. Samuel Jones.

  2. Effect of Dust Grains on Solitary Kinetic Alfven Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-09-07

    Solitary kinetic Alfven wave has been studied in dusty plasmas. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio is considered. We derive the Sagdeev potential for the soliton solutions based on the hydrodynamic equations. A singularity in the Sagdeev potential is found and this singularity results in a bell-shaped soliton. The soliton solutions comprise two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocities are much smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocities are very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist in each branch. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is a bell shape curve which is much narrower than the compressive one. In the super-Alfvenic branch, however, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and the rarefactive one is broadened. We also found that the super-Alfvenic solitons can develop to other structures. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton will increase extremely and an electron density depletion will be observed. When the velocity is much higher than the Alfven speed, the bell-shaped soliton will transit to a cusped structure.

  3. Alfven waves and associated energetic ions downstream from Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Belcher, J.W.; Richardson, J.D. ); Smith, C.W. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors report the observation of low-frequency waves in the solar wind downstream from Uranus. These waves are observed by the Voyager spacecraft for more than 2 weeks after the encounter with Uranus and are present during this period whenever the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented such that the field lines intersect the Uranian bow shock. The magnetic field and velocity components transverse to the background field are strongly correlated, consistent with the interpretation that these waves are Alfvenic and/or fast-mode waves. The waves have a spacecraft frame frequency of about 10{sup {minus}3} Hz, and when first observed near the bow shock have an amplitude comparable to the background field. As the spacecraft moves farther from Uranus, the amplitude decays. The waves appear to propagate along the magnetic field lines outward from Uranus and are right-hand polarized. Theory suggests that these waves are generated in the upstream region by a resonant instability with a proton beam streaming along the magnetic field lines. The solar wind subsequently carries these waves downstream to the spacecraft location. These waves are associated with the presence of energetic (> 28 keV) ions observed by the low-energy charged particle instrument. These ions appear two days after the start of the wave activity and occur thereafter whenever the Alfven waves occur, increasing in intensity away from Uranus. The ions are argued to originate in the Uranian magnetosphere, but pitch-angle scattering in the upstream region is required to bring them downstream to the spacecraft location.

  4. Modulational and decay instabilities of Alfven waves - Effects of streaming He(2+). [solar wind application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Esser, R.; Jayanti, V.

    1993-01-01

    The parametric instability of a circularly polarized Alfven wave propagating along the background magnetic field are considered, with emphasis on the effects of a second ion species, He(2+), which drifts relative to the protons. Even though its abundance is small, the He(2+) modifies the dispersion relation of the 'pump' Alfven wave and introduces a new sound wave (alpha sound) in addition to the usual sound wave carried primarily by the electrons and protons. Instabilities which are close to the He(2+) gyroresonance are found. This may provide a means of directly transferring Alfven wave energy to the alpha particles, if the alphas are able to resonantly extract energy from the unstable waves without quenching the instability altogether. Instabilities which are close to the alpha particle sound speed are also found.

  5. Generation of shear Alfven waves by a rotating magnetic field source: Three-dimensional simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Karavaev, A. V.; Gumerov, N. A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, Xi; Sharma, A. S.; Gekelman, W.; Wang, Y.; Van Compernolle, B.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.

    2011-03-15

    The paper discusses the generation of polarized shear Alfven waves radiated from a rotating magnetic field source created via a phased orthogonal two-loop antenna. A semianalytical three-dimensional cold two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics model was developed and compared with recent experiments in the University of California, Los Angeles large plasma device. Comparison of the simulation results with the experimental measurements and the linear shear Alfven wave properties, namely, spatiotemporal wave structure, a dispersion relation with nonzero transverse wave number, the magnitude of the wave dependences on the wave frequency, show good agreement. From the simulations it was found that the energy of the Alfven wave generated by the rotating magnetic field source is distributed between the kinetic energy of ions and electrons and the electromagnetic energy of the wave as: {approx}1/2 is the energy of the electromagnetic field, {approx}1/2 is the kinetic energy of the ion fluid, and {approx}2.5% is the kinetic energy of electron fluid for the experiment. The wave magnetic field power calculated from the experimental data and using a fluid model differ by {approx}1% and is {approx}250 W for the experimental parameters. In both the experiment and the three-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics simulations the rotating magnetic field source was found to be very efficient for generating shear Alfven waves.

  6. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  7. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  8. ACCELERATION OF THE SOLAR WIND BY ALFVEN WAVE PACKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2013-01-20

    A scale separation kinetic model of the solar wind acceleration is presented. The model assumes an isotropic Maxwellian distribution of protons and a constant influx of outward propagating Alfven waves with a single exponent Kolmogorov-type spectrum at the base of a coronal acceleration region ({approx}2 R {sub Sun }). Our results indicate that nonlinear cyclotron resonant interaction taking energy from Alfven waves and depositing it into mostly perpendicular heating of protons in initially weakly expanding plasma in a spherically non-uniform magnetic field is able to produce the typical fast solar wind velocities for the typical plasma and wave conditions after expansion to about 5-10 solar radii R {sub Sun }. The acceleration model takes into account the gravity force and the ambipolar electric field, as well as the mirror force, which plays the most important role in driving the solar wind acceleration. Contrary to the recent claims of Isenberg, the cold plasma dispersion only slightly slows down the acceleration and actually helps in obtaining the more realistic fast solar wind speeds.

  9. Generation and propagation of Alfvenic waves in spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Okamoto, T. J.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.

    2011-12-01

    Both spicules and Alfven waves have recently been implicated in playing a role in the heating of the outer atmosphere. Yet we do not know how spicules or Alfven waves are generated. Here we focus on the properties of Alfvenic waves in spicules and their role in forming spicules. We use high-resolution observations taken with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode, and with the CRISP Fabry-Perot Interferometer at the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) in La Palma to study the generation and propagation of Alfvenic waves in spicules and their disk counterparts. Using automated detection algorithms to identify propagating waves in limb spicules, we find evidence for both up- and downward propagating as well as standing waves. Our data suggests significant reflection of waves in and around spicules and provides constraints for theoretical models of spicules and wave propagation through the chromosphere. We also show observational evidence (using SST data) of the generation of Alfven waves and the role they play in forming spicules.

  10. On the existence of finite amplitude, transverse Alfven waves in the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sari, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field data from the Mariner 10 spacecraft were examined for evidence of small and finite amplitude transverse Alfven waves, general finite amplitude Alfven waves, and magnetosonic waves. No evidence for transverse Alfven waves was found. Instead, the field fluctuations were found to be dominated by the general finite amplitude Alfven wave. Such wave modes correspond to non-plane-wave solutions of the nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic equations.

  11. Observation of mode conversion of m = minus 1 fast waves on the Alfven resonance layer

    SciTech Connect

    Amagishi, Y. )

    1990-03-12

    Fast waves or MHD surface waves of {ital m}={minus}1 (poloidal mode number of left-hand rotation) have been observed to be mode converted on the Alfven resonance layer. The converted waves are a quasielectrostatic form of the shear Alfven waves, i.e., kinetic Alfven wave and/or the resistive mode.

  12. Two dimensional PIC simulations of plasma heating by the dissipation of Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Kruecken, T. J.; Ferraro, R. D.; Decyk, V. K.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    Two dimensional plasma particle simulations of the evolution of large amplitude circularly polarized Alfven waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field show that the waves decay via both one- and two- dimensional parametric decay instabilities. For parameters studied, one-dimensional processes dominate the simulations, but two-dimensional decay processes, including the recently predicted filamentation instability are also observed. The daughter waves generated by the parametric decay are primarily damped by the ions, leading to ion heating. The parametric decay processes efficiently convert the ordered fluid ion motion in the Alfven wave into ion thermal energy. These processes may be important for the dissipation of Alfven waves in the solar wind, the corona and other space plasma environments. The computations were performed on the Intel Touchstone parallel supercomputer.

  13. MAGNETOSEISMOLOGY: EIGENMODES OF TORSIONAL ALFVEN WAVES IN STRATIFIED SOLAR WAVEGUIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Verth, G.; Goossens, M.; Erdelyi, R. E-mail: Marcel.Goossens@wis.kuleuven.b

    2010-05-10

    There have recently been significant claims of Alfven wave observation in the solar chromosphere and corona. We investigate how the radial and longitudinal plasma structuring affects the observational properties of torsional Alfven waves in magnetic flux tubes for the purposes of solar magnetoseismology. The governing magnetohydrodynamic equations of these waves in axisymmetric flux tubes of arbitrary radial and axial plasma structuring are derived and we study their observable properties for various equilibria in both thin and finite-width magnetic flux tubes. For thin flux tubes, it is demonstrated that observation of the eigenmodes of torsional Alfven waves can provide temperature diagnostics of both the internal and surrounding plasma. In the finite-width flux tube regime, it is shown that these waves are the ideal magnetoseismological tool for probing radial plasma inhomogeneity in solar waveguides.

  14. HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE AND CORONA BY ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.; DeLuca, E. E.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2011-07-20

    A three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the propagation and dissipation of Alfven waves in a coronal loop is developed. The model includes the lower atmospheres at the two ends of the loop. The waves originate on small spatial scales (less than 100 km) inside the kilogauss flux elements in the photosphere. The model describes the nonlinear interactions between Alfven waves using the reduced MHD approximation. The increase of Alfven speed with height in the chromosphere and transition region (TR) causes strong wave reflection, which leads to counter-propagating waves and turbulence in the photospheric and chromospheric parts of the flux tube. Part of the wave energy is transmitted through the TR and produces turbulence in the corona. We find that the hot coronal loops typically found in active regions can be explained in terms of Alfven wave turbulence, provided that the small-scale footpoint motions have velocities of 1-2 km s{sup -1} and timescales of 60-200 s. The heating rate per unit volume in the chromosphere is two to three orders of magnitude larger than that in the corona. We construct a series of models with different values of the model parameters, and find that the coronal heating rate increases with coronal field strength and decreases with loop length. We conclude that coronal loops and the underlying chromosphere may both be heated by Alfvenic turbulence.

  15. Resonant wave-particle interactions modified by intrinsic Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-08-15

    The concept of wave-particle interactions via resonance is well discussed in plasma physics. This paper shows that intrinsic Alfven waves can qualitatively modify the physics discussed in conventional linear plasma kinetic theories. It turns out that preexisting Alfven waves can affect particle motion along the ambient magnetic field and, moreover, the ensuing force field is periodic in time. As a result, the meaning of the usual Landau and cyclotron resonance conditions becomes questionable. It turns out that this effect leads us to find a new electromagnetic instability. In such a process intrinsic Alfven waves not only modify the unperturbed distribution function but also result in a different type of cyclotron resonance which is affected by the level of turbulence. This instability might enable us to better our understanding of the observed radio emission processes in the solar atmosphere.

  16. Alfven waves in the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, S; McIntosh, S W; Keil, S L; Judge, P G; Schad, T; Seeley, D H; Edmondson, J

    2007-08-31

    Alfvén waves, transverse incompressible magnetic oscillations, have been proposed as a possible mechanism to heat the Sun's corona to millions of degrees by transporting convective energy from the photosphere into the diffuse corona. We report the detection of Alfvén waves in intensity, line-of-sight velocity, and linear polarization images of the solar corona taken using the FeXIII 1074.7-nanometer coronal emission line with the Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter (CoMP) instrument at the National Solar Observatory, New Mexico. Ubiquitous upward propagating waves were seen, with phase speeds of 1 to 4 megameters per second and trajectories consistent with the direction of the magnetic field inferred from the linear polarization measurements. An estimate of the energy carried by the waves that we spatially resolved indicates that they are too weak to heat the solar corona; however, unresolved Alfvén waves may carry sufficient energy.

  17. Ion-neutral collision effect on an Alfven wave

    SciTech Connect

    Amagishi, Y.; Tanaka, M. Department of High Energy Engineering Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 )

    1993-07-19

    This paper reports that ion-neutral collisions in a magnetized plasma cause a drastic change in the dispersion relation of the shear Alfven wave with poloidal mode number [ital m]=0, connecting to the branch of the [ital m]=+1 compressional Alfven wave at frequencies below the ion-cyclotron frequency. An anomaly of the dispersion then appears on the refractive index curve and a wave packet in this frequency range undergoes strong amplitude damping and profile deformation. It is confirmed that the Kramers-Kronig relation holds for the dielectric function, estimated from both the measured refractive index and damping rate.

  18. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs.

  19. Observation of Alfven Waves in the Solar Corona (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, S.

    2013-12-01

    I will review the extensive progress made in recent years on the observation of Alfven waves in the solar corona, with an emphasis on the measurements made with the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter. Application of the wave measurements to coronal seismology will be presented. Future prospects in the field will be discussed.

  20. Dissipative solitary kinetic Alfven wave and energetic electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. J.

    Some recent studies of observations in situ by space satellites show that low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations in the auroral ionosphere and magnetosphere can often be identified as soliatry kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs), and further analyses of data reveal clearly that electron collisional dissipation can considerably affect the structure and evolution of SKAWs. Here, we report a model of nonlinear kinetic Alfven waves that takes dissipative effect into account, called a dissipative SKAW (DSKAW). The results show that DSKAW can produce a local shock-like structure with a net parallel electric potential drop, in which the associated parallel electric field is primarily caused by nonlinear electron inertia. In particular, it is argued that DSKAW can accelerate electrons efficiently to the order of the local Alfven velocity. We suggest that DSKAW can provide an efficient acceleration mechanism for energetic electrons of tens keV, which can frequently be encountered in solar micro-wave radio and hard X-ray bursts.

  1. Reflection of Alfven waves from boundaries with different conductivities

    SciTech Connect

    Leneman, D.

    2007-12-15

    The reflection of Alfven waves from the ionosphere plays a crucial role because the reflected wave can reduce or enhance the electric field pattern of the incident wave. The ionosphere is typically treated as a conducting surface, which has a height integrated Pederson conductivity. This approximation is appropriate in considering the reflection of Alfven waves because the wavelengths along the magnetic field are large compared to the height of the ionosphere. Shear Alfven wave reflection experiments have been performed in the large plasma device [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. A single frequency wave is launched from an antenna and reflects from a large plate inserted into the plasma column. By alternatively using a conducting and an insulating plate, the two extremes of conductivity relative to the Alfven conductivity, 1/({mu}{sub o}v{sub A}) are tested. The data are compared with the expected theoretical behavior of the interference pattern of incident and reflected waves. Perhaps due to experimental effects, the conducting reflector is found to behave in much the same fashion as the insulator.

  2. Resonant Alfven wave instabilities driven by streaming fast particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, A.

    1987-05-08

    A plasma simulation code is used to study the resonant interactions between streaming ions and Alfven waves. The medium which supports the Alfven waves is treated as a single, one-dimensional, ideal MHD fluid, while the ions are treated as kinetic particles. The code is used to study three ion distributions: a cold beam; a monoenergetic shell; and a drifting distribution with a power-law dependence on momentum. These distributions represent: the field-aligned beams upstream of the earth's bow shock; the diffuse ions upstream of the bow shock; and the cosmic ray distribution function near a supernova remnant shock. 92 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. The cause of high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAAS) - Interplanetary Alfven wave trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that high intensity (AE of greater than 1,000 nT), long duration (T of greater than 2d) continuous auroral activity events are caused by outward (from the sun) propagating interplanetary Alfven wave trains. The Alfven waves are often (but not always) detected several days after major interplanetary events, such as shocks and solar wind density enhancements. Presumably, magnetic reconnection between the southward components of the Alfven wave magnetic fields and magnetospheric fields is the mechanism for transfer of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere.

  4. Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics associated with random Alfven waves in a plasma with weak magnetic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu

    1988-02-01

    Using first-order smoothing theory, Fourier analysis and perturbation methods, a new equation is derived governing the evolution of the spectrum tensor (including the energy and helicity spectrum functions) of the random velocity field as well as the ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces generated by random Alfven waves in a plasma with weak magnetic diffusion. The ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces are expressed as series involving spatial derivatives of mean magnetic and velocity fields whose coefficients are associated with the helicity spectrum function of the random velocity field. The effect of microscale random Alfven waves, through ponderomotive and mean electromotive forces generated by them, on the propagation of large-scale Alfven waves is also investigated by solving the mean-field equations, including the transport equation of the helicity spectrum function.

  5. Quantum effects on compressional Alfven waves in compensated semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, M. R.

    2015-03-15

    Amplitude modulation of a compressional Alfven wave in compensated electron-hole semiconductor plasmas is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime in this paper. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential, and the quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential in the momentum balance equations of the charge carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the compressional Alfven wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Typical values of the parameters for GaAs, GaSb, and GaN semiconductors are considered in analyzing the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave. Detailed analysis of the modulation instability in the long-wavelength regime is presented. For typical parameter ranges of the semiconductor plasmas and at the long-wavelength regime, it is found that the wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the effect of the Bohm potential may be neglected in comparison with the effect of the exchange-correlation potential in the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave.

  6. A new way to convert Alfven waves into heat in solar coronal holes - Intermittent magnetic levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Hammer, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent analysis of Alfven wave reflection in solar coronal holes, we found evidence that coronal holes are heated by reflected Alfven waves. This result suggests that the reflection is inherent to the process that dissipates these Alfven waves into heat. We propose a novel dissipation process that is driven by the reflection, and that plausibly dominates the heating in coronal holes.

  7. Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere. III - Nonlinear waves on open flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.; Jackson, S.; Galloway, D.

    1982-01-01

    Consideration is given the nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves on solar magnetic flux tubes, where the tubes are taken to be vertical, axisymmetric and initially untwisted and the Alfven waves are time-dependent axisymmetric twists. The propagation of the waves into the chromosphere and corona is investigated through the numerical solution of a set of nonlinear, time-dependent equations coupling the Alfven waves into motions that are parallel to the initial magnetic field. It is concluded that Alfven waves can steepen into fast shocks in the chromosphere, pass through the transition region to produce high-velocity pulses, and then enter the corona, which they heat. The transition region pulses have amplitudes of about 60 km/sec, and durations of a few tens of seconds. In addition, the Alfven waves exhibit a tendency to drive upward flows, with many of the properties of spicules.

  8. Ion gyroradius effects on particle trapping in kinetic Alfven waves along auroral field lines

    DOE PAGES

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Chaston, C. C.

    2016-11-10

    In this study, a 2-D self-consistent hybrid gyrofluid-kinetic electron model is used to investigate Alfven wave propagation along dipolar magnetic field lines for a range of ion to electron temperature ratios. The focus of the investigation is on understanding the role of these effects on electron trapping in kinetic Alfven waves sourced in the plasma sheet and the role of this trapping in contributing to the overall electron energization at the ionosphere. This work also builds on our previous effort by considering a similar system in the limit of fixed initial parallel current, rather than fixed initial perpendicular electric field.more » It is found that the effects of particle trapping are strongest in the cold ion limit and the kinetic Alfven wave is able to carry trapped electrons a large distance along the field line yielding a relatively large net energization of the trapped electron population as the phase speed of the wave is increased. However, as the ion temperature is increased, the ability of the kinetic Alfven wave to carry and energize trapped electrons is reduced by more significant wave energy dispersion perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field which reduces the amplitude of the wave. This reduction of wave amplitude in turn reduces both the parallel current and the extent of the high-energy tails evident in the energized electron populations at the ionospheric boundary (which may serve to explain the limited extent of the broadband electron energization seen in observations). Here, even in the cold ion limit, trapping effects in kinetic Alfven waves lead to only modest electron energization for the parameters considered (on the order of tens of eV) and the primary energization of electrons to keV levels coincides with the arrival of the wave at the ionospheric boundary.« less

  9. Ion gyroradius effects on particle trapping in kinetic Alfven waves along auroral field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Chaston, C. C.

    2016-11-10

    In this study, a 2-D self-consistent hybrid gyrofluid-kinetic electron model is used to investigate Alfven wave propagation along dipolar magnetic field lines for a range of ion to electron temperature ratios. The focus of the investigation is on understanding the role of these effects on electron trapping in kinetic Alfven waves sourced in the plasma sheet and the role of this trapping in contributing to the overall electron energization at the ionosphere. This work also builds on our previous effort by considering a similar system in the limit of fixed initial parallel current, rather than fixed initial perpendicular electric field. It is found that the effects of particle trapping are strongest in the cold ion limit and the kinetic Alfven wave is able to carry trapped electrons a large distance along the field line yielding a relatively large net energization of the trapped electron population as the phase speed of the wave is increased. However, as the ion temperature is increased, the ability of the kinetic Alfven wave to carry and energize trapped electrons is reduced by more significant wave energy dispersion perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field which reduces the amplitude of the wave. This reduction of wave amplitude in turn reduces both the parallel current and the extent of the high-energy tails evident in the energized electron populations at the ionospheric boundary (which may serve to explain the limited extent of the broadband electron energization seen in observations). Here, even in the cold ion limit, trapping effects in kinetic Alfven waves lead to only modest electron energization for the parameters considered (on the order of tens of eV) and the primary energization of electrons to keV levels coincides with the arrival of the wave at the ionospheric boundary.

  10. Theory of Alfven wave heating in general toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J.A.; Salat, A.

    1981-09-01

    A general treatment of Alfven wave heating based on the linearized equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is given. The conclusion of this study is that the geometry of the plasma equilium could play an important role on the effectiveness of this heating mechanism, and for certain geometries the fundamental equations may not possess solutions which satisfy prescribed boundary conditions.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, C. S.; Sundkvist, D.; Bale, S. D.; Chaston, C. C.; Chen, C. H. K.; Mozer, F. S.; Howes, G. G.

    2012-01-20

    The nature of small-scale turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind is investigated using a comparison of Cluster magnetic and electric field measurements to predictions arising from models consisting of either kinetic Alfven waves or whistler waves. The electric and magnetic field properties of these waves from linear theory are used to construct spacecraft-frame frequency spectra of (|{delta}E|/|{delta}B|){sub s/c} and (|{delta}B{sub ||}|/|{delta}B|){sub s/c}, allowing for a direct comparison to spacecraft data. The measured properties of the small-scale turbulent fluctuations, found to be inconsistent with the whistler wave model, agree well with the prediction of a spectrum of kinetic Alfven waves with nearly perpendicular wavevectors.

  12. Propagation of global shear Alfven waves in gyrokinetic tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Chen, L.; Decyk, V.; Klasky, S.; Ma, K.; Adams, M.; Ethier, S.; Hahm, T.; Lee, W.; Lewandowski, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.

    2006-04-01

    Employing the electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulation models, Alfven wave dynamics in global tokamak geometry is studied. Based on a small parameter expansion by the square-root of the electron-ion mass ratio, the fluid-kinetic hybrid electron model solves the adiabatic response in the lowest order and solves the kinetic response in the higher orders. We verify the propagation of shear Alfven waves in the absence of drives or damping mechanisms by perturbing the magnetic field lines at t=0 in a global eigenmode structure. The Alfven wave experiences continuum damping. In the presence of energetic particles, excitations of toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) is expected within the frequency gap. With the ηi gradient drive, at a critical β value, the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) is excited below the ideal MHD limit. W.W.Lee et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4435 (2001). Z.Lin and L.Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1447 (2001). J.A.Tataronis and W. Grossman, Z. Phys. 14, 203 (1973). C.Z.Cheng, L.Chen, and M.S.Chance, Ann.Phys. 161, 21 (1984). C.Z.Cheng, Nucl. Fusion 22, 773 (1982).

  13. Temperature minimum heating in solar flares by resistive dissipation of Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. G.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility that the strong heating produced at temperature-minimum levels during solar flares is due to resistive dissipation of Alfven waves generated by the primary energy release process in the corona is studied. It is shown how, for suitable parameters, these waves can carry their energy essentially undamped into the temperature-minimum layers and can then produce a degree of heating consistent with observations.

  14. Small scales formation via Alfven wave propagation in compressible nonuniform media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1995-01-01

    In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. The possibility to produce small scales has been studied by Malara et al. in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend the work of Malara et al. to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Using numerical simulations we show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. Moreover, the interaction between the initial Alfven wave and the inhomogeneity gives rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. A rough estimate of the typical times which the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales and then to dissipate the energy show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin.

  15. Weakening of magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities by Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Hassam, A. B.

    2008-02-15

    Alfven waves, made to propagate along an ambient magnetic field and polarized transverse to a gravitational field g, with wave amplitude stratified along g, are shown to reduce the growth rate of interchange instability by increasing the effective inertia by a factor of 1+(B{sub y}{sup '}/B{sub z}k{sub z}){sup 2}, where B{sub z} is the ambient magnetic field, k{sub z} is the wavenumber, and B{sub y}{sup '} is the wave amplitude shear. Appropriately placed Alfven wave power could thus be used to enhance the stability of interchange and ballooning modes in tokamaks and other interchange-limited magnetically confined plasmas.

  16. Arbitrary amplitude double layers in warm dust kinetic Alfven wave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gogoi, Runmoni; Devi, Nirupama

    2008-07-15

    Large amplitude electrostatic structures associated with low-frequency dust kinetic Alfvenic waves are investigated under the pressure (temperature) gradient indicative of dust dynamics. The set of equations governing the dust dynamics, Boltzmann electrons, ions and Maxwell's equation have been reduced to a single equation known as the Sagdeev potential equation. Parameter ranges for the existence of arbitrary amplitude double layers are observed. Exact analytical expressions for the energy integral is obtained and computed numerically through which sub-Alfvenic arbitrary amplitude rarefactive double layers are found to exist.

  17. The interaction of Io's Alfven waves with the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.

    1987-09-01

    A numerical solution for the propagation of the Alfven waves produced by Io is presented. The waves are shown to interact strongly with the torus and magnetic-field inhomogeneities. Substantial reflection occurs from the magnetospheric medium, and only about a quarter of the wave power will reach the ionosphere on its first pass. It is concluded that both WKB and ray-tracing arguments are inappropriate, contrary to previous studies. A more realistic picture may be that of a whole field line or L shell resonating in an eigenmode. The Alfven structure behind Io and some possible features that it may exhibit are discussed. In particular, it may be possible to produce decametric arcs that are more closely spaced than ray tracing permits by exciting higher-harmonic eigenmodes of Io's L shell.

  18. Kinetic Alfven wave instability in a Lorentzian dusty magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rubab, N.; Biernat, H. K.; Erkaev, N. V.; Langmayr, D.

    2010-10-15

    This study presents a theoretical approach to analyze the influence of kappa distributed streaming ions and magnetized electrons on the plasma wave propagation in the presence of dust by employing two-potential theory. In particular, analytical expressions under certain conditions are derived for various modes of propagation comprising of kinetic Alfven wave streaming instability, two stream instability, and dust acoustic and whistler waves. A dispersion relation for kinetic Alfven-like streaming instability has been derived. The effects of dust particles and Lorentzian index on the growth rates and the threshold streaming velocity for the excitation of the instability are examined. The streaming velocity is observed to be destabilizing for slow motion and stabilizing for fast streaming motions. It is also observed that the presence of magnetic field and superthermal particles hinders the growth rate of instability. Possible applications to various space and astrophysical situations are discussed.

  19. Nonlinear absorption of Alfven wave in dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Taiurskii, A. A. Gavrikov, M. B.

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method for studying absorption of Alfven wave propagation in a homogeneous non-isothermal plasma along a constant magnetic field, and relaxation of electron and ion temperatures in the A-wave. The absorption of a A-wave by the plasma arises due to dissipative effects - magnetic and hydrodynamic viscosities of electrons and ions and their elastic interaction. The method is based on the exact solution of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics of the plasma, which for A-wave, as shown in the work, are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations.

  20. Alfven wave dispersion behavior in single- and multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Ullrich, S.; Sauer, K.

    2010-03-15

    Dispersion relations of driven Alfven waves (AWs) are measured in single- and multicomponent plasmas consisting of mixtures of argon, helium, and oxygen in a magnetized linear cylindrical plasma device VINETA [C. Franck, O. Grulke, and T. Klinger, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3254 (2002)]. The decomposition of the measured three-dimensional magnetic field fluctuations and the corresponding parallel current pattern reveals that the wave field is a superposition of L- and R-wave components. The dispersion relation measurements agree well with calculations based on a multifluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic model if the plasma resistivity is correctly taken into account.

  1. Alfven Waves in the Solar Wind, Magnetosheath, and Outer Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Alfven waves Propagating outward from the Sun are ubiquitous in the solar wind and play a major role in the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. The passage of the waves generally occurs in the form of a series of discrete steepened discontinuities, each of which results in an abrupt change in the interplanetary magnetic field direction. Some orientations of the magnetic field permit particles energized at the Earth's bow shock to gain access to the foreshock region immediately upstream from the Earth's bow shock. The thermal pressure associated with these particles can greatly perturb solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters shortly prior to their interaction with the Earth's bow shock and magnetosphere. The corresponding dynamic pressure variations batter the magnetosphere, driving magnetopause motion and transient compressions of the magnetospheric magnetic field. Alfven waves transmit information concerning the dynamic pressure variations applied to the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, where they generate the traveling convection vortices (TCVs) seen in high-latitude ground magnetograms. Finally, the sense of Alfvenic perturbations transmitted into the magnetosheath reverses across local noon because magnetosheath magnetic field lines drape against the magnetopause. The corresponding change in velocity perturbations must apply a weak torque to the Earth's magnetosphere.

  2. Nonlinear Interaction of Shear Alfven Waves with Gradient Driven Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, David William

    An experimental study of the interactions between gradient-driven instabilities (GDI) and beat waves driven between two Alfven waves is presented. A cylindrical density depletion is imposed on the otherwise uniform plasma in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) by selectively blocking the electron beam that produces the plasma. Coherent, single mode fluctuations in density, temperature, plasma potential, and magnetic field are observed to be unstable on the gradient. Measurements of the relative cross-phase between the density and potential fluctuations indicate that the fluctuations are not likely to drive significant cross field transport. Comparisons of the properties of the modes to theoretical predictions for Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and drift wave modes indicate that the fluctuations are likely to be a hybrid of the two instabilities. Analytic eigenmode solutions to the linearized Braginskii fluid equations using the experimentally measured gradient profiles support the conclusion that both instabilities are active. A beat wave between two driven Alfven waves is broadcast into the gradient region using a pair of loop antennas with independently controlled frequency and power. This beat wave is observed to resonantly drive the unstable mode, as well as a second otherwise stable mode slightly higher in frequency and azimuthal mode number. During the drive of the secondary stable mode, the growth of the primary instability is suppressed. The broadcast of the Alfven waves and the beat wave is also observed to drive other fluctuations in the plasma at frequencies higher than either the spontaneous instability or the second, stable mode. Both the resonant drive of the modes and the control of the mode number are observed to have non-linear threshold and saturation behavior.

  3. NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF ALFVEN WAVES DRIVEN BY OBSERVED PHOTOSPHERIC MOTIONS: APPLICATION TO THE CORONAL HEATING AND SPICULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takuma; Shibata, Kazunari

    2010-02-20

    We have performed MHD simulations of Alfven wave propagation along an open flux tube in the solar atmosphere. In our numerical model, Alfven waves are generated by the photospheric granular motion. As the wave generator, we used a derived temporal spectrum of the photospheric granular motion from G-band movies of Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. It is shown that the total energy flux at the corona becomes larger and the transition region's height becomes higher in the case when we use the observed spectrum rather than the white/pink noise spectrum as the wave generator. This difference can be explained by the Alfven wave resonance between the photosphere and the transition region. After performing Fourier analysis on our numerical results, we have found that the region between the photosphere and the transition region becomes an Alfven wave resonant cavity. We have confirmed that there are at least three resonant frequencies, 1, 3, and 5 mHz, in our numerical model. Alfven wave resonance is one of the most effective mechanisms to explain the dynamics of the spicules and the sufficient energy flux to heat the corona.

  4. Ionospheric Ion Upflows Associated with the Alfven Wave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, P.; Tu, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we present the simulation results from a self-consistent inductive-dynamic ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D numerical simulation (noon-midnight meridian plane), we solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals and Maxwell's equations. In particular, the model retains Faraday's law, inertial term in the ion momentum equations and photochemistry. The code is based on an implicit algorithm and simulates a region from 80 km to 5000 km above the Earth. The system is driven by an antisunward motion at the upper boundary of the dayside cusp latitude in both hemispheres. We show that the frictional heating, which can produce upflows of the light (H+ and He+) and heave (O+) ions, is driven by the Alfven wave-induced ion motion relative to the neutrals. The variations of the upflows along a noon-midnight magnetic meridian are examined in association with given driving conditions imposed by the magnetosphere convection.

  5. Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos

    2013-11-29

    The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the

  6. Investigation of an ion-ion hybrid Alfven wave resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Vincena, S. T.; Farmer, W. A.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2013-01-15

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is made of a wave resonator based on the concept of wave reflection along the confinement magnetic field at a spatial location where the wave frequency matches the local value of the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Such a situation can be realized by shear Alfven waves in a magnetized plasma with two ion species because this mode has zero parallel group velocity and experiences a cut-off at the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Since the ion-ion hybrid frequency is proportional to the magnetic field, it is expected that a magnetic well configuration in a two-ion plasma can result in an Alfven wave resonator. Such a concept has been proposed in various space plasma studies and could have relevance to mirror and tokamak fusion devices. This study demonstrates such a resonator in a controlled laboratory experiment using a H{sup +}-He{sup +} mixture. The resonator response is investigated by launching monochromatic waves and impulses from a magnetic loop antenna. The observed frequency spectra are found to agree with predictions of a theoretical model of trapped eigenmodes.

  7. A global 3-D MHD model of the solar wind with Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usmanov, A. V.

    1995-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional solar wind model that incorporates momentum and heat addition from Alfven waves is developed. The proposed model upgrades the previous one by considering self-consistently the total system consisting of Alfven waves propagating outward from the Sun and the mean polytropic solar wind flow. The simulation region extends from the coronal base (1 R(sub s) out to beyond 1 AU. The fully 3-D MHD equations written in spherical coordinates are solved in the frame of reference corotating with the Sun. At the inner boundary, the photospheric magnetic field observations are taken as boundary condition and wave energy influx is prescribed to be proportional to the magnetic field strength. The results of the model application for several time intervals are presented.

  8. Kinetic Alfven wave in the presence of kappa distribution function in plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, G. Ahirwar, G.; Shrivastava, J.

    2015-07-31

    The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution function. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution function affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven wave instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave.

  9. Arbitrary amplitude kinetic Alfven solitary waves in two temperature electron superthermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh Saini, Nareshpal; Ghai, Yashika

    2016-07-01

    Through various satellite missions it is observed that superthermal velocity distribution for particles is more appropriate for describing space and astrophysical plasmas. So it is appropriate to use superthermal distribution, which in the limiting case when spectral index κ is very large ( i.e. κ→∞), shifts to Maxwellian distribution. Two temperature electron plasmas have been observed in auroral regions by FAST satellite mission, and also by GEOTAIL and POLAR satellite in the magnetosphere. Kinetic Alfven waves arise when finite Larmor radius effect modifies the dispersion relation or characteristic perpendicular wavelength is comparable to electron inertial length. We have studied the kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in a plasma comprising of positively charged ions, superthermal hot electrons and Maxwellian distributed cold electrons. Sagdeev pseudo-potential has been employed to derive an energy balance equation. The critical Mach number has been determined from the expression of Sagdeev pseudo-potential to see the existence of solitary structures. It is observed that sub-Alfvenic compressive solitons and super-Alfvenic rarefactive solitons exist in this plasma model. It is also observed that various parameters such as superthermality of hot electrons, relative concentration of cold and hot electron species, Mach number, plasma beta, ion to cold electron temperature ratio and ion to hot electron temperature ratio have significant effect on the amplitude and width of the KAWs. Findings of this investigation may be useful to understand the dynamics of coherent non-linear structures (i.e. KAWs) in space and astrophysical plasmas.

  10. Chaotic Dynamics of Alfven Waves in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BorottoChavez, Felix Aldo

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the chaotic dynamics of AIN& waves in the solar wind. This study is carried out in two parts. Firstly, motivated by the simultaneous observation of Langmuir waves and electromagnetic waves of low frequency in magnetic holes in the solar wind, we propose a theory based on the nonlinear interaction process involving three waves. We use the Pomcare' method to characterize the Pomeau-Manneville intermittency and show two examples of interior crises produced by the collision of unstable periodic orbits with a chaotic attractor Secondly, the chaotic dynamics of Alfven waves is modelled in a dissipative system in the presence of an external periodic source, using the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (DNLS). By solving the DNLS numerically in the low-dimension limit, assisted again by the Poincare' method, we identify two types of intermittency: Pomeau-Manneville intermittency and interior crisis-induced intermittency. In addition, we have found a very complex region associated with the coexistence of various attractors. This region presents a number of boundary crises arising from a homoclinic tangency. We discuss the application of AIN& chaos for the interpretation of the observations of Alfvenic turbulence in the solar wind.

  11. Excitation of low-frequency waves via coupling between slow Alfven waves in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Okada, T.; Hirata, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sumida, S.; Jang, S.; Itagaki, J.; Onodera, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Wang, X.; Nakashima, Y.

    2015-11-01

    In normal discharges of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, confined energy is saturated against heating power and unstable slow Alfven wave named as Alfven-Ion-Cyclotron (AIC) wave is observed in the saturated phase. This saturation may be partly related to (1) the decay of ICRF heating power, which is the main power source in GAMMA 10, due to the coupling with the AIC waves to produce difference-frequency waves and (2) the enhancement of axial transport of high-energy ions owing to nonlinearly excited low-frequency waves. To investigate these phenomena precisely, reflectometry is applied, which can provide assessment of nonlinear process at the location where the nonlinear process are taking place without any disturbance. Bispectral analysis applied to the density fluctuations measured at a wide radial region clearly shows the occurrence of various wave-wave couplings among the heating ICRF wave and the AIC waves. Generation of low-frequency waves via the coupling between coexisting AIC waves is found to be significant only near the core region. Details of measured nonlinear couplings are presented along with the observation showing the clear relation of generated low-frequency waves with the axial transport of high-energy ions. This work is partly supported by JSPS, Japan (25400531, 15K17797) and by NIFS, Japan (NIFS15KUGM101).

  12. Experiment to Study Alfven Wave Propagation in Plasma Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Mark; Bellan, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Arched plasma-filled twisted magnetic flux tubes are generated in the laboratory using pulsed power techniques (J.F. Hansen, S.K.P. Tripathi, P.M. Bellan, 2004). Their structure and time evolution exhibit similarities with both solar coronal loops and spheromaks. We are now developing a method to excite propagating torsional Alfven wave modes in such plasma loops by superposing a ˜10kA, ˜100ns current pulse upon the ˜50kA, 10μs main discharge current that flows along the ˜20cm long, 2cm diameter arched flux tube. To achieve this high power 100ns pulse, a magnetic pulse compression technique based on saturable reactors is employed. A low power prototype has been successfully tested, and design and construction of a full-power device is nearing completion. The full-power device will compress an initial 2μs pulse by a factor of nearly 20; the final stage utilizes a water-filled transmission line with ultra-low inductance to attain the final timescale. This new pulse device will subsequently be used to investigate interactions between Alfven waves and the larger-scale loop evolution; one goal will be to directly image the wave using high-speed photography. Attention will be paid to wave propagation including dispersion and reflection, as well as dissipation mechanisms and possible energetic particle generation.

  13. PROPAGATION OF ALFVENIC WAVES FROM CORONA TO CHROMOSPHERE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. J. B.; Fletcher, L.

    2013-03-10

    How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a two-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform one-dimensional simulations of Alfven waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra, and umbra) show that energy transmission from corona to chromosphere can exceed 20% of incident energy for wave periods of 1 s or less. Damping of waves in the chromosphere depends strongly on wave frequency: waves with periods 10 s or longer pass through the chromosphere with relatively little damping, however, for periods of 1 s or less, a substantial fraction (37%-100%) of wave energy entering the chromosphere is damped by ion-neutral friction in the mid- and upper chromosphere, with electron resistivity playing some role in the lower chromosphere and in umbras. We therefore conclude that Alfvenic waves with periods of a few seconds or less are capable of heating the chromosphere during solar flares, and speculate that they could also contribute to electron acceleration or exciting sunquakes.

  14. Heating of ionospheric O(+) ions by shear Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Sydora, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Ionospheric ions, in particular O(+) ions, which have been transversely heated, are often observed flowing upward along auroral field lines. A new mechanism, heating by current-driven shear (or kinetic) Alfven waves (SAW), is proposed. An electron current drives oblique SAWs unstable near a wave frequency of about the oxygen cyclotron frequency, and these waves are in turn gyroresonantly absorbed by the ions. The mechanism is similar to ion heating by current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EICW). However, the SAW differs from the EICW in that as the perpendicular temperature of the ions increases, growth of the SAW can still occur, whereas growth of the EICW becomes suppressed. As a consequence, the SAW is able to provide sustained perpendicular heating of ions with smaller currents being required for the heating than for heating via EICWs.

  15. Arc-Polarized, Nonlinear Alfven Waves and Rotational Discontinuities: Directions of Propogation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Ho, C. M.; Sakurai, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Riley, P.; Balogh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Large amplitude, noncompressive Alfven waves and rotational discontinuities are shown to be arc-polarized. The slowly rotating Alfven wave portion plus the fast rotating discontinuity comprise 360(deg) in phase rotation. The magnetic field vector perturbation lies in a plane. There are two (or more) possible interpretations to the observations.

  16. Propagation velocity of Alfven wave packets in a dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Amagishi, Y.; Nakagawa, H. ); Tanaka, M. )

    1994-09-01

    We have experimentally studied the behavior of Alfven wave packets in a dissipative plasma due to ion--neutral-atom collisions. It is urged that the central frequency of the packet is observed to gradually decrease with traveling distance in the absorption range of frequencies because of a differential damping among the Fourier components, and that the measured average velocity of its peak amplitude is not accounted for by the conventional group velocity, but by the prediction derived by Tanaka, Fujiwara, and Ikegami [Phys. Rev. A 34, 4851 (1986)]. Furthermore, when the initial central frequency is close to the critical frequency in the anomalous dispersion, the wave packet apparently collapses when traveling along the magnetic field; however, we have found that it is decomposed into another two wave packets with the central frequencies being higher or lower than the critical frequency.

  17. Effects of compressional magnetic perturbation on kinetic Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ge; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Lin, Zhihong

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic Alfven waves play a very important role in the dynamics of fusion as well as space and astrophysical plasmas. The compressional magnetic perturbation δB|| can play important role in kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) and various instabilities at large plasma β. It could affect the nonlinear behavior of these modes significantly even at small β. In this study, we have implemented δB|| in gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The perpendicular Ampere's law is solved as a force balance equation. Double gyroaveraging is incorporated in the code to treat the finite Larmor radius effects related to δB|| terms. KAW is studied in slab geometry as a benchmark case. A scan in β for the KAW dispersion relation shows that as β approaches 1 (>0.3), the effects of δB|| becomes important. Connections are made with other existing studies of KAWs in the fusion and space plasma literature. This new capability of including δB|| in GTC could be applied to nonlinear simulations of modes such as kinetic ballooning and tearing modes. This research is supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Shear Alfven waves with Landau and collisional effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.; Spong, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Shear Alfven waves can be driven unstable by hot particles such as alpha particles in an ignited fusion device or hot ions in existing devices. Motivated by rather collisional Wendelstein 7 Advanced Stellarator (W7-AS) [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 72}, 1220 (1994)] beam-driven global Alfven instability experiments, the effect of electron and ion collisions on these modes has been examined. Collisions broaden and suppress the peak associated with Landau effects. This broadening makes ion damping more important, while the electron damping is suppressed. Additional resistive effects provide increased damping for the main part of the spectrum, which can have a rather high phase velocity. Of more general interest is the fact that collisional and collisionless resistivity has a numerically stabilizing effect that is known to be important for nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This can preclude the need for introducing and testing the sensitivity to similar ad hoc effects. Numerical and analytic results for both a particle-conserving Krook collision operator and a Lorentz (pitch angle) collision operator are compared and contrasted.

  19. Electron trapping and acceleration by kinetic Alfven waves in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Rankin, R.; Blanco, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we study the interaction of kinetic Alfven waves generated near the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere with electrons having initial energies up to ˜100 eV. Wave-particle interactions are investigated using a theoretical model of trapping into an effective potential generated by the wave parallel electric field and the mirror force acting along geomagnetic field lines. It is demonstrated that waves with an effective potential amplitude on the order of ˜100-400 V and with perpendicular wavelengths on the order of the ion gyroradius can trap and efficiently accelerate electrons up to energies of several keV. Trapping acceleration corresponds to conservation of the electron magnetic moment and, thus, results in a significant decrease of the electron equatorial pitch angle with time. Analytical and numerical estimates of the maximum energy and probability of trapping are presented, and the application of the proposed model is discussed.

  20. Generation of polarized shear Alfven waves by a rotating magnetic field source

    SciTech Connect

    Gigliotti, A.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Karavaev, A.; Shao, X.; Sharma, A. Surjalal; Papadopoulos, D.

    2009-09-15

    Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device at the University of California, Los Angeles to study the propagation of field-aligned, polarized kinetic shear Alfven waves radiated from a rotating magnetic field source created via a novel phased orthogonal loop antenna. Both right and left hand circular polarizations are generated at a wide range of frequencies from 0.21{<=}{omega}/{omega}{sub ci}<0.93. Propagation parallel to the background magnetic field near the Alfven velocity is observed along with a small parallel wave magnetic field component implying a shear mode. The peak-to-peak magnitude of the wave magnetic field, 33 cm away from the antenna, is on the order of 0.8% of the background field and drops off in the far field. The full width at half maximum of the wave energy changes little over a distance of 2.5 parallel wavelengths while the exponential decrease in wave energy as a function of distance can be attributed to collisional damping. Evidence of electron heating and ionization is observed during the pulse.

  1. Observation of fast-ion Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with shear Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yang; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Vincena, S.; Carter, T. A.; Gekelman, W.; Leneman, D.; Pribyl, P.

    2008-10-15

    The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance ({omega}-k{sub z}v{sub z}={omega}{sub f}) between fast ions and shear Alfven waves is experimentally investigated ({omega}, wave frequency; k{sub z}, axial wavenumber; v{sub z}, fast-ion axial speed; {omega}{sub f}, fast-ion cyclotron frequency). A test particle beam of fast ions is launched by a Li{sup +} source in the helium plasma of the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], with shear Alfven waves (SAW) (amplitude {delta} B/B up to 1%) launched by a loop antenna. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer measures the nonclassical spreading of the beam, which is proportional to the resonance with the wave. A resonance spectrum is observed by launching SAWs at 0.3-0.8{omega}{sub ci}. Both the magnitude and frequency dependence of the beam-spreading are in agreement with the theoretical prediction using a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that launches fast ions with an initial spread in real/velocity space and random phases relative to the wave. Measured wave magnetic field data are used in the simulation.

  2. Propagation and Damping of Kinetic Alfven Waves Generated During Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Shay, M. A.; Haggerty, C. C.; Parashar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetospheric waves have the potential to convert to Kinetic Alfven Waves (KAW) at scales close to the ion larmor radius and the electron inertial length. At this length scale, it is observed that KAW generated at reconnection propagates super-Alfvenically and the wave is responsible for the parallel propagation of the Hall magnetic field near the separatrice from the magnetotial region. The pointing flux associated with this Hall magnetic field is also consistent with observed Cluster data observations [1]. An important question is whether this KAW energy will be able to propagate all the way to the Earth, creating aurora associated with a substorm. If this KAW propagation can be well understood, then this will provide valuable insight as to the relative timing of substorm onset versus reconnection onset in the magnetotail. The difficulty currently is that the nonlinear damping of KAW is not well understood even in a homogenous system, let alone more realistic magnetotail geometries including changes to density, magnetic field strength, and magnetic orientation. We study the propagation, dispersion, and damping of these KAWs using P3D, a kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code. Travelling waves are initialized based on a fluid model and allowed to propagate for substantial time periods. Damping of the waves are compared with Landau damping predictions. The waves are simulated in both homogenous and varying equilibrium meant to determine the effect on propagation. Implications for energetic electron production and Poynting flux input into the ionosphere are discussed. [1] Shay, M. A., J. F. Drake, J. P. Eastwood, and T. D. Phan, Super-Alfvenic propagation of substorm reconnection signatures and Poynting flux,, Physics Review Letters, Vol. 107, 065001, 2011.

  3. Nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves in a finite beta plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Som, B.K. ); Dasgupta, B.; Patel, V.L. ); Gupta, M.R. )

    1989-12-01

    A general form of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation, describing the nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, is derived by using two-fluid equations with electron and ion pressure tensors obtained from Braginskii (in {ital Reviews} {ital of} {ital Plasma Physics} (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 218). This equation is a mixed version of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation and the DNLS, as it contains an additional cubic nonlinear term that is of the same order as the derivative of the nonlinear terms, a term containing the product of a quadratic term, and a first-order derivative. It incorporates the effects of finite beta, which is an important characteristic of space and laboratory plasmas.

  4. Dust kinetic Alfven and acoustic waves in a Lorentzian plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rubab, N.; Biernat, H. K.; Erkaev, N. V.

    2009-10-15

    Dust kinetic Alfven waves (DKAWs) with finite Larmor radius effects have been examined rigorously in a uniform dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. A dispersion relation of low-frequency DKAW on the dust acoustic velocity branch is obtained in a low-{beta} Lorentzian plasma. It is found that the influence of the Lorentzian distribution function is more effective for perpendicular component of group velocity as compared with parallel one. Lorentzian-type charging currents are obtained with the aid of Vlasov theory. Damping/instability due to dust charge fluctuation is found to be insensitive with the form of distribution function for DKAW. The possible applications to dusty space plasmas are pointed out.

  5. The evolution of nonlinear Alfven waves subject to growth and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, S. R.

    1986-08-01

    The effects of wave amplification (by streaming particle distributions) and damping (by ion-cyclotron resonance absorption) on the nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves are investigated theoretically. The results of numerical simulations based on the derivative-Schroedinger-equation model of Spangler and Sheerin (1983 and 1985) are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with an emphasis on astrophysical applications. Three phases of wave-packet evolution (linear, nonlinear-saturation, and postsaturation quasi-steady) are identified, and nonlinearity is found to transfer wave energy from growing or amplified wavenumbers to wavenumbers affected by damping. It is pointed out that although there are similarities between the solitonlike pulses predicted by the simulations and short-wavelength shocklet structures observed in the earth bow shock, the model does not explain why low-frequency waves stop growing in the vicinity of the bow shock.

  6. Acceleration and heating of two-fluid solar wind by Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil

    1994-01-01

    Earlier model studies of solar wind driven by thermal pressure and Alfven waves have shown that wave amplitudes of 20-30 km/s at the coronal base are sufficient to accelerate the flow to the high speeds observed in quasi-steady streams emanating from large coronal holes. We focus on the energy balance in the proton gas and show that heat conduction from the region where the waves are dissipated may play an important role in determining the proton temperature at the orbit of Earth. In models with 'classical' heat conduction we find a correlation between high flow speed, high proton temperature, and low electron temperature at 1 AU. The effect of wave heating on the development of anisotropies in the solar wind proton gas pressure is also investigated in this study.

  7. Upper-hybrid wave-driven Alfvenic turbulence in magnetized dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P.; Banerjee, S.

    2011-03-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of coupled electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH) and Alfven waves (AWs) is revisited in a magnetized electron-ion plasma with charged dust impurities. A pair of nonlinear equations that describe the interaction of UH wave envelopes (including the relativistic electron mass increase) and the density as well as the compressional magnetic field perturbations associated with the AWs are solved numerically to show that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated due to modulational instability of unstable UH waves. The evolution of these solitary patterns is also shown to appear in the states of spatiotemporal coherence, temporal as well as spatiotemporal chaos, due to collision and fusion among the patterns in stochastic motion. Furthermore, these spatiotemporal features are demonstrated by the analysis of wavelet power spectra. It is found that a redistribution of wave energy takes place to higher harmonic modes with small wavelengths, which, in turn, results in the onset of Alfvenic turbulence in dusty magnetoplasmas. Such a scenario can occur in the vicinity of Saturn's magnetosphere as many electrostatic solitary structures have been observed there by the Cassini spacecraft.

  8. Winds from Luminous Late-Type Stars: II. Broadband Frequency Distribution of Alfven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airapetian, V.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the numerical simulations of winds from evolved giant stars using a fully non-linear, time dependent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. This study extends our previous fully non-linear MHD wind simulations to include a broadband frequency spectrum of Alfven waves that drive winds from red giant stars. We calculated four Alfven wind models that cover the whole range of Alfven wave frequency spectrum to characterize the role of freely propagated and reflected Alfven waves in the gravitationally stratified atmosphere of a late-type giant star. Our simulations demonstrate that, unlike linear Alfven wave-driven wind models, a stellar wind model based on plasma acceleration due to broadband non-linear Alfven waves, can consistently reproduce the wide range of observed radial velocity profiles of the winds, their terminal velocities and the observed mass loss rates. Comparison of the calculated mass loss rates with the empirically determined mass loss rate for alpha Tau suggests an anisotropic and time-dependent nature of stellar winds from evolved giants.

  9. THE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DEPENDENCE OF CORONAL HEATING BY ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2013-08-20

    The solar atmosphere may be heated by Alfven waves that propagate up from the convection zone and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere and corona. To further test this theory, we consider wave heating in an active region observed on 2012 March 7. A potential field model of the region is constructed, and 22 field lines representing observed coronal loops are traced through the model. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reduced magnetohydrodynamics code, we simulate the dynamics of Alfven waves in and near the observed loops. The results for different loops are combined into a single formula describing the average heating rate Q as a function of position within the observed active region. We suggest this expression may be approximately valid also for other active regions, and therefore may be used to construct 3D, time-dependent models of the coronal plasma. Such models are needed to understand the role of thermal non-equilibrium in the structuring and dynamics of the Sun's corona.

  10. High-Frequency Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Low Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Satellite observations in the auroral plasma have revealed that extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play a dominant role in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral plasma. The electromagnetic components of the ELF (EMELF) waves are the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves below the cyclotron frequency of the lightest ion species in a multi-ion plasma. Shear Alfv6n waves (SAWS) constitute the lowest frequency components of the ELF waves below the ion cyclotron frequency of the heaviest ion. The -2 mechanism for the transfer of energy from such EMELF waves to ions affecting transverse ion heating still remains a matter of debate. A very ubiquitous fe8ture of ELF waves now observed in several rocket and satellite experiments is that they occur in conjunction with high-frequency electrostatic waves. The frequency spectrum of the composite wave turbulence extends from the low frequency of the Alfvenic waves to the high frequency of proton plasma frequency and/or the lower hybrid frequency. The spectrum does not show any feature organized by the ion cyclotron frequencies and their harmonics. Such broadband waves consisting of both the EM and ES waves are now popularly referred as BBELF waves. We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the ES components are directly generated by cross- field plasma instabilities driven by the drifts of the ions and electrons in the EM component of the BBELF waves.

  11. Standing Alfven wave current system at Io: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Ness, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    The enigmatic control of the occurrence frequency of Jupiter's decametric emissions by the satellite Io is explained theoretically on the basis of its strong electrodynamic interaction with the corotating Jovian magnetosphere leading to field aligned currents connecting Io with the Jovian ionosphere. Direct measurements of the perturbation magnetic fields due to this current system were obtained by the magnetic field experiment on Voyager 1 on 5 March 1979 when it passed within 20,500 km south of Io. An interpretation in the framework of Alfven waves radiated by Io leads to current estimates of 2.8 million amps. A mass density of 7400 to 13600 proton mass units per Cu cm is derived which compares very favorably with independent observations of the torus composition characterized by 7-9 proton mass units per electron for a local electron density of 1050 to 1500 per cu cm. The power dissipated in the current system may be important for heating the Io heavy ion torus, inner magnetosphere, Jovian ionosphere, and possibly the ionosphere or even the interior of Io.

  12. The interaction of high-m guided poloidal alfven waves with magnetospheric electrons and the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.

    2014-12-01

    Poloidal mode Alfven waves are often generated in Earth's magnetosphere following interplanetary shocks and/or pressure pulses acting on the magnetopause. These disturbances can excite resonant field line oscillations with frequencies in the mHz range by launching fast mode waves that couple energy to field line resonances. This direct action of the solar wind on the magnetosphere can perhaps explain waves with relatively small azimuthal wavenumbers (m), but not the observed range of waves with m~40-50 on L-shells around 5 or 6. These waves are strongly guided along geomagnetic field lines to the ionosphere, and are generally thought to particle driven, e.g., as a result of bounce-resonance wave-particle interactions following activation of the ring current. This is not the only possible source mechanism as there is evidence of wave generation before the ring current has reacted significantly to shock passage. Putting aside the source mechanism, high-m poloidal modes with strong east west directed electric fields are important primarily because they can elevate differential energy flux for electron energies in the range of 100's of keV to several MeV. In this paper we use observations of guided poloidal mode Alfven waves to constrain a ULF wave model that describes not only how waves evolve on geomagnetic field lines, but also their interaction with a dynamic height-resolved ionosphere. The ionosphere and neutral atmosphere are specified in the model using the IRI and MSIS models. These regions react to waves and precipitation through heating and cooling, ionization, recombination, and chemical reactions. We present detailed results of the interaction of a poloidal wave observed by the Eiscat radar, and demonstrate that the model used can reproduce all aspects of the radar observations. We consider mechanisms for pulsed precipitation accompanying this wave, which causes a phase difference of ~90 degrees between observed temperature and density spikes. We also

  13. Parametric instability of a monochromatic Alfven wave: Perpendicular decay in low beta plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Shan, Lican; Wang, Shui; Li, Xing

    2013-07-15

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed to investigate the parametric decay of a monochromatic Alfven wave in low beta plasma. Both the linearly and left-hand polarized pump Alfven waves are considered in the paper. For the linearly polarized pump Alfven wave, either a parallel or obliquely propagating wave can lead to the decay along the perpendicular direction. Initially, the parametric decay takes place along the propagating direction of the pump wave, and then the decay occurs in the perpendicular direction. With the increase of the amplitude and the propagating angle of the pump wave (the angle between the propagating direction of the pump wave and the ambient magnetic field), the spectral range of the excited waves becomes broad in the perpendicular direction. But the effects of the plasma beta on the spectral range of the excited waves in perpendicular direction are negligible. However, for the left-hand polarized pump Alfven wave, when the pump wave propagates along the ambient magnetic field, the parametric decay occurs nearly along the ambient magnetic field, and there is no obvious decay in the perpendicular direction. Significant decay in the perpendicular direction can only be found when the pump wave propagates obliquely.

  14. Klein-Gordon equation and reflection of Alfven waves in nonuniform media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Fontenla, J. M.; Moore, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A new analytical approach is presented for assessing the reflection of linear Alfven waves in smoothly nonuniform media. The general one-dimensional case in Cartesian coordinates is treated. It is shown that the wave equations, upon transformation into the form of the Klein-Gordon equation, display a local critical frequency for reflection. At any location in the medium, reflection becomes strong as the wave frequency descends past this characteristic frequency set by the local nonuniformity of the medium. This critical frequecy is given by the transformation as an explicit function of the Alfven velocity and its first and second derivatives, and hence as an explicit spatial function. The transformation thus directly yields, without solution of the wave equations, the location in the medium at which an Alfven wave of any given frequency becomes strongly reflected and has its propagation practically cut off.

  15. Kinetic Alfven solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, A. E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr Ryu, C. M. E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr; Bains, A. S. E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr

    2015-09-15

    A study of the ion Larmor radius effects on the solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons is presented by employing the kinetic theory. The linear dispersion relation of SKAW is shown to depend on the superthermal parameter κ, ion to electron temperature ratio, and the angle of wave propagation. Using the Sagdeev potential approach, the energy balance equation has been derived to study the dynamics of SKAWs. The effects of various plasma parameters are investigated for the propagation of SKAWs. It is shown that only compressive solitons can exist and in the Maxwellian limit our results are in good agreement with previous studies. Further, the characteristics of small amplitude SKAWs are investigated. Present study could be useful for the understanding of SKAWs in a low β plasma in astrophysical environment, where particle distributions are superthermal in nature.

  16. A TORSIONAL ALFVEN WAVE EMBEDDED WITHIN A SMALL MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J. T.; Teh, W.-L.; Eriksson, S.

    2010-08-10

    We describe and use novel techniques to analyze a striking and distinct solar wind event observed by two spacecraft. We show that the event is consistent with an interpretation as a torsional Alfven wave embedded within a small, nearly radially aligned, magnetic flux rope of total width {approx}10{sup 6} km. It seems likely that the torsional wave was generated by distortions produced within a pre-existing flux rope that erupted from the Sun. Our examination of many events previously identified as flux ropes in the solar wind indicates that torsional Alfven waves are extremely rare in such events.

  17. Exploring the Use of Alfven Waves in Magnetometer Calibration at Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, John; Sheppard, David; RIch, Frederick; Redmon, Robert; Loto'aniu, Paul; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    An Alfven wave is a type magnetohydrodynamicwave that travels through a conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. Researchers have successfully calculated offset vectors of magnetometers in interplanetary space by optimizing the offset to maximize certain Alfvenic properties of observed waves (Leinweber, Belcher). If suitable Alfven waves can be found in the magnetosphere at geosynchronous altitude then these techniques could be used to augment the overall calibration plan for magnetometers in this region such as on the GOES spacecraft, possibly increasing the time between regular maneuvers. Calibration maneuvers may be undesirable because they disrupt the activities of other instruments. Various algorithms to calculate an offset using Alfven waves were considered. A new variation of the Davis-Smith method was derived because it can be mathematically shown that the Davis-Smith method tolerates filtered data, which expands potential applications. The variant developed was designed to find only the offset in the plane normal to the main field because the overall direction of Earth's magnetic field rarely changes, and theory suggests the Alfvenic disturbances occur transverse to the main field. Other variations of the Davis-Smith method encounter problems with data containing waves that propagate in mostly the same direction. A searching algorithm was then designed to look for periods of time with potential Alfven waves in GOES 15 data based on parameters requiring that disturbances be normal to the main field and not change field magnitude. Final waves for calculation were hand-selected. These waves produced credible two-dimensional offset vectors when input to the Davis-Smith method. Multiple two-dimensional solutions in different planes can be combined to get a measurement of the complete offset. The resulting three dimensional offset did not show sufficient precision over several years to be used as a primary calibration method, but reflected

  18. Small amplitude Kinetic Alfven waves in a superthermal electron-positron-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Mahmood, Sahahzad; Qamar, Anisa; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2016-11-01

    We are investigating the propagating properties of coupled Kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves in a low beta plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons. Using the standard reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equation is derived which describes the evolution of Kinetic Alfven waves. It is found that nonlinearity and Larmor radius effects can compromise and give rise to solitary structures. The parametric role of superthermality and positron content on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is also investigated. It is found that only sub-Alfvenic and compressive solitons are supported in the present model. The present study may find applications in a low β electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons.

  19. Generation of Alfven waves by high power pulse at the electron plasma frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Compernolle, Bart Gilbert

    The physics of the interaction between plasmas and high power waves with frequencies in the electron plasma frequency range is of importance in many areas of space and plasma physics. A great deal of laboratory research has been done on the interaction of microwaves in a density gradient when o = ope in unmagnetized plasmas. [SWK74, WS78, KSW74]. Extensive studies of HF-ionospheric modifications have been performed [Fej79] as evidenced by experiments at Arecibo [HMD92, BHK86, CDF92, FGI85], at the HAARP facility [RKK98] in Alaska, at the EISCAT observatory in Norway [IHR99], and at SURA in Russia [FKS99]. This dissertation focusses on the interaction with a fully magnetized plasma, capable of supporting Alfven waves. The experiment is performed in the upgraded LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA [GPL91] (Helium, n = 1012 cm-3, B = 1 kG - 2.5 kG). A number of experiments have been done at LAPD using antennas, skin depth scale currents and laser produced plasmas to generate Alfven waves [LGM99, GVL97a, GVL97b, VGV01]. In this work a high power pulse 6th, frequency in the electron plasma frequency range is launched into the radial density gradient, perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The microwave pulses last on the order of one ion gyro period and has a maximum power of |E|2/ nT ≃ .5 in the afterglow. The absorption of these waves leads to a pulse of field aligned suprathermal electrons. This electron current pulse then launches with Alfven wave with o ≤ o ci. The experiment was performed bath in ordinary node (O-mode) and extraordinary (X-mode), for different background magnetic fields B0, different temperatures (afterglow vs discharge) and different power levels of the incoming microwaves. It was found that the Alfven wave generation can be explained by Cherenkov radiation of Alfven waves by the suprathermal electron pulse. Theoretical solutions for the perturbed magnetic field due to a pulse of field aligned electrons were obtained, and shown to be

  20. Non-Linear Effects of Self Generated Alfven Waves in Oblique Shocks and Cosmic Ray Acceleration Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Tanco, G. A.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presentan resultados numericos para un modelo hidrodinamico de cuatro componentes (plasma de fondo, particulas energeticas, ondas de Alfven autogeneradas y campo magnetico) para choques oblicuos. ABSTRACT. Numerical results of a four component hydrodynamic model (background plasma, energetic particles, self-generated Alfven waves and magnetic field) for oblique shocks are presented. Keq wo't : COSMIC RAY-GENERAL - PLASMAS - SHOCK WAVES

  1. Peculiarities of Alfven wave propagation along a nonuniform magnetic flux tube

    SciTech Connect

    Erkaev, N.V.; Shaidurov, V.A.; Semenov, V.S.; Langmayr, D.; Biernat, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of the assumption of large azimuthal wave numbers, the equations for Alfven and slow magnetosonic waves are obtained using frozen-in material coordinates. These equations are specified for the case of a nonuniform magnetic field with axial symmetry. Assuming a meridional polarization of the magnetic field and velocity perturbations, the effects of Alfven wave propagation are analyzed which are related to geometric characteristics of a nonuniform magnetic field: (a) A finite curvature radius of the magnetic field lines and (b) convergence of magnetic field lines. The interaction between the Alfven and magnetosonic waves is found to be strongly dependent on the curvature radius of the magnetic tube and the local plasma {beta} parameter. The electric field amplitude and the length scale of a wave front are found to increase very strongly in the course of the Alfven wave propagation along a converging magnetic flux tube. Also studied is a temporal decrease of the wave perturbations which is caused by dissipation at the conducting boundary.

  2. Chromospheric alfvenic waves strong enough to power the solar wind.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; McIntosh, S W; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V H; Tarbell, T D; Schrijver, C J; Title, A M; Shine, R A; Tsuneta, S; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K; Suematsu, Y; Shimizu, T; Nagata, S

    2007-12-07

    Alfvén waves have been invoked as a possible mechanism for the heating of the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, to millions of degrees and for the acceleration of the solar wind to hundreds of kilometers per second. However, Alfvén waves of sufficient strength have not been unambiguously observed in the solar atmosphere. We used images of high temporal and spatial resolution obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Japanese Hinode satellite to reveal that the chromosphere, the region sandwiched between the solar surface and the corona, is permeated by Alfvén waves with strong amplitudes on the order of 10 to 25 kilometers per second and periods of 100 to 500 seconds. Estimates of the energy flux carried by these waves and comparisons with advanced radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that such Alfvén waves are energetic enough to accelerate the solar wind and possibly to heat the quiet corona.

  3. Focusing of Alfvenic wave power in the context of gamma-ray burst emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio

    1993-01-01

    Highly dynamic magnetospheric perturbations in neutron star environments can naturally account for the features observed in gamma-ray burst spectra. The source distribution, however, appears to be extragalactic. Although noncatastrophic isotropic emission mechanisms may be ruled out on energetic and timing arguments, MHD processes can produce strongly anisotropic gamma rays with an observable flux out to distances of about 1-2 Gpc. Here we show that sheared Alfven waves propagating along open magnetospheric field lines at the poles of magnetized neutron stars transfer their energy dissipationally to the current sustaining the field misalignment and thereby focus their power into a spatial region about 1000 times smaller than that of the crustal disturbance. This produces a strong (observable) flux enhancement along certain directions. We apply this model to a source population of 'turned-off' pulsars that have nonetheless retained their strong magnetic fields and have achieved alignment at a period of approximately greater than 5 sec.

  4. Kinetic Electron Closures for Electromagnetic Simulation of Drift and Shear-Alfven Waves (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B I; Dimits, A M; Nevins, W M; Chen, Y; Parker, S

    2001-10-11

    An electromagnetic hybrid scheme (fluid electrons and gyrokinetic ions) is elaborated in example calculations and extended to toroidal geometry. The scheme includes a kinetic electron closure valid for {beta}{sub e} > m{sub e}/m{sub i} ({beta}{sub e} is the ratio of the plasma electron pressure to the magnetic field energy density). The new scheme incorporates partially linearized ({delta}f) drift-kinetic electrons whose pressure and number density moments are used to close the fluid momentum equation for the electron fluid (Ohm's law). The test cases used are small-amplitude kinetic shear-Alfven waves with electron Landau damping, the ion-temperature-gradient instability, and the collisionless drift instability (universal mode) in an unsheared slab as a function of the plasma {beta}{sub e}. Attention is given to resolution and convergence issues in simulations of turbulent steady states.

  5. Kinetic Alfven Waves at the Magnetopause--Mode Conversion, Transport and Formation of LLBL

    SciTech Connect

    Jay R. Johnson; C.Z. Cheng

    2002-05-31

    At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in the Alfven velocity [Johnson and Cheng, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 1423]. The mode-conversion process can explain the following wave observations typically found during satellite crossings of the magnetopause: (1) a dramatic change in wave polarization from compressional in the magnetosheath to transverse at the magnetopause, (2) an amplification of wave amplitude at the magnetopause, (3) a change in Poynting flux from cross-field in the magnetosheath to field-aligned at the magnetopause, and (4) a steepening in the wave power spectrum at the magnetopause. We examine magnetic field data from a set of ISEE1, ISEE2, and WIND magnetopause crossings and compare with the predictions of theoretical wave solutions based on the kinetic-fluid model with particular attention to the role of magnetic field rotation across the magnetopause. The results of the study suggest a good qualitative agreement between the observations and the theory of mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. Because mode-converted kinetic Alfven waves readily decouple particles from the magnetic field lines, efficient quasilinear transport (D {approx} 109m2/s) can occur. Moreover, if the wave amplitude is sufficiently large (Bwave/B0 > 0.2) stochastic particle transport also occurs. This wave-induced transport can lead to significant heating and particle entry into the low latitude boundary layer across closed field lines.At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in the

  6. Parametrically Unstable Alfven-cyclotron Waves and Wave--Particle Interactions in the Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Maneva, Y. G.; Marsch, E.; Araneda, J. A.

    2009-04-26

    We consider the parametric instabilities of large-amplitude Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves and the consequent wave-particle interactions, and discuss their importance for modelling the evolution of ion velocity distribution functions in the tenuous and collisionless plasma of a coronal hole and the fast solar wind. We perform 1D hybrid simulations to study the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instabilities by analyzing the simulation results in terms of microinstabilities and discussing the influence of both Landau and cyclotron resonances on the evolution of the ion distributions. We demonstrate the origin of a relative drift between the protons and alpha particles, show the related anisotropic ion heating and follow the simultaneous proton beam formation. Finally, we focus on the development and evolution of both electromagnetic and acoustic micro-turbulence and present indications for an inverse energy cascade from shorter to longer wavelengths.

  7. Can we explain the Jovian decametric arc pattern with the multiple reflection Alfven wave model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Bagenal, F.

    The pattern of arcs made by bursts of Io-modulated dkm-band emission in frequency time spectrograms has been examined for the A and B sources and compared with predictions of the Alfven-wave model. Planetary Radio Astronomy data from the Voyager 1 and 2 Jupiter encounters are employed, and the observations of the A and B sources are organized with respect to the Io phase for fixed 30-deg longitude intervals. A clear pattern of regions of strong emission separated by holes (regions with weak or no emission) is found. This preliminary study suggests the bunching of dkm arcs matches the Alfven wave pattern generated by Io. This implies that each Alfven current generates multiple beams of dkm emission.

  8. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.

  9. A sunspot model for study of discrete Alfven waves and instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Marcia M.; Sakanaka, P. H.; Faria, R. T., Jr.; Deazevedo, C. A.; Deassis, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model for sunspots where both the umbral and the penumbral regions are considered. The equilibrium configuration is described by a two-plasma vertical cylindrical model with an axial current. Twisted magnetic fields, with a small B(theta)/B(z) are assumed. Using the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, the analysis of discrete Alfven modes and instabilities is based on the numerical investigation of the Hain-Lust equation. The period of the discrete Alfven mode is found to present the same order of magnitude of those observed for running penumbral waves. Good prediction of the sunspot lifetime can also be obtained.

  10. Effects of ion-neutral collisions on Alfven waves: The presence of forbidden zone and heavy damping zone

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, C. J.; Lee, L. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, C. B.

    2013-03-15

    Alfven waves are low-frequency transverse waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. We define the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0} as {omega}{sub 0}=kV{sub A}cos{theta}, where k is the wave number, V{sub A} is the Alfven speed, and {theta} is the angle between the wave vector and the ambient magnetic field. There are partially ionized plasmas in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma systems, such as in the solar chromosphere, interstellar clouds, and the earth ionosphere. The presence of neutral particles may modify the wave frequency and cause damping of Alfven waves. The effects on Alfven waves depend on two parameters: (1) {alpha}=n{sub n}/n{sub i}, the ratio of neutral density (n{sub n}), and ion density (n{sub i}); (2) {beta}={nu}{sub ni}/{omega}{sub 0}, the ratio of neutral collisional frequency by ions {nu}{sub ni} to the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0}. Most of the previous studies examined only the limiting case with a relatively large neutral collisional frequency or {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1. In the present paper, the dispersion relation for Alfven waves is solved for all values of {alpha} and {beta}. Approximate solutions in the limit {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1 as well as {beta} Much-Less-Than 1 are obtained. It is found for the first time that there is a 'forbidden zone (FZ)' in the {alpha}-{beta} parameter space, where the real frequency of Alfven waves becomes zero. We also solve the wavenumber k from the dispersion equation for a fixed frequency and find the existence of a 'heavy damping zone (HDZ).' We then examine the presence of FZ and HDZ for Alfven waves in the ionosphere and in the solar chromosphere.

  11. Ion Heating by Alfven Waves and Reconnection in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, E. D.

    2006-04-01

    The evolution of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas depends on the flow of energy between the ``equilibrium'' configuration, waves in the plasma and the thermal plasma. We explore two examples of this energy flow. In the first example, data from NSTX is examined for evidence that CAE in the frequency range from ˜ 0.2 fci to ˜ 1.2 fci excited by super-thermal ions might heat the thermal ions. Theory indicates that only a relatively small portion of the beam power would go into exciting the CAE on NSTX, and observations indicate that the amplitude of these waves, deduced from density fluctuations, is below the stochastic threshold for heating. Another example examines how internal magnetic reconnections can lead to heating of the thermal ions. One model postulates the excitation of a high frequency wave, which then damps on the ions. High frequency waves are indeed seen to follow some NSTX reconnection events. The second invokes direct acceleration of the thermal ions by the induced electric field [P. Helander, L.-G. Eriksson, R.J. Akers, et al.,Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 235002-1]. In collaboration with S.S. Medley, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  12. A KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE CASCADE SUBJECT TO COLLISIONLESS DAMPING CANNOT REACH ELECTRON SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND AT 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.; Borovsky, J. E.; Gary, S. P.

    2010-03-20

    Turbulence in the solar wind is believed to generate an energy cascade that is supported primarily by Alfven waves or Alfvenic fluctuations at MHD scales and by kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) at kinetic scales k{sub perpendicular}rho{sub i} {approx}> 1. Linear Landau damping of KAWs increases with increasing wavenumber and at some point the damping becomes so strong that the energy cascade is completely dissipated. A model of the energy cascade process that includes the effects of linear collisionless damping of KAWs and the associated compounding of this damping throughout the cascade process is used to determine the wavenumber where the energy cascade terminates. It is found that this wavenumber occurs approximately when |gamma/omega| {approx_equal} 0.25, where omega(k) and gamma(k) are, respectively, the real frequency and damping rate of KAWs and the ratio gamma/omega is evaluated in the limit as k{sub perpendicular} >> k{sub ||}. For plasma parameters typical of high-speed solar wind streams at 1 AU, the model suggests that the KAW cascade in the solar wind is almost completely dissipated before reaching the wavenumber k{sub perpendicular}rho{sub i} {approx_equal} 25. Consequently, an energy cascade consisting solely of KAWs cannot reach scales on the order of the electron gyro-radius, k{sub perpendicular}rho{sub e} {approx} 1. This conclusion has important ramifications for the interpretation of solar wind magnetic field measurements. It implies that power-law spectra in the regime of electron scales must be supported by wave modes other than the KAW.

  13. Parametric instabilities of parallel-propagating Alfven waves: Some analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayanti, V.; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the stability of a circularly polarized Alfven wave (the pump wave) which propagates parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Only parallel-propagating perturbations are considered, and we ignore dispersive effects due to the ion cyclotron frequency. The dissipationless MHD equations are used throughout; thus possibibly important effects arising from Landau and transit time damping are omitted. We derive a series of analytical approximations to the dispersion relation using A = (Delta B/B(sub O))(exp 2) as a small expansion parameter; Delta B is the pump amplitude, and B(sub O) is the ambient magnetic field strength. We find that the plasma beta (the square of the ratio of the sound speed to the Alfven speed) plays a crucial role in determining the behavior of the parametric instabilities of the pump. If 0 less than beta less than 1 we find the familiar result that the pump decays into a forward propagating sound wave and a backward propagating Alfven wave with maximum growth rate gamma(sub max) varies A(sup 1/2), but beta cannot be too close to 0 or to 1. If beta approx. 1, we find gamma(sub max) varies A(sup 3/4), if beta greater than 1, we find gamma(sub max) varies A(sup 3/2), while if beta approx. 0, we obtain gamma(sub max) varies A(sup 1/3); moreover, if beta approx. 0 there is a nearly purely growing instability. In constrast to the familiar decay instability, for which the backward propagating Alfven wave has lower frequency and wavenumber than the pump, we find that if beta greater than or approx. equal to 1 the instability is really a beat instability which is dominated by a transverse wave which is forward propagating and has frequency and wavenumber which are nearly twice the pump values. Only the decay instability for 0 less than beta less than 1 can be regarded as producing two recognizable normal modes, namely, a sound wave and an Alfven wave. We discuss how the different characteristics of the instabilities may affect the evolution of

  14. Absolute and convective instabilities of parallel propagating circularly polarized Alfven waves: Beat instability

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.; Ruderman, M.S.

    2005-06-15

    Ruderman and Simpson [Phys. Plasmas 11, 4178 (2004)] studied the absolute and convective decay instabilities of parallel propagating circularly polarized Alfven waves in plasmas where the sound speed c{sub S} is smaller than the Alfven speed {upsilon}{sub A}. We extend their analysis for the beat instability which occurs in plasmas with c{sub S}>{upsilon}{sub A}. We assume that the dimensionless amplitude of the circularly polarized Alfven wave (pump wave), a, is small. Applying Briggs' method we study the problem analytically using expansions in power series with respect to a. It is shown that the pump wave is absolutely unstable in a reference frame moving with the velocity U with respect to the rest plasma if U{sub l}U{sub r}, the instability is convective. The signaling problem is studied in a reference frame where the pump wave is convectively unstable. It is shown that the spatially amplifying waves exist only when the signaling frequency is in two narrow symmetric frequency bands with the widths of the order of a{sup 3}. These results enable us to extend for the case when c{sub S}>{upsilon}{sub A} the conclusions, previously made for the case when c{sub S}<{upsilon}{sub A}, that circularly polarized Alfven waves propagating in the solar wind are convectively unstable in a reference frame of any spacecraft moving with the velocity not exceeding a few tens of km/s in the solar reference frame. The characteristic scale of spatial amplification for these waves exceeds 1 a.u.

  15. Alfven Wave Reflection Model of Field-Aligned Currents at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James

    2010-01-01

    An Alfven Wave Reflection (AWR) model is proposed that provides closure for strong field-aligned currents (FACs) driven by the magnetopause reconnection in the magnetospheres of planets having no significant ionospheric and surface electrical conductance. The model is based on properties of the Alfven waves, generated at high altitudes and reflected from the low-conductivity surface of the planet. When magnetospheric convection is very slow, the incident and reflected Alfven waves propagate along approximately the same path. In this case, the net field-aligned currents will be small. However, as the convection speed increases. the reflected wave is displaced relatively to the incident wave so that the incident and reflected waves no longer compensate each other. In this case, the net field-aligned current may be large despite the lack of significant ionospheric and surface conductivity. Our estimate shows that for typical solar wind conditions at Mercury, the magnitude of Region 1-type FACs in Mercury's magnetosphere may reach hundreds of kilo-Amperes. This AWR model of field-aligned currents may provide a solution to the long-standing problem of the closure of FACs in the Mercury's magnetosphere. c2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preferential Heating and Acceleration of {alpha} Particles by Alfven-Cyclotron Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Araneda, J. A.; Maneva, Y.; Marsch, E.

    2009-05-01

    Preferential heating and acceleration of heavy ions in the solar wind and corona represent a long-standing theoretical problem in space physics, and are distinct experimental signatures of kinetic processes occurring in collisionless plasmas. We show that fast and slow ion-acoustic waves (IAW) and transverse waves, driven by Alfven-cyclotron wave parametric instabilities can selectively destroy the coherent fluid motion of different ion species and, in this way lead to their differential heating and acceleration. Trapping of the more abundant protons by the fast IAW generates a proton beam with drift speed of about the Alfven speed. Because of their larger mass, {alpha} particles do not become significantly trapped and start, by conservation of total ion momentum, drifting relative to the receding bulk protons. Thus the resulting core protons and the {alpha} particles are differentially heated via pitch-angle scattering.

  17. Alfven wave stability in D-III-D

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B. ); Samec, T.K. )

    1989-09-01

    Within the framework of the global Alfven eigenmode theory in a cylindrical background plasma, I examine the excitation of global Alfven eigenmodes by intense neutral beam injection in the D III-D tokamak operating at General Atomics. I have considered two separate sets of experimental conditions, a low power'' set of cases using 10MW of hydrogen beams, and a high power'' shot of 20MW of deuterium beams. My results are particularly sensitive to the background density profile. For parabolic background density profiles, n{sub 0} {times} (1 {minus} (r/{tilde a}){sup 2}), I have determined that the plasma is stable to all toroidal and poloidal mode numbers for both high and low power cases. For density profiles which are of the form n{sub 0} {times} (1 {minus} (r/{tilde a}){sup 2}){sup {1/2}}, for the same n{sub 0}, my calculation indicates that the m = {minus}1, l = 0 mode is unstable in each case. The high power case has a considerably higher growth rate at the baseline conditions, which motivated me to study this case more extensively. The results are also sensitive to the beam source radial scalelength, L{sub s}, and the electron temperature T{sub e}. By narrowing the source from the baseline 36 cm to 20 cm, the growth rate of the (0,{minus}1) actually decreases, but the (0,{minus}2) mode appears with a substantial growth rate. If the source could be made even narrower, L{sub s} {approx} 10 cm, the (1,{minus}1) mode would appear, also with a large growth rate. 12 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1996-12-17

    A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.

  19. Alfven Wave - DC Dualism in Description of Stationary Field-Aligned Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2009-01-01

    In many cases, the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere may be described in terms of both DC currents and the currents of a propagating Alfven wave. The simplest example is when a propagating Alfven wave transports a potential hop along the magnetic fieid: between the source of the wave and its front, the problem is well stationary and includes the stationary field-aligned currents, transporting the electric charges along the magnetic field, which may be described as a DC problem, and only at the front of the wave there are the polarization (inertial) currents, closing across the magnetic field. In some cases, the Alfven wave approach brings better understanding to many problems. We will consider here the results of the applications of this approach to two long-staying problems: the effect of saturation of the transpolar voltage in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the experimentally-observed existence of the strong field-aligned currents in the subtle Mercury's magnetosphere which is not able tc close the measured field-aligned currents.

  20. Linear and non-linear numerical simulations of poloidal Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A.

    2013-05-01

    Among the many of numerical simulations of MHD turbulence, few studies had been made of Alfven waves interacting with realistic boundaries. Thus, we have developed a novel hybrid spectral/finite element code, which is capable of simulate properly realistic boundaries properties. Our model is based on a Fourier decompositions of all variables in the azimuthal direction and on a finite element projection in the meridian plan. In order to simulate realistic boundary conditions for the magnetic field we solve the induction equation enforcing continuity of the magnetic field H at the interface with the external insulating medium through a Interior Penalty Galerkin method (IPG) [1]. I will present the results of our investigation of Alfven waves propagating in a cylinder filled of liquid metal submitted to an axial magnetic field. Poloidal Alfven waves are excited magnetically by imposing an azimuthal current pulse at the bottom of the cylinder. In the linear axisymmetric model we find a good agreement with previous experiments in liquid metals by Lundquist and by Lenhert and more recently by Alboussiere et al [2]. This axisymmetric study is extended to the non linear regime, where the amplitudes of the perturbations are comparable to the external applied magnetic field,in this conditions a complex response is found due to waves waves interactions. [1] J. L. Guermond, J.L Leorat, F. Luddens, C. Nore, A. Ribeiro. Effects of discontinuous magnetic permeability on magnetodynamic problems, Journal of Computational Physics Volume 230, Issue 16, 10 July 2011, Pages 6299 -- 6319. [2] T. Alboussiere, P. Cardin, F. Debray, H. C. Nataf, F. Plunian, A. Ribeiro, D. Schmitt, Experimental evidence of Alfven wave propagation in a Gallium alloy, Physics of fluids, 2011, vol. 23, nb 9.

  1. Parametric instabilities of large amplitude Alfven waves with obliquely propagating sidebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on properties of the parametric decay and modulational, filamentation, and magnetoacoustic instabilities of a large amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven wave. We allow the daughter and sideband waves to propagate at an arbitrary angle to the background magnetic field so that the electrostatic and electromagnetic characteristics of these waves are coupled. We investigate the dependance of these instabilities on dispersion, plasma/beta, pump wave amplitude, and propagation angle. Analytical and numerical results are compared with numerical simulations to investigate the full nonlinear evolution of these instabilities.

  2. HEAVY ION HEATING DUE TO INTERACTIONS WITH OUTWARD AND INWARD ALFVEN WAVE PACKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2012-06-01

    The study of simultaneous cyclotron interactions of heavy ions with outward- and inward-propagating Alfven wave packets in the solar wind was self-consistently conducted with wave-packet dynamics. It was shown that, even when the ratio of intensities of the Alfven waves propagating from the Sun and the inward propagating waves are rather large (a factor of 10 or more), the distribution function of the ions simultaneously interacting with both of the wave packets drastically differs from the distribution function formed by the interaction of ions with waves only propagating from the Sun. In the latter case, the ions acquire a shell-like distribution; in the former case, a new non-shell-type distribution with much larger effective temperatures is formed. The temporal dynamics of the ion-distribution function and the self-consistent modification of the wave-power spectral density for both the outward and inward waves were also investigated. The results refute claims by Isenberg and Hollweg that the outward-propagating waves generate the inward waves through the instability of their resonant particle shell distribution.

  3. Proton Core Heating and Beam Formation via Parametrically Unstable Alfven-Cyclotron Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Araneda, Jaime A.; Marsch, Eckart F.; Vinas, Adolfo

    2008-03-28

    Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to study the effects that compressible fluctuations driven by parametric instabilities Alfven-cyclotron waves have on proton velocity distributions. Field-aligned proton beams are generated during the saturation phase of the wave-particle interaction, with a drift speed which is slightly greater than the Alfven speed and is maintained until the end of the simulation. The main part of the distribution becomes anisotropic due to phase mixing as is typically observed in the velocity distributions measured in the fast solar wind. We identify the key instabilities and also find that, even in the parameter regime where fluid theory appears to be appropriate, strong kinetic effects still prevail.

  4. Generation of Alfvenic Waves and Turbulence in Magnetic Reconnection Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.

    2014-12-01

    The magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) linear stability for the plasma sheet with a localized bulk plasma flow parallel to the neutral sheet is investigated. We find three different unstable modes propagating parallel to the anti-parallel magnetic field line, and we call them as "streaming tearing'', "streaming sausage'', and "streaming kink'' mode. The streaming tearing and sausage modes have the tearing mode-like structure with symmetric density fluctuation to the neutral sheet, and the streaming kink mode has the asymmetric fluctuation. The growth rate of the streaming tearing mode decreases with increasing the magnetic Reynolds number, while those of the streaming sausage and kink modes do not strongly depend on the Reynolds number. The wavelengths of these unstable modes are of the order of the thickness of plasma sheet, which behavior is almost same as the standard tearing mode with no bulk flow. Roughly speaking the growth rates of three modes become faster than the standard tearing mode. The situation of the plasma sheet with the bulk flow can be realized in the reconnection exhaust with the Alfvenic reconnection jet, and the unstable modes may be regarded as one of the generation processes of Alfvenic turbulence in the plasma sheet during magnetic reconnection.

  5. Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the electrostatic (ES) components of broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves could possibly be generated by cross-field plasma instabilities driven by the relative drifts between the heavy and light ion species in the electromagnetic (EM) Alfvenic component of the BBELF waves in a multi-ion plasma. The ES components consist of ion cyclotron as well as lower hybrid modes. We also demonstrate that the ES wave generation is directly involved in the transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) as commonly measured with the BBELF wave events. The heating is affected by ion cyclotron resonance in the cyclotron modes and Landau resonance in the lower hybrid waves. In the simulation we drive the plasma by the transverse electric field, E(sub y), of the EM waves; the frequency of E(sub y), omega(sub d), is varied from a frequency below the heavy ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub h), to below the light ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub i). We have also performed simulations for E(sub y) having a continuous spectrum given by a power law, namely, |Ey| approx. omega(sub d) (exp -alpha), where the exponent alpha = _, 1, and 2 in three different simulations. The driving electric field generates polarization and ExB drifts of the ions and electrons. When the interspecies relative drifts are sufficiently large, they drive electrostatic waves, which cause perpendicular heating of both light and heavy ions. The transverse ion heating found here is discussed in relation to observations from Cluster, FAST and Freja.

  6. Convective cell generation by kinetic Alfven wave turbulence in the auroral ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J.; Yu, M. Y.; Lu, J. Y.

    2012-06-15

    Modulation of convective cells by kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence is investigated. The interaction is governed by a nonlinear dispersion relation for the convective cells. It is shown that KAW turbulence is disrupted by excitation of the large-scale convective motion through a resonant instability. Application of the results to the auroral ionosphere shows that cross-scale coupling of the KAW turbulence and convective cells plays an important role in the evolution of ionospheric plasma turbulence.

  7. Parametric instabilities of the circularly polarized Alfven waves including dispersion. [for solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    A class of parametric instabilities of large-amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven waves is considered in which finite frequency (dispersive) effects are included. The dispersion equation governing the instabilities is a sixth-order polynomial which is solved numerically. As a function of K identically equal to k/k-sub-0 (where k-sub-0 and k are the wave number of the 'pump' wave and unstable sound wave, respectively), there are three regionals of instability: a modulation instability at K less than 1, a decay instability at K greater than 1, and a relatively weak and narrow instability at K close to squared divided by v-sub-A squared (where c-sub-s and v-sub-A are the sound and Alfven speeds respectively), the modulational instability occurs when beta is less than 1 (more than 1) for left-hand (right-hand) pump waves, in agreement with the previous results of Sakai and Sonnerup (1983). The growth rate of the decay instability of left-hand waves is greater than the modulational instability at all values of beta. Applications to large-amplitude wave observed in the solar wind, in computer simulations, and in the vicinity of planetary and interplanetary collisionless shocks are discussed.

  8. Alfven Wave Evolution in an Interaction System of the Fast and Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Large-amplitude Alfven waves (AWs) are often embedded in a high-speed stream of the solar wind. As the high- speed streams overtake the low-speed streams ahead, corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are produced in low heliographic latitudes. In this study, the nonlinear evolution of AWs swept into CIRs is numerically investigated by one-dimensional MHD simulations. Ulysses observations suggest that not only AWs amplified through the reverse shock but also magnetic depression structures (MDs) are found in the trailing portions of CIRs (e.g., Tsurutani et al., 1995). Our interest is the generation mechanism of MDs in the context of AWs-CIRs interaction system. While MDs are supposed to be remnants of the mirror instability (e.g., Winterhalter et al., 1994), we give alternative processes from a macroscopic view as follows. A large pressure gradient developed in CIRs results in intensifying the diamagnetic current, which reflects a portion of the incident AW energy in the opposite direction (from a plasma-rest frame) as AWs penetrate into CIRs. Since the reflected AWs also carry the current, the reduction of the background field intensity (i.e. MD formation) is simultaneously taken place in the area sandwiched between the forward-reverse pair of AWs. Further analysis will be given via hybrid simulations to show how these MHD processes are manifested in particle behaviors, such as an acceleration due to a ponderomotive force.

  9. Effect of two ion species on the propagation of shear Alfven waves of small transverse scale

    SciTech Connect

    Vincena, S. T.; Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E.

    2010-05-15

    The results of a theoretical modeling study and experimental investigation of the propagation properties of shear Alfven waves of small transverse scale in a plasma with two ion species are reported. In the two ion plasma, depending on the mass of the heavier species, ion kinetic effects can become prominent, and significant parallel electric fields result in electron acceleration. The theory predicts the appearance of frequency propagation gaps at the ion-ion hybrid frequency and between harmonics of the lower cyclotron frequency. Within these frequency bands spatial structures arise that mix the cone-propagation characteristics of Alfven waves with radially expanding ion Bernstein modes. The experiments, performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA, consist of the spatial mapping of shear waves launched by a loop antenna. Although a variety of two ion-species combinations were explored, only results from a helium-neon mix are reported. A clear signature of a shear wave propagation gap, as well as propagation between multiple harmonics, is found for this gas combination. The evanescence of shear waves beyond the reflection point at the ion-ion hybrid frequency in the presence of an axial magnetic field gradient is also documented.

  10. Signatures of mode conversion and kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause

    SciTech Connect

    Jay R. Johnson; C. Z. Cheng

    2000-07-21

    It has been suggested that resonant mode conversion of compressional MHD waves into kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause can explain the abrupt transition in wave polarization from compressional to transverse commonly observed during magnetopause crossings. The authors analyze magnetic field data for magnetopause crossings as a function of magnetic shear angle (defined as the angle between the magnetic fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere) and compare with the theory of resonant mode conversion. The data suggest that amplification in the transverse magnetic field component at the magnetopause is not significant up to a threshold magnetic shear angle. Above the threshold angle significant amplification results, but with weak dependence on magnetic shear angle. Waves with higher frequency are less amplified and have a higher threshold angle. These observations are qualitatively consistent with theoretical results obtained from the kinetic-fluid wave equations.

  11. EFFECTS OF ALFVEN WAVES ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION IN CORONAL LOOPS AND SOLAR TYPE I RADIO STORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, Y. H.

    2013-06-10

    Solar type I radio storms are long-lived radio emissions from the solar atmosphere. It is believed that these type I storms are produced by energetic electrons trapped within a closed magnetic structure and are characterized by a high ordinary (O) mode polarization. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open problem. Recently, Wu et al. found that Alfven waves (AWs) can significantly influence the basic physics of wave-particle interactions by modifying the resonant condition. Taking the effects of AWs into account, this work investigates electron cyclotron maser emission driven by power-law energetic electrons with a low-energy cutoff distribution, which are trapped in coronal loops by closed solar magnetic fields. The results show that the emission is dominated by the O mode. It is proposed that this O mode emission may possibly be responsible for solar type I radio storms.

  12. Investigation of AlfVen Waves in a Helicon Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    equivalent to VA < Vth,e, Alfvdn waves are dicular to the background magnetic field. The kinetic. Here VA = B/(,uomini) 1/2 is the AlfVhn ve - relative...probe is already sufficiently sensitive (note that the magnetized plasmas yields an expression for the dis- induction voltage of the probe scales as...of magnetic fluctuations in axial direction This work was performed under the auspices of is plotted gray- scale -coded position vs. time. The DFG

  13. On the formation mechanisms of kinetic Alfven waves in the mid-altitude cusp region: Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S. P.; Liu, Z. X.; Cao, J. B.; Reme, H.; Balogh, A.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    According to the observation data by the Cluster spacecraft encountering the mid-altitude cusp region and the theory research work of the formation mechanism of kinetic Alfven waves it can be concluded that kinetic Alfven waves can be come into being in the mid-altitude polar cusp Using the observation data detected by the Cluster CIS FGM and PEACE crossing through the mid-altitude cusp region on 4 July 2001 we find that ion and electron number densities are obviously disturbed and protons are always in the down-going direction We obtain that the values of plasma beta are in the range between 0 002 and 0 01 from 13 24 00 to 13 39 00 They are larger than the mass ratio value of electron and proton That implies the mid-altitude polar cusp is a kinetic region Ion and electron density inhomogeneity and the ion beam with down-going direction are the main factors for the formation of kinetic Alfven waves The observational results are consonant with the results obtained from the theory research that the plasma density inhomogeneity and ions motion play important roles in the formation process of kinetic Alfven waves The observational properties of kinetic Alfven waves will be investigated in our following research work

  14. Evolution of large amplitude Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas: Kinetic-fluid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariyuki, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude Alfven waves are ubiquitously observed in solar wind plasmas. Mjolhus(JPP, 1976) and Mio et al(JPSJ, 1976) found that nonlinear evolution of the uni-directional, parallel propagating Alfven waves can be described by the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNLS). Later, the multi-dimensional extension (Mjolhus and Wyller, JPP, 1988; Passot and Sulem, POP, 1993; Gazol et al, POP, 1999) and ion kinetic modification (Mjolhus and Wyller, JPP, 1988; Spangler, POP, 1989; Medvedev and Diamond, POP, 1996; Nariyuki et al, POP, 2013) of DNLS have been reported. Recently, Nariyuki derived multi-dimensional DNLS from an expanding box model of the Hall-MHD system (Nariyuki, submitted). The set of equations including the nonlinear evolution of compressional wave modes (TDNLS) was derived by Hada(GRL, 1993). DNLS can be derived from TDNLS by rescaling of the variables (Mjolhus, Phys. Scr., 2006). Nariyuki and Hada(JPSJ, 2007) derived a kinetically modified TDNLS by using a simple Landau closure (Hammet and Perkins, PRL, 1990; Medvedev and Diamond, POP, 1996). In the present study, we revisit the ion kinetic modification of multi-dimensional TDNLS through more rigorous derivations, which is consistent with the past kinetic modification of DNLS. Although the original TDNLS was derived in the multi-dimensional form, the evolution of waves with finite propagation angles in TDNLS has not been paid much attention. Applicability of the resultant models to solar wind turbulence is discussed.

  15. Relatively stable, large-amplitude Alfvenic waves seen at 2.5 and 5.0 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Moussas, X.; Quenby, J. J.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Smith, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    Pioneer 11 and 10 observations of the wave structure seen in a corotating interaction region at 2.5 AU on day 284 of 1973 and 8 days later at 5 AU reveal large-amplitude Alfvenic structures with many detailed correlations seen between their features at the two radial distances. Hodogram analysis suggests the dominance of near plane polarized, transverse Alfvenic mode fluctuations with periods between 2 min and one hour or more. Some wave evolution close to the Corotating Interaction Region (CIR) shock is noticed, but waves towards the center of the compression seem to propagate with little damping between the spacecraft observation positions.

  16. Shear Alfven Wave Injection in the Magnetosphere by Ionospheric Modifications in the Absence of Electrojet Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.

    2011-12-01

    A new concept of generating ionospheric currents in the ULF/ELF range with modulated HF heating using ground-based transmitters even in the absence of electrojet currents is presented. The new concept relies on using HF heating of the F-region to modulate the electron temperature and has been given the name Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD). In ICD, the pressure gradient associated with anomalous or collisional F-region electron heating drives a local diamagnetic current that acts as an antenna to inject mainly Magneto-Sonic (MS) waves in the ionospheric plasma. The electric field associated with the MS wave drives Hall currents when it reaches the E region of the ionosphere. The Hall currents act as a secondary antenna that inject waves in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide (EIW) below and shear Alfven waves or EMIC waves upwards towards the conjugate regions. The paper presents: (i) Theoretical results using a cold Hall MHD model to study ICD and the generation of ULF/ELF waves by the modulation of the electron pressure at the F2-region with an intense HF electromagnetic wave. The model solves equations governing the dynamics of the shear Alfven and magnetosonic modes, of the damped modes in the diffusive Pedersen layer, and of the weakly damped helicon wave mode in the Hall-dominated E-region. The model incorporates realistic profile of the ionospheric conductivities and magnetic field configuration. We use the model to simulate propagation and dynamics of the low-frequency waves and their injection into the magnetosphere from the HAARP and Arecibo ionospheric heaters. (ii) Proof of principle experiments using the HAARP ionospheric heater in conjunction with measurements by the DEMETER satellite This work is supported by ONR MURI grant and DARPA BRIOCHE Program

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF ALFVEN WAVES DAMPING IN A POLAR CORONAL HOLE UP TO 0.4 SOLAR RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Abbo, L.

    2012-06-01

    Between 2009 February 24 and 25, the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft performed special 'sit and stare' observations above the south polar coronal hole continuously over more than 22 hr. Spectra were acquired with the 1'' slit placed off-limb covering altitudes up to 0.48 R{sub Sun} (3.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} Mm) above the Sun surface, in order to study with EIS the non-thermal spectral line broadenings. Spectral lines such as Fe XII {lambda}186.88, Fe XII {lambda}193.51, Fe XII {lambda}195.12, and Fe XIII {lambda}202.04 are observed with good statistics up to high altitudes and they have been analyzed in this study. Results show that the FWHM of the Fe XII {lambda}195.12 line increases up to {approx_equal} 0.14 R{sub Sun }, then decreases higher up. EIS stray light has been estimated and removed. Derived electron density and non-thermal velocity profiles have been used to estimate the total energy flux transported by Alfven waves off-limb in the polar coronal hole up to {approx_equal} 0.4 R{sub Sun }. The computed Alfven wave energy flux density f{sub w} progressively decays with altitude from f{sub w} {approx_equal} 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.03 R{sub Sun} down to f{sub w} {approx_equal} 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 0.4 R{sub Sun }, with an average energy decay rate of {Delta}f{sub w} /{Delta}h {approx_equal} -4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} erg cm{sup -1}. Hence, this result suggests energy deposition by Alfven waves in a polar coronal hole, thus providing a significant source for coronal heating.

  18. Coronal Alfven waves detected by radio sounding during the solar occultations of the HELIOS spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, M. K.; Volland, H.; Efimov, A. I.; Levy, G. S.; Seidel, B. L.; Stelzried, C. T.

    The two Helios spacecraft underwent regular solar occultations during their extended missions from Dec 1974-Feb 1986 (Helios 1) and Jan 1976-Mar 1980 (Helios 2) thereby providing many opportunities for radio propagation experiments in the solar corona. On certain rare occasions over the course of these investigations, Faraday rotation measurements of the linearly polarized Helios signals could be recorded simultaneously at two widely-spaced ground stations. Many of these two-station measurement intervals display clear evidence of wave-like structures with quasi-periods of the order of a few minutes to a few hours. These structures are attributed to coronal Alfven waves. The radial propagation direction and velocity of these waves are estimated from a cross-correlation analysis of the data between the two stations. The majority of the waves appear to propagate away from the Sun, but about 30 percent of the cases indicate a propagation direction toward the Sun.

  19. A two-fluid solar wind model with Alfven waves - Parameter study and application to observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.; Withbroe, G. L.; Leer, E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Alfven waves from the inner corona on the solar wind density profile, flow velocity and on the random motion of protons are studied. Different base densities, temperatures, and wave velocity amplitudes, as well as different flow geometries, are considered. The model calculations are compared to simultaneous observations of the electron density profile and the resonantly scattered Lyman alpha line. Present observations, out to 4 solar radii, can be used to place limits on the coronal base density and temperature, and put an upper limit on the wave amplitude. It is pointed out that future observations of the electron density and the Lyman alpha line, out to larger heliocentric distances, and of lines from heavier elements, should be used to place more stringent constraints on the amplitudes of MHD waves in the corona.

  20. Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Thoul, A.A. ); Similon, P.L. ); Sudan, R.N. )

    1994-03-01

    The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas [bold 1], 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.

  1. Parametric instabilities of Alfven waves in a multispecies plasma: Kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffmann, K.; Araneda, J. A.

    2008-06-15

    Parametric instabilities of a circularly polarized Alfven wave in a multispecies magnetized plasma are considered. An analytic kinetic description and hybrid simulations for the linear behavior of the instabilities are given. It is found that, even for low-{beta} regimes, both the kinetic effects and the presence of heavy ions substantially modify the characteristics of parametric instabilities as compared to the fluid model. The decay instability can be severely quenched in a plasma composed of massless electrons, protons, and alpha particles when the alphas are slightly hotter than the protons. These results could be important in describing the heating processes of heavy ions in the solar corona.

  2. Effects of alpha beam on the parametric decay of a parallel propagating circularly polarized Alfven wave: Hybrid simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tao, Xin; Hao, Yufei; Wang, Shui

    2013-09-15

    Alfven waves with a finite amplitude are found to be unstable to a parametric decay in low beta plasmas. In this paper, the parametric decay of a circularly polarized Alfven wave in a proton-electron-alpha plasma system is investigated with one-dimensional (1-D) hybrid simulations. In cases without alpha particles, with the increase of the wave number of the pump Alfven wave, the growth rate of the decay instability increases and the saturation amplitude of the density fluctuations slightly decrease. However, when alpha particles with a sufficiently large bulk velocity along the ambient magnetic field are included, at a definite range of the wave numbers of the pump wave, both the growth rate and the saturation amplitude of the parametric decay become much smaller and the parametric decay is heavily suppressed. At these wave numbers, the resonant condition between the alpha particles and the daughter Alfven waves is satisfied, therefore, their resonant interactions might play an important role in the suppression of the parametric decay instability.

  3. Experiment to Study Alfv'en Wave Propagation in Plasma Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Mark; Bellan, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Solar coronal loops are simulated in the laboratory using pulsed power techniques [1]. We are now developing a method to excite propagating Alfv'en wave modes by superposing a current pulse of roughly 10kA and width 100ns upon the ˜50kA, 10 microsecond main discharge current that flows along the ˜10cm long, 1cm diameter arched flux tube. To achieve this short 100ns pulsed timescale at such high power, a magnetic pulse compression technique based on saturable reactors will be employed. A low power prototype has been successfully tested, and design and construction of a full-power device is underway. Upon completion, the fast current pulse device will be used to investigate interactions between the Alfv'en waves and the larger-scale loop evolution. Particular attention will be paid to wave propagation including dispersion and reflection, as well as dissipation mechanisms and possible energetic particle generation.[4pt] [1] J. F. Hansen, S. K. P. Tripathi, P. M. Bellan, ``Co- and Counter-helicity Interaction Between Two Adjacent Laboratory Prominences,'' Phys. Plasmas, vol. 11, issue 6, p. 3177 (2004)

  4. Polarization and Compressibility of Oblique Kinetic Alfven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunana, Peter; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    Even though solar wind, as a collisionless plasma, is properly described by the kineticMaxwell-Vlasov description, it can be argued that much of our understanding of solar wind observational data comes from an interpretation and numerical modeling which is based on a fluid description of magnetohydrodynamics. In recent years, there has been a significant interest in better understanding the importance of kinetic effects, i.e. the differences between the kinetic and usual fluid descriptions. Here we concentrate on physical properties of oblique kinetic Alfvn waves (KAWs), which are often recognized as one of the key ingredients in the solar wind turbulence cascade. We use three different fluid models with various degrees of complexity and calculate polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique KAWs (propagation angle q = 88), which we compare to solutions derived from linear kinetic theory. We explore a wide range of possible proton plasma b = [0.1,10.0] and a wide range of length scales krL = [0.001,10.0]. It is shown that the classical isotropic two-fluid model is very compressible in comparison with kinetic theory and that the largest discrepancy occurs at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. We also show that the two-fluid model contains a large error in the polarization of electric field, even at scales krL 1. Furthermore, to understand these discrepancies between the two-fluid model and the kinetic theory, we employ two versions of the Landau fluid model that incorporate linear low-frequency kinetic effects such as Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections into the fluid description. It is shown that Landau damping significantly reduces the magnetic compressibility and that FLR corrections (i.e. nongyrotropic contributions) are required to correctly capture the polarization.We also show that, in addition to Landau damping, FLR corrections are necessary to accurately describe the damping rate of KAWs. We conclude that kinetic effects

  5. Kinetic Alfven Waves and the Depletion of the Thermal Population in Extragalactic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    evident that both problems are intimately related to one another. Jafe- lice and Opher (1987a)(Astrophys. Space Sci. 137, 303)showed that an abundant generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAw) within EJ and ERS is expected. In the present work we study the chain of processes: a) KAW accelerate thermal electrons along the background magnetic field producing suprathermal runaway electrons; b) which generate Langmuir waves and c) which in turn further accelerate a fraction of the runaway electrons to moderately relativistic energies. We show that assuming that there is no other source of a thermal population but the original one, the above sequence of processes can account for the consumption of thermal electrons in a time scale the source lifetime. Key o : GALAXIES-JETS - HYDROMAGNETICS

  6. Propagation of large amplitude Alfven waves in the solar wind neutral sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of solar wind fluctuation data show that the correlation between velocity and magnetic field fluctuations decreases when going farther away from the Sun. This decorrelation can be attributed either to the time evolution of the fluctuations, carried away by the solar wind, or to the interaction between the solar wind neutral sheet and Alfven waves. To check this second hypothesis we have numerically studied the propagation of Alfven waves in the solar wind neutral sheet. The initial conditions have been set up in order to guarantee B(exp 2) = const, so that the following numerical evolution is only due to the inhomogeneity in the background magnetic field. The analysis of the results shows that compressive structures are formed, mainly in the neutral sheet where they have been identified as pressure balanced structures, i.e., tangential discontinuities. Fast perturbations, which are also produced, have a tendency to leave the simulation domain, propagating also perpendicularly to the mean magnetic field. For this reason the level of fast perturbations is always smaller with respect to the previously cited plasma balanced structures, which are slow mode perturbations. A comparison between the numerical results and some particular observational issues is also presented.

  7. Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-05-15

    Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S{sup 1∕3} and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is

  8. Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S 1/3 and in the latter as log(S) , where S is the Lundquist number. In this work [1], linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is attributed

  9. Final report for DOE-FG02-02ER54688: Study of nonlinear interactions between counterpropagating shear Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T A

    2006-11-16

    Final report for DOE Plasma Physics Junior Faculty Development award DOE-FG02-02ER54688. Reports on research undertaken from 8/1/2002 until 5/15/2006, investigating nonlinear interactions between Alfven waves in a laboratory experiment.

  10. A magnetized, spherical plasma expansion in an inhomogeneous plasma: The transition from super to sub-Alfvenic

    SciTech Connect

    Brecht, S H; Hewett, D W; Larson, D J

    2009-03-12

    In this letter the transition of a strong 3-D collisionless shock into sub-Alfvenic waves is examined numerically. The transition occurs because the Alfven speed eventually exceeds the shock speed, not because the shock runs out of energy. At this velocity transition, the shock disassembles into two types of waves: the usual compressional Alfven wave and a left-hand polarized electromagnetic shear Alfven wave. This later wave shows remarkable 3-D coherence, and preliminary analysis suggests that it is coupled to the strong electromagnetic waves that exist within the collisionless shock.

  11. A search for evidence of the evolution of rotational discontinuities in the solar wind from nonlinear Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Buti, B.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of a study designed to confirm the suspected relation between Alfven solitons (steepened Afven waves) and rotational discontinuities (RDs) in the solar wind. The ISEE 3 data were used to search for the predicted correlations between the beta value of plasma, the sense of polarization of the discontinuity, and changes of the magnetic field strength and plasma density across the discontinuity. No statistically significant evidence was found for the evolution of RDs from Alfven solitons. A possibility is suggested that the observations made could have been far from the regions in which the RDs were formed.

  12. Non-WKB Alfven waves in the solar wind: Propagation and reflection of pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1995-01-01

    The non-WKB propagation of Alfven waves has been studied either for harmonic waves, or in terms of the evolution of power spectra. Here we present analytical and numerical solutions for the propagation of pulses, the goal being to understand how waves reflect in a smoothly varying medium. We here limit our discussion to a radial magnetic field. If we launch an outward-propagating delta function, it leaves behind an inward-propagaing signal which is roughly a square wave whose amplitude is proportional to the area under the initial pulse. The inward-propagating signal also reflects, producing an outward propagating pulse which is roughly triangular in shape and which grows with time. These signals also oscillate if v is less than v(A), but they grow if v is greater than v(A). The result reported by us earlier, that the 'ingoing Elsasser variable' can have outgoing phase, is now understood to be a consequence of interference. The inward-propagating signal depends to lowest order on the integral of the outgoing waves which have preceded it. Thus the ingoing signal can be expected to develop as a random walk. This will affect the radial evolution of cross-helicity in the solar wind.

  13. Excitation of Poloidal standing Alfven waves through drift resonance wave-particle interaction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Takahashi, K.; Wygant, J. R.; Chen, L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Thaller, S. A.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Funsten, H. O.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H.

    2013-12-01

    Charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere undergo a longitudinal drift motion around the Earth induced by the magnetic field curvature and gradient. The resonant wave-particle interaction associated with the drift motion is important for understanding the dynamics of the ring current and radiation belt particles. Using cross-spectral analysis of electric field, magnetic field, and ion flux data from the Van Allen Probe (RBSP) spacecraft, we present direct evidence identifying the generation of a fundamental mode standing poloidal wave through drift-resonance interactions in the inner magnetosphere. Intense azimuthal electric field (E φ ) oscillations as large as 10mV/m are observed associated with radial magnetic field (Br) oscillations in the dawn-noon sector near but south of the magnetic equator at L~5. The observed wave period, Eφ/Br, and the 90 degrees phase lag between Br and Eφ are all consistent with fundamental mode standing poloidal waves. Phase shifts between particle fluxes and wave electric fields clearly demonstrate a drift resonance with ~90 keV ring current ions. The estimated earthward gradient of ion phase space density provides free energy source for wave generation through the drift-resonance instability. To our knowledge, this is the first unambiguous observation of drift-resonance wave-particle interaction driving poloidal wave oscillations in the magnetosphere. Similar drift-resonance process should occur ubiquitously in collisionless plasma systems. One example is the ';fishbone' instability in fusion plasma devices. In addition, our observations have important implications for the long-standing mysterious origin of Giant Pulsations detected on the ground.

  14. ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Soler, R.; Verth, G.

    2013-05-10

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.

  15. PERSISTENT DOPPLER SHIFT OSCILLATIONS OBSERVED WITH HINODE/EIS IN THE SOLAR CORONA: SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURES OF ALFVENIC WAVES AND RECURRING UPFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Hui; McIntosh, Scott W.; Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; De Pontieu, Bart; Innes, Davina E.; Peter, Hardi

    2012-11-10

    Using data obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, we have performed a survey of obvious and persistent (without significant damping) Doppler shift oscillations in the corona. We have found mainly two types of oscillations from February to April in 2007. One type is found at loop footpoint regions, with a dominant period around 10 minutes. They are characterized by coherent behavior of all line parameters (line intensity, Doppler shift, line width, and profile asymmetry), and apparent blueshift and blueward asymmetry throughout almost the entire duration. Such oscillations are likely to be signatures of quasi-periodic upflows (small-scale jets, or coronal counterpart of type-II spicules), which may play an important role in the supply of mass and energy to the hot corona. The other type of oscillation is usually associated with the upper part of loops. They are most clearly seen in the Doppler shift of coronal lines with formation temperatures between one and two million degrees. The global wavelets of these oscillations usually peak sharply around a period in the range of three to six minutes. No obvious profile asymmetry is found and the variation of the line width is typically very small. The intensity variation is often less than 2%. These oscillations are more likely to be signatures of kink/Alfven waves rather than flows. In a few cases, there seems to be a {pi}/2 phase shift between the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations, which may suggest the presence of slow-mode standing waves according to wave theories. However, we demonstrate that such a phase shift could also be produced by loops moving into and out of a spatial pixel as a result of Alfvenic oscillations. In this scenario, the intensity oscillations associated with Alfvenic waves are caused by loop displacement rather than density change. These coronal waves may be used to investigate properties of the coronal plasma and magnetic field.

  16. The Effects of Kinetic Alfven and Whistler Wave Turbulence and the Evolution of Electron Distribution in Solar Wind Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The high beta solar wind plasma turbulence is dominated by the kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) [1]. Though the measured high-energy tail on the electron distribution function can be a signature of the presence of whistler waves (WW) as well [2]. In Maxwellian plasma both KAW and WW are Landau damped at high beta, and only for the specific case of WW with kperp=0 is there no Landau damping. Due to the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma these parallel propagating WW should quickly develop large perpendicular wavenumbers kperp>k|| . However, as we have shown recently using measured KAW spectra, Landau damping establishes a plateau in the parallel electron distribution function and damping is strongly diminished [3]. The theory of WW in high beta inhomogeneous plasma will be presented and the impact of the electron cyclotron resonance with WW on the evolution of the electrons high energy tail will be discussed. [1] O. Alexandrova et. al., PRL (2009) ; F. Sahraoui et. al., PRL (2010). [2] T. Nieves-Chinchilla and A. F. Vinas, JGR (2008). [3] L. Rudakov et. al., Phys. Plasma, 18, 012307 (2011).

  17. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  18. Drift-Alfven wave mediated particle transport in an elongated density depression

    SciTech Connect

    Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2006-06-15

    Cross-field particle transport due to drift-Alfven waves is measured in an elongated density depression within an otherwise uniform, magnetized helium plasma column. The depression is formed by drawing an electron current to a biased copper plate with cross-field dimensions of 28x0.24 ion sound-gyroradii {rho}{sub s}=c{sub s}/{omega}{sub ci}. The process of density depletion and replenishment via particle flux repeats in a quasiperiodic fashion for the duration of the current collection. The mode structure of the wave density fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field is revealed using a two-probe correlation technique. The particle flux as a function of frequency is measured using a linear array of Langmuir probes and the only significant transport occurs for waves with frequencies between 15%-25% of the ion cyclotron frequency (measured in the laboratory frame) and with perpendicular wavelengths k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub s}{approx}0.7. The frequency-integrated particle flux is in rough agreement with observed increases in density in the center of the depletion as a function of time. The experiments are carried out in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the Basic Plasma Science Facility located at the University of California, Los Angeles.

  19. Generation of kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail: A global hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Du, Aimin; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(−10.5R{sub E},0.3R{sub E}), where R{sub E} is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k{sub ⊥}≫k{sub ∥} are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δE{sub z})/(δB{sub y} )∼ω/k{sub ∥} of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.

  20. Diagnostics for Wave Mode Identification in the Dissipation Range of Solar Wind Turbulence: Kinetic Alfven Waves versus Whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, C. S.; Sundkvist, D. J.; Bale, S.; Howes, G. G.; Chaston, C. C.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the effect of Doppler shift on Kinetic Alfven Waves (KAW) as well as compressional proton Whistler Waves at frequencies above the local ion cyclotron frequency into the so-called dissipation range of solar wind turbulence (0.1 < f/fci < 10). Prior studies have shown that wave modes in this frequency range become dispersive and are consistent with Kinetic Alfven Waves (KAW) under the assumption that Taylor's hypothesis is still valid at those frequencies. However, the proton whistler is another possible wave mode in the solar wind in this frequency range. The temporal fluctuations of this mode combined with a slight Doppler shift can lead to the same apparent properties in the spacecraft (s/c) frame as strongly Doppler-shifted KAW. First, we present a different approach to resolve this long-standing question regarding the nature of the electromagnetic fluctuations in the dissipation range of solar wind turbulence. Specifically, we determine, both analytically and numerically, the dispersive properties of the KAW and the whistler wave modes and estimate the electric to magnetic field (E/B) ratio in the plasma and the s/c frame to make direct comparisons with s/c data. We discuss the predicted, observable, parameters of both KAW and whistlers in the plasma and s/c frames. We show that the properties of both KAW and whistlers appear to be similar in the s/c frame, yet there are quantifiable differences that one can use to distinguish between both wave modes. Those differences are discussed. Finally, we revisit Cluster electric field and magnetic field data in the solar wind using this technique. We focus our analysis on several low-beta (β < 1) ambient solar wind intervals. We compare the predicted parameters from our technique to the data directly in the s/c frame, without the use of Taylor's hypothesis. We propose this technique as an efficient diagnostics for wave-mode identification in the dissipation (or dispersion) range of solar wind turbulence.

  1. Explaining Signatures of Auroral Arcs based on the Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Sh; Koepke, Me; Knudsen, Dj; Gillies, Dm; Donovan, E.; Vincena, S.

    2016-10-01

    Optical emission data from the THEMIS array of All Sky Imagers are analyzed to determine the lifetime of an auroral arc (i.e., the elapsed time during which an arc is visible). Lifetime is an important temporal signature related to the arc generation mechanism, by which arcs can be distinguished. An arc with a lifetime greater than ten minutes is consistent with arc generation by Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave (StIAW) which supports a steady-state wave electric field component parallel to a background magnetic field. An StIAW is a non-fluctuating, non-travelling, spatially periodic pattern of perturbed ion density that is static in the laboratory frame. StIAWs are the predicted result of the interaction between a magnetic-field-aligned electron current and plasma convection perpendicular to a background magnetic field. Electrostatic probes measure the fixed pattern of perturbed ion density in LAPD-U. Electron acceleration due to StIAWs is being investigated as a mechanism for the formation and support of long-lived auroral arcs. Preliminary evidence of electron acceleration from laboratory experiment is reported. This work was supported by NSF Grant PHY-130-1896, Grants from the Canadian Space Agency, and the THEMIS ASI teams at UCalgary and UC Berkeley. Facility use and experimental assistance from BaPSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Kinetic Alfven wave instability in a Lorentzian dusty plasma: Non-resonant particle approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rubab, N.; Biernat, H. K.; Erkaev, V.; Langmayr, D.

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of the electromagnetic streaming instability is carried out which is related to the cross field drift of kappa distributed ions. The linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave using Vlasov-fluid equations in a dusty plasma is derived. Modified two stream instability (MTSI) in a dusty plasma has been discussed in the limit {omega}{sub pd}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}<<1. Numerical calculations of the growth rate of instability have been carried out. Growth rates of kinetic Alfven instability are found to be small as compared to MTSI. Maximum growth rates for both instabilities occur in oblique directions for V{sub 0}{>=}V{sub A}. It is shown that the presence of both the charged dust particles and perpendicular ion beam sensibly modify the dispersion relation of low-frequency electromagnetic wave. The dispersion characteristics are found to be insensible to the superthermal character of the ion distribution function. Applications to different intersteller regions are discussed.

  3. Effects of density fluctuations on nonlinear evolution of low-frequency Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariyuki, Y.; Seough, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that low-frequency Alfven waves are unstable to parametric instabilities, in which these waves are nonlinearly coupled with density fluctuations [e.g, Nariyuki+Hada, JGR, 2007 and references therein]. In solar wind plasmas, low-frequency fluctuations with non-zero cross-helicity are frequently observed [e.g., Bruno+Carbone, Living Rev. Solar Phys. (2013) and references therein]. When the absolute values of normalized cross helicities are close to the unity, the fluctuations may be composed of uni-directionally (anti-sunward) propagating Alfven waves. The derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DNLS) has been known as the mode of modulational instabilities of unidirectional Alfven waves [Mio et al, JPSJ, 1976; Mjolhus, JPP, 1976]. In the DNLS, the density fluctuations are assumed to be the quasi-static state, which is determined according to the ponderomotive force of envelope-modulated Alfven waves. The DNLS was extended to include the obliquely propagating, compressional component of magnetic field by Mjolhus and Wyller (JPP, 1988). The kinetically modified DNLS (KDNLS) has also been discussed by many authors [Rogister, POF, 1971; Mjolhus and Wyller, Phys. Scr, 1986; JPP, 1988; Spangler, POF B, 1989; 1990; Medvedev+Diamond, POP, 1996; Nariyuki et al, POP, 2013]. On the other hand, ion acoustic modes [Hada, 1993], large scale inhomogeneity of plasmas [Buti et al, APJ, 1999; Nariyuki, POP, 2015] and random density fluctuations [Ruderman, POP, 2002] can also affect nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves. At the present time, combined effects of these effects are not fully understood. In this presentation, we discuss two models: one of them is the model including both ion kinetic effects and ion acoustic mode and another is the model including finite thermal effects and random density fluctuations. In the former case, ion kinetic effects on both longitudinal [Nariyuki+Hada, JPSJ, 2007] and transverse modulational instabilities are discussed, while the

  4. KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENTS IN SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Wu, D. J. E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-08-01

    Magneto-plasma loops, which trace closed solar magnetic field lines, are the primary structural elements of the solar corona. Kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) can play an important role in inhomogeneous heating of these magneto-plasma structures in the corona. By the use of a low-frequency kinetic dispersion equation, which is presented in this paper and is valid in a finite-{beta} plasma with Q < {beta} < 1 plasma (where {beta} is the kinetic to magnetic pressure ratio and Q = m{sub e} /m{sub i} is the mass ratio of electrons to ions), KAW instability driven by a field-aligned current in the current-carrying loops in the solar corona is investigated. The results show that the KAW instability can occur in wave number regimes 0 < k{sub z} < k{sup c}{sub z} and 0 < k < k{sup c} , and that the critical wave numbers k{sup c}{sub z} and k{sup c} and the growth rate both considerably increase as the drift velocity V{sub D} of the current-carrying electrons increases in the loops. In particular, for typical parameters of the current-carrying loops in the solar corona this instability mechanism results in a high growth rate of KAWs, {omega}{sub i} {approx} 0.01-0.1{omega}{sub ci} {approx} 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. The results are of importance in understanding the physics of the electric current dissipation and plasma heating of the current-carrying loops in the solar corona.

  5. Satellite and Ground Signatures of Kinetic and Inertial Scale ULF Alfven Waves Propagating in Warm Plasma in Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.

    2015-12-01

    Results from a 3D global numerical model of Alfven wave propagation in a warm multi-species plasma in Earth's magnetosphere are presented. The model uses spherical coordinates, accounts for a non-dipole magnetic field, vertical structure of the ionosphere, and an air gap below the ionosphere. A realistic density model is used. Below the exobase altitude (2000 km) the densities and the temperatures of electrons, ions, and neutrals are obtained from the IRI and MSIS models. Above the exobase, ballistic (originating from the ionosphere and returning to ionosphere) and trapped (bouncing between two reflection points above the ionosphere) electron populations are considered similar to [Pierrard and Stegen (2008), JGR, v.113, A10209]. Plasma parameters at the exobase provided by the IRI are the boundary conditions for the ballistic electrons while the [Carpenter and Anderson (1992), JGR, v.97, p.1097] model of equatorial electron density defines parameters of the trapped electron population. In the simulations that are presented, Alfven waves with frequencies from 1 Hz to 0.01 Hz and finite azimuthal wavenumbers are excited in the magnetosphere and compared with Van Allen Probes data and ground-based observations from the CARISMA array of ground magnetometers. When short perpendicular scale waves reflect form the ionosphere, compressional Alfven waves are observed to propagate across the geomagnetic field in the ionospheric waveguide [e.g., Lysak (1999), JGR, v.104, p.10017]. Signals produced by the waves on the ground are discussed. The wave model is also applied to interpret recent Van Allen Probes observations of kinetic scale ULF waves that are associated with radiation belt electron dynamics and energetic particle injections.

  6. Simulation and Theoretical Study of Spontaneous Excitation of Convective Cells by Kinetic Alfven Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2015-11-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that, generally, electrostatic (ES) and magnetostatic (MS) convective cells (CCs), or zonal flows, can be excited simultaneously by kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs). In this paper, spontaneous excitations of electrostatic as well as magnetostatic convective cells by KAWs are investigated through hybrid simulations, and the results are compared with the analytical theory based on the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations. In the hybrid simulation, ions are treated as fully kinetic particles, and electrons are treated as a massless fluid. It is found that finite ion-Larmor-radius (FILR) effects play a crucial. Furthermore, ES and MS convective cells are intrinsically coupled and must be treated on an equal footing. Excellent agreement is obtained for mode structure and generation rate of convective cells by KAW, demonstrating that ESCC and MSCC are indeed coupled, and that spontaneous CC excitation is suppressed at long wavelength, showing the crucial destabilizing role of FILR effects in the excitation via modulational instabilities. This work is supported by US DoE, NSF, ITER-CN, and NSFC grants.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Energy Transfer between Fast Ions and Alfven Eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Osakabe, Masaki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Ogawa, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Fontdecaba, Josep Maria; Ascasibar, Enrique; LHD Team

    2016-10-01

    Recently, a new wave-particle analyzer was proposed to identify interaction between fast ions and Alfven eigenmodes [K. Nagaoka, 67th annual meeting of APS-DPP, savanna, 2015]. A data acquisition system for the wave-particle interaction analysis was developed for particle counting mode operation of neutral particle detectors. We recently applied the system to the Si-FNA detector signals in LHD and Heliotron J, and NPA signals in TJ-II. The first experimental results obtained in three devices are presented and the importance of the optimization of line of sight will be discussed. This research was supported by NIFS/NINS under the project of 'Promotion of International Network for Scientific Collaboration', NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS16KUHL068) and JSPS KAKENHI Grani-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 26709071.

  8. Coronal heating by waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    Alfven waves or Alfvenic surface waves carry enough energy into the corona to provide the coronal energy requirements. Coronal loop resonances are an appealing means by which large energy fluxes enter active region loops. The wave dissipation mechanism still needs to be elucidated, but a Kolmogoroff turbulent cascade is fully consistent with the heating requirements in coronal holes and active region loops.

  9. Optical evidence for Alfven wave breaking in the near-Earth magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeter, J.; Blixt, M.

    2006-12-01

    Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the Earth's magnetic lines of force become dispersive when the perpendicular wavelength approaches the collisionless electron skin depth. The dispersion results in two simultaneous effects: (1) wave energy becomes coupled to particle kinetic energy such that parallel acceleration of electrons is possible, and (2) wave energy spreads azimuthally across the background magnetic field, with phase- and group-velocities oppositely directed. Validation of this mechanism requires two-dimensional, time-dependent measurements of the dispersing wave packet. Such evidence should be available in video measurements of the aurora-borealis. An analysis of high-speed, narrow-field, intensified video of dynamic aurora event is presented, confirming the salient predictions for inertial Alfvén wave dispersion.

  10. Fast damping of poloidal Alfven waves by bounce-resonant ions: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.; Zong, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Interplanetary shocks and solar wind dynamic pressure variations can excite intense ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the inner magnetosphere. An analysis of two interplanetary shocks observed by Cluster on 7 November 2004 and 30 August 2001 shows that the poloidal waves excited in these events are damped away rapidly in tens of minutes. This damping is the result of wave-particle interactions involving H+ and O+ ions with energies in the range of several to a few tens of keV [Wang et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2015]. Damping is found to be more effective in the plasmasphere boundary layer due to the relatively higher proportion of Landau resonant ions that exists in that region. In the November 2004 shock event it has been suggested that energy-dispersed ions observed travelling parallel and anti-parallel direction to the geomagnetic field immediately after the shockare locally accelerated rather than originating from Earth's ionosphere. We use test-particle simulations to show that adiabatic advection of the particle differential flux caused bydrift-bounce-resonance with ULF waves is responsible for the energy-dispersed ions observed in these events. In the simulations,Liouville's theorem is used to reconstruct the iondistribution function and differential flux in a model dipole magnetosphere.It is shown that flux modulations of H and O ions can be reproduced when test-particle ions are advanced in the electric fields of the 3D ULF wave model we have developed.

  11. Kinetic Alfven Waves Carrying Intense Field Aligned Currents: Particle Trapping and Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Artemyev, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is now common knowledge that dispersive scale Alfvén waves can drive parallel electron acceleration [Lotko et al., JGR, 1998; Samson et al., Ann. Geophys., 2003; Wygant et al., JGR, 2002] and transverse ion energization in the auroral zone and inner magnetosphere [Johnson and Cheng, JGR, 2001; Chaston et al., 2004]. In this paper we show that relatively low energy electrons (plasma sheet electrons with energies ranging up to ˜100 eV) can be accelerated very efficiently as they interact nonlinearly with kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) that carry intense field aligned currents from the equatorial plane toward the ionosphere in the inner magnetosphere. We propose a theoretical model describing electron trapping into an effective wave potential generated by parallel wave electric fields (with perpendicular wavelengths on the order of the ion gyro-radius) and the mirror force acting on electrons as they propagate along geomagnetic field lines. We demonstrate that waves with an electric potential amplitude between ~100 - 400 V can trap and accelerate electrons to energies approaching several keVs. Trapping acceleration corresponds to conservation of the electron magnetic moment and, thus, results in a significant decrease of the electron equatorial pitch-angle with time. Analytical and numerical estimates of the maximum energy and probability of trapping are presented. We discuss the application of the proposed model in light of recent observations of electromagnetic fluctuations in the inner magnetosphere that are present during periods of strong geomagnetic activity [Chaston et al., GRL, 2014; Califf et al., JGR, 2015].

  12. ELF wave production by an electron beam emitting rocket system and its suppression on auroral field lines - Evidence for Alfven and drift waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.; Abe, Y.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Orthogonal probes on a free-flying plasma diagnostics payload are used to study ELF electric disturbances in the auroral ionosphere that are due to the injection of powerful electron beams. Frequency spectrograms are presented for various pitch angles, pulsing characteristics, and other properties of the injected beams; the large scale DC ionospheric convection electric field is measured, together with auroral particle precipitation, visual auroral forms, and ionospheric parameters. In view of the experimental results obtained, it is postulated that the observed ELF waves are in the Alfven and drift modes, and are generated by the positive vehicle potential during beam injection.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Waves Driven by Plasma Currents Generated by Low-Frequency Alfven Waves in a Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George

    2004-01-01

    When multi-ion plasma consisting of heavy and light ions is permeated by a low-frequency Alfven (LFA) wave, the crossed-electric-and-magnetic field (E x B), and the polarization drifts of the different ion species and the electrons could be quite different. The relative drifts between the charged-particle species drive waves, which energize the plasma. Using 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we study this process of wave generation and its nonlinear consequences in terms of acceleration and heating plasma. Specifically, we study the situation for LFA wave frequency being lower than the heavy-ion cyclotron frequency in a multi-ion plasma. We impose such a wave to the plasma assuming that its wavelength is much larger than that of the waves generated by the relative drifts. For better understanding, the LFA-wave driven simulations are augmented by those driven by initialized ion beams. The driven high-frequency (HF) wave modes critically depend on the heavy ion density nh; for small values of nh, the lower hybrid (LH) waves dominate. On the other hand, for large nh a significantly enhanced level of waves occurs over a much broader frequency spectrum below the LH frequency and such waves are interpreted here as the ion Bernstein (IB) mode near the light ion cyclotron harmonics. Irrespective of the driven wave modes, both the light and heavy ions undergo significant transverse acceleration, but for the large heavy-ion densities, even the electrons are significantly accelerated in the parallel direction by the waves below the LH frequency. Even when the LFA wave drive is maintained, the ion heating leads to the cessation of HF wave excitation just after a few cycles of the former wave. On the basis of marginal stability seen in the simulations, an empirical relation for LFA wave amplitude, frequency and ion temperature is given.

  14. Stabilization of the magnetosonic instability and destabilization of nonlinear electrostatic waves due to finite amplitude Alfven waves in a two ion-beam plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberoff, L.

    2008-02-15

    It has been shown that a large amplitude Alfven wave can stabilize linear magnetosonic instabilities triggered by an ion beam. This phenomenon occurs for large amplitude waves above a threshold value. Here the effect of a second ion beam on the threshold amplitude for stabilization of the magnetosonic instability is studied. It is shown that the second beam modifies the threshold amplitude behavior for complete saturation of the magnetosonic instability. The effect of the second beam on the properties of purely electrostatic nonlinear instabilities triggered by the finite amplitude wave is also studied. Apart from the changes induced by the second beam on the threshold amplitude behavior, it is shown that in some cases there are two regimes of the nonlinear ion-acousticlike instability. These results should be of importance in those environments where the interplay of the two beams should not be ignored like, e.g., in the fast solar wind.

  15. Bidirectional Energy Cascades and the Origin of Kinetic Alfvenic and Whistler Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Vinas, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.

  16. Experimental studies on fast-ion transport by Alfven wave avalanches on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Liu, D.; Ruskov, E.; Bell, R. E.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Medley, S. S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S.; Yuh, H.

    2009-05-15

    Fast-ion transport induced by Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) is studied in beam-heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] through space, time, and energy resolved measurements of the fast-ion population. Fast-ion losses associated with multiple toroidicity-induced AEs (TAEs), which interact nonlinearly and terminate in avalanches, are characterized. A depletion of the energy range >20 keV, leading to sudden drops of up to 40% in the neutron rate over 1 ms, is observed over a broad spatial range. It is shown that avalanches lead to a relaxation of the fast-ion profile, which in turn reduces the drive for the instabilities. The measured radial eigenmode structure and frequency of TAEs are compared with the predictions from a linear magnetohydrodynamics stability code. The partial disagreement suggests that nonlinearities may compromise a direct comparison between experiment and linear theory.

  17. A computational approach to continuum damping of Alfven waves in two and three-dimensional geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koenies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf

    2012-12-15

    While the usual way of calculating continuum damping of global Alfven modes is the introduction of a small artificial resistivity, we present a computational approach to the problem based on a suitable path of integration in the complex plane. This approach is implemented by the Riccati shooting method and it is shown that it can be transferred to the Galerkin method used in three-dimensional ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) codes. The new approach turns out to be less expensive with respect to resolution and computation time than the usual one. We present an application to large aspect ratio tokamak and stellarator equilibria retaining a few Fourier harmonics only and calculate eigenfunctions and continuum damping rates. These may serve as an input for kinetic MHD hybrid models making it possible to bypass the problem of having singularities on the path of integration on one hand and considering continuum damping on the other.

  18. Wavemode identification in the dissipation/dispersion range of solar wind turbulence: Kinetic Alfven Waves and/or Whistlers? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, C. S.; Sundkvist, D. J.; Bale, S.

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic fluctuations in the inertial range of solar wind MHD turbulence and beyond (up to frequencies of 10Hz) have been studied for the first time using both magnetic field and electric field measurements on Cluster [Bale et al., 2005]. It has been shown that at frequencies above the spectral breakpoint at ~0.4Hz, in the dissipation range, the wave modes become dispersive and are consistent with Kinetic Alfven Waves (KAW). This interpretation, consistent with findings from recent theoretical studies, is based on the simple assumption that the measured frequency spectrum is actually a Doppler shifted wave number spectrum (ω ≈ k Vsw), commonly used in the solar wind and known as Taylor's hypothesis. While Taylor's hypothesis is valid in the inertial range of solar wind turbulence, it may break down in the dissipation range where temporal fluctuations can become important. We recently analyzed the effect of Doppler shift on KAW as well as compressional proton whistler waves [Salem et al., 2009]. The dispersive properties of the KAW and the whistler wave modes, as well as the electric to magnetic field (E/B) ratio, have been determined both analytically and numerically in the plasma and the spacecraft frame, with the goal of directly comparing those analytical/numerical estimates in the spacecraft frame with the data as measured. We revisit here Cluster electric field and magnetic field data in the solar wind using this approach. We focus our analysis on several ambient solar wind intervals with varying plasma parameters, allowing for a statistical study. We show that this technique provides an efficient diagnostics for wave-mode identification in the dissipation/dispersion range of solar wind turbulence.

  19. The Plausibility of the Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave in Explaining Important Morphological and Temporal Signatures of Auroral Arcs based on Laboratory Experiments and Auroral Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, S. H.; Koepke, M. E.; Gillies, D. M.; Knudsen, D. J.; Vincena, S. T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Donovan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave (StIAW) [Knudsen J. Geophys. Res., 101, 10761 (1996)] is a non-fluctuating, non-travelling, spatially periodic pattern in electromagnetic field and fluid quantities that arises in the simultaneous presence of a magnetic-field-aligned current channel and cross-magnetic field plasma flow. Theory predicts [Finnegan et al., Nonlin. Proc. Geophys., 15, 957 (2008)] that the wave appears as an ion density perturbation that is static in the laboratory frame and that the wave electric field can accelerate electrons parallel to a background magnetic field. For experiments in the afterglow plasma in LAPD-U, results of which are reported on in this poster, the necessary conditions for the stationary wave are generated by a biased segmented electrode that creates a convective flow and a planar-mesh electrode that draws current parallel to the background magnetic field. An electrostatic probe and a retarding field energy analyzer measure fixed (in the laboratory frame) patterns in the ion density and electron energy. Spatial patterns of electron acceleration are reminiscent of the patterns present during the formation of discrete auroral arcs. Observation of long-lived discrete arcs indicates that some arcs require a generation mechanism that supports electron acceleration parallel to auroral field lines for tens of minutes. We present arc lifetime statistics to emphasize the paucity of physical models that explain these observations. *Support from NSF grant PHY-130-1896 and grants from the Canadian Space Agency is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank the THEMIS ASI Teams at U Calgary and UC Berkeley.

  20. Effect of the magnetic field curvature on the generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Kovalishen, E. A.; Shirokov, M. S.; Tsypin, V. S.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2007-05-15

    The generation of zonal flows by drift-Alfven waves is studied with allowance for magnetic curvature effects. The basic plasmadynamic equations relating the electrostatic potential, vector potential, and perturbed plasma density are the vorticity equation, longitudinal Ohm's law, and continuity equation. The basic equations are analyzed by applying a parametric formalism similar to that used in the theory of the generation of convective cells. In contrast to most previous investigations on the subject, consideration is given to primary modes having an arbitrary spectrum rather than to an individual monochromatic wave packet. The parametric approach so modified makes it possible to reveal a new class of instabilities of zonal flows that are analogous to two-stream instabilities in linear theory. It is shown that, in the standard theory of zonal flows, the zonal components of the vector potential and perturbed density are not excited. It is pointed out that zonal flows can be generated both in the case of a magnetic hill and in the case of a magnetic well. In the first case, the instabilities of zonal flows are analogous to negative-mass instabilities in linear theory, and, in the second case, they are analogous to two-stream instabilities.

  1. Super-Alfvenic particle streaming in astrophysical settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.; Morrison, P. J.; Scott, J. S.; Ionson, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The pitch angle scattering of relativistic particles by self-generated hydromagnetic waves is discussed. It is shown that in a hot background plasma, because of the resonant damping of short wavelength waves by thermal protons, cosmic rays need not slow down to a mean streaming speed which is of order the Alfven speed. The effects of a high cosmic ray energy density upon the destabilized wave model are also discussed. Recent work indicates that when the cosmic ray energy density is on the order of or exceeds the energy density in the ambient magnetic field, the velocity of the amplified waves is significantly greater than the Alfven speed. These effects have important implications for recent cosmic ray acceleration models and are important for studies of particle propagation in many astrophysical plasmas.

  2. Waves of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-06-01

    Possible means for harnessing the energy contained in ocean waves are considered. Problems associated with the low-grade nature of wave energy and the rate at which wave crests approach are pointed out, and simple devices already in use for the supply of energy to bell buoys, whistle buoys and lighted buoys are noted. Attention is then given to wave energy conversion systems based on the focusing of waves onto a narrow ramp leading to a reservoir from which water is released to power a turbine generator; a slightly submerged circular shell which directs waves into its center cavity where waves act to turn a turbine (the Dam-Atoll); a long vertical pipe with an internal valve allowing water to move in an upward direction (the Isaacs wave-energy pump); a turbine located at the bottom of an open-topped pipe (the Masuda buoy); a completely submerged closed air chamber from which runs a large pipe open to the sea; a wave piston which acts by the compression of air to drive a turbine; a massive structure with upper and lower reservoirs (the Russel rectifier); and devices which consist of floating or submerged objects which transfer wave energy to pumps (the Salter duck and Cockerell raft.) It is concluded that although wave-powered generators are not likely to become competitive in the near future or provide more than a small portion of world demand, they may be found useful under special conditions.

  3. Turbulent Alfven boundary layer in the polar ionosphere. 1. Excitation conditions and energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtengerts, V.Y. ); Feldstein, A.Ya. )

    1991-11-01

    Instability of laminar magnetospheric convection with respect to the strongly anisotropic Alfven waves which are of small scale in the horizontal plane is examined. The waves prove to be trapped in the ionospheric Alfven resonator, bounded from below by the ionospheric E layer and form above by a zone of rapidly increasing Alfven velocity at altitudes of up to {approximately}10{sup 4} km. The finite-amplitude Alfven waves dissipate within a layer of anomalous resistance formed near the upper wall of the resonator. As a result, a high-energy particle source appears in the upper ionosphere. Further evolution results in the transition of laminar convection to turbulent flow conditions and in the formation of a turbulent Alfven boundary layer in the polar ionosphere at altitudes from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} km. The energy status of the turbulent Alfven boundary layer is calculated. It has been shown that the accelerated-electron energy flux density can reach {approximately}100 ergs cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}.

  4. Ion gyroradius effects on Alfvenic field aligned currents and electron energization in planetary magnetospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J.; Chaston, C. C.; Fox, W. R., II; Delamere, P. A.; Stauffer, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Alfvenic current systems are a ubiquitous feature of planetary magnetospheres that can be generated by several mechanisms including the braking of flows (e.g. associated with reconnection at substorm onset) and via moon-planet interactions. The energetic electrons needed to carry the field-aligned currents are generally thought to be accelerated on either electron inertial or ion acoustic gyroradius scale lengths in the limit of inertial and kinetic Alfven waves respectively. Recent 2D dipolar hybrid gyrofluid-kinetic electron simulations of kinetic Alfven waves (Damiano et al., JGR, 2015), associated with the braking of fast flows in the terrestrial magnetotail, have illustrated that hot ion effects can act to limit the extent of the parallel current (all along the field line) from what would be expected in the cold ion limit. This correspondingly affects the characteristics of the electron energization, reducing both the parallel elongation in the electron distribution function associated with electron trapping in the kinetic Alfven wave regime and the extent of high energy tails evident in the inertial Alfven wave region above the ionosphere. In this presentation, we build on these initial simulation results analyzing the characteristics of the parallel current system and electron acceleration (associated with both inertial and kinetic Alfven waves) for a range of wave amplitudes and ratios of the electron to ion temperature. One finding is that for a given ion temperature, increasing wave amplitude recovers some of the features of the electron energization evident in the cold ion limit, but this is modulated by the effect of wave energy dispersion perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. These results will be summarized and the relevance and extension of this work to consider Alfvenic aurora in the Jupiter magnetosphere (e.g. via either interchange motion or the Io-Jupiter interaction) will also be discussed.

  5. Coronal heating by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves: The effect of viscous stress tensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Davila, J. M.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The time-dependent linearized magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations for a fully compressible, low-beta, viscoresistive plasma are solved numerically using an implicit integration scheme. The full viscosity stress tensor (Braginskii 1965) is included with the five parameters eta(sub i) i = 0 to 4. In agreement with previous studies, the numerical simulations demonstrate that the dissipation on inhomogeneities in the background Alfven speed occurs in a narrow resonant layer. For an active region in the solar corona the values of eta(sub i) are eta(sub o) = 0.65 g/cm/s, eta(sub 1) = 3.7 x 10(exp -12) g/cm/s, eta(sub 2) = 4 eta(sub 1), eta(sub 3) = 1.4 x 10(exp -6) g/cm/s, eta(sub 4) = 2 eta(sub 3), with n = 10(exp 10)/cu cm, T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K, and B = 100 G. When the Lundquist number S = 10(exp 4) and R(sub 1) much greater than S (where R(sub 1) is the dimensionless shear viscous number) the width of the resistive dissipation layer d(sub r) is 0.22a (where a is the density gradient length scale) and d(sub r) approximately S(exp -1/3). When S much greater than R(sub 1) the shear viscous dissipation layer width d(sub r) scales as R(sub 1)(exp -1/3). The shear viscous and the resistive dissipation occurs in an overlapping narrow region, and the total heating rate is independent of the value of the dissipation parameters in agreement with previous studies. Consequently, the maximum values of the perpendicular velocity and perpendicular magnetic field scale as R(sub 1)(exp -1/3). It is evident from the simulations that for solar parameters the heating due to the compressive viscosity (R(sub 0) = 560) is negligible compared to the resistive and the shear viscous (R(sub 1)) dissipation and it occurs in a broad layer of order a in width. In the solar corona with S approximately equals 10(exp 4) and R(sub 1) approximately equals 10(exp 14) (as calculated from the Braginskii expressions), the shear viscous resonant heating is of comparable magnitude to the resistive resonant

  6. Cascade and Dissipation of Solar Wind Turbulence at Electron Scales: Whistlers or Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, large-scales solar wind (SW) turbulence has been studied extensively, both theoretically and observationally. Observed power spectra of the low frequency turbulence, which can be described in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit, are shown to obey the Kolmogorov scaling, $k"{ -5/3 }$, down the local proton gyrofrequency ($C{ci} \\sim O.l$-Hz). Turbulence at frequencies above $C{ci}$ has not been thoroughly investigated and remains far less well understood. Above $C{ ci}$ the spectrum steepens to $\\sim f"{ -2.5}$ and a debate exists as to whether the turbulence has become dominated by dispersive kinetic Alfven waves (KA W) or by whistler waves, before it is dissipated at small scales, In a case study Sahraoui et al., PRL (2009) have reported the first direct determination of the dissipation range of solar wind turbulence near the electron gyroscale using the high resolution Cluster magnetic and electric field data (up to $10"2$-Hz in the spacecraft reference frame). Above the Doppler-shifted proton scale $C{\\rho i}$ a new inertial range with a scaling $\\sim f"{ -2.3}$ has been evidenced and shown to remarkably agree with theoretical predictions of a quasi-two-dimensional cascade into KA W turbulence. Here, we use a wider sample of data sets of small scale SW turbulence under different plasma conditions, and investigate under which physical criteria the KA W (or the whistler) turbulence may be observed to carry out the cascade at small scales, These new observations/criteria are compared to the predictions on the cascade and the (kinetic) dissipation from the Vlasov theory. Implications of the results on the heating problem of the solar wind will be discussed.

  7. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  8. Proton heating and beam formation via parametrically unstable Alfven-cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsch, Eckart; Araneda, Jaime; -Vinas, Adolfo F.

    Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to study the effects that compressible fluctuations driven by parametric instabilities of Alfvén/cyclotron waves have on proe ton velocity distributions. Field-aligned proton beams are generated during the saturation phase of the wave-particle interaction, with a drift speed which is slightly greater than the Alfvén speed and is maintained until the end of the simulation. The main part of the dise tribution becomes anisotropic due to phase mixing as is typically observed in the velocity distributions measured in the fast solar wind. We identify the key instabilities and also find that even in the parameter regime, where fluid theory appears to be appropriate, strong kinetic effects still prevail.

  9. Excitation of dust kinetic Alfven waves by semi-relativistic ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubab, N.; Jaffer, G.

    2016-05-01

    The growth rates for dust kinetic Alfvén wave (DKAW) based on semi-relativistic Maxwellian distribution function are investigated in a hot and magnetized plasma. The dispersion relation of DKAW is obtained on a dust acoustic velocity branch, and the kinetic instability due to cross-field semi-relativistic ion flow is examined by the effect of dust parameters. Analytical expressions are derived for various modes as a natural consequence of the form of the solution, and is shown through graphical representation that the presence of dust particles and the cross-field semi-relativistic ions sensibly modify the dispersion characteristics of low-frequency DKAW. The results are valid for a frequency regime well below the dust cyclotron frequency. We suggest that semi-relativistic particles are an important factor in the growth/damping of DKAWs. It is also found that relativistic effects appear with the dust lower hybrid frequency are more effective for dust kinetic Alfvén waves in the perpendicular component as compared to the parallel one. In particular, the relativistic effects associated with electrons suppress the instability while ions enhance the growth rates. The growth rates are significantly modified with dust parameters and streaming velocity of cross-field ions.

  10. On Alfvenic Waves and Stochastic Ion Heating with 1Re Observations of Strong Field-aligned Currents, Electric Fields, and O+ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra

    2008-01-01

    The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere/magnetosphere coupling makes it a very dynamic region having similar fundamental processes to those within the auroral regions. With Polar passing through the cusp at 1 Re in the Spring of 1996, we observe a strong correlation between ion heating and broadband ELF (BBELF) emissions. This commonly observed relationship led to the study of the coupling of large field-aligned currents, burst electric fields, and the thermal O+ ions. We demonstrate the role of these measurements to Alfvenic waves and stochastic ion heating. Finally we will show the properties of the resulting density cavities.

  11. Generation of Non-Propagating Electromagnetic-Plasma Structures and Formation of Quasi-Static and Alfvenic Discrete Auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Lysak, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The nonlinear interaction of incident and reflected Alfven wave packets in auroral acceleration regions can create non-propagating electromagnetic-plasma structures, such as transverse Alfvenic double layers and charge holes. These dynamical structures are often characterized by localized strong electrostatic electric fields, localized density cavities and enhanced magnetic or mechanical stresses, and are responsible for auroral particle acceleration and the formation of both Alfvenic and quasi-static inverted-V discrete auroras. Similar electromagnetic-plasma structures should also be generated in other cosmic plasmas, and would constitute effective high energy accelerators of charged particles in cosmic plasmas.

  12. Generation of plasma rotation in a tokamak by ion-cyclotron absorption of fast Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    F.W. Perkins; R.B. White; P. Bonoli

    2000-06-13

    Control of rotation in tokamak plasmas provides a method for suppressing fine-scale turbulent transport by velocity shear and for stabilizing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic instabilities via a close-fitting conducting shell. The experimental discovery of rotation in a plasma heated by the fast-wave minority ion cyclotron process is important both as a potential control method for a fusion reactor and as a fundamental issue, because rotation arises even though this heating process introduces negligible angular momentum. This paper proposes and evaluates a mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport in a tokamak is governed by a diffusion equation with a no-slip boundary condition at the plasma surface and with a torque-density source that is a function of radius. When the torque density source consists of two separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a non-zero central rotation velocity results, even when the total angular momentum input vanishes. Secondly, the authors show that localized ion-cyclotron heating can generate regions of positive and negative torque density and consequently central plasma rotation.

  13. DO OBLIQUE ALFVEN/ION-CYCLOTRON OR FAST-MODE/WHISTLER WAVES DOMINATE THE DISSIPATION OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE NEAR THE PROTON INERTIAL LENGTH?

    SciTech Connect

    He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Yao Shuo

    2012-01-20

    To determine the wave modes prevailing in solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales, we study the magnetic polarization of small-scale fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the data sampling direction (namely, the solar wind flow direction, V{sub SW}) and analyze its orientation with respect to the local background magnetic field B{sub 0,local}. As an example, we take only measurements made in an outward magnetic sector. When B{sub 0,local} is quasi-perpendicular to V{sub SW}, we find that the small-scale magnetic-field fluctuations, which have periods from about 1 to 3 s and are extracted from a wavelet decomposition of the original time series, show a polarization ellipse with right-handed orientation. This is consistent with a positive reduced magnetic helicity, as previously reported. Moreover, for the first time we find that the major axis of the ellipse is perpendicular to B{sub 0,local}, a property that is characteristic of an oblique Alfven wave rather than oblique whistler wave. For an oblique whistler wave, the major axis of the magnetic ellipse is expected to be aligned with B{sub 0,local}, thus indicating significant magnetic compressibility, and the polarization turns from right to left handedness as the wave propagation angle ({theta}{sub kB}) increases toward 90 Degree-Sign . Therefore, we conclude that the observation of a right-handed polarization ellipse with orientation perpendicular to B{sub 0,local} seems to indicate that oblique Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves rather than oblique fast-mode/whistler waves dominate in the 'dissipation' range near the break of solar wind turbulence spectra occurring around the proton inertial length.

  14. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  15. High amplitude waves in the expanding solar wind plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. M.; Velli, M.; Grappin, R.

    1996-07-20

    We simulated the 1 D nonlinear time-evolution of high-amplitude Alfven, slow and fast magnetoacustic waves in the solar wind propagating outward at different angles to the mean magnetic (spiral) field, using the expanding box model. The simulation results for Alfven waves and fast magnetoacustic waves fit the observational constraints in the solar wind best, showing decreasing trends for energies and other rms-quantities due to expansion and the appearance of inward propagating waves as minor species in the wind. Inward propagating waves are generated by reflection of Alfven waves propagating at large angles to the magnetic field or they coincide with the occurrence of compressible fluctuations. It is the generation of sound due to ponderomotive forces of the Alfven wave which we can detect in the latter case. For slow magnetoacustic waves we find a kind of oscillation of the character of the wave between a sound wave and an Alfven wave. This is the more, the slow magnetoacustic wave is close to a sound wave in the beginning. On the other hand, fast magnetoacustic waves are much more dissipated than the other wave-types and their general behaviour is close to the Alfven. The normalized cross-helicity {sigma}{sub c} is close to one for Alfven-waves and this quantity is decreasing slightly when density-fluctuations are generated. {sigma}{sub c} decreases significantly when the waves are close to perpendicular propagation. Then, the waves are close to quasi-static structures.

  16. Dynamical Generation of Quasi-Stationary Alfvenic Double Layers and Charge Holes and Unified Theory of Quasi-Static and Alfvenic Auroral Arc Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Lysak, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Parallel E-fields play a crucial role for the acceleration of charged particles, creating discrete aurorae. However, once the parallel electric fields are produced, they will disappear right away, unless the electric fields can be continuously generated and sustained for a fairly long time. Thus, the crucial question in auroral physics is how to generate such a powerful and self-sustained parallel electric fields which can effectively accelerate charge particles to high energy during a fairly long time. We propose that nonlinear interaction of incident and reflected Alfven wave packets in inhomogeneous auroral acceleration region can produce quasi-stationary non-propagating electromagnetic plasma structures, such as Alfvenic double layers (DLs) and Charge Holes. Such Alfvenic quasi-static structures often constitute powerful high energy particle accelerators. The Alfvenic DL consists of localized self-sustained powerful electrostatic electric fields nested in a low density cavity and surrounded by enhanced magnetic and mechanical stresses. The enhanced magnetic and velocity fields carrying the free energy serve as a local dynamo, which continuously create the electrostatic parallel electric field for a fairly long time. The generated parallel electric fields will deepen the seed low density cavity, which then further quickly boosts the stronger parallel electric fields creating both Alfvenic and quasi-static discrete aurorae. The parallel electrostatic electric field can also cause ion outflow, perpendicular ion acceleration and heating, and may excite Auroral Kilometric Radiation.

  17. Radial energy transport by magnetospheric ULF waves: Effects of magnetic curvature and plasma pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William

    1995-01-01

    The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the

  18. Momentum and energy transport by waves in the solar atmosphere and solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacques, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fluid equations for the solar wind are presented in a form which includes the momentum and energy flux of waves in a general and consistent way. The concept of conservation of wave action is introduced and is used to derive expressions for the wave energy density as a function of heliocentric distance. The explicit form of the terms due to waves in both the momentum and energy equations are given for radially propagating acoustic, Alfven, and fast mode waves. The effect of waves as a source of momentum is explored by examining the critical points of the momentum equation for isothermal spherically symmetric flow. We find that the principal effect of waves on the solutions is to bring the critical point closer to the sun's surface and to increase the Mach number at the critical point. When a simple model of dissipation is included for acoustic waves, in some cases there are multiple critical points.

  19. Highly Alfvenic Slow Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. Aaron

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly thought that fast solar wind tends to be highly Alfvenic, with strong correlations between velocity and magnetic fluctuations, but examples have been known for over 20 years in which slow wind is both Alfvenic and has many other properties more typically expected of fast solar wind. This paper will present a search for examples of such flows from more recent data, and will begin to characterize the general characteristics of them. A very preliminary search suggests that such intervals are more common in the rising phase of the solar cycle. These intervals are important for providing constraints on models of solar wind acceleration, and in particular the role waves might or might not play in that process.

  20. Reconstruction of a Broadband Spectrum of Alfvenic Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Fuentes, Pablo S. M.; Araneda, Jaime A.; Maneva, Yana G.

    2014-01-01

    Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibit a high degree of velocities and magnetic field correlations consistent with Alfven waves propagating away and toward the Sun. Two remarkable properties of these fluctuations are the tendencies to have either positive or negative magnetic helicity (-1 less than or equal to sigma(sub m) less than or equal to +1) associated with either left- or right- topological handedness of the fluctuations and to have a constant magnetic field magnitude. This paper provides, for the first time, a theoretical framework for reconstructing both the magnetic and velocity field fluctuations with a divergence-free magnetic field, with any specified power spectral index and normalized magnetic- and cross-helicity spectrum field fluctuations for any plasma species. The spectrum is constructed in the Fourier domain by imposing two conditions-a divergence-free magnetic field and the preservation of the sense of magnetic helicity in both spaces-as well as using Parseval's theorem for the conservation of energy between configuration and Fourier spaces. Applications to the one-dimensional spatial Alfvenic propagation are presented. The theoretical construction is in agreement with typical time series and power spectra properties observed in the solar wind. The theoretical ideas presented in this spectral reconstruction provide a foundation for more realistic simulations of plasma waves, solar wind turbulence, and the propagation of energetic particles in such fluctuating fields.

  1. On the possibility for laboratory simulation of generation of Alfven disturbances in magnetic tubes in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Pavel; Zaharov, Yuriy; Tishchenko, Vladimir; Boyarintsev, Eduard; Melehov, Aleksandr; Ponomarenko, Arnold; Posuh, Vitaliy; Shayhislamov, Ildar

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with generation of Alfven plasma disturbances in magnetic flux tubes through exploding laser plasma in magnetized background plasma. Processes with similar effect of excitation of torsion-type waves seem to provide energy transfer from the solar photosphere to corona. The studies were carried out at experimental stand KI-1 represented a high-vacuum chamber of 1.2 m diameter, 5 m long, external magnetic field up to 500 Gs along the chamber axis, and up to 2×10^-6 Torr pressure in operating mode. Laser plasma was produced when focusing the CO2 laser pulse on a flat polyethylene target, and then the laser plasma propagated in θ-pinch background hydrogen (or helium) plasma. As a result, the magnetic flux tube of 15-20 cm radius was experimentally simulated along the chamber axis and the external magnetic field direction. Also, the plasma density distribution in the tube was measured. Alfven wave propagation along the magnetic field was registered from disturbance of the magnetic field transverse component B_ψ and field-aligned current J_z. The disturbances propagate at near-Alfven velocity of 70-90 km/s and they are of left-hand circular polarization of the transverse component of magnetic field. Presumably, Alfven wave is generated by the magnetic laminar mechanism of collisionless interaction between laser plasma cloud and background. The right-hand polarized high-frequency whistler predictor was registered which have been propagating before Alfven wave at 300 km/s velocity. The polarization direction changed with Alfven wave coming. Features of a slow magnetosonic wave as a sudden change in background plasma concentration along with simultaneous displacement of the external magnetic field were found. The disturbance propagates at ~20-30 km/s velocity, which is close to that of ion sound at low plasma beta value. From preliminary estimates, the disturbance transfers about 10 % of the original energy of laser plasma.

  2. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  3. A non-linear 4-wave resonant model for non-perturbative fast ion interactions with Alfv'enic modes in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2007-11-01

    We adopt the 4-wave modulation interaction model, introduced by Chen et al [1] for analyzing modulational instabilities of the radial envelope of Ion Temperature Gradient driven modes in toroidal geometry, extending it to the modulations on the fast particle distribution function due to nonlinear Alfv'enic mode dynamics, as proposed in Ref. [2]. In the case where the wave-particle interactions are non-perturbative and strongly influence the mode evolution, as in the case of Energetic Particle Modes (EPM) [3], radial distortions (redistributions) of the fast ion source dominate the mode nonlinear dynamics. In this work, we show that the resonant particle motion is secular with a time-scale inversely proportional to the mode amplitude [4] and that the time evolution of the EPM radial envelope can be cast into the form of a nonlinear Schr"odinger equation a la Ginzburg-Landau [5]. [1] L. Chen et al, Phys. Plasmas 7 3129 (2000) [2] F. Zonca et al, Theory of Fusion Plasmas (Bologna: SIF) 17 (2000) [3] L. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1519 (1994).[4] F. Zonca et al, Nucl. Fusion 45 477 (2005) [5] F. Zonca et al, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 48 B15 (2006)

  4. Experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators to study simulated toroidal effects and Alfven-wave heating: Annual progess report No. 2, November 16, 1987--July 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ribe, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents an update of the work described in Progress report No. 1 UWAERP/17 (2/16/87--10/15/87). During the present reporting period we have continued our work on the non-- axisymmetric Alfven wave heating of a high beta plasma column, and begun installation of the shifted hardcore heliac hardware. The hardware for the Alfven wave heating experiment has been assembled, installed, and tested. The preliminary experiment on the axisymmetric HBQM theta pinch compression coil set is scheduled to begin immediately. Details are given. The hardcore shifting apparatus has been built and is installed on one end of the HBQM, and the design and construction of the other end will proceed concurrently with experiments using a fixed hardcore. A design improvement in the hardcore shifting apparatus (since the last reporting period) has been implemented, motivated by the necessity of reliable operation at higher voltages.

  5. Experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators to study simulated toroidal effects and Alfven-wave heating: (Annual) progress report No. 1, February 16, 1987-November 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ribe, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators. Experiments considered are: formation of linear high beta heliac plasma configurations; Alfven wave heating in a straight tube and in a linear high beat stellarator; shifted hardcore heliac studies; a system for measuring the timing of high-current switches in a pulsed high voltage fusion experiment; HBQM general refurbishment; and proposed experiment on excitation of the m = 1 tilt mode in field-reversed configurations. (LSP)

  6. Electric Field Observations of Plasma Convection, Shear, Alfven Waves, and other Phenomena Observed on Sounding Rockets in the Cusp and Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.

  7. Wave energy and intertidal productivity.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G; Paine, R T; Quinn, J F; Suchanek, T H

    1987-03-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 x 10(8) J, per m(2) in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms "harness" wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding.

  8. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, E.G. Jr.; Paine, R.T.; Quinn, J.F.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1987-03-01

    In the northern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ J, per m/sup 2/ in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms harness wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organism, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding.

  9. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert G.; Paine, Robert T.; Quinn, James F.; Suchanek, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 × 108 J, per m2 in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms “harness” wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding. PMID:16593813

  10. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of particle acceleration by circularly polarised inertial Alfven waves in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiklauri, D.

    2012-08-15

    The process of particle acceleration by left-hand, circularly polarised inertial Alfven waves (IAW) in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma is studied using 3D particle-in-cell simulation. A cylindrical tube with, transverse to the background magnetic field, inhomogeneity scale of the order of ion inertial length is considered on which IAWs with frequency 0.3{omega}{sub ci} are launched that are allowed to develop three wavelength. As a result time-varying parallel electric fields are generated in the density gradient regions which accelerate electrons in the parallel to magnetic field direction. Driven perpendicular electric field of IAWs also heats ions in the transverse direction. Such numerical setup is relevant for solar flaring loops and earth auroral zone. This first, 3D, fully kinetic simulation demonstrates electron acceleration efficiency in the density inhomogeneity regions, along the magnetic field, of the order of 45% and ion heating, in the transverse to the magnetic field direction, of 75%. The latter is a factor of two times higher than the previous 2.5D analogous study and is in accordance with solar flare particle acceleration observations. We find that the generated parallel electric field is localised in the density inhomogeneity region and rotates in the same direction and with the same angular frequency as the initially launched IAW. Our numerical simulations seem also to suggest that the 'knee' often found in the solar flare electron spectra can alternatively be interpreted as the Landau damping (Cerenkov resonance effect) of IAWs due to the wave-particle interactions.

  11. Tunnel effect wave energy detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  12. Basic physics of Alfven instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2008-05-15

    Superthermal energetic particles (EP) often drive shear Alfven waves unstable in magnetically confined plasmas. These instabilities constitute a fascinating nonlinear system where fluid and kinetic nonlinearities can appear on an equal footing. In addition to basic science, Alfven instabilities are of practical importance, as the expulsion of energetic particles can damage the walls of a confinement device. Because of rapid dispersion, shear Alfven waves that are part of the continuous spectrum are rarely destabilized. However, because the index of refraction is periodic in toroidally confined plasmas, gaps appear in the continuous spectrum. At spatial locations where the radial group velocity vanishes, weakly damped discrete modes appear in these gaps. These eigenmodes are of two types. One type is associated with frequency crossings of counterpropagating waves; the toroidal Alfven eigenmode is a prominent example. The second type is associated with an extremum of the continuous spectrum; the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode is an example of this type. In addition to these normal modes of the background plasma, when the energetic particle pressure is very large, energetic particle modes that adopt the frequency of the energetic particle population occur. Alfven instabilities of all three types occur in every toroidal magnetic confinement device with an intense energetic particle population. The energetic particles are most conveniently described by their constants of motion. Resonances occur between the orbital frequencies of the energetic particles and the wave phase velocity. If the wave resonance with the energetic particle population occurs where the gradient with respect to a constant of motion is inverted, the particles transfer energy to the wave, promoting instability. In a tokamak, the spatial gradient drive associated with inversion of the toroidal canonical angular momentum P{sub {zeta}} is most important. Once a mode is driven unstable, a wide variety

  13. Alfven ion-cyclotron heating of ionospheric O(+) ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Sydora, R. D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1988-01-01

    Transversely heated ionospheric ions, in particular O(+) ions, are often observed flowing upward along auroral field lines. Currents observed in association with the transversely heated ions can drive shear Alfven waves and electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves unstable which can, in turn, be resonantly absorbed by the ions to produce the heating. Particle simulations are used to examine self-consistently the excitation of these waves and the associated heating. It is shown that the growth of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves quickly becomes suppressed as the ions become heated and the dominant wave fields are those of the shear Alfven wave. The resultant transverse ion heating is larger and faster than that produced by solely electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave heating. Due to trapping of ions by the shear Alfven wave, the temperature of the O(+) ions remains comparable to that of the H(+) ions.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of the 3D FMS and Alfven wave beams propagating in plasma of ionosphere and magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashov, Vasily

    We study the formation, structure, stability and dynamics of the multidimensional soliton-like beam structures forming on the low-frequency branch of oscillation in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma for cases when beta=4pinT/B(2) <<1 and beta>1. In first case with the conditions omegawaves are excited. Their dynamics under conditions {k_{x}}(2) >>{k_{yz}}(2,) v_{x}$<wave}/B with due account of the high order dispersive correction defined by values of plasma parameters and the angle Theta=(B,k) [2]. In another case the dynamics of the finite-amplitude Alfvén waves propagating in the ionosphere and magnetosphere near-to-parallel to the field B is described by the 3D derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (3-DNLS) equation for the magnetic field of the wave h=(B_{y}+iB_{z})/2B/1-beta/ [3]. To study the stability of multidimensional solitons in both cases we use the method developed in [2] and investigated the Hamiltonian bounding with its deformation conserving momentum by solving the corresponding variation problem. To study evolution of solitons and their collision dynamics the proper equations were being integrated numerically using the codes specially developed and described in detail in [3]. As a result, we have obtained that in both cases for a single solitons on a level with wave spreading and collapse the formation of multidimensional solitons can be observed. These results may be interpreted in terms of self-focusing phenomenon for the FMS and Alfvén waves’ beam as stationary beam formation, scattering and self-focusing of wave beam. The soliton collisions on a level with known elastic interaction can lead to formation of complex structures including the multisoliton bound states. For all cases the problem of multidimensional soliton dynamics in the ionospheric and

  15. Sawtooth Stabilization and Onset of Alfvenic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Tokamak sawtooth instabilities can be stabilized by high energy particles as a consequence of conservation of the third adiabatic invariant.On the other hand, termination of the stabilized period is reported due to the onset of Alfvenic instabilities (and thus the absence of the stabilizing mechanism). In this work, employing a kinetic-fluid model, the interaction of m=1 resistive kink mode and high energy particles is investigated. The onset of Alfvenic instabilities is examined as a function of the inversion radius location. D.J. Campbell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2148 (1988); F. Porcelli, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1601 (1991).

  16. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  17. High amplitude waves in the expanding solar wind plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Velli, M.; Grappin, R.

    1995-01-01

    We simulated the 1-D nonlinear time-evolution of high-amplitude Alfven, slow and fast magnetoacoustic waves in the solar wind propagating outward at different angles to the mean magnetic (spiral) field, using the expanding box model. The simulation results for Alfven waves and fast magnetoacustic waves fit the observational constraints in the solar wind best, showing decreasing trends for energies and other rms-quantities due to expansion and the appearance of inward propagating waves as minor species in the wind. Inward propagating waves are generated by reflection of Alfven waves propagating at large angles to the magnetic field or they coincide with the occurrence of compressible fluctuations. In our simulations, fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves seem to have a level in the density-fluctuations which is too high when we compare with the observations. Furthermore, the evolution of energies for slow magnetoacoustic waves differs strongly from the evolution of fluctuation energies in situ.

  18. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  19. Study of Toroidicity-Induced Alfv'en Eigenmodes on the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliner, J. J.; Forest, C. B.; Oliva, S.; Anderson, J. K.; Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. R.; Spong, D.

    2009-11-01

    Alfv'en waves are likely of fundamental importance in the reversed-field pinch (RFP). The large magnetic fluctuations are expected to inject energy into Alfv'en modes, and their subsequent cascade to shorter wavelengths may drive ion heating. A new effort is in progress to understand toroidicity-induced Alfv'en eigenmodes (TAE's) through their structure, driving terms and damping mechanisms on the MST. Coupling of multiple eigenmodes can introduce undamped TAE's with frequencies from hundreds of kHz up to the cyclotron frequency at over 2 MHz. These modes can also become unstable by inverse Landau damping due to fast ions, a condition pertinent to neutral beam injection heating on MST and fusion alpha particles in future RFP devices. Frequencies of weakly damped modes have been calculated by solving a 3D partial differential equation that describes shear Alfv'en dynamics numerically based on MST equilibrium conditions. To excite the calculated modes, a single strap poloidal antenna connected to a 1 kW broadband amplifier will be employed. An array of 64 toroidally distributed magnetic pickup coils will be utilized synchronously to resolve power spectra and mode numbers in the relevant range of frequencies.

  20. Alpha particle destabilization of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1990-10-01

    The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable by the circulating and/or trapped {alpha}-particles through the wave-particle resonances. Satisfying the resonance condition requires that the {alpha}-particle birth speed v{sub {alpha}} {ge} v{sub A}/2{vert bar}m-nq{vert bar}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed, m is the poloidal model number, and n is the toroidal mode number. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the {alpha}-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the {alpha}-particles and the core electrons and ions. The growth rate was studied analytically with a perturbative formula derived from the quadratic dispersion relation, and numerically with the aid of the NOVA-K code. Stability criteria in terms of the {alpha}-particle beta {beta}{sub {alpha}}, {alpha}-particle pressure gradient parameter ({omega}{sub {asterisk}}/{omega}{sub A}) ({omega}{sub {asterisk}} is the {alpha}-particle diamagnetic drift frequency), and (v{sub {alpha}}/v{sub A}) parameters will be presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks. The volume averaged {alpha}-particle beta threshold for TAE instability also depends sensitively on the core electron and ion temperature. Typically the volume averaged {alpha}-particle beta threshold is in the order of 10{sup {minus}4}. Typical growth rates of the n=1 TAE mode can be in the order of 10{sup {minus}2}{omega}{sub A}, where {omega}{sub A}=v{sub A}/qR. Other types of global Alfven waves are stable in D-T tokamaks due to toroidal coupling effects.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Waves Driven by Plasma Currents Generated by Low-Frequency Alfven Waves in a Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George

    2003-01-01

    When multi-ion plasma consisting of heavy and light ions is permeated by a lowfrequency Alfien (LFA) wave, the EXB and the polarization drifts of the different ion species and the electrons could be quite different. The relative drifts between the charged-particle species drive waves, which energize the plasma. Using 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations, we study this process of wave generation and its nonlinear consequences in terms of acceleration and heating plasma. Specifically we study the situation for LFA wave frequency being lower than the heavyion cyclotron frequency in a multi-ion plasma. We impose such a wave to the plasma assuming that its wavelength is much larger than that of the waves generated by the relative drifts. For better understanding, the LFA-wave driven simulations are augmented by those driven by initialized ion beams.

  2. Alfven continuum and Alfven eigenmodes in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fesenyuk, O.P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; White, R.B.; Yakovenko, Yu.V.

    2004-12-01

    The Alfven continuum (AC) in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) [G. H. Neilson et al., in Fusion Energy 2002, 19th Conference Proceedings, Lyon, 2002 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2003), Report IAEA-CN-94/IC-1] is investigated with the AC code COBRA [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 491 (2001)]. The resonant interaction of Alfven eigenmodes and the fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is analyzed. Alfven eigenmodes residing in one of the widest gap of the NCSX AC, the ellipticity-induced gap, are studied with the code BOA-E [V. V. Lutsenko et al., in Fusion Energy 2002, 19th Conference Proceedings, Lyon, 2002 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2003), Report IAEA-CN-94-TH/P3-16].

  3. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth; Lamb, Bradford; Prudell, Joseph; Hammagren, Erik; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  4. Ion cyclotron emission due to the newly-born fusion products induced fast Alfven wave radiative instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-08-01

    The velocity distribution functions of the newly born (t = 0) charged fusion products of tokamak discharges can be approximated by a monoenergetic ring distribution with a finite v{sub {parallel}} such that v{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} v{sub {parallel}} {approx} v{sub j} where (M{sub j}V{sub j}{sup 2}/2) = E{sub j}, the directed birth energy of the charged fusion product species j of mass M{sub j}. As the time t progresses these distribution functions will evolve into a Gaussian in velocity with thermal spreadings given by the perpendicular and parallel temperatures T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t) with T{sub j}(t) increasing as t increases and finally reaches an isotropic saturation value of T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) {approx} [M{sub j}T{sub d}E{sub j}/(M{sub j} + M)]{sup 1/2}, where T{sub d} is the temperature of the background deuterium plasma ions, M is the mass of a triton or a neutron for j = protons and alpha particles, respectively, and {tau}{sub j} {approx} {tau}{sub sj}/4 is the thermalization time of the fusion product species j in the background deuterium plasma and {tau}{sub sj} is the slowing-down time. For times t of the order of {tau}{sub j} their distributions can be approximated by a Gaussian in their total energy. Then for times t {ge} {tau}{sub sj} the velocity distributions of these fusion products will relax towards their appropriate slowing-down distributions. Here the authors will examine the radiative stability of all these distributions. The ion cyclotron emission from energetic ion produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  5. Key features of wave energy.

    PubMed

    Rainey, R C T

    2012-01-28

    For a weak point source or dipole, or a small body operating as either, we show that the power from a wave energy converter (WEC) is the product of the particle velocity in the waves, and the wave force (suitably defined). There is a thus a strong analogy with a wind or tidal turbine, where the power is the product of the fluid velocity through the turbine, and the force on it. As a first approximation, the cost of a structure is controlled by the force it has to carry, which governs its strength, and the distance it has to be carried, which governs its size. Thus, WECs are at a disadvantage compared with wind and tidal turbines because the fluid velocities are lower, and hence the forces are higher. On the other hand, the distances involved are lower. As with turbines, the implication is also that a WEC must make the most of its force-carrying ability-ideally, to carry its maximum force all the time, the '100% sweating WEC'. It must be able to limit the wave force on it in larger waves, ultimately becoming near-transparent to them in the survival condition-just like a turbine in extreme conditions, which can stop and feather its blades. A turbine of any force rating can achieve its maximum force in low wind speeds, if its diameter is sufficiently large. This is not possible with a simple monopole or dipole WEC, however, because of the 'nλ/2π' capture width limits. To achieve reasonable 'sweating' in typical wave climates, the force is limited to about 1 MN for a monopole device, or 2 MN for a dipole. The conclusion is that the future of wave energy is in devices that are not simple monopoles or dipoles, but multi-body devices or other shapes equivalent to arrays.

  6. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  7. Ocean wave energy converting vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, P.F.

    1986-08-26

    An ocean wave energy conversion system is described comprised of a four beam quadrapod supported by bouyant members from which is suspended a pendulum. The pendulum contains a vertical generator shaft and a generator, the generator shaft being splined and fitted with two racheted pulleys, the pulleys being looped, one clockwise and one counterclockwise with separate cables. The cables are attached at their ends to the bow and stern of the quadrapod, whereby the generator shaft will pin when the quadrapod rocks over waves and the pendulum tends toward the center of earth.

  8. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  9. Star of Lima - Overview and optical diagnostics of a barium Alfven critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T.; Foeppl, H.; Valenzuela, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Alfven critical velocity mechanism for ionization of a neutral gas streaming across the magnetic field has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. In March 1983, two rocket-borne experiments with Ba and Sr tested the effect in the wall-less laboratory of space from Punto Lobos, Peru, near 430 km altitude. 'Star of Lima' used a conical Ba shaped charge aimed at an instrument payload about 2 km away. Because of rocket overperformance the detonation occurred in partial sunlight, so that less than 21.6 percent of the ionizing UV was present. Particle and field measurements indicate the production of hot electrons and waves in the energy and frequency range that are respectively predicted to produce a cascade of ionization by the Alfven mechanism. However, the ionization fluxes and wave energy density did not reach cascade levels, and optical observations indicate that only 2.5 to 5 x 10 to the 20th Ba ions were produced. A substantial portion and perhaps all of the ionization could have been produced by solar UV. The failure of the Alfven process in this experiment is not well understood.

  10. ULF Wave Electromagnetic Energy Flux into the Ionosphere: Joule Heating Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M.; Moldwin, M.; Zou, S.; Bonnell, J. W.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves - such as standing Alfven waves - are one mechanism for coupling the inner magnetosphere to the Earth's ionosphere. For example, they transfer energy from the solar wind or ring current into the Earth's ionosphere via Joule heating. In this study, we use NASA Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite data to investigate the spatial, frequency, and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ULF wave Poynting vector (electromagnetic energy flux) mapped to the ionosphere. We use these measurements to estimate Joule heating rates. We compare these rates to empirical models of Joule heating associated with large scale, static (on ULF wave timescales) current systems, finding that ULF waves usually contribute little to the global, integrated Joule heating rate. However, there are extreme cases when ULF waves make significant contributions to global Joule heating. Finally, we find ULF waves routinely make significant contributions to local Joule heating rates near the noon and midnight local time sectors, where static current systems nominally contribute less to Joule heating; the most important contributions come from lower frequency (<7 mHz) waves.

  11. Properties of Alfven waves in the magnetotail below 9 R(E) and their relation to auroral acceleration and major geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombeck, John Paul

    The presented studies investigate the characteristics of Alfvén wave events in the geomagnetic tail on the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and possibly well within the plasma sheet during substorms and major geomagnetic storms (<- 200 Dst). Such storms are rare but dramatically affect the state of the magnetosphere in ways that we have only recently been capable of investigating with sufficient in situ instrumentation. The first comparative study of major storm PSBL Alfvén waves events is presented. Properties of eight substorm and ten major storm events are compared using a new method, providing new insights into the phenomena, their interactions in the auroral acceleration region (AAR), and their generation. Direct comparison between Polar and FAST indicating a decrease (increase) in low-(high-)frequency shear (kinetic) earthward Alfvénic Poynting flux and an increase in earthward electron energy flux strongly suggests transfer of shear Alfvén wave Poynting flux to kinetic Alfvén waves which then accelerate auroral electrons. Polar observations also suggest a broadband source and indicate that small-scale, temporally/spatially variable factors, likely including density cavities and ionospheric conductivity structure, strongly affect the reflectivity/dissipation properties, as the waves in each frequency band contain a mixture of earthward, tailward, reflecting and incoherent wave intervals. Averages of these properties are consistent with theory, but the detailed structure has not been predicted. Tailward intervals also suggest ionospheric field line shear. Most major storm events were found have similar properties to substorm events with a few notable differences, consistent with effects related to the extended duration of storms. Low-latitude broadband auroral electrons and high-frequency Alfvén waves along with properties of a unique Alfvén wave event, related to a major storm tail reconfiguration, with very intense Poynting flux and the first

  12. Conventional and nonconventional global Alfven eigenmodes in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; Geiger, J.; Fesenyuk, O. P.

    2007-10-15

    Conditions of the existence of the Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE) and Nonconventional Global Alfven Eigenmodes (NGAE) predicted for stellarators by Ya. I. Kolesnichenko et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 165004 (2005)] have been obtained. It is found that they depend on the nature of the rotational transform and that conditions for NGAE can be most easily satisfied in currentless stellarators. It is shown that the plasma compressibility may play an important role for the modes with the frequency about or less than that of the Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes. It is found that features of the Alfven continuum in the vicinity of the k{sub parallel}=0 radius (k{sub parallel}) is the longitudinal wave number) can be very different, depending on a parameter which we refer to as 'the sound parameter'. Specific calculations modeling low-frequency Alfven instabilities in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-AS [A. Weller et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 931 (2001)] are carried out, which are in reasonable agreement with the observations. It is emphasized that experimental data on low-frequency Alfvenic activity can be used for the reconstruction of the profile of the rotational transform. The mentioned results are obtained with the use of the equations derived in this paper for the GAE/NGAE modes and of the codes COBRAS and BOA-fe.

  13. Wave motions and wave heating in the upper solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, G.

    The experimental and theoretical evidence favoring the wave heating mechanism in the low chromosphere is briefly reviewed, and the possibility of maintaining this mechanism, with proper modifications, in the higher layer is studied. Wave mode candidates for heating at high levels are analyzed, including gravity waves and Alfven waves. Waves in the upper chromosphere and the transition region are considered, showing power spectra of oscillations in lines forming at increasing heights in the solar atmosphere, fluctuations in UV line intensity, the predicted relationship between velocity and intensity modulation for acoustic waves, and sample results from UV spectrometer and polarimeter observations. It is concluded that in the upper chromosphere and transition regions, observations fail to reveal an acoustic flux adequate to compensate for the energy losses in these layers. Alfven waves, observed in the solar wind, could supply the required energy flux, but their presence cannot either be confirmed or ruled out.

  14. Energy and Momentum Transport in String Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juenker, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Formulas are derived for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum transmitted by waves of arbitrary shape in an inextensible string by pure transverse waves in a string using Tait's procedure. (Author/CP)

  15. Global Alfven eigenmodes in WELDELSTEIN 7-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, A.; Goerner, C.; Jaenicke, R.

    1995-09-01

    In the presence of fast particle populations marginally stable global modes in the shear Alfven branch can be destabilized by wave particle resonances. This is particularly of concern in future large devices, where losses of resonant particles ({alpha}-particles in a reactor) may then limit the available heating power and also may cause damage of the first wall. In tokamaks TAE modes inside toroidicity induced gaps of the shear Alfven continua have been found. In stellarators with very weak shear like W7-AS low-n TAE-gaps do not occur but gaps below the shear Alfven continua with mode numbers m and n, if the resonant values {tau} = n/m do not exist in the plasma volume (k{sub {parallel}} = (m{sm_bullet}{tau} - n )/R {ne} 0 ). Under these conditions GAE modes with frequencies {omega}{sub GAE} < (k{sub {parallel}}{sm_bullet}V{sub A}){sub min} are the favoured modes. The investigation of GAE modes could also be of relevance in the case of advanced tokamak equilibria with flat or inverted q-profiles in the central region.

  16. Alfvenically driven slow shocks in the solar chromosphere and corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of an Alfvenic impulse launched from the photosphere and its dynamical effects on the chromosphere, transition region (TR), and corona are investigated using a simple 1D model. It is found that the leading edge of the torsional pulse can steepen into a fast shock in the chromosphere if the pulse is of sufficiently large amplitude and short duration. A slow shock which develops behind the Alfvenic pulse can reflect downgoing Alfven waves back up to the corona. The upgoing reflected wave can induce a significant upward ejection of the TR. Nonlinear dynamics are found to lead to very impulsive behavior at later times. It is suggested that impulsive events occurring in the TR or corona need not be interpreted in terms of reconnection-driven microflares. It is also found that B(0) in the chromosphere can be amplified when the TR and chromosphere fall.

  17. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  18. Persistent Doppler Shift Oscillations Observed with HINODE-EIS in the Solar Corona: Spectroscopic Signatures of Alfvenic Waves and Recurring Upflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Hui; McIntosh, Scott W.; Wang, Tongjiang; Offman, Leon; De Pontieu, Bart; Innes, Davina E.; Peter, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    Using data obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, we have performed a survey of obvious and persistent (without significant damping) Doppler shift oscillations in the corona. We have found mainly two types of oscillations from February to April in 2007. One type is found at loop footpoint regions, with a dominant period around 10 minutes. They are characterized by coherent behavior of all line parameters (line intensity, Doppler shift, line width, and profile asymmetry), and apparent blueshift and blueward asymmetry throughout almost the entire duration. Such oscillations are likely to be signatures of quasi-periodic upflows (small-scale jets, or coronal counterpart of type-II spicules), which may play an important role in the supply of mass and energy to the hot corona. The other type of oscillation is usually associated with the upper part of loops. They are most clearly seen in the Doppler shift of coronal lines with formation temperatures between one and two million degrees. The global wavelets of these oscillations usually peak sharply around a period in the range of three to six minutes. No obvious profile asymmetry is found and the variation of the line width is typically very small. The intensity variation is often less than 2%. These oscillations are more likely to be signatures of kink/Alfv´en waves rather than flows. In a few cases, there seems to be a p/2 phase shift between the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations, which may suggest the presence of slow-mode standing waves according to wave theories. However, we demonstrate that such a phase shift could also be produced by loops moving into and out of a spatial pixel as a result of Alfv´enic oscillations. In this scenario, the intensity oscillations associated with Alfv´enic waves are caused by loop displacement rather than density change. These coronal waves may be used to investigate properties of the coronal plasma and magnetic field.

  19. Feasibility of Wave Energy in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, M.; Hodgson, P.

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic energy produced by the movement of ocean waves can be harnessed by wave energy converter equipment such as wave turbines to power onshore electricity generators, creating a valuable source of renewable energy. This experiment measures the potential of wave energy in Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park, Hong Kong using a data buoy programmed to send data through wireless internet every five minutes. Wave power (known as 'wave energy flux') is proportional to wave energy periodicity and to the square of wave height, and can be calculated using the equation: P = 0.5 kW/(m3)(s) x Hs2 x Tp P = wave energy flux (wave energy per unit of wave crest length in kW/m) Hs = significant wave height (m) Tp = wave period (seconds) Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), or ultrasonic sensors, were installed on the seabed at three monitoring locations to measure Significant Wave Heights (Hs), Significant Wave Periods (Tp) and Significant Wave Direction (Wd). Over a twelve month monitoring period, Significant Wave Heights ranged from 0 ~ 8.63m. Yearly averages were 1.051m. Significant Wave Period ranged from 0 ~ 14.9s. Yearly averages were 6.846s. The maximum wave energy amount recorded was 487.824 kW/m. These results implied that electricity sufficient to power a small marine research center could be supplied by a generator running at 30% efficiency or greater. A wave piston driven generator prototype was designed that could meet output objectives without using complex hydraulics, expensive mechanical linkages, or heavy floating buoys that might have an adverse impact on marine life. The result was a design comprising a water piston connected by an air pipe to a rotary turbine powered generator. A specially designed air valve allowed oscillating bidirectional airflow generated in the piston to be converted into unidirectional flow through the turbine, minimizing kinetic energy loss. A 35cm wave with a one second period could generate 139.430W of electricity, with an efficiency of 37.6%.

  20. Controller for a wave energy converter

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  1. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  2. Energy in a String Wave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  3. Drift-Alfven eigenmodes in inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.

    2006-03-15

    A set of three nonlinear equations describing drift-Alfven waves in a nonuniform magnetized plasma is derived and discussed both in linear and nonlinear limits. In the case of a cylindric radially bounded plasma with a Gaussian density distribution in the radial direction the linearized equations are solved exactly yielding general solutions for modes with quantized frequencies and with radially dependent amplitudes. The full set of nonlinear equations is also solved yielding particular solutions in the form of rotating radially limited structures. The results should be applicable to the description of electromagnetic perturbations in solar magnetic structures and in astrophysical column-like objects including cosmic tornados.

  4. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  5. Inventing a Better Way to Capture the Energy of Waves

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    NREL's ocean energy research team's efforts to develop more robust and cost-effective wave energy converters have yielded a record of invention titled, 'Wave Energy Conversion Devices with Actuated Geometry.' This innovative wave device features a wave converter with controlled geometry that increases energy capture and prevents large waves from overloading the generator. The invention's control system actuates flaps that open and close depending on wave conditions. Better control of the wave forces acting on wave energy conversion devices provides a solution to one of wave energy's biggest challenges -- and could cut the cost of wave energy in half.

  6. BENCHMARKING FAST-TO-ALFVEN MODE CONVERSION IN A COLD MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cally, Paul S.; Hansen, Shelley C. E-mail: shelley.hansen@monash.edu

    2011-09-10

    Alfven waves may be generated via mode conversion from fast magnetoacoustic waves near their reflection level in the solar atmosphere, with implications both for coronal oscillations and for active region helioseismology. In active regions this reflection typically occurs high enough that the Alfven speed a greatly exceeds the sound speed c, well above the a = c level where the fast and slow modes interact. In order to focus on the fundamental characteristics of fast/Alfven conversion, stripped of unnecessary detail, it is therefore useful to freeze out the slow mode by adopting the gravitationally stratified cold magnetohydrodynamic model c {yields} 0. This provides a benchmark for fast-to-Alfven mode conversion in more complex atmospheres. Assuming a uniform inclined magnetic field and an exponential Alfven speed profile with density scale height h, the Alfven conversion coefficient depends on three variables only: the dimensionless transverse-to-the-stratification wavenumber {kappa} = kh, the magnetic field inclination from the stratification direction {theta}, and the polarization angle {phi} of the wavevector relative to the plane containing the stratification and magnetic field directions. We present an extensive exploration of mode conversion in this parameter space and conclude that near-total conversion to outward-propagating Alfven waves typically occurs for small {theta} and large {phi} (80{sup 0}-90{sup 0}), though it is absent entirely when {theta} is exactly zero (vertical field). For wavenumbers of helioseismic interest, the conversion region is broad enough to encompass the whole chromosphere.

  7. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  8. Alfven resonance mode conversion in the Phaedrus-T current drive experiments: Modelling and density fluctuations measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovic, M.; Harper, M.; Breun, R.; Wukitch, S.

    1995-12-31

    Current drive experiments on the Phaedrus-T tokamak performed with a low field side two-strap fast wave antenna at frequencies below {omega}{sub cH} show loop volt drops of up to 30% with strap phasing (0, {pi}/2). RF induced density fluctuations in the plasma core have also been observed with a microwave reflectometer. It is believed that they are caused by kinetic Alfven waves generated by mode conversion of fast waves at the Alfven resonance. Correlation of the observed density fluctuations with the magnitude of the {Delta}V{sub loop} suggest that the {Delta}V{sub loop} is attributable to current drive/heating due to mode converted kinetic Alfven waves. The toroidal cold plasma wave code LION is used to model the Alfven resonance mode conversion surfaces in the experiments while the cylindrical hot plasma kinetic wave code ISMENE is used to model the behavior of kinetic Alfven waves at the Alfven resonance location. Initial results obtained from limited density, magnetic field, antenna phase, and impurity scans show good agreement between the RF induced density fluctuations and the predicted behavior of the kinetic Alfven waves. Detailed comparisons between the density fluctuations and the code predictions are presented.

  9. WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter - SIMulator)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-26

    WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator) is a code developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to model wave energy converters (WECs) when they are subject to operational waves. The code is a time-domain modeling tool developed in MATLAB/Simulink using the multi-body dynamics solver SimMechanics. In WEC-Sim, WECs are modeled by connecting rigid bodies to one another with joint or constraint blocks from the WEC-Sim library. WEC-Sim is a publicly available, open-source code to model WECs.

  10. Energy Extraction from a Slider-Crank Wave Energy Converter under Irregular Wave Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Muljadi, Eduard; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2015-10-19

    A slider-crank wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel energy conversion device. It converts wave energy into electricity at a relatively high efficiency, and it features a simple structure. Past analysis on this particular WEC has been done under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, and suboptimal energy could be achieved. This paper presents the analysis of the system under irregular wave conditions; a time-domain hydrodynamics model is adopted and a rule-based control methodology is introduced to better serve the irregular wave conditions. Results from the simulations show that the performance of the system under irregular wave conditions is different from that under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, but a reasonable amount of energy can still be extracted.

  11. Energy Extraction from a Slider-Crank Wave Energy under Irregular Wave Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Muljadi, Eduard; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2015-08-24

    A slider-crank wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel energy conversion device. It converts wave energy into electricity at a relatively high efficiency, and it features a simple structure. Past analysis on this particular WEC has been done under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, and suboptimal energy could be achieved. This paper presents the analysis of the system under irregular wave conditions; a time-domain hydrodynamics model is adopted and a rule-based control methodology is introduced to better serve the irregular wave conditions. Results from the simulations show that the performance of the system under irregular wave conditions is different from that under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, but a reasonable amount of energy can still be extracted.

  12. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  13. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  14. Sunspot waves and flare energy release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, R.; Karlický, M.; Altyntsev, A.; Dudík, J.; Kashapova, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. We study the possibility of flare process triggering by waves propagating from the sunspot along a magnetic loop (channel) to a nearby flare site. Aims: We present a relationship between the dynamics of ~3-min slow magnetoacoustic waves in the sunspot and flare emergence process. Waves propagating in the magnetic channel whose one foot is anchored in the umbra represent the disturbing agent responsible for triggering the flare energy release. Methods: We applied time-distance plots and pixel wavelet filtration methods to obtain spatio-temporal distribution of wave power variations in radio and SDO/AIA data. To find the magnetic channel, we used potential magnetic field extrapolation of SDO/HMI magnetograms. The propagation velocity of wave fronts was measured from wave locations at specific times. Results: In the correlation curves of the 17 GHz (NoRH) radio emission, we found a monotonous energy amplification of the 3-min waves in the sunspot umbra before the 2012 June 7 flare. This amplification was associated with an increase in the length of the oscillatory wakes in coronal loops (SDO/AIA, 171 Å) prior to the flare onset. A peculiarity of the flare is the constant level of the flare emission in soft X-rays (RHESSI, 3-25 keV) for ~10 min after the short impulsive phase, which indicates continuing energy release. Throughout this time, we found transverse oscillations of the flare loop with a 30 s period in the radio-frequency range (NoRH, 17 GHz). This period appears to be related to the 3-min waves from the sunspot. The magnetic field extrapolation based on SDO/HMI magnetograms shows the existence of the magnetic channel (waveguide) connecting the sunspot with the energy release region. Conclusions: We analysed the sunspot 3-min wave dynamics and found a correlation between the oscillation power amplification and flare triggering in the region connected to the sunspot through the magnetic channel. We propose that this amplified wave flux triggered the

  15. SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE INTERSTELLAR PICKUP PROTONS, ALFVENIC TURBULENCE, AND CORE SOLAR WIND IN THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Gamayunov, Konstantin V.; Zhang Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2012-09-20

    A self-consistent model of the interstellar pickup protons, the slab component of the Alfvenic turbulence, and core solar wind (SW) protons is presented for r {>=} 1 along with the initial results of and comparison with the Voyager 2 (V2) observations. Two kinetic equations are used for the pickup proton distribution and Alfvenic power spectral density, and a third equation governs SW temperature including source due to the Alfven wave energy dissipation. A fraction of the pickup proton free energy, f{sub D} , which is actually released in the waveform during isotropization, is taken from the quasi-linear consideration without preexisting turbulence, whereas we use observations to specify the strength of the large-scale driving, C{sub sh}, for turbulence. The main conclusions of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) For C{sub sh} Almost-Equal-To 1-1.5 and f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1, the model slab component agrees well with the V2 observations of the total transverse magnetic fluctuations starting from {approx}8 AU. This indicates that the slab component at low-latitudes makes up a majority of the transverse magnetic fluctuations beyond 8-10 AU. (2) The model core SW temperature agrees well with the V2 observations for r {approx}> 20 AU if f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1. (3) A combined effect of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin attenuation, large-scale driving, and pickup proton generated waves results in the energy sink in the region r {approx}< 10 AU, while wave energy is pumped in the turbulence beyond 10 AU. Without energy pumping, the nonlinear energy cascade is suppressed for r {approx}< 10 AU, supplying only a small energy fraction into the k-region of dissipation by the core SW protons. A similar situation takes place for the two-dimensional turbulence. (4) The energy source due to the resonant Alfven wave damping by the core SW protons is small at heliocentric distances r {approx}< 10 AU for both the slab and the two-dimensional turbulent components

  16. ESTIMATING THE ''DARK'' ENERGY CONTENT OF THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2012-12-20

    The discovery of ubiquitous low-frequency (3-5 mHz) Alfvenic waves in the solar chromosphere (with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope) and corona (with CoMP and SDO) has provided some insight into the non-thermal energy content of the outer solar atmosphere. However, many questions remain about the true magnitude of the energy flux carried by these waves. Here we explore the apparent discrepancy in the resolved coronal Alfvenic wave amplitude ({approx}0.5 km s{sup -1}) measured by the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) compared to those of the Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) near the limb ({approx}20 km s{sup -1}). We use a blend of observational data and a simple forward model of Alfvenic wave propagation to resolve this discrepancy and determine the Alfvenic wave energy content of the corona. Our results indicate that enormous line-of-sight superposition within the coarse spatio-temporal sampling of CoMP hides the strong wave flux observed by Hinode and SDO and leads to the large non-thermal line broadening observed. While this scenario has been assumed in the past, our observations with CoMP of a strong correlation between the non-thermal line broadening with the low-amplitude, low-frequency Alfvenic waves observed in the corona provide the first direct evidence of a wave-related non-thermal line broadening. By reconciling the diverse measurements of Alfvenic waves, we establish large coronal non-thermal line widths as direct signatures of the hidden, or ''dark'', energy content in the corona and provide preliminary constraints on the energy content of the wave motions observed.

  17. Clustering of cycloidal wave energy converters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Stefan G.

    2016-03-29

    A wave energy conversion system uses a pair of wave energy converters (WECs) on respective active mountings on a floating platform, so that the separation of the WECs from each other or from a central WEC can be actively adjusted according to the wavelength of incident waves. The adjustable separation facilitates operation of the system to cancel reactive forces, which may be generated during wave energy conversion. Modules on which such pairs of WECs are mounted can be assembled with one or more central WECs to form large clusters in which reactive forces and torques can be made to cancel. WECs of different sizes can be employed to facilitate cancelation of reactive forces and torques.

  18. Energy density and energy flow of magnetoplasmonic waves on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-03-01

    By means the linearized magnetohydrodynamic theory, expressions for energy density and energy flow are derived for the p-polarized surface magnetoplasmon polaritons on graphene in the Voigt configuration, where a static magnetic field is normal to the graphene surface. Numerical results show that the external magnetic field has significant impact on the energy density and energy transport velocity of magnetoplasmon waves in the long-wavelength region, while total power flow vary only weakly with magnetostatic field. The velocity of energy propagation is proved to be identical with group velocity of the surface waves.

  19. Oxygen Ion Heat Rate within Alfvenic Turbulence in the Cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Singh, Nagendra; Chandler, Michael O.

    2009-01-01

    The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling makes it a dynamic and important region. It is directly exposed to the solar wind, making it possible for the entry of electromagnetic energy and precipitating electrons and ions from dayside reconnection and other dayside events. It is also a significant source of ionospheric plasma, contributing largely to the mass loading of the magnetosphere with large fluxes of outflowing ions. Crossing the cusp/cleft near 5100 km, the Polar instruments observe the common correlation of downward Poynting flux, ion energization, soft electron precipitation, broadband extremely low-frequency (BB-ELF) emissions, and density depletions. The dominant power in the BB-ELF emissions is now identified to be from spatially broad, low frequency Alfv nic structures. For a cusp crossing, we determine using the Electric Field Investigation (EFI), that the electric and magnetic field fluctuations are Alfv nic and the electric field gradients satisfy the inequality for stochastic acceleration. With all the Polar 1996 horizontal crossings of the cusp, we determine the O+ heating rate using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI). We then compare this heating rate to other heating rates assuming the electric field gradient criteria exceeds the limit for stochastic acceleration for the remaining crossings. The comparison suggests that a stochastic acceleration mechanism is operational and the heating is controlled by the transverse spatial scale of the Alfvenic waves.

  20. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  1. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  2. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units—i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)—may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the ‘added-mass’ matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called ‘fundamental theorem for wave power’. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies. PMID:26064612

  3. Ocean Wave Energy Harvesting Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    coupled to a suitable buoy platform. 2. The approach of designing a device which meets the requirements for mounting on dogfish and generating...used on the tail of a marine life such as dogfish to harvest energy as it swims. The output power can be used to trickle charge battery packs to power...to be mounted to a dogfish to harvest energy from its motion. Due to the small fish size (approximate 40-50 inches, 25 pounds), the device was

  4. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Ken

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress and results for this project which will be used to inform the utility-scale design process, improve cost estimates, accurately forecast energy production and to observe system operation and survivability.

  5. Drift-Alfven instabilities of a finite beta plasma shear flow along a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailenko, V. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Lee, Hae June

    2016-02-01

    It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows.

  6. Hybrid Alfven resonant mode generation in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko

    2012-10-15

    Feedback unstable Alfven waves involving global field-line oscillations and the ionospheric Alfven resonator (IAR) were comprehensively studied to clarify their properties of frequency dispersion, growth rate, and eigenfunctions. It is discovered that a new mode called here the hybrid Alfven resonant (HAR) mode can be destabilized in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system with a realistic Alfven velocity profile. The HAR mode found in a high frequency range over 0.3 Hz is caused by coupling of IAR modes with strong dispersion and magnetospheric cavity resonances. The harmonic relation of HAR eigenfrequencies is characterized by a constant frequency shift from those of IAR modes. The three modes are robustly found even if effects of two-fluid process and ionospheric collision are taken into account and thus are anticipated to be detected by magnetic field observations in a frequency range of 0.3-1 Hz in auroral and polar-cap regions.

  7. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  8. Discrete control of resonant wave energy devices.

    PubMed

    Clément, A H; Babarit, A

    2012-01-28

    Aiming at amplifying the energy productive motion of wave energy converters (WECs) in response to irregular sea waves, the strategies of discrete control presented here feature some major advantages over continuous control, which is known to require, for optimal operation, a bidirectional power take-off able to re-inject energy into the WEC system during parts of the oscillation cycles. Three different discrete control strategies are described: latching control, declutching control and the combination of both, which we term latched-operating-declutched control. It is shown that any of these methods can be applied with great benefit, not only to mono-resonant WEC oscillators, but also to bi-resonant and multi-resonant systems. For some of these applications, it is shown how these three discrete control strategies can be optimally defined, either by analytical solution for regular waves, or numerically, by applying the optimal command theory in irregular waves. Applied to a model of a seven degree-of-freedom system (the SEAREV WEC) to estimate its annual production on several production sites, the most efficient of these discrete control strategies was shown to double the energy production, regardless of the resource level of the site, which may be considered as a real breakthrough, rather than a marginal improvement.

  9. Alfven Continuum and Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; White, R. B.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.

    2004-09-17

    The Alfven continuum (AC) in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is investigated with the AC code COBRA. The resonant interaction of Alfven eigenmodes and the fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is analyzed. Alfven eigenmodes residing in one of the widest gaps of the NCSX AC, the ellipticity-induced gap, are studied with the code BOA-E.

  10. Measurement of the adiabatic index through the temperature scaling of reversed shear Alfv'en eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlund, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Lin, Y.; Tsujii, N.; Wukitch, S. J.; Lin, L.; Kramer, G. J.

    2009-11-01

    Reversed shear Alfv'en eigenmodes (RSAEs) have been excited in Alcator C-Mod during the current ramp phase at ITER relevant densities of ne0<=1.5 : x: 10^20 : m-3 with (2-5) MW of ICRH power absorbed by H minority heating [1]. We have studied the scaling of the minimum frequency of the RSAEs by varying the temperature of the electrons and majority ions and compare the results to theoretical scalings from the code NOVA [2] and an analytic dispersion relation [3]. Taking the adiabatic index (γ) as a free parameter, a best fit to the data indicates γ= 1.40 ±0.15, excluding the ideal gas limit of γ= 5/3. A limiting value of γ= 3/2 is predicted from consideration of the energy and pressure of shear Alfven waves [4]. Kinetic electron response is considered as a possible correction to the theoretical treatment. Work supported by DOE under DE-FG02-94-ER54235 and DE-FC02-99- ER54512.[4pt] [1] M. Porkolab et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 229 (2006).[0pt] [2] C.Z. Cheng and M.S. Chance, J. Comput. Phys. 71, 124 (1987).[0pt] [3] B.N. Breizman et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 112506 (2005).[0pt] [4] C.F. McKee and E.G. Zweibel, Astro. J. 440, 686 (1995).

  11. Medium-energy electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Effects of lower hybrid wave-particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of medium-energy (about keV) electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere is presented. Lower hybrid waves are generated by the combined effects of a ring instability of neutral wind pickup ions and the modified two-stream instability associated with transport of cool Iogenic plasma. The quasi-linear energy diffusion coefficient for lower hybrid wave-particle interactions is evaluated, and several solutions to the diffusion equation are given. Calculations based on measured wave properties show that the noise substantially modifies the particle distribution functions. The effects are to accelerate superthermal ions and electrons to keV energies and to thermalize the pickup ions on time scales comparable to the particle residence time. The S(2+)/S(+) ratio at medium energies is a measure of the relative contribution from Iogenic thermal plasma and neutral wind ions, and this important quantity should be determined from future measurements. The theory also predicts a preferential acceleration of heavy ions with an accleration time that scales inversely with the root of the ion mass. Electrons accelerated by the process contribute to further reionization of the neutral wind by electron impact, thus providing a possible confirmation of Alfven's critical velocity effect in the Jovian magnetosphere.

  12. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  13. Momentum and energy deposition in late-type stellar atmospheres and winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.; Macgregor, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The present study calculates the response of the outer atmospheres of cool low-gravity stars to the passage of the mechanical energy fluxes of solar magnitude in the form of acoustic waves and Alfven waves. It is shown that Alfven waves are efficient in generating outflow, and can account for the order of magnitude of observed mass loss in late-type luminous stars. However, unless these magnetic waves undergo some dissipation within several stellar radii of the surface, the predicted terminal velocities of the resulting stellar winds are far too high. Alfven wave dissipation should give rise to extended warm chromospheres in low-gravity late-type stars, a prediction which can be observationally tested.

  14. Resonant excitation of the magnetosphere by stochastic and unsteady hydromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, V. A.

    2011-05-15

    The effect of the magnetospheric MHD cavity on the excitation of the magnetosphere by stochastic and unsteady hydromagnetic waves incident from the solar wind is investigated theoretically by using a one-dimensional nonuniform model of the medium. It is shown that most of the energy of stochastic waves is reflected from the magnetopause and that the only waves that penetrate into the magnetosphere are those with frequencies in narrow spectral ranges near the eigenfrequencies of the cavity. These waves lead to steadystate excitation of the eigenmodes of the cavity, the energy of which is determined by the spectral density of the energy flux of the incident waves at the corresponding eigenfrequencies. The energy of the eigenmodes penetrates through the opacity barrier in the vicinity of the Alfven resonance points (each corresponding to a particular mode), where the perturbation amplitude is sharply amplified, so the total energy localized close to the Alfven resonance point is much higher than the total energy of the corresponding eigenmode. In the vicinities, the perturbation energy is dissipated by the finite conductivity of the ionosphere, the dissipation power being equal to the energy flux of the incident waves that penetrates into the magnetosphere. The case of unsteady waves is analyzed by considering a wave pulse as an example. It is shown that most of the energy of the wave pulse is reflected from the magnetopause. The portion of the incident perturbation that penetrates into the magnetosphere leads to unsteady excitation of the eigenmodes of the magnetospheric cavity, which are then slowly damped because part of the energy of the cavity is emitted through the magnetopause back to the solar wind while the other part penetrates into the vicinities of the Alfven resonance points. In the vicinities, the perturbation is an Alfven wave standing between magnetically conjugate ionospheres and its energy is dissipated by the finite conductivity of the ionosphere at

  15. Wave Energy Research, Testing and Demonstration Center

    SciTech Connect

    Batten, Belinda

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to build upon the research, development and testing experience of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to establish a non-grid connected open-ocean testing facility for wave energy converters (WECs) off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The test facility would serve as the first facility of its kind in the continental US with a fully energetic wave resource where WEC technologies could be proven for west coast US markets. The test facility would provide the opportunity for self-contained WEC testing or WEC testing connected via an umbilical cable to a mobile ocean test berth (MOTB). The MOTB would act as a “grid surrogate” measuring energy produced by the WEC and the environmental conditions under which the energy was produced. In order to realize this vision, the ocean site would need to be identified through outreach to community stakeholders, and then regulatory and permitting processes would be undertaken. Part of those processes would require environmental baseline studies and site analysis, including benthic, acoustic and wave resource characterization. The MOTB and its myriad systems would need to be designed and constructed.The first WEC test at the facility with the MOTB was completed within this project with the WET-NZ device in summer 2012. In summer 2013, the MOTB was deployed with load cells on its mooring lines to characterize forces on mooring systems in a variety of sea states. Throughout both testing seasons, studies were done to analyze environmental effects during testing operations. Test protocols and best management practices for open ocean operations were developed. As a result of this project, the non-grid connected fully energetic WEC test facility is operational, and the MOTB system developed provides a portable concept for WEC testing. The permitting process used provides a model for other wave energy projects, especially those in the Pacific Northwest that have similar

  16. Excitation of Toroidicity-Induced Alfven Eigenmodes by the Electrodes Inserted in a Heliotron/Torsatron Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, G.; Kawada, S.; Kotani, J.; Toi, K.; Suzuki, C.; Matsuoka, K.

    2005-06-10

    A novel method of exciting shear Alfven waves using electrodes inserted in a plasma was developed for basic study of Alfven eigenmodes in a heliotron/torsatron plasma. The electrodes can induce excitation current along the confinement field line, and generate magnetic perturbations perpendicular to the confinement field. By sweeping the frequency of the current in a cold plasma, the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode was resonantly excited at the predicted frequency and radial location. Plasma response to the applied magnetic perturbations indicates a fairly large damping rate caused by continuum damping.0.

  17. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Josyula, Eswar Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-12-15

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream.

  18. Phenomenon of Alfvenic Vortex Shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszecki, M.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Arber, T. D.

    2010-07-30

    Generation of Alfvenic (magnetohydrodynamic) vortices by the interaction of compressible plasma flows with magnetic-field-aligned blunt obstacles is modeled in terms of magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that periodic shedding of vortices with opposite vorticity is a robust feature of the interaction in a broad range of plasma parameters: for plasma beta from 0.025 to 0.5, and for the flow speeds from 0.1 to 0.99 of the fast magnetoacoustic speed. The Strouhal number is the dimensionless ratio of the blunt body diameter to the product of the period of vortex shedding and the inflow speed. It is found to be consistently in the range 0.15-0.25 in the whole range of parameters. The induced Alfvenic vortices are compressible and contain spiral-armed perturbations of the magnetic field strength and plasma mass density up to 50%-60% of the background values. The generated electric current also has the spiral-armed structuring.

  19. Ellipticity and triangularity effects in tokamak Alfven spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio; Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Valdeblanquez, Eder

    2006-10-01

    Plasma configurations with ellipticity and triangularity are usual in tokamak experiments. These plasmas can be studied using a new system of coordinates of recent publications. Here this method has been applied to study Alfven spectrum in axisymmetric tokamaks with different values of ellipticity and triangularity [1-3]. Previous authors have developed numerical methods to obtain the Alfven spectrum using the Shafranov-Solove'v equilibrium flux function where the parameter ellipticity is also included [3]. Here more general configurations are treated and compared with the results of these authors, as well as those derived for the geometric optics or WKBJ approximation. The Alfven wave dispersion relation is obtained by the linearization of the MHD equations around a stationary equilibrium and the results are obtained by numerical calculations. [1] P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasma 12, 082506 (2005) [2] L. L. Lao, S. P. Hishman and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981); H. Weitzner's Appendix. [3] G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) [4] S. Novo, M. N'uñez and J. Rojo, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2967 (1991)

  20. Alfv'en mode structure/stability properties of stellarators and broken-symmetry tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don

    2009-05-01

    Energetic particle driven shear Alfv'en wave (SAW) instabilities are frequently observed in both stellarator and tokamak experiments. Three-dimensional effects are present in all toroidal devices and can significantly influence both stability properties of energetic particle populations and their loss patterns on the first wall. Three-dimensional equilibrium variations in stellarators and broken symmetry tokamaks provide new couplings that increase the complexity and density of the Alfv'en mode spectrum. An eigenmode solver, the AE3D code, has been developed for calculating Alfv'en mode structures in such configurations and identifying the most likely modes for resonant energetic tail destabilization. Applications of this model to a variety of stellarators (LHD, TJ-II, HSX, QPS, NCSX) and broken symmetry tokamaks (ITER with TF ripple and ferritic materials) have been made and results will be presented. Possible extensions to include sound wave couplings and gyro-Landau closures will be discussed.

  1. Ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer and harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Shima; Leadenham, Stephen; Guillot, François; Sabra, Karim; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates low-power electricity generation from ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for wireless applications ranging from medical implants to naval sensor systems. The focus is placed on an underwater system that consists of a pulsating source for spherical wave generation and a harvester connected to an external resistive load for quantifying the electrical power output. An analytical electro-acoustic model is developed to relate the source strength to the electrical power output of the harvester located at a specific distance from the source. The model couples the energy harvester dynamics (piezoelectric device and electrical load) with the source strength through the acoustic-structure interaction at the harvester-fluid interface. Case studies are given for a detailed understanding of the coupled system dynamics under various conditions. Specifically the relationship between the electrical power output and system parameters, such as the distance of the harvester from the source, dimensions of the harvester, level of source strength, and electrical load resistance are explored. Sensitivity of the electrical power output to the excitation frequency in the neighborhood of the harvester's underwater resonance frequency is also reported.

  2. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the magnetopause, magnetohydrodynamic waveguide in the outer magnetosphere, and Alfven resonance deep in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, V. A. Chuiko, D. A.

    2013-06-15

    Oscillations of the 'magnetosphere-solar wind' system are studied analytically in the framework of a plane-stratified model of the medium. The properties of oscillations are determined by three phenomena: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the tangential discontinuity (magnetopause) separating the magnetosphere and the solar wind, the presence of a waveguide for fast magnetosonic waves in the magnetosphere, and the Alfven resonance-a sharp increase in the amplitude of oscillations having the properties of Alfven waves-in the inner magnetosphere. The oscillations of the system form a discrete spectrum of eigenmodes. Analytical expressions are obtained for the frequency and growth rate of instability of each mode, as well as for the functions describing the spatial structure of these modes. All these characteristics of the eigenmodes are shown to depend on the velocity of the solar wind as a parameter. The dependences of the main mode characteristics (such as the instability thresholds, the points of the maximum and minimum growth rate, and the spatial distributions of the oscillation energy) on this parameter are determined for each eigenmode.

  3. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  4. The radiation of surface wave energy: Implications for volcanic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, M. M.; Denolle, M.; Lyons, J. J.; Nakahara, H.

    2015-12-01

    The seismic energy radiated by active volcanism is one common measurement of eruption size. For example, the magnitudes of individual earthquakes in volcano-tectonic (VT) swarms can be summed and expressed in terms of cumulative magnitude, energy, or moment release. However, discrepancies exist in current practice when treating the radiated energy of volcano seismicity dominated by surface waves. This has implications for volcanic tremor, since eruption tremor typically originates at shallow depth and is made up of surface waves. In the absence of a method to compute surface wave energy, estimates of eruption energy partitioning between acoustic and seismic waves typically assume seismic energy is composed of body waves. Furthermore, without the proper treatment of surface wave energy, it is unclear how much volcanic tremor contributes to the overall seismic energy budget during volcanic unrest. To address this issue, we derive, from first principles, the expression of surface wave radiated energy. In contrast with body waves, the surface wave energy equation is naturally expressed in the frequency domain instead of the time domain. We validate our result by reproducing an analytical solution for the radiated power of a vertical force source acting on a free surface. We further show that the surface wave energy equation leads to an explicit relationship between energy and the imaginary part of the surface wave Green's tensor at the source location, a fundamental property recognized within the field of seismic interferometry. With the new surface wave energy equation, we make clear connections to reduced displacement and propose an improved formula for the calculation of surface wave reduced displacement involving integration over the frequency band of tremor. As an alternative to reduced displacement, we show that reduced particle velocity squared is also a valid physical measure of tremor size, one based on seismic energy rate instead of seismic moment rate. These

  5. Wave generation in a sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongwoo W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the generation of waves in a sunspot by extending Stein's hydrodynamic approach to the turbulent medium permeated by a strong uniform magnetic field oriented parallel to the gravity. For wave sources appropriate to the sunspot, we consider magnetic perturbations and entropy changes as well as turbulent convection. To describe the anisotropy imposed by the sunspot, we use a one-dimensional correlation function relating the turbulent eddies separated along the symmetry axis of the spot. This treatment yields several interesting possibilities for wave generation in a sunspot. First, it is demonstrated that the entropy change and magnetic perturbation can lead to a relative enhancement of acoustic wave emission. Second, the energy flux of Alfven waves may be comparable to that of acoustic waves in sunspots. Third, the anisotropy of the sunspot dynamics can lead to wave energy spectrum in a form which may explain the origin of umbral atmospheric oscillations.

  6. Energy and energy flux in axisymmetric slow and fast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreels, M. G.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Grant, S. D. T.; Jess, D. B.; Goossens, M.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We aim to calculate the kinetic, magnetic, thermal, and total energy densities and the flux of energy in axisymmetric sausage modes. The resulting equations should contain as few parameters as possible to facilitate applicability for different observations. Methods: The background equilibrium is a one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube model with a piecewise constant radial density profile. This enables us to use linearised magnetohydrodynamic equations to calculate the energy densities and the flux of energy for axisymmetric sausage modes. Results: The equations used to calculate the energy densities and the flux of energy in axisymmetric sausage modes depend on the radius of the flux tube, the equilibrium sound and Alfvén speeds, the density of the plasma, the period and phase speed of the wave, and the radial or longitudinal components of the Lagrangian displacement at the flux tube boundary. Approximate relations for limiting cases of propagating slow and fast sausage modes are also obtained. We also obtained the dispersive first-order correction term to the phase speed for both the fundamental slow body mode under coronal conditions and the slow surface mode under photospheric conditions. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Global particle-in-cell simulations of plasma pressure effects on Alfvenic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Koenies, Axel; Hatzky, Roman

    2011-01-15

    Global linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of electromagnetic modes in realistic tokamak geometry are reported. The effect of plasma pressure on Alfvenic modes is studied. It is shown that the fast-particle pressure can considerably affect the shear Alfven wave continuum structure and hence the toroidicity-induced gap in the continuum. It is also found that the energetic ions can substantially reduce the growth rate of the ballooning modes (and perhaps completely stabilize them in a certain parameter range). Ballooning modes are found to be the dominant instabilities if the bulk-plasma pressure gradient is large enough.

  8. A self-consistent theory of collective alpha particle losses induced by Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Diamond, P.H. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of kinetic Alfven waves, resonantly excited by energetic ions/alpha particles, is investigated. It is shown that {alpha}-particles govern both linear instability and nonlinear saturation dynamics, while the background MHD turbulence results only in a nonlinear real frequency shift. The most efficient saturation mechanism is found to be self-induced profile modification. Expressions for the fluctuation amplitudes and the {alpha}-particle radial flux are self-consistently derived. The work represents the first self-consistent, turbulent treatment of collective {alpha}-particle losses by Alfvenic fluctuations.

  9. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  10. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m(3) and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  11. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s. PMID:25484609

  12. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    PubMed

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  13. Mechanochemistry for Shock Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, William; Ren, Yi; Su, Zhi; Moore, Jeffrey; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Using our laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus we have developed a technique for detecting mechanically driven chemical reactions that attenuate shock waves. In these experiments 75 μm laser-driven flyer-plates travel at speeds of up to 2.8 km/s. Photonic Doppler velocimetry is used to monitor both the flight speed and the motions of an embedded mirror behind the sample on the supporting substrate. Since the Hugoniot of the substrate is known, mirror motions can be converted into the transmitted shock wave flux and fluence through a sample. Flux shows the shock profile whereas fluence represents the total energy transferred per unit area, and both are measured as a function of sample thickness. Targets materials are micrograms of carefully engineered organic and inorganic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative volume, endothermic reactions. In situ fluorescence measurements and a suite of post mortem analytical methods are used to detect molecular chemical reactions that occur due to impact.

  14. Energy balance of a plasma with a wave, taking the wave nonpotentiality into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelberg, M. G.; Volosevich, A. V.

    It is shown that the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves in the ionosphere is phase-shifted by approximately -pi/2 with respect to current fluctuations, while the vortex field is nearly cophase with the current. Thus, the work of energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs primarily with the participation of the vortex field. The wave nonpotentiality is shown to have a substantial effect on the energy balance of the wave-plasma system.

  15. Mechanochemistry for shock wave energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, William L.; Ren, Yi; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-01-01

    Using a laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus to launch 75 μm thick Al flyers up to 2.8 km/s, we developed a technique for detecting the attenuation of shock waves by mechanically-driven chemical reactions. The attenuating sample was spread on an ultrathin Au mirror deposited onto a glass window having a known Hugoniot. As shock energy exited the sample and passed through the mirror, into the glass, photonic Doppler velocimetry monitored the velocity profile of the ultrathin mirror. Knowing the window Hugoniot, the velocity profile could be quantitatively converted into a shock energy flux or fluence. The flux gave the temporal profile of the shock front, and showed how the shock front was reshaped by passing through the dissipative medium. The fluence, the time-integrated flux, showed how much shock energy was transmitted through the sample. Samples consisted of microgram quantities of carefully engineered organic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative-volume chemistry. Post mortem analytical methods were used to confirm that shock dissipation was associated with shock-induced chemical reactions.

  16. CORONAL ALFVEN SPEED DETERMINATION: CONSISTENCY BETWEEN SEISMOLOGY USING AIA/SDO TRANSVERSE LOOP OSCILLATIONS AND MAGNETIC EXTRAPOLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Foullon, C.; White, R. S.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2013-04-10

    Two transversely oscillating coronal loops are investigated in detail during a flare on the 2011 September 6 using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We compare two independent methods to determine the Alfven speed inside these loops. Through the period of oscillation and loop length, information about the Alfven speed inside each loop is deduced seismologically. This is compared with the Alfven speed profiles deduced from magnetic extrapolation and spectral methods using AIA bandpass. We find that for both loops the two methods are consistent. Also, we find that the average Alfven speed based on loop travel time is not necessarily a good measure to compare with the seismological result, which explains earlier reported discrepancies. Instead, the effect of density and magnetic stratification on the wave mode has to be taken into account. We discuss the implications of combining seismological, extrapolation, and spectral methods in deducing the physical properties of coronal loops.

  17. The making of an Alfvenic fluctuation: The resolution of a second-order analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses observations of the high speed polar streams show that they are largely occupied by very large amplitude Alfvenic fluctuations accompanied by many rotational discontinuities. These fluctuations have a nearly constant magnetic intensity or amplitude, and the magnetic field direction per wave cycle sweeps only through a limited arc, much as a car wiperblade would do. Barnes and Hollweg (JGR, 79, 2302, 1974) suggested that this unusual waveform could arise from an obliquely propagating and linearly polarized Alfven wave of finite amplitude. From a second-order analysis, they showed that the existence of a particular solution with a constant amplitude but could not resolve the outcome of the homogeneous solution which consisted of fast waves. They suggested that Landau damping of these fast waves may be needed to get the observed waveform. We present a 1 1/2 D hybrid simulation which is fully nonlinear and correctly describes the ion kinetics for an initially monochromatic and linearly polarized Alfven wave propagating obliquely to the background magnetic field. The wave has a large amplitude and a wavelength so long that it can be considered dispersionless for simulation times. At early times, the second harmonic in density and in magnetic field transverse to the initial wave magnetic field are generated and have more power than other harmonics. Steepening is observed with a weak fast shock emerging, but no rotational discontinuity is left behind, and instead a constant amplitude and an arc-shaped waveform is made. The compressional component which develops after the shocks have dissipated is to zeroth order better described as a pure acoustic wave than as a fast wave. This might be explained by the relaxing of the Alfven wave to a state where its ponderomotive force vanishes so that the compressional component can travel almost independently of it.

  18. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  19. Energy exchange and wave action conservation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a general, slowly varying medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar wind and magnetosphere are propagated in a medium whose velocity is comparable to or greater than the wave velocity and which varies in both space and time. In the approximation where the scales of the time and space variation are long compared with the period and wavelength, the ray-tracing equations can be generalized and then include an additional first-order differential equation that determines the variation of frequency. In such circumstances the wave can exchange energy with the background: wave energy is not conserved. In such processes the wave action theorem shows that the wave action, defined as the ratio of the wave energy to the frequency in the local rest frame, is conserved. In this paper we discuss ray-tracing techniques and the energy exchange relation for MHD waves. We then provide a unified account of how to deal with energy transport by MHD waves in non-uniform media. The wave action theorem is derived directly from the basic MHD equations for sound waves, transverse Alfvén waves, and the fast and slow magnetosonic waves. The techniques described are applied to a number of illustrative cases. These include a sound wave in a medium undergoing a uniform compression, an isotropic Alfvén wave in a steady-state shear layer, and a transverse Alfvén wave in a simple model of the magnetotail undergoing compression. In each case the nature and magnitude of the energy exchange between wave and background is found.

  20. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  1. On Wave Processes in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1998-01-01

    This grant was awarded by NASA/MSFC to The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) to investigate the physical processes responsible for heating and wind acceleration in the solar atmosphere, and to construct theoretical, self-consistent and time-dependent solar wind models based on the momentum deposition by finite amplitude and nonlinear Alfven waves. In summary, there are three main goals of the proposed research: (1) Calculate the wave energy spectra and wave energy fluxes carried by magnetic non- magnetic waves. (2) Find out which mechanism dominates in supplying the wave energy to different parts of the solar atmosphere. (3) Use the results obtained in (1) and (2) to construct theoretical, self-consistent and time- dependent models of the solar wind. We have completed the first goal by calculating the amount of non-radiative energy generated in the solar convection zone as acoustic waves and as magnetic tube waves. To calculate the amount of wave energy carried by acoustic waves, we have used the Lighthill-Stein theory for sound generation modified by Musielak, Rosner, Stein & Ulmschneider (1994). The acoustic wave energy fluxes for stars located in different regions of the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram have also been computed. The wave energy fluxes carried by longitudinal and transverse waves along magnetic flux tubes have been calculated by using both analytical and numerical methods. Our analytical approach is based a theory developed by Musielak, Rosner & Ulmschnelder and Musielak, Rosner, Gall & Ulmschneider, which allows computing the wave energy fluxes for linear tube waves. A numerical approach has been developed by Huang, Musielak & Ulmschneider and Ulmschneider & Musielak to compute the energy fluxes for nonlinear tube waves. Both methods have been used to calculate the wave energy fluxes for stars located in different regions of the HR diagram (Musielak, Rosner & Ulmschneider 1998; Ulmschneider, Musielak & Fawzy 1998). Having obtained the

  2. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  3. Phenomenology of Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    E.D. Fredrickson; N.N. Gorelenkov; J. Menard

    2004-05-13

    Coherent oscillations with frequency 0.3 {le} {omega}/{omega}{sub ci} {le} 1, are seen in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y-K.M. Peng, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. This paper presents new data and analysis comparing characteristics of the observed modes to the model of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE). The toroidal mode number has been measured and is typically between 7 < n < 9. The polarization of the modes, measured using an array of four Mirnov coils, is found to be compressional. The frequency scaling of the modes agrees with the predictions of a numerical 2-D code, but the detailed structure of the spectrum is not captured with the simple model. The fast ion distribution function, as calculated with the beam deposition code in TRANSP [R.V. Budny, Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)], is shown to be qualitatively consistent with the constraints of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance drive model. This model also predicts the observed scaling of the low frequency limit for CAE.

  4. Nonlinear Frequency Chirping of β-induced Alfven Eigenmode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huasen

    2012-03-01

    The β-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) have been observed in many tokamaks. The BAE oscillates with the GAM frequency φ0, and therefore, has strong interactions with both thermal and energetic particles. In this work, linear gyrokinetic particle simulations show that nonperturbative contributions by energetic particles and kinetic effects of thermal particles modify BAE mode structure and frequency relative to the MHD theory. Gyrokinetic simulations have been verified by theory-simulation comparison and by benchmark with MHD-gyrokinetic hybrid simulation. Nonlinear simulations show that the unstable BAE saturates due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions with thermal and energetic particles. Wavelet analysis shows that the mode frequency chirping occurs in the absence of sources and sinks, thus it complements the standard ``bump-on-tail'' paradigm for the frequency chirping of Alfven eigenmodes. Analysis of nonlinear wave-particle interactions shows that the frequency chirping is induced by the nonlinear evolution of coherent structures in the energetic particle phase space of (ζ,φd) with toroidal angle ζ and precessional frequency φd. The dynamics of the coherent structures is controlled by the formation and destruction of phase space islands of energetic particles in the canonical variables of (ζ,Pζ) with canonical angular momentum Pζ. Our studies use the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) recently upgraded with a comprehensive formulation for simulating kinetic-MHD processes. In collaborations with GTC team and SciDAC GSEP Center.

  5. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  6. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  7. Loss of energy of internal solitary wave over underwater obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Tatiana; Terletska, Katherina; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Pelinovsky, Efim; Grimshaw, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Internal waves are considered as the main reason of mixing of the stratified ocean waters. They loss their energy for mixing processes when dissipate on the ocean shelves. The elementary act of interaction of an internal solitary wave with a bottom step is studied to estimate the energy loss of an incident internal solitary wave. It is studied numerically in a computing tank in the approximation of two-layer flow within the full Navier - Stokes equations. Five different regimes of internal solitary wave interaction were identified within the full range of ratios of height of bottom layer after the step to the incident wave amplitude: (1) weak interaction, when wave dynamics can fully described by weakly nonlinear theory, (2) moderate interaction when wave breaking mechanism over the step is mainly shear instability, (3) strong interaction when supercritical flow in the step vicinity results in backward jet and vortices for depression waves and in a forward moving vortex (bolus) transporting dense fluid on the step, (4) transitional regime of interaction at the step height between splash on the step and (5) complete reflection from the step, and reflection regime when almost all energy transfers to the energy of reflected wave. The mechanism of KH instability takes place for reasonable amplitude waves of both depression and elevation during interaction with the bottom step for all regimes except regime (1). For this two-layer flow the energy loss due to an internal solitary wave interacting with the bottom step does not exceed 50% of the energy of the incident wave. The maximum of energy loss an elevation incident wave is reached when the ratio of the height of bottom layer after the step to incident wave amplitude equals zero. For an incident depression wave this ratio in maximum of energy loss is close to one. Self-similarities of the energy loss versus the ratio of the height of upper layer after the step to incident wave amplitude take place for the values more

  8. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    When the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, the particles trapped in a wave are found to form phase space holes or clumps that enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause increased saturation levels of instabilities and even allow the free energy associated with instability to be tapped in a system in which background dissipation suppresses linear instability.

  9. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation.

  10. Experimental study of ultrasonic beam sectors for energy conversion into Lamb waves and Rayleigh waves.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Nico Felicien

    2014-02-01

    When a bounded beam is incident on an immersed plate Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves can be generated. Because the amplitude of a bounded beam is not constant along its wave front, a specific beam profile is formed that influences the local efficiency of energy conversion of incident sound into Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves. Understanding this phenomenon is important for ultrasonic immersion experiments of objects because the quality of such experiments highly depends on the amount of energy transmitted into the object. This paper shows by means of experiments based on monochromatic Schlieren photography that the area within the bounded beam responsible for Lamb wave generation differs from that responsible for Rayleigh wave generation. Furthermore it provides experimental verification of an earlier numerical study concerning Rayleigh wave generation.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of beta-induced Alfven eigenmode in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. S.; Lin, Z.; Deng, W.; Holod, I.; Wang, Z. X.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W. L.

    2013-01-15

    The beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) excited by energetic particles in toroidal plasmas is studied in the global gyrokinetic simulations. It is found that the nonlinear BAE dynamics depends on the deviation from the marginality. In the strongly driven case, the mode exhibits a bursting state with fast and repetitive chirping. The nonlinear saturation is determined by the thermal ion nonlinearity and has no clear dependence on the linear growth rate. In the weakly driven case, the mode reaches a nearly steady state with small frequency chirping. The nonlinear dynamics is dominated by the energetic particle nonlinearity. In both cases, the nonlinear intensity oscillation and frequency chirping are correlated with the evolution of the coherent structures in the energetic particle phase space. Due to the radial variation of the mode amplitude and the radially asymmetric guiding center dynamics, the wave-particle interaction in the toroidal geometry is much more complex than the conventional one-dimensional wave-particle interaction paradigm.

  12. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. I - General asymptotic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic wave emission from several localized, periodic, kinematically specified fluid velocity fields are calculated using Lighthill's method for finding the far-field wave forms. The waves propagate through an isothermal and uniform plasma with a constant B field. General properties of the energy flux are illustrated with models of pulsating flux tubes and convective rolls. Interference theory from geometrical optics is used to find the direction of minimum fast-wave emission from multipole sources and slow-wave emission from discontinuous sources. The distribution of total flux in fast and slow waves varies with the ratios of the source dimensions l to the acoustic and Alfven wavelengths.

  13. The Jupiter-Io connection - An Alfven engine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been learned about the electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter and its satellite Io from in situ observations. Io, in its motion through the Io plasma torus at Jupiter, continuously generates an Alfven wing that carries two billion kilowatts of power into the jovian ionosphere. Concurrently, Io is acted upon by a J x B force tending to propel it out of the jovian system. The energy source for these processes is the rotation of Jupiter. This unusual planet-satellite coupling serves as an archetype for the interaction of a large moving conductor with a magnetized plasma, a problem of general space and astrophysical interest.

  14. The Jupiter-Io connection - an Alfven engine in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, J. W.

    1987-10-01

    Much has been learned about the electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter and its satellite Io from in situ observations. Io, in its motion through the Io plasma torus at Jupiter, continuously generates an Alfven wing that carries two billion kilowatts of power into the jovian ionosphere. Concurrently, Io is acted upon by a J x B force tending to propel it out of the jovian system. The energy source for these processes is the rotation of Jupiter. This unusual planet-satellite coupling serves as an archetype for the interaction of a large moving conductor with a magnetized plasma, a problem of general space and astrophysical interest.

  15. Wave spectral energy variability in the northeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromirski, P.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Flick, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant characteristics of wave energy variability in the eastern North Pacific are described from NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy data collected from 1981 to 2003. Ten buoys at distributed locations were selected for comparison based on record duration and data continuity. Long-period (LP) [T > 12] s, intermediate-period [6 ??? T ??? 12] s, and short-period [T < 6] s wave spectral energy components are considered separately. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses of monthly wave energy anomalies reveal that all three wave energy components exhibit similar patterns of spatial variability. The dominant mode represents coherent heightened (or diminished) wave energy along the West Coast from Alaska to southern California, as indicated by composites of the 700 hPa height field. The second EOF mode reveals a distinct El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-associated spatial distribution of wave energy, which occurs when the North Pacific storm track is extended unusually far south or has receded to the north. Monthly means and principal components (PCs) of wave energy levels indicate that the 1997-1998 El Nin??o winter had the highest basin-wide wave energy within this record, substantially higher than the 1982-1983 El Nin??o. An increasing trend in the dominant PC of LP wave energy suggests that storminess has increased in the northeast Pacific since 1980. This trend is emphasized at central eastern North Pacific locations. Patterns of storminess variability are consistent with increasing activity in the central North Pacific as well as the tendency for more extreme waves in the south during El Nin??o episodes and in the north during La Nin??a. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. The Magnetic Coupling of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars: Role of MHD Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Leake, James; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Stellar chromospheres and winds represent universal attributes of stars on the cool portion of H-R diagram. In this paper we derive observational constrains for the chromospheric heating and wind acceleration from cool evolved stars and examine the role of Alfven waves as a viable source of energy dissipation and momentum deposition. We use a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic code with a generalized Ohm's law to study propagation of Alfven waves generated along a diverging magnetic field in a stellar photosphere at a single frequency. We demonstrate that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfven waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of α Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere model due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents on Pedersen resistivity are consistent with observational constraints on the net radiative losses in UV lines and the continuum from α Tau. At the top of the chromosphere, Alfven waves experience significant reflection, producing downward propagating transverse waves that interact with upward propagating waves and produce velocity shear in the chromosphere. Our simulations also suggest that momentum deposition by non-linear Alfven waves becomes significant in the outer chromosphere within 1 stellar radius from the photosphere that initiates a slow and massive winds from red giants and supergiants.

  17. Wave energy dissipation by intertidal sand waves on a mixed-sediment Beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the surf zone, the energy expended by wave breaking is strongly influenced by nearshore bathymetry, which is often linked to the character and abundance of local sediments. Based upon a continuous, two year record of Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) data on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in southcentral Alaska, we model the enhancement of wave energy dissipation by the presence of intertidal sand waves. Comparison of model results from simulations in the presence and absence of sand waves illustrates that these ephemeral morphological features can offer significant protection to the backing beach and sea cliff through two mechanisms: (1) by moving the locus of wave breaking seaward and (2) by increasing energy expenditure associated with the turbulence of wave breaking. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  18. {beta}-Induced Alfven Eigenmodes Destabilized by Energetic Electrons in a Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yi; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Zhou, J.; Yuan, G. L.; Sun, H. J.; Li, W.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Feng, B. B.; Song, X. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Liu, Z. T.; Song, X. Y.; Li, L. C.; Duan, X. R.

    2010-10-29

    The {beta}-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) excited by energetic electrons has been identified for the first time both in the Ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma in HL-2A. The features of the instability, including its frequency, mode number, and propagation direction, can be observed by magnetic pickup probes. The mode frequency is comparable to that of the continuum accumulation point of the lowest frequency gap induced by the shear Alfven continuous spectrum due to finite {beta} effect, and it is proportional to Alfven velocity at thermal ion {beta} held constant. The experimental results show that the BAE is related not only with the population of the energetic electrons, but also their energy and pitch angles. The results indicate that the barely circulating and deeply trapped electrons play an important role in the mode excitation.

  19. Wave energy driven resonant sea water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Czitrom, S.P.R.

    1996-12-31

    A wave driven sea-water pump which operates by resonance is described. Oscillations in the resonant and exhaust ducts perform similar to two mass-spring systems coupled by a third spring acting for the compression chamber. Performance of the pump is optimized by means of a variable volume air compression chamber (patents pending) which tunes the system to the incoming wave frequency. Wave tank experiments with an instrumented, 1:20 scale model of the pump are described. Performance was studied under various wave and tuning conditions and compared to a numerical model which was found to describe the system accurately. Successful sea trials at an energetic coastline provide evidence of the system`s viability under demanding conditions.

  20. Wave-Driven Rotation In Centrifugal Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-03-28

    Centrifugal mirrors use supersonic rotation to provide axial confinement and enhanced stability. Usually the rotation is produced using electrodes, but these electrodes have limited the rotation to the Alfven critical ionization velocity, which is too slow to be useful for fusion. Instead, the rotation could be produced using radio frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an extension of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particle power and efficiency in a simulated devices is sufficient to produce rotation without external energy input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new opportunities for centrifugal traps.

  1. Microstructural Design for Stress Wave Energy Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    simulations are based on elastic moduli of generic CFRP taken from literature. We ordered 8 customized 16"xl6"xl/8" panel of unidirectional CFRP from a...speed measurements. We plan to use ultrasonic transducers to measure pressure and shear wave speeds in samples taken from CFRP panel in order to find...of CFRP panel and assembling in a multilayered design. Then we will investigate wave propagation in the layered structure by sending an elastic

  2. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    PubMed

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  3. Interaction of two walkers: wave-mediated energy and force.

    PubMed

    Borghesi, Christian; Moukhtar, Julien; Labousse, Matthieu; Eddi, Antonin; Fort, Emmanuel; Couder, Yves

    2014-12-01

    A bouncing droplet, self-propelled by its interaction with the waves it generates, forms a classical wave-particle association called a "walker." Previous works have demonstrated that the dynamics of a single walker is driven by its global surface wave field that retains information on its past trajectory. Here we investigate the energy stored in this wave field for two coupled walkers and how it conveys an interaction between them. For this purpose, we characterize experimentally the "promenade modes" where two walkers are bound and propagate together. Their possible binding distances take discrete values, and the velocity of the pair depends on their mutual binding. The mean parallel motion can be either rectilinear or oscillating. The experimental results are recovered analytically with a simple theoretical framework. A relation between the kinetic energy of the droplets and the total energy of the standing waves is established.

  4. Observations of nearshore infragravity wave dynamics under high energy swell and wind-wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inch, Kris; Davidson, Mark; Masselink, Gerd; Russell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Infragravity waves (0.005-0.04 Hz) can dominate the water motion close to shore on low sloping beaches and play a significant role in beach and dune erosion. A new field data set of water surface elevation at 15 cross-shore locations on a dissipative, fetch-unlimited beach is analysed to investigate the forcing and surf zone behaviour of infragravity waves during a wide range of offshore wave conditions (Ho=0.38-3.88 m; Tp=6-20 s). Infragravity waves approach the shore as bound waves lagging slightly ( 4 s) behind the short wave (0.04-0.33 Hz) envelope and are released in the surf zone as free waves. Infragravity wave heights of up to 1 m are measured close to shore and are best predicted using an offshore forcing parameter that represents the short wave energy flux (Ho2 Tp). Considerable infragravity dissipation is observed in the surf zone and dissipation increases with offshore wave energy. Dissipation is highly frequency-dependant and a frequency-domain Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals (quasi-)standing waves at frequencies <0.017 Hz, but an increasingly progressive wave pattern at higher frequencies with reflection coefficients <0.1, indicative of more than 90% dissipation. Much of the observed dissipation occurs very close to shore and the dependence of the reflection coefficient on a normalised bed slope parameter implies that energy at high infragravity frequencies is dissipated by wave breaking, since these frequencies fit into a mild sloping regime. This is supported by the results of bispectral analysis which show predominantly infragravity-infragravity interactions in shallow water and the development of infragravity harmonics indicative of steepening and eventual breaking of the infragravity waves.

  5. Wave-particle energy exchange directly observed in a kinetic Alfvén-branch wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Avanov, Levon A.; Bellan, Paul M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, Craig J.; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.

    2017-03-01

    Alfvén waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales, they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres and astrophysical systems but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfvén wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via nonlinear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.

  6. Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, James R.; Sutherland, Bruce R.

    2014-09-15

    We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.

  7. Mass, momentum, and energy flux conservation for nonlinear wave-wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Lin, Zhiliang; Tao, Longbin

    2016-12-01

    A fully nonlinear solution for bi-chromatic progressive waves in water of finite depth in the framework of the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is derived. The bi-chromatic wave field is assumed to be obtained by the nonlinear interaction of two monochromatic wave trains that propagate independently in the same direction before encountering. The equations for the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes based on the accurate high-order homotopy series solutions are obtained using a discrete integration and a Fourier series-based fitting. The conservation equations for the mean rates of the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes before and after the interaction of the two nonlinear monochromatic wave trains are proposed to establish the relationship between the steady-state bi-chromatic wave field and the two nonlinear monochromatic wave trains. The parametric analysis on ɛ1 and ɛ2, representing the nonlinearity of the bi-chromatic wave field, is performed to obtain a sufficiently small standard deviation Sd, which is applied to describe the deviation from the conservation state (Sd = 0) in terms of the mean rates of the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes before and after the interaction. It is demonstrated that very small standard deviation from the conservation state can be achieved. After the interaction, the amplitude of the primary wave with a lower circular frequency is found to decrease; while the one with a higher circular frequency is found to increase. Moreover, the highest horizontal velocity of the water particles underneath the largest wave crest, which is obtained by the nonlinear interaction between the two monochromatic waves, is found to be significantly higher than the linear superposition value of the corresponding velocity of the two monochromatic waves. The present study is helpful to enrich and deepen the understanding with insight to steady-state wave-wave interactions.

  8. Use of numerical wind-wave models for assessment of the offshore wave energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Barstow, S.; Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1997-08-01

    In the last two decades the performance of numerical wind-wave models has improved considerably. Several models have been routinely producing good quality wave estimates globally since the mid-1980s. The verifications of wind-wave models have mainly focused on the evaluation of the error of the significant wave height H{sub s} estimates. However, for wave energy purposes, the main parameters to be assessed are the wave power P{sub w} and the mean (energy) period T{sub e}. Since P{sub w} is proportional to H{sub s}{sup 2}T{sub e}, its expected error is much larger than for the single-wave parameters. This paper summarizes the intercomparison of two wind-wave models against buoy data in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea to select the most suitable one for the construction of an Atlas of the wave energy resource in European waters. A full verification in the two basins of the selected model--the WAM model, implemented in the routine operation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts--was then performed against buoy and satellite altimeter data. It was found that the WAM model accuracy is very good for offshore locations in the North Atlantic; but for the Mediterranean Sea the results are much less accurate, probably due to a lower quality of the input wind fields.

  9. Use of numerical wind-wave models for assessment of the offshore wave energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Barstow, S.; Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1996-12-31

    In the last two decades the performance of numerical wind-wave models has improved considerably. Several models have been routinely producing since the mid 1980`s good quality wave estimates globally. The verifications of wind-wave models have mainly focused on the evaluation of the error of the significant wave height H{sub s} estimates. However for wave energy purposes the main parameters to be assessed are the wave power P{sub w} and the mean (energy) period T{sub e}. Since P{sub w} is proportional to H{sub s}{sup 2}T{sub e}, its expected error is much larger than for the single wave parameters. This paper summarizes the intercomparison of two wind-wave models against buoy data in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea to select the most suitable one for the construction of an Atlas of the wave energy resource in Europe. A full verification in the two basins of the selected model--the WAM model, implemented in the routine operation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts--was then performed against buoy and satellite altimeter data. It was found that the WAM model accuracy is very good for offshore locations in the North Atlantic, but for the Mediterranean Sea the results are much less accurate probably due to a lower quality of the input wind fields.

  10. An array effect of wave energy farm buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Hyuck-Min; Lee, Jung-Lyul

    2012-12-01

    An ocean buoy energy farm is considered for Green energy generation and delivery to small towns along the Korean coast. The present studypresents that the floating buoy-type energy farm appears to be sufficiently feasible fortrapping more energy compared to afixed cylinder duck array. It is also seen from the numerical resultsthat the resonated waves between spaced buoys are further trapped by floating buoy motion.Our numerical study is analyzed by a plane-wave approximation, in which evanescent mode effects are included in a modified mild-slope equation based on the scattering characteristics for a single buoy.

  11. Computer Simulation of a Traveling-Wave Direct Energy Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Hideaki; Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    Beam-circuit code is presented to simulate a Traveling-Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), which recovers the energy of fusion protons escaping from a FRC/D3He fusion reactor. A transmission line loop for propagation of the electrostatic traveling wave is designed using lumped constant elements L.C.R. Electrostatic coupling between proton beam and circuits is treated by directly solving Poisson’s equation. Circuit equations are transformed to temporal finite-difference equations, which are solved following the leap-flog scheme. Simulation results display desirable performance characteristics. Traveling wave with a fixed frequency is excited spontaneously without any external power supply. The wave is kept its equilibrium state under loading, and the wave is stable to variation of the load.

  12. Methodology for evaluation of European wave energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the work performed in order to establish a common methodology for evaluation of the European offshore as well as shoreline wave energy resource. It includes a review (1) on the background theory of ocean waves that is required to deal with resource evaluation, (2) on the phenomena involved in and the methods used to calculate the transformation that waves undergo as they approach the coastline through waters of decreasing depth as well as (3) on the adequate wave data available in Europe. A methodology (proposed to and accepted by the European Community) for the assessment of the European wave energy resource is described. Further research and development work in this field is identified.

  13. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  14. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    PubMed

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  15. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Analysis of Waves in the Near-Field of Wave Energy Converter Arrays through Stereo Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Oregon State University conducted a series of laboratory experiments to measure and quantify the near-field wave effects caused within arrays of 3 and 5 Wave Energy Converters (WEC). As the waves and WECs interact, significant scattering and radiation occurs increasing/decreasing the wave heights as well as changing the direction the wave is traveling. These effects may vary based on the number of WECs within an array and their respective locations. The findings of this analysis will assist in selecting the WEC farm location and in improving WEC design. Analyzing the near-field waves will help determine the relative importance of absorption, scattering, and radiation as a function of the incident wave conditions and device performance. The WEC mooring system design specifications may also be impacted if the wave heights in the near-field are greater than expected. It is imperative to fully understand the near-field waves before full-scale WEC farms can be installed. Columbia Power Technologies' Manta served as the test WEC prototype on a 1 to 33 scale. Twenty-three wave gages measured the wave heights in both regular and real sea conditions at locations surrounding and within the WEC arrays. While these gages give a good overall picture of the water elevation behavior, it is difficult to resolve the complicated wave field within the WEC array using point gages. Here stereo video techniques are applied to extract the 3D water surface elevations at high resolution in order to reconstruct the multi-directional wave field in the near-field of the WEC array. The video derived wave information will also be compared against the wave gage data.

  17. Numerical modeling of the effects of wave energy converter characteristics on nearshore wave conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.; Ruehl, K.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Chartrand, C.

    2015-12-24

    Modeled nearshore wave propagation was investigated downstream of simulated wave energy converters (WECs) to evaluate overall near- and far-field effects of WEC arrays. Model sensitivity to WEC characteristics and WEC array deployment scenarios was evaluated using a modified version of an industry standard wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), which allows the incorporation of device-specific WEC characteristics to specify obstacle transmission. The sensitivity study illustrated that WEC device type and subsequently its size directly resulted in wave height variations in the lee of the WEC array. Wave heights decreased up to 30% between modeled scenarios with and without WECs for large arrays (100 devices) of relatively sizable devices (26 m in diameter) with peak power generation near to the modeled incident wave height. Other WEC types resulted in less than 15% differences in modeled wave height with and without WECs, with lesser influence for WECs less than 10 m in diameter. Wave directions and periods were largely insensitive to changes in parameters. Furthermore, additional model parameterization and analysis are required to fully explore the model sensitivity of peak wave period and mean wave direction to the varying of the parameters.

  18. Numerical modeling of the effects of wave energy converter characteristics on nearshore wave conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, G.; Ruehl, K.; Jones, C. A.; ...

    2015-12-24

    Modeled nearshore wave propagation was investigated downstream of simulated wave energy converters (WECs) to evaluate overall near- and far-field effects of WEC arrays. Model sensitivity to WEC characteristics and WEC array deployment scenarios was evaluated using a modified version of an industry standard wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), which allows the incorporation of device-specific WEC characteristics to specify obstacle transmission. The sensitivity study illustrated that WEC device type and subsequently its size directly resulted in wave height variations in the lee of the WEC array. Wave heights decreased up to 30% between modeled scenarios with and without WECs formore » large arrays (100 devices) of relatively sizable devices (26 m in diameter) with peak power generation near to the modeled incident wave height. Other WEC types resulted in less than 15% differences in modeled wave height with and without WECs, with lesser influence for WECs less than 10 m in diameter. Wave directions and periods were largely insensitive to changes in parameters. Furthermore, additional model parameterization and analysis are required to fully explore the model sensitivity of peak wave period and mean wave direction to the varying of the parameters.« less

  19. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.

    1981-10-01

    A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency.

  20. Experimental study of breaking and energy dissipation in surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Le Gal, Patrice; Le Bars, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the evolution of monochromatic waves produced by a parabolic wave maker. Because of the parabolic shape of the wave front, the waves exhibit spatial focusing and their amplitude dramatically increases over distances of a few wavelengths. Unlike linear waves, the amplitude of the free surface deformation cannot exceed a certain threshold and when this happens the waves break. In order to give a criterion for the appearance of breaking, we calculate the steepness defined as ɛ = H/ λ (where H is the wave height and λ their wavelength) for waves of frequencies in the range 4-10 Hz. We found that wave breaking develops when ɛ attains approximately a value of 0.10. We also evaluate the lost of energy carried by the waves during their breaking by a detailed and accurate measurement of their amplitude using an optical Fourier transform profilometry. G. Ruiz Chavarria acknowledges DGAPA-UNAM by support under Project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  1. Wave Turbulence in Superfluid {sup 4}He: Energy Cascades and Rogue Waves in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Efimov, V. B.; Ganshin, A. N.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Kolmakov, G. V.; Mezhov-Deglin, L. P.

    2008-11-13

    Recent work on second sound acoustic turbulence in superfluid {sup 4}He is reviewed. Observations of forward and inverse energy cascades are described. The onset of the inverse cascade occurs above a critical driving energy and it is accompanied by giant waves that constitute an acoustic analogue of the rogue waves that occasionally appear on the surface of the ocean. The theory of the phenomenon is outlined and shown to be in good agreement with the experiments.

  2. On the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazov, B.; O'Reilly, O. M.; Savaş, Ö.

    2010-11-01

    Buoy-type ocean wave energy converters are designed to exhibit resonant responses when subject to excitation by ocean waves. A novel excitation scheme is proposed which has the potential to improve the energy harvesting capabilities of these converters. The scheme uses the incident waves to modulate the mass of the device in a manner which amplifies its resonant response. To illustrate the novel excitation scheme, a simple one-degree of freedom model is developed for the wave energy converter. This model has the form of a switched linear system. After the stability regime of this system has been established, the model is then used to show that the excitation scheme improves the power harvesting capabilities by 25-65 percent even when amplitude restrictions are present. It is also demonstrated that the sensitivity of the device's power harvesting capabilities to changes in damping becomes much smaller when the novel excitation scheme is used.

  3. Catching the right wave: evaluating wave energy resources and potential compatibility with existing marine and coastal uses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Marry H; Arkema, Katie K; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pinsky, Malin L; Beck, Michael W; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M A; Levin, Phil S; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses.

  4. Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E.; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D.; Ruckelshaus, Marry H.; Arkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Beck, Michael W.; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M. A.; Levin, Phil S.; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824

  5. Structures of the low frequency Alfven continuous spectrum and their consequences on MHD and micro-turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, F.; Chen, L.

    2008-11-01

    We briefly discuss the unified theoretical framework that allows explaining a variety of experimental observations with one single 'fishbone-like' dispersion relation. We also point out the relationship of MHD and shear Alfven waves in the kinetic thermal ion frequency gap with microturbulence, Zonal Flows and Geodesic Acoustic Modes, emphasizing its importance in determining long time scale dynamic behaviors in burning plasmas.

  6. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  7. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  8. Energy Absorption Structure of Laser Supported Detonation Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Hatai, Keigo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-01

    In Repetitive Pulsed (RP) laser propulsion, when the high energy laser beam is focused in the thruster, Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) wave is generated. This LSD wave converts the laser energy to the enthalpy of the blast wave, which will then apply impulse to the wall of the thruster. Therefore, the energy absorption structure and sustaining condition of LSD wave are important to be understood, which was still not clear though some visualized experiments have been conducted by Ushio et al. before. In this paper, 2-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometry is brought to investigate the electron density distribution of LSD area. At the same time, the temperature of the laser induced plasma is measured by an emission spectroscopy experiment, and calculated based on the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. The results show that in LSD, the electron density has a peak (as high as 2×1024[m-3]) behind the shock wave. The irradiated laser can be entirely absorbed before reaching the position of this peak. As a result, a new peak is always generating in front of the old one and this propagating has the same velocity as that of the blast wave. In this way, high heating ratio is sustained right after the shock front. However, as the laser pulse energy becomes lower, the propagating peak cannot catch up with the blast wave anymore, which leads to a termination of the LSD wave. From this study, it is found that for sustaining the LSD wave, a sufficiently thin laser absorption layer is necessary.

  9. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  10. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Negative energy waves in hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovskiĭ, L. A.; Rybak, Samuil A.; Tsimring, L. Sh

    1986-11-01

    The utility of the concept of negative energy waves (NEW) in hydrodynamics is discussed. Examples are given of the excitation of waves by flow past elastic membranes, and of the amplification and generation of capillary-gravity and internal waves in liquids in the presence of vertically inhomogeneous flows. The concepts of "linear" and "nonlinear" energy are introduced, and it is shown that energy defined as the first integral of the equations of motion linearized against the flow background can be negative, whereas the inclusion of all the quadratic terms in the expression for the energy can give a positive value. Nonlinear processes associated with NEW are also discussed, as is the radiation instability of oscillators in hydrodynamics. The review is largely based on the authors' own work.

  11. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  12. Energy transfer from lower energy to higher-energy electrons mediated by whistler waves in the radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklyar, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of energy exchange between waves and particles, which leads to energization of the latter, in an unstable plasma typical of the radiation belts. The ongoing Van Allen Probes space mission brought this problem among the most discussed in space physics. A free energy which is present in an unstable plasma provides the indispensable condition for energy transfer from lower energy particles to higher-energy particles via resonant wave-particle interaction. This process is studied in detail by the example of electron interactions with whistler mode wave packets originated from lightning-induced emission. We emphasize that in an unstable plasma, the energy source for electron energization is the energy of other particles, rather than the wave energy as is often assumed. The way by which the energy is transferred from lower energy to higher-energy particles includes two processes that operate concurrently, in the same space-time domain, or sequentially, in different space-time domains, in which a given wave packet is located. In the first process, one group of resonant particles gives the energy to the wave. The second process consists in wave absorption by another group of resonant particles, whose energy therefore increases. We argue that this mechanism represents an efficient means of electron energization in the radiation belts.

  13. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  14. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    PubMed

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  15. Ultrasound waveform tomography using wave-energy-based preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Huang, Lianjie

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound waveform tomography using the conjugate gradient method produces images with different qualities in different regions of the imaging domain, partly because the ultrasound wave energy is dominant around transducer elements. In addition, this uneven distribution of the wave energy slows down the convergence of the inversion. Using the Hessian matrix to scale the gradients in waveform inversion can reduce the artifacts caused by the geometrical spreading and the defocusing effect resulting from the incomplete data coverage. However, it is computationally expensive to calculate the Hessian matrix. We develop a new ultrasound waveform tomography method that weights the gradient with the ultrasound wave energies of the forward and backward propagation wavefields. Our new method balances the wave energy distribution throughout the entire imaging domain. This method scales the gradients using the square root of the wave energy of forward propagated wavefields from sources and that of backpropagated synthetic wavefields from receivers. We numerically demonstrate that this new ultrasound waveform tomography method improves sound-speed reconstructions of breast tumors and accelerates the convergence of ultrasound waveform tomography.

  16. Characteristics of Short Wavelength Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E D; Podesta, M; Bortolon, A; Crocker, N A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M

    2012-12-19

    Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to ≈ 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n=1 kink-like mode. In this paper we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE), and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present evidence of a curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.

  17. Method of, and apparatus for, extracting energy from waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laithwaite, E.R.; Salter, S.H.

    1981-11-17

    In a method of, and apparatus for, extracting energy from waves on a liquid, the precession of a gyroscope in response to angular motion of a member in response to waves performs useful work by operating a hydraulic pump. Advantageously, pairs of gyroscopes having their rotors spinning in opposite directions are mounted in the member so as to balance the output torques of the gyroscopes.

  18. Multistable chain for ocean wave vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harne, R. L.; Schoemaker, M. E.; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    The heaving of ocean waves is a largely untapped, renewable kinetic energy resource. Conversion of this energy into electrical power could integrate with solar technologies to provide for round-the-clock, portable, and mobile energy supplies usable in a wide variety of marine environments. However, the direct drive conversion methodology of gridintegrated wave energy converters does not efficiently scale down to smaller, portable architectures. This research develops an alternative power conversion approach to harness the extraordinarily large heaving displacements and long oscillation periods as an excitation source for an extendible vibration energy harvesting chain. Building upon related research findings and engineering insights, the proposed system joins together a series of dynamic cells through bistable interfaces. Individual impulse events are generated as the inertial mass of each cell is pulled across a region of negative stiffness to induce local snap through dynamics; the oscillating magnetic inertial mass then generates current in a coil which is connected to energy harvesting circuitry. It is shown that linking the cells into a chain transmits impulses through the system leading to cascades of vibration and enhancement of electrical energy conversion from each impulse event. This paper describes the development of the multistable chain and ways in which realistic design challenges were addressed. Numerical modeling and corresponding experiments demonstrate the response of the chain due to slow and large amplitude input motion. Lastly, experimental studies give evidence that energy conversion efficiency of the chain for wave energy conversion is much higher than using an equal number of cells without connections.

  19. Energy Partitioning of Seismic Waves in Fractured Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-31

    Advances in locating and characterizes fractures in oil and gas reservoirs, and at waste isolation sites from seismic surveys requires improved interpretation methods. Experimental and theoretical results from this work have lead to an understanding of diagnostic signatures of energy that is partitioned into body waves and guided modes by fractures. Compressional waves and shear waves (i.e., shear waves with particle motion perpendicular to the fracture plane) are sensitive to changes in shear stress on a pre-existing fracture and to the formation of a fracture in a previously intact specimen. Both types of waves exhibit a shift in frequency content and a change in the amplitude of the wave as a fracture is formed or a pre-existing fracture is closed. The dispersion characteristics of interfact waves that propagate along a fracture enable quantification of fracture specific stiffness. A new compressional-mode interface wave was measured that has the potential for becoming a diagnostic tool for changes in stress in a fracture. The results of this research provide the basis for the development of seismic imaging techniques and analyses tools for locating and characterizing fractures on the field scale.

  20. On the asymptotic evolution of finite energy Airy wave functions.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Posada, P; Sánchez-Curto, J; Aceves, A B; McDonald, G S

    2015-06-15

    In general, there is an inverse relation between the degree of localization of a wave function of a certain class and its transform representation dictated by the scaling property of the Fourier transform. We report that in the case of finite energy Airy wave packets a simultaneous increase in their localization in the direct and transform domains can be obtained as the apodization parameter is varied. One consequence of this is that the far-field diffraction rate of a finite energy Airy beam decreases as the beam localization at the launch plane increases. We analyze the asymptotic properties of finite energy Airy wave functions using the stationary phase method. We obtain one dominant contribution to the long-term evolution that admits a Gaussian-like approximation, which displays the expected reduction of its broadening rate as the input localization is increased.

  1. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  2. Energy density of relic gravity waves from inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, V. )

    1990-07-15

    We evaluate both the spectral energy density and the total energy density for relic gravity waves produced during the transition from an early inflationary phase to a matter-dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-type expansion: {ital a}{similar to}{ital t}{sup {ital c}} ({ital c}{lt}1). We find that for power-law inflation the spectral energy density for gravity waves has more power on larger scales than for purely exponential inflation. Evaluating the energy density of created massless particles (both gravitons and massless scalars) we find that in the case of exponential inflation the ratio of the density of created particles to the total density of matter is a constant, if {ital c}{ge}1/2. This unusual behavior is a consequence of the fact that the equation of state for created particles mimics the equation of state for matter driving the expansion of the Universe. As a result, self-consistent solutions of the Einstein equations can be found, in which the expansion of the Universe is sustained solely by the ongoing production of massless particles, so that {ital G}{sub {mu}{nu}}=8{pi}{ital G}{l angle}{ital T}{sub {mu}{nu}}{r angle}. In the case of power-law and quasiexponential inflation we find that the ratio of the energy density of gravity waves to the background matter density increases with time, as gravity waves with longer wavelengths and larger amplitudes enter the horizon at successively later epochs. This could lead to the energy density of gravity waves becoming comparable to the energy density of matter at late times, if inflation commenced at Planckian energies.

  3. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Wind Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Voulgaris, G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) wave and current data were collected offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC for 2 months in 2001-02. This field measurement campaign was the second of a three-part experiment series. While the overall objective of the study is to describe the processes governing the circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport along the northern South Carolina coast, this presentation focuses on the wave energy dissipation over a heterogeneous seafloor over a distance of 6 km. The data were collected between November 9, 2001 and January 17, 2002. The instruments were placed along a transect crossing a large sand shoal in an area otherwise largely deprived of sand, at depths of 8 to 12 meters. The four instruments used, in order of decreasing distance from shore, were 600 and1200 KHz RDI ADCP's, a Nortek Aquadopp and a Sontek Argonaut-XR. Bathymetry and bottom characteristics such as depth and thickness of sand layer are available through USGS's coastal relief model and side scan surveys. Wind data are supplied by a large-scale numerical wind model. Its output is compared with wind data collected at Frying Pan Shoals buoy and at an anemometer placed at Spring Maid pier after the experiment. The SWAN wave model (Booij et al. 1999) was used to model the spectral wave transformation from the offshore buoy to the inner stations and to compare the observed wave energy dissipation to the available models. There was no extreme storm event during the deployment period. The maximum significant wave height observed was 1.6 meters at the offshore wave station, and the mean wave height was 0.8 meters. The mean period was between 5 and 7 seconds most of the time. Significant wave energy dissipation (up to 40% decrease in wave energy flux) across 6 km was observed. A shift of the spectral peak and a change in the spectral shape was observed in many events, which were not generally reproduced by the model. Sand and rock bottom

  4. Experimental Investigation of Irregular Wave Cancellation Using a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils attached equidistant to a shaft that is aligned parallel to the incoming waves. The entire device is fully sub...300 scale wave tunnel experiment. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils attached equidistant to a shaft that is aligned parallel to the incoming...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 g Gravity constant, 9.81[m/s2] t Time [s] λ Wavelength [m] R = 60mm Wave Energy Converter Radius [m] c = 50mm Hydrofoil Chord

  5. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-15

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  6. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    PubMed Central

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  7. Traveling-Wave Direct Energy Converter for Fusion Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Katayama, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    A Traveling-Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), which is designed to recover kinetic energy of fusion protons escaped from a FRC/ D^3He fusion reactor, is studied by numerical calculation and computer simulation. To develop a simulation code, a transmission line loop for an electrostatic traveling wave is designed using lumped constant elements L, C, R. Electrostatic coupling between proton beam and circuits is treated by directly solving Poisson's equation. Circuit equations are transformed to temporal finite-difference equations, which are solved following the leap-flog scheme. Simulation results display desirable performance characteristics of the TWDEC. Traveling wave with a fixed frequency is excited spontaneously without any external electric power supply. High energy conversion rate of the TWDEC up to 0.8 is obtained both from orbit calculation and from computer simulation as a result of improvement of proton beam bunching. The wave keeps its equilibrium state under loading, and the wave responds to variation of the electric load stably.

  8. Phenomenology of non-Alfvenic turbulence in a uniformly expanding medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Zank, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    Transport and decay of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a weakly inhomogeneous uniformly expanding medium involves a fairly complex formalism, even for the case where no spectral information is required. Here we argue that the phenomenology for decay simplifies greatly if: (1) the cross helicity (Alfvenicity) is small, (2) the dynamical influence of the large scale magnetic field is negligible either because of spectral anisotropy or because the expansion speed is much greater than the corresponding Alfven speed, and (3) the ratio of kinetic energy to magnetic energy for the fluctuations is either unity or some other constant. These conditions are acceptable as an approximation to solar wind turbulence in the outer heliosphere. In these circumstances a reasonable MHD energy-containing phenomenology is essentially that of locally homogeneous Kolmogoroff turbulence in a uniformly expanding medium. Analytical solutions for this model are presented for both undriven and driven cases.

  9. Energy eigenstates of magnetostatic waves and oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kamenetskii, E O

    2001-06-01

    Effect of excitation of magnetostatic oscillations in a ferrite resonator by the microwave magnetic field was a subject of many publications of more than the last 40 years. The most interesting multiresonance spectrum of absorption peaks one can observe experimentally is a case of disk-form small ferrite resonators. It is shown in this paper that such small ferrite resonators can be considered as "artificial molecular structures" with properties characterized by energy eigenstates of magnetostatic oscillations. A special interest in these properties may be found in the field of microwave artificial composite materials.

  10. Energy eigenstates of magnetostatic waves and oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenetskii, E. O.

    2001-06-01

    Effect of excitation of magnetostatic oscillations in a ferrite resonator by the microwave magnetic field was a subject of many publications of more than the last 40 years. The most interesting multiresonance spectrum of absorption peaks one can observe experimentally is a case of disk-form small ferrite resonators. It is shown in this paper that such small ferrite resonators can be considered as {open_quotes}artificial molecular structures{close_quotes} with properties characterized by energy eigenstates of magnetostatic oscillations. A special interest in these properties may be found in the field of microwave artificial composite materials.

  11. System for harvesting water wave energy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  12. Neural rotational speed control for wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundarain, M.; Alberdi, M.; Garrido, A. J.; Garrido, I.

    2011-02-01

    Among the benefits arising from an increasing use of renewable energy are: enhanced security of energy supply, stimulation of economic growth, job creation and protection of the environment. In this context, this study analyses the performance of an oscillating water column device for wave energy conversion in function of the stalling behaviour in Wells turbines, one of the most widely used turbines in wave energy plants. For this purpose, a model of neural rotational speed control system is presented, simulated and implemented. This scheme is employed to appropriately adapt the speed of the doubly-fed induction generator coupled to the turbine according to the pressure drop entry, so as to avoid the undesired stalling behaviour. It is demonstrated that the proposed neural rotational speed control design adequately matches the desired relationship between the slip of the doubly-fed induction generator and the pressure drop input, improving the power generated by the turbine generator module.

  13. [High energy shock wave treatment of the painful heel spur].

    PubMed

    Perlick, L; Boxberg, W; Giebel, G

    1998-12-01

    Extracorporal shock wave application (ESWA) has been used in the treatment of stones located in kidneys, bile, pancreas and the glandula parotis. In the last 2 years several studies have shown the benefit of the ESWA on the treatment of soft tissue disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of high energy extracorporal shock waves in patients with painful calcaneus spurs. 83 patients who underwent medicophysical treatment without benefit were treated with 3000 impulses of 0.30 mj/mm2. Follow-ups after 12 weeks and 12 months showed that 51 of 83 patients became pain-free and 20 patients improved from the treatment. The results are showing the benefit of the high energy extracorporal shock wave application in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.

  14. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  15. Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Li Min; Chen, Xiangyu; Han, Chang Bao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Ocean waves are one of the most abundant energy sources on earth, but harvesting such energy is rather challenging due to various limitations of current technologies. Recently, networks formed by triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been proposed as a promising technology for harvesting water wave energy. In this work, a basic unit for the TENG network was studied and optimized, which has a box structure composed of walls made of TENG composed of a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film and two FEP thin films, with a metal ball enclosed inside. By combination of the theoretical calculations and experimental studies, the output performances of the TENG unit were investigated for various structural parameters, such as the size, mass, or number of the metal balls. From the viewpoint of theory, the output characteristics of TENG during its collision with the ball were numerically calculated by the finite element method and interpolation method, and there exists an optimum ball size or mass to reach maximized output power and electric energy. Moreover, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide guidance for structural optimization of wavy-structured TENGs for effectively harvesting water wave energy toward the dream of large-scale blue energy.

  16. Free-boundary toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B.; Zheng, L. J.

    2011-05-15

    A numerical study is presented for the n = 1 free-boundary toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in tokamaks, which shows that there is considerable sensitivity of n = 1 modes to the position of the conducting wall. An additional branch of the TAE is shown to emerge from the upper continuum as the ratio of conducting wall radius to plasma radius increases. Such phenomena arise in plasma equilibria with both circular and shaped cross sections, where the shaped profile studied here is similar to that found in Alcator C-Mod.

  17. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  18. An atlas of the wave energy resource in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Athanassoulis, G.A.; Barstow, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Holmes, B.; Mollison, D.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an Atlas of the European offshore wave energy resource that is being developed within the scope of an European project. It will be mainly based on wave estimates produced by the numerical wind-wave model WAM that is in routine operation at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK. This model was chosen after a preliminary verification of two models again buoy data for a one-year period. Wave measurements will be used for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea. The Atlas will be produced as a user-friendly software package for MS-DOS microcomputers permitting fast retrieval of information as well as saving and printing of statistics and maps. The Atlas will include annual and seasonal statistics of significant wave height, mean and peak period, mean direction and wave power levels (global values as well as directional distributions). These data will be both presented as tables, graphs and as geographic maps.

  19. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-11-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2~1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm2. Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves.

  20. Stochastic Control of Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter

    PubMed Central

    Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks. PMID:25874267

  1. Stochastic control of inertial sea wave energy converter.

    PubMed

    Raffero, Mattia; Martini, Michele; Passione, Biagio; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Bracco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  2. WEC3: Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Combourieu, Adrien; Lawson, Michael; Babarit, Aurelien; Ruehl, Kelley; Roy, Andre; Costello, Ronan; Laporte Weywada, Pauline; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently launched Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison (WEC3) project and present preliminary results from this effort. The objectives of WEC3 are to verify and validate numerical modelling tools that have been developed specifically to simulate wave energy conversion devices and to inform the upcoming IEA OES Annex VI Ocean Energy Modelling Verification and Validation project. WEC3 is divided into two phases. Phase 1 consists of a code-to-code verification and Phase II entails code-to-experiment validation. WEC3 focuses on mid-fidelity codes that simulate WECs using time-domain multibody dynamics methods to model device motions and hydrodynamic coefficients to model hydrodynamic forces. Consequently, high-fidelity numerical modelling tools, such as Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulation, and simple frequency domain modelling tools were not included in the WEC3 project.

  3. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  4. Alfv'enic Modes in HSX Stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, C.; Brower, D. L.; Spong, D. A.; Breizman, B. N.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Guttenfelder, W.; Likin, K.; Lore, J.; Lu, J.; Oh, S.; Radder, J. W.; Schmitt, J.; Zhai, K.

    2007-11-01

    Coherent, global fluctuations in the range of 20-120 kHz are observed for quasi-helically-symmetric, 2^nd Harmonic X-mode ECRH produced plasmas in HSX (BT=0.5T). Measurements and theory indicate that the mode with helicity m/n=1/1 is likely a global Alfv'en eigenmode (GAE) driven by nonthermal electrons. Under certain conditions, a satellite mode of same helicity is observed with frequency ˜20 kHz higher than the primary mode. Radial structure of both the primary and satellite modes are obtained by inversion of interferometry data showing peaks at different spatial locations. Finite pressure effects, even at low plasma beta, distort the Alfven continuum and mode frequency for these low m,n modes. For HSX operation at BT=1T with first Harmonic O-mode ECRH, the fast electron population is reduced and the mode is no longer observed. *Supported by USDOE contracts DE-FG03-01ER54615 and DE-FG02-93EE54222.

  5. Investigation of global Alfven instabilities in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.L.; Paul, S.F.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Bell, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Cheng, C.Z.; Cohen, S.; Hammett, G.W.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, L.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Synakowski, E.J.; Durst, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Roberts, D.R.; Sabbagh, S.

    1992-01-01

    Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) were excited by the energetic neutral beam ions tangentially injected into TFTR plasmas at low magnetic field such that the injection velocities were comparable to the Alfven speed. The modes were identified by measurements from Mirnov coils and beam emission spectroscopy (BES). TAE modes appear in bursts whose repetition rate increases with beam power. The neutron emission rate exhibits sawtooth-like behavior and the crashes always coincide with TAE bursts. This indicates ejection of fast ions from the plasma until these modes are stabilized. The dynamics of growth and stabilization was investigated at various plasma current and magnetic field. The results indicate that the instability can effectively clamp the number of energetic ions in the plasma. The observed instability threshold is discussed in the light of recent theories. In addition to these TAE modes, intermittent oscillations at three times the fundamental TAE frequency were observed by Mirnov coils, but no corresponding signal was found in BES. It appears that these high frequency oscillations do not have direct effect on the plasma neutron source strength.

  6. Power inversion design for ocean wave energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebani, Anwar N.

    The needs for energy sources are increasing day by day because of several factors, such as oil depletion, and global climate change due to the higher level of CO2, so the exploration of various renewable energy sources is very promising area of study. The available ocean waves can be utilized as free source of energy as the water covers 70% of the earth surface. This thesis presents the ocean wave energy as a source of renewable energy. By addressing the problem of designing efficient power electronics system to deliver 5 KW from the induction generator to the grid with less possible losses and harmonics as possible and to control current fed to the grid to successfully harvest ocean wave energy. We design an AC-DC full bridge rectifier converter, and a DC-DC boost converter to harvest wave energy from AC to regulated DC. In order to increase the design efficiency, we need to increase the power factor from (0.5-0.6) to 1. This is accomplished by designing the boost converter with power factor correction in continues mode with RC circuit as an input to the boost converter power factor correction. This design results in a phase shift between the input current and voltage of the full bridge rectifier to generate a small reactive power. The reactive power is injected to the induction generator to maintain its functionality by generating a magnetic field in its stator. Next, we design a single-phase pulse width modulator full bridge voltage source DC-AC grid-tied mode inverter to harvest regulated DC wave energy to AC. The designed inverter is modulated by inner current loop, to control current injected to the grid with minimal filter component to maintain power quality at the grid. The simulation results show that our design successfully control the current level fed to the grid. It is noteworthy that the simulated efficiency is higher than the calculated one since we used an ideal switch in the simulated circuit.

  7. Wecpos - Wave Energy Coastal Protection Oscillating System: A Numerical Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentale, Fabio; Pugliese Carratelli, Eugenio; Rzzo, Gianfranco; Arsie, Ivan; Davide Russo, Salvatore

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, the interest in developing new technologies to produce energy with low environmental impact by using renewable sources has grown exponentially all over the world. In this context, the experiences made to derive electricity from the sea (currents, waves, etc.) are of particular interest. At the moment, due to the many existing experiments completed or still in progress, it is quite impossible explain what has been obtained but it is worth mentioning the EMEC, which summarizes the major projects in the world. Another important environmental aspect, also related to the maritime field, is the coastal protection from the sea waves. Even in this field, since many years, the structural and non-structural solutions which can counteract this phenomenon are analyzed, in order to cause the least possible damage to the environment. The studies in development by the researchers of the University of Salerno are based on these two aspect previously presented. Considering the technologies currently available, a submerged system has been designed, WECPOS (Wave Energy Coastal Protection Oscillating System), to be located on relatively shallow depths, to can be used simultaneously for both electricity generation and for the coastal protection using the oscillating motion of the water particles. The single element constituting the system is realized by a fixed base and three movable panels that can fluctuate in a fixed angle. The waves interact with the panels generating an alternative motion which can be exploited to produce electricity. At the same time, the constraint movement imposed for the rotation of the panels is a barrier to the wave propagation phenomena, triggering the breaking in the downstream part of the device. So the wave energy will be dissipated obtaining a positive effect for the coastal protection. Currently, the efficiency and effectiveness of the system (WECPOS single module) has been studied by using numerical models. Using the FLOW-3D

  8. Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Previsic, M.; Epler, J.; Lou, J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy established a reference model project to benchmark a set of marine and hydrokinetic technologies including current (tidal, open-ocean, and river) turbines and wave energy converters. The objectives of the project were to first evaluate the status of these technologies and their readiness for commercial applications. Second, to evaluate the potential cost of energy and identify cost-reduction pathways and areas where additional research could be best applied to accelerate technology development to market readiness.

  9. Calculations of the heights, periods, profile parameters, and energy spectra of wind waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korneva, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sea wave behavior calculations require the precalculation of wave elements as well as consideration of the spectral functions of ocean wave formation. The spectrum of the random wave process is largely determined by the distribution of energy in the actual wind waves observed on the surface of the sea as expressed in statistical and spectral characteristics of the sea swell.

  10. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha; Prudell, Joseph H.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  11. High-Energy Waves in Superpolynomial FPU-Type Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We consider periodic traveling waves in FPU-type chains with superpolynomial interaction forces and derive explicit asymptotic formulas for the high-energy limit as well as bounds for the corresponding approximation error. In the proof we adapt twoscale techniques that have recently been developed by Herrmann and Matthies for chains with singular potential and provide an asymptotic ODE for the scaled distance profile.

  12. Performance Optimization of a Pneumatic Wave Energy Conversion Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-26

    The edges of the internal plexi - glass turbine casing was rounded off to reduce turbulence in the air flow. The turbine was now read-F for the second...As a wave approaches shore it interacts with the sea floor and loses energy due to bottom friction and irrotationalities. The deep water condition...heavier parts had increased the internal friction of the system, and to see if the turbine could handle the effects of greater air flow. For this

  13. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  14. Electronic Quasiparticle Renormalization on the Spin Wave Energy Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Schrupp, D.; Rotenberg, Eli; Rossnagel, K.; Koh, H.; Blaha, P.; Claessen, R.

    2004-03-01

    High-resolution photoemission data of the (110) iron surface reveal the existence of well-defined metallic surface resonances in good correspondence to band calculations. Close to the Fermi level, their dispersion and momentum broadening display anomalies characteristic of quasiparticle renormalization due to coupling to bosonic excitations. Its energy scale exceeds that of phonons by far, and is in striking coincidence with that of the spin wave spectrum in iron. The self-energy behavior thus gives spectroscopic evidence of a quasiparticle mass enhancement due to electron-magnon coupling.

  15. Energy device powered by the motion of water beneath waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.J.

    1983-02-01

    A device for extracting both kinetic and potential energy from the motion beneath waves over a considerable depth comprising a power member or sail guided to reciprocate with the movement of the water. The power sail is connected to and operates a power device such as an electric generator or pump. A second member, or sail, is located in geometric position relative to the power sail to reflect energy back to the power sail. Sensors, servo systems, and computers may be used to optimize power output. Multiple units can be arranged in ''farms'' to furnish megawatts of power.

  16. Relationship between wave energy and free energy from pickup ions in the Comet Halley environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Johnstone, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    The free energy available from the implanted heavy ion population at Comet Halley is calculated by assuming that the initial unstable velocity space ring distribution of the ions evolves toward a bispherical shell. Ultimately this free energy adds to the turbulence in the solar wind. Upstream and downstream free energies are obtained separately for the conditions observed along the Giotto spacecraft trajectory. The results indicate that the waves are mostly upstream propagating in the solar wind frame. The total free energy density always exceeds the measured wave energy density because, as expected in the nonlinear process of ion scattering, the available energy is not all immediately released. An estimate of the amount which has been released can be obtained from the measured oxygen ion distributions and again it exceeds that observed. The theoretical analysis is extended to calculate the k spectrum of the cometary-ion-generated turbulence.

  17. Searching for dark energy with matter wave interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The nature of dark energy, which makes up 70% of the mass-energy of the universe, remains completely unknown. Chameleons are a simple scalar model for dark energy that mediate a force which is screened by bulk matter. However we can now probe these scalar fields using atoms as nearly ideal test masses in the vacuum of our cavity-based matter wave interferometer. Our first measurements ruled out a range of chameleons that would reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration. Since then we have improved sensitivity by a factor of 100. With a similar future improvement, we will be sensitive to any possible chameleon field and other exotic models for dark energy and dark matter, such as symmetrons or f(R) gravity.

  18. Cross-Frequency Coupling of Plasma Waves in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are crucial elements of magnetosphere and ionosphere plasma dynamics. Such interactions provide a channel of energy redistribution between different plasma populations, and lead to connections between physical processes developing on different spatial and temporal scales. The lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are particularly interesting for plasma dynamics, because they couple well with both electrons and ions. The excitation of LHWs is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven and/or EMIC waves, in particular those associated with lower frequency (LF) turbulence, may generate LHWs in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases this serves as the Alfven and/or EMIC waves saturation mechanism. We believe that this described scenario, as well as some other cross-frequency coupling of plasma waves processes that will be discussed in this presentation, can play a vital role in various parts of the magnetospheric plasma, especially in the places under investigation by the NASA THEMIS and Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)) missions.

  19. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  20. Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind observed by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Neugebauer, M; Tsurutani, B. T.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    One of the striking results of the Sun's south polar pass by Ulysses was the discovery of large amplitude, long period Alfvenic fluctuations that were continuously present in the solar wind flow from the polar coronal hole. The fluctuations dominate the variances and power spectra at periods greater than or equal to 1 hour and are evident as correlated fluctuations in the magnetic field and solar wind velocity components. Various properties of the fluctuations in the magnetic field, in the velocity, and in the electric field have been established. The waves appear to have important implications for galactic cosmic rays and for the solar wind, topics which have continued to be investigated. Their origin is also under study, specifically whether or not they represent motions of the ends of the field lines at the Sun. The resolution of these issues has benefited from the more recent observations as the spacecraft traveled northward toward the ecliptic and passed into the northern solar hemisphere. All these observations will be presented and their implications will be discussed.

  1. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  2. Generation of laser plasma bunches with a high efficiency of energy concentration for laboratory simulation of collisionless shock waves in magnetised cosmic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Yu P.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Antonov, V. M.; Melekhov, A. V.; Posukh, V. G.; Prokopov, P. A.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of first experiments on the formation of collisionless shock waves (CSWs) in background plasma by injecting laser plasma bunches transverse to the magnetic field (as a piston) with a maximum energy up to 100 J per unit of solid angle and with a high enough degree of ion magnetisation. With this aim in view, on a unique KI-1 facility at the Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILP), a plastic (polyethylene) target irradiated by a CO2 laser in the most energy-efficient regime (near the plasma formation threshold) and a highly ionised hydrogen plasma with a high concentration in a large volume (not less than 1 m3) have been employed. As a result of model experiments performed on the basis of a model of collisionless interaction of plasma flows, developed at the VNIIEF and being adequate to the problem under consideration, not only an intensive, background-induced, deceleration of a super-Alfven laser plasma flow, but also the formation in that flow of a strong perturbation having the properties of a subcritical CSW and propagating transverse to the magnetic field, have been first registered in the laboratory conditions.

  3. Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.

  4. Energy flux measurement from the dissipated energy in capillary wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Deike, Luc; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2014-02-01

    We study experimentally the influence of dissipation on stationary capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a liquid by changing its viscosity. We observe that the frequency power-law scaling of the capillary spectrum departs significantly from its theoretical value when the dissipation is increased. The energy dissipated by capillary waves is also measured and found to increase nonlinearly with the mean power injected within the liquid. Here we propose an experimental estimation of the energy flux at every scale of the capillary cascade. The latter is found to be nonconstant through the scales. For fluids of low enough viscosity, we found that both capillary spectrum scalings with the frequency and the newly defined mean energy flux are in good agreement with wave turbulence theory. The Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant is then experimentally estimated and compared to its theoretical value.

  5. Wind, Wave, and Tidal Energy Without Power Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Most present wind, wave, and tidal energy systems require expensive power conditioning systems that reduce overall efficiency. This new design eliminates power conditioning all, or nearly all, of the time. Wind, wave, and tidal energy systems can transmit their energy to pumps that send high-pressure fluid to a central power production area. The central power production area can consist of a series of hydraulic generators. The hydraulic generators can be variable displacement generators such that the RPM, and thus the voltage, remains constant, eliminating the need for further power conditioning. A series of wind blades is attached to a series of radial piston pumps, which pump fluid to a series of axial piston motors attached to generators. As the wind is reduced, the amount of energy is reduced, and the number of active hydraulic generators can be reduced to maintain a nearly constant RPM. If the axial piston motors have variable displacement, an exact RPM can be maintained for all, or nearly all, wind speeds. Analyses have been performed that show over 20% performance improvements with this technique over conventional wind turbines

  6. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2014-10-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  7. Performance optimization of a pneumatic wave energy conversion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surko, S. W.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this study was, for the first time, to optimize the performance of a pneumatic wave energy conversion device. The experiments of Jolly and Newmaster (1979) and Trop and Casey (1980) left a capture chamber and turbine for further investigation. To optimize the system performance the turbine had to be first analyzed so that its power performance curves could be determined. These curves were needed to help define the possible overall performance of the system, and for the impedance matching of the system necessary for performance optimization. With this knowledge, an appropriate generator was purchased and a generator-turbine linkage designed and built. The completed system was then analyzed in the 380 ft wave tank at the U.S. Naval Academy to establish its optimum performance. From the research it is clear that pneumatic wave energy conversion is a promising concept. With several hundred of these devices situated some 100 km off the coast of the Pacific Northwest each device would be producing from 50 to 200 kW which would be transferred back to shore.

  8. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Lin, Jing; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method.

  9. Equilibrium distribution of the wave energy in a carbyne chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovriguine, D. A.; Nikitenkova, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    The steady-state energy distribution of thermal vibrations at a given ambient temperature has been investigated based on a simple mathematical model that takes into account central and noncentral interactions between carbon atoms in a one-dimensional carbyne chain. The investigation has been performed using standard asymptotic methods of nonlinear dynamics in terms of the classical mechanics. In the first-order nonlinear approximation, there have been revealed resonant wave triads that are formed at a typical nonlinearity of the system under phase matching conditions. Each resonant triad consists of one longitudinal and two transverse vibration modes. In the general case, the chain is characterized by a superposition of similar resonant triplets of different spectral scales. It has been found that the energy equipartition of nonlinear stationary waves in the carbyne chain at a given temperature completely obeys the standard Rayleigh-Jeans law due to the proportional amplitude dispersion. The possibility of spontaneous formation of three-frequency envelope solitons in carbyne has been demonstrated. Heat in the form of such solitons can propagate in a chain of carbon atoms without diffusion, like localized waves.

  10. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, A.; Chaplin, J. R.; Greaves, D. M.; Hann, M.

    2017-02-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  11. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  12. Energy harvesting from sea waves with consideration of airy and JONSWAP theory and optimization of energy harvester parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirab, Hadi; Fathi, Reza; Jahangiri, Vahid; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad; Hassannejad, Reza

    2015-12-01

    One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices at sea is a wave energy harvesting system. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on avoiding a battery charging system. Studies have been done on energy harvesting from sea waves, however, considering energy harvesting with random JONSWAP wave theory, then determining the optimum values of energy harvested is new. This paper does that by implementing the JONSWAP wave model, calculating produced power, and realistically showing that output power is decreased in comparison with the more simple airy wave model. In addition, parameters of the energy harvester system are optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm, yielding increased produced power.

  13. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Site Identification and Ranking Methodology Part I: Wave Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcher, Levi; Thresher, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Marine hydrokinetic energy is a promising and growing piece of the renewable energy sector that offers high predictability and additional energy sources for a diversified energy economy. This report investigates the market opportunities for wave energy along the U.S. coastlines. It is part one of a two-part investigation into the United State's two largest marine hydrokinetic resources (wave and tidal). Wave energy technology is still an emerging form of renewable energy for which large-scale, grid-connected project costs are currently poorly defined. Ideally, device designers would like to know the resource conditions at economical project sites so they can optimize device designs. On the other hand, project developers need detailed device cost data to identify sites where projects are economical. That is, device design and siting are, to some extent, a coupled problem. This work describes a methodology for identifying likely deployment locations based on a set of criteria that wave energy experts in industry, academia, and national laboratories agree are likely to be important factors for all technology types. This work groups the data for the six criteria into 'locales' that are defined as the smaller of either the local transmission grid or a state boundary. The former applies to U.S. islands (e.g., Hawaii, American Samoa) and rural villages (e.g., in Alaska); the latter applies to states in the contiguous United States. These data are then scored from 0 to 10 according to scoring functions that were developed with input from wave energy industry and academic experts. The scores are aggregated using a simple product method that includes a weighting factor for each criterion. This work presents two weighting scenarios: a long-term scenario that does not include energy price (weighted zero) and a near term scenario that includes energy price. The aggregated scores are then used to produce ranked lists of likely deployment locales. In both scenarios, Hawaii and

  14. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  15. Energy transfer due to nonlinear wave-wave interactions in deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Lvov, Yuri V.

    2007-11-01

    It was believed that the Garrett-Munk spectrum was the ``universal'' energy spectrum of oceanic internal waves. However, it has become apparent from recent categorization of oceanic observations that the Garrett-Munk spectrum can not be as universal as been previously thought. One may use the weak turbulence theory to attempt to explain the formation of the spectral energy density of internal waves. It turns out that the large wavenumbers (small scales) interact in triads via small wavenumbers (large scales). This hypothesis provides possible explanation for the variability of the energy spectra. Namely, several families of statistically steady solutions are found in consideration of the nonlocality in wavenumber spaces of resonant interactions. The new families of power-law exponents of the energy spectra are in good agreement with the observations. To check these theory we perform direct numerical simulations based on Hamiltonian formalism. It is shown also by the numerical simulations that the nonlocal interactions in the wavenumber space are dominant in the inertial wavenumbers. The validity of the weak turbulence theory is also discussed.

  16. Propagation and mode conversion for waves in nonuniform plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, T.H.; Swanson, D.G.

    1982-06-01

    The following topics are described: (1) the hybrid resonance, (2) Alfven resonance, (3) the intermediate-frequency electromagnetic wave equation, (4) the standard equation, (5) the tunneling equation, (6) asymptotic solutions of the tunneling equation, (7) localized absorption, and (8) matched asymptotic expansions; the low-frequency Alfven resonance. (MOW)

  17. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  18. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study on the acoustic wave energy after the nonlinear interaction of acoustic waves in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chao-feng; Li, Feng-chen; Chen, Huan; Lu, Di; Yang, De-sen; Zhang, Meng

    2015-06-01

    Based on the Burgers equation and Manley-Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves' amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.

  20. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  1. Relationship Between Alfvenic Fluctuations and Heavy Ion Heating in the Cusp at 1 Re

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra

    2008-01-01

    We look at the effect of heavy ion heating from their coupling with observed broadband (BB-ELF) emissions. These wave fluctuations are common to many regions of the ionosphere and magnetosphere and have been described as spatial turbulence of dispersive Alfven waves (DAW) with short perpendicular wavelengths. With Polar passing through the cusp at 1 Re in the Spring of 1996, we show the correlation of their wave power with mass-resolved O+ derived heating rates. This relationship lead to the study of the coupling of the thermal O+ ions and these bursty electric fields. We demonstrate the role of these measurements in the suggestion of DAW and stochastic ion heating and the observed density cavity characteristics.

  2. Capillary Waves And Energy Coupling In Laser Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, A.; Herziger, G.; Holtgen, B.; Kreutz, E. W.; Treusch, H. G.

    1987-09-01

    Static and dynamic measurements of the incident laser power, of the diffuse and specular reflected power have been performed in order to determine the absorption behavior of various metals and semiconductors during the interaction with powerful CO2-and Nd:YAG-laser-radiation. The absorptivity of the vapor and laser-induced plasma was probed by high-speed photography and measurements of conductivity transients as a function of intensity, composition, and pressure of the ambient atmosphere. For Ienergy coupling is given by the temperature-dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of matter. For I>IB the intensity-dependent energy coupling is governed by the generation of photon-induced plasma in the surface region in combination with the dynamics of the molten and vaporized material within the interaction zone giving in addition indication for capillary waves.

  3. Rossby wave energy dispersion from tropical cyclone in zonal basic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenli; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Liu, Yudi; Ma, Zhanhong; Yang, Lu

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates tropical cyclone energy dispersion under horizontally sheared flows using a nonlinear barotropic model. In addition to common patterns, unusual features of Rossby wave trains are also found in flows with constant vorticity and vorticity gradients. In terms of the direction of the energy dispersion, the wave train can rotate clockwise and elongate southwestward under anticyclonic circulation (ASH), which contributes to the reenhancement of the tropical cyclone (TC). The wave train even splits into two obvious wavelike trains in flows with a southward vorticity gradient (WSH). Energy dispersed from TCs varies over time, and variations in the intensity of the wave train components typically occur in two stages. Wave-activity flux diagnosis and ray tracing calculations are extended to the frame that moves along with the TC to reveal the concrete progress of wave propagation. The direction of the wave-activity flux is primarily determined by the combination of the basic flow and the TC velocity. Along the flux, the distribution of pseudomomentum effectively illustrates the development of wave trains, particularly the rotation and split of wave propagation. Ray tracing involves the quantitative tracing of wave features along rays, which effectively coincide with the wave train regimes. Flows of a constant shear (parabolic meridional variation) produce linear (nonlinear) wave number variations. For the split wave trains, the real and complex wave number waves move along divergent trajectories and are responsible for different energy dispersion ducts.

  4. Lower Hybrid Oscillations in Multicomponent Space Plasmas Subjected to Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Moore, T. E.; Liemohn, M. W.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    It is found that in multicomponent plasmas subjected to Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves, such as are observed in regions of the outer plasmasphere and ring current-plasmapause overlap, lower hybrid oscillations are generated. The addition of a minor heavy ion component to a proton-electron plasma significantly lowers the low-frequency electric wave amplitude needed for lower hybrid wave excitation. It is found that the lower hybrid wave energy density level is determined by the nonlinear process of induced scattering by ions and electrons; hydrogen ions in the region of resonant velocities are accelerated; and nonresonant particles are weakly heated due to the induced scattering. For a given example, the light resonant ions have an energy gain factor of 20, leading to the development of a high-energy tail in the H(+) distribution function due to low-frequency waves.

  5. On the nonlinear couplings among ICRF waves observed in GAMMA 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Okada, T.; Hirata, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sumida, S.; Takeyama, K.; Jang, S.; Oi, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; GAMMA 10 Team

    2014-10-01

    Effective ICRF heating creates high ion-temperature plasma of several kiloelectronvolts and the ion-temperature anisotropy exceeds 10 near the midplane of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. In such environment, left-hand polarized Alfven wave becomes unstable overcoming ion-cyclotron damping and so-called Alfven-ion-cyclotron (AIC) wave is spontaneously excited. Density fluctuations associated with AIC waves and ICRF waves for heating have been recently measured by using reflectometers on GAMMA 10. The measured fluctuations show fruitful wave-wave couplings more clearly than magnetic fluctuations measured by pick-up coils at the plasma periphery. The signals showing the axially transported energetic-ion flux and the diamagnetism display apparent effects of such nonlinear couplings on the global energy confinement of GAMMA 10. Bispectral analysis is applied to the density fluctuations and the detailed characteristics of the nonlinear couplings occurring among the AIC waves and ICRF waves for heating in GAMMA 10 are presented. This work is partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from JSPS, Japan (No. 25400531) and by the bidirectional collaborative research programme of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan (NIFS14KUGM097).

  6. Irregular Wave Energy Extraction Analysis for a Slider Crank WEC Power Take-Off System

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-09-02

    Slider crank Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is a novel energy conversion device. It converts wave energy into electricity at a relatively high efficiency, and it features a simple structure. Past analysis on this WEC has been done under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, and a suboptimal energy could be achieved. This paper presents the analysis of the system under irregular wave conditions; a time-domain hydrodynamics model is adopted and the control methodology is modified to better serve the irregular wave conditions. Results from the simulations show that the performance of the system under irregular wave conditions is different from that under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, but still a reasonable amount of energy can be extracted.

  7. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  8. Comparison of performances of turbines for wave energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoue, Yoichi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kuroda, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Kenji; Takao, Manabu; Thakker, Ajit

    2003-11-01

    The Wells turbine for a wave power generator is a self-rectifying air turbine that is available for an energy conversion in an oscillating water-air column without any rectifying valve. The objective of this paper is to compare the performances of the Wells turbines in which the profile of blade are NACA0020, NACA0015, CA9 and HSIM15-262123-1576 in the small-scale model testing. The running characteristics in the steady flow, the start and running characteristics in the sinusoidal flow and the hysteretic characteristics in the sinusoidal flow were investigated for four kinds of turbine. As a conclusion, the turbine in which the profile of blade is NACA0020 has the best performances among 4 turbines for the running and starting characteristics in the small-scale model testing.

  9. Gravitational wave sirens as a triple probe of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V

    2008-03-15

    Gravitational wave standard sirens have been considered as precision distance indicators of high redshift; however, at high redshift standard sirens or standard candles such as supernovae suffer from lensing noise. We investigate lensing noise as a signal instead and show how measurements of the maximum demagnification (minimum convergence) probe cosmology in a manner highly complementary to the distance itself. Revisiting the original form for minimum convergence we quantify the bias arising from the commonly used approximation. Furthermore, after presenting a new lensing probability function we discuss how the width of the lensed standard siren amplitude distribution also probes growth of structure. Thus standard sirens and candles can serve as triple probes of dark energy, measuring both the cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  10. Gravitational wave sirens as a triple probe of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2008-03-01

    Gravitational wave standard sirens have been considered as precision distance indicators of high redshift; however, at high redshift standard sirens or standard candles such as supernovae suffer from lensing noise. We investigate lensing noise as a signal instead and show how measurements of the maximum demagnification (minimum convergence) probe cosmology in a manner highly complementary to the distance itself. Revisiting the original form for minimum convergence we quantify the bias arising from the commonly used approximation. Furthermore, after presenting a new lensing probability function we discuss how the width of the lensed standard siren amplitude distribution also probes growth of structure. Thus standard sirens and candles can serve as triple probes of dark energy, measuring both the cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  11. Boring and Sealing Rock with Directed Energy Millimeter-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H. H.; Oglesby, K.

    2015-12-01

    Millimeter-wave directed energy is being investigated to penetrate into deep crystalline basement rock formations to lower well costs and to melt rocks, metals, and other additives to seal wells for applications that include nuclear waste storage and geothermal energy. Laboratory tests have established that intense millimeter-wave (MMW) beams > 1 kW/cm2 can melt and/ or vaporize hard crystalline rocks. In principle this will make it possible to create open boreholes and a method to seal them with a glass/ceramic liner and plug formed from the original rock or with other materials. A 10 kW, 28 GHz commercial (CPI) gyrotron system with a launched beam diameter of about 32 mm was used to heat basalt, granite, limestone, and sandstone specimens to temperatures over 2500 °C to create melts and holes. A calibrated 137 GHz radiometer view, collinear with the heating beam, monitored real time peak rock temperature. A water load surrounding the rock test specimen primarily monitored unabsorbed power at 28 GHz. Power balance analysis of the laboratory observations shows that the temperature rise is limited by radiative heat loss, which would be expected to be trapped in a borehole. The analysis also indicates that the emissivity (absorption efficiency) in the radiated infrared range is lower than the emissivity at 28 GHz, giving the MMW frequency range an important advantage for rock melting. Strength tests on one granite type indicated that heating the rock initially weakens it, but with exposure to higher temperatures the resolidified black glassy product regains strength. Basalt was the easiest to melt and penetrate, if a melt leak path was provided, because of its low viscosity. Full beam holes up to about 50 mm diameter (diffraction increased beam size) were achieved through 30 mm thick basalt and granite specimens. Laboratory experiments to form a seal in an existing hole have also been carried out by melting rock and a simulated steel casing.

  12. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-08-01

    A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

  13. Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: Evaluation of SNL-SWAN and Sensitivity Studies in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Magalen, Jason; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    A modified version of an indust ry standard wave modeling tool was evaluated, optimized, and utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters a nd wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deployment scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that wave direction and WEC device type we r e most sensitive to the variation in the model parameters examined in this study . Generally, the changes in wave height we re the primary alteration caused by the presence of a WEC array. Specifically, W EC device type and subsequently their size directly re sult ed in wave height variations; however, it is important to utilize ongoing laboratory studies and future field tests to determine the most appropriate power matrix values for a particular WEC device and configuration in order to improve modeling results .

  14. The effect of plasma shear flow on drift Alfven instabilities of a finite beta plasma and on anomalous heating of ions by ion cyclotron turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Young Hyun; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladimir V.; Mikhailenko, Vladimir S.

    2016-01-01

    It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows. The levels of the drift--Alfven turbulence, resulted from the development of both instabilities, are determined from the renormalized nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for the nonlinear effect of the scattering of ions by the electromagnetic turbulence. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the same effect of the scattering of ions by electromagnetic turbulence, is derived and employed for the analysis of the ion viscosity and ions heating, resulted from the interactions of ions with drift-Alfven turbulence. In the same way, the phenomena of the ion cyclotron turbulence and anomalous anisotropic heating of ions by ion cyclotron plasma turbulence has numerous practical applications in physics of the near-Earth space plasmas. Using the methodology of the shearing modes, the kinetic theory of the ion cyclotron turbulence of the plasma with transverse current with strong velocity shear has been developed.

  15. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate high

  16. Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much_gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

  17. Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

  18. The energy balance of wind waves and the remote sensing problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of wave growth indicate an energy balance of the wave spectrum governed primarily by input from the atmosphere, nonlinear transfer to shorter and longer waves, and advection. The pronounced spectral peak and sharp low frequency cut-off characteristic of fetch-limited spectra are explained as a self-stabilizing feature of the nonlinear wave-wave interactions. The momentum transferred from the atmosphere to the wind waves accounts for a large part of the wind drag. These findings are relevant for remote microwave sensing of the sea surface by backscatter and passive radiometry methods.

  19. SIMULATING WAVES IN THE UPPER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE WITH SURYA: A WELL-BALANCED HIGH-ORDER FINITE-VOLUME CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, F. G.; McMurry, A. D.; Mishra, S.; Waagan, K. E-mail: a.d.mcmurry@ifi.uio.no E-mail: kwaagan@cscamm.umd.edu

    2011-05-10

    We consider the propagation of waves in a stratified non-isothermal magnetic atmosphere. The situation of interest corresponds to waves in the outer solar (chromosphere and corona) and other stellar atmospheres. The waves are simulated by using a high-resolution, well-balanced finite-volume-based massively parallel code named SURYA. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions involving realistic temperature distributions, driving forces, and magnetic field configurations are described. Diverse phenomena such as mode conversion, wave acceleration at the transition layer, and driving-dependent wave dynamics are observed. We obtain evidence for the presence of coronal Alfven waves in some three-dimensional configurations. Although some of the incident wave energy is transmitted into the corona, a large proportion of it is accumulated in the chromosphere, providing a possible mechanism for chromospheric heating.

  20. Alfvenic Turbulence from the Sun to 65 Solar Radii: Numerical predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J. C.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will fly to within 9 solar radii from the solar surface, about 7 times closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft has ever reached. This historic mission will gather unprecedented remote-sensing data and the first in-situ measurements of the plasma in the solar atmosphere, which will revolutionize our knowledge and understanding of turbulence and other processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. This close to the Sun the background solar-wind properties are highly inhomogeneous. As a result, outward-propagating Alfven waves (AWs) arising from the random motions of the photospheric magnetic-field footpoints undergo strong non-WKB reflections and trigger a vigorous turbulent cascade. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of reflection-driven Alfven turbulence in this scenario by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, with the goal of predicting the detailed nature of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations that the SPP mission will measure. In particular, I will place special emphasis on relating the simulations to relevant physical mechanisms that might govern the radial evolution of the turbulence spectra of outward/inward-propagating fluctuations and discuss the conditions that lead to universal power-laws.

  1. Short-Wavelength Solar Wind Turbulence: Kinetic Alfven vs. Whistler Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, S. Peter

    2009-11-01

    The inertial range of solar wind turbulence corresponds to magnetic power spectra which scale as f^-α with α˜ 5/3. Many observations show, however, that at observed frequencies f ˜ 0.2 Hz, there is a ``breakpoint'' such that power spectra at higher frequencies follow a steeper power-law dependence with α> 5/3. The constituent modes of this high-frequency, short-wavelength regime are often attributed to kinetic Alfv'en modes which propagate at strongly oblique directions relative to the background magnetic field. However, whistler fluctuations represent an alternative hypothesis to describe short-wavelength turbulence in the solar wind and, indeed, in any collisionless, magnetized, homogeneous plasma. Particle-in-cell simulations have shown that the whistler cascade yields steep power-law power spectra consistent with observations [1]. This poster will describe a comparison of linear theory properties of kinetic Alfv'en waves and whistler fluctuations, and will apply these results to recent simulations and observations of short-wavelength turbulence in the solar wind.[4pt] [1] Saito, S., S. P. Gary, H. Li, and Y. Narita (2008), Whistler turbulence: Particle-in-cell simulations, Phys. Plasmas, 15, 102305.

  2. Studies of Alfv'enic instabilities by a kinetic-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2009-11-01

    Employing a kinetic-fluid simulation modelfootnotetextC.Z.Cheng and J.R.Johnson, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 413 (1999)., Alfv'enic instabilities driven by energetic particles are studied in tokamak plasmas. The kinetic-fluid model incorporates all the particle dynamics through the pressure tensor by taking the second order moment of the particle simulation while the electromagnetic field quantities are evolved in the fluid equations. The kinetic-fluid model retains the ion and electron wave-particle interaction for both the bulk and the energetic plarticle components. Global Alfven oscillation, continuum damping, and the generation of the TAE gapfootnotetextC.Z.Cheng and M.S.Chance, Phys. Fluids 29, 3695 (1986). in the toroidal geometry are demonstrated in the MHD limit.footnotetextY.Nishimura, J.D.Callen, C.C.Hegna, Phys. Plasmas 6, 4685 (1999). Kinetic particlesfootnotetextY.Nishimura and M.Azumi, Phys. Plasmas 4, 2365 (1997). footnotetextY.Nishimura, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 48, 224 (2008). are then incorporated into the fluid set of equations to excite the instabilities (bulk ions/electrons replace the pressure evolution equation). This work is supported by National Cheng Kung University Top University Project.

  3. Microphysics of Waves and Instabilities in the Solar Wind and their Macro Manifestations in the Corona and Interplanetary Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia R.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of the physical processes responsible for the acceleration of the solar wind were pursued with the development of two new solar wind codes: a hybrid code and a 2-D MHD code. Hybrid simulations were performed to investigate the interaction between ions and parallel propagating low frequency ion cyclotron waves in a homogeneous plasma. In a low-beta plasma such as the solar wind plasma in the inner corona, the proton thermal speed is much smaller than the Alfven speed. Vlasov linear theory predicts that protons are not in resonance with low frequency ion cyclotron waves. However, non-linear effect makes it possible that these waves can strongly heat and accelerate protons. This study has important implications for study of the corona and the solar wind. Low frequency ion cyclotron waves or Alfven waves are commonly observed in the solar wind. Until now, it is believed that these waves are not able to heat the solar wind plasma unless some cascading processes transfer the energy of these waves to high frequency part. However, this study shows that these waves may directly heat and accelerate protons non-linearly. This process may play an important role in the coronal heating and the solar wind acceleration, at least in some parameter space.

  4. Comparison of magnetosonic wave and water group ion energy densities at Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Forster, P. M. De F.; Hynds, R. J.; Yates, T. S.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the Comet Giacobini-Zinner (GZ) are presented to determine to what extent wave-particle scattering redistributed the initial pick-up energy of the ion population. Also examined is the difference between the ion thermal energy and the energy in the magnetic fields of the waves. In spite of uncertainty of about a factor of 2 noted in the pick-up and mass-loaded regions, it is shown that less than approximately 50 percent of the pick-up energy is converted into wave magnetic energy in the inbound pick-up region.

  5. Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.

    1989-01-01

    A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.

  6. Energetic Particle Transport in Strong Compressive Wave Turbulence Near Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Le Roux, J.A.; Zank, G.P.; Li, G.; Webb, G.M.

    2005-08-01

    Strong interplanetary coronal mass ejection driven shocks are often accompanied by high levels of low frequency compressive wave turbulence. This might require a non-linear kinetic theory approach to properly describe energetic particle transport in their vicinity. We present a non-linear diffusive kinetic theory for suprathermal particle transport and stochastic acceleration along the background magnetic field in strong compressive dynamic wave turbulence to which small-scale Alfven waves are coupled. Our theory shows that the standard cosmic-ray transport equation must be revised for low suprathermal particle energies to accommodate fundamental changes in spatial diffusion (standard diffusion becomes turbulent diffusion) as well as modifications to particle convection, and adiabatic energy changes. In addition, a momentum diffusion term, which generates accelerated suprathermal particle spectra with a hard power law, must be added. Such effective first stage acceleration possibly leads to efficient injection of particles into second stage diffusive shock acceleration as described by standard theory.

  7. Gyrokinetic simulation of global and local Alfven eigenmodes driven by energetic particles in a DIII-D discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, E. M.; Waltz, R. E.

    2013-01-15

    The unstable spectrum of Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) driven by neutral beam-sourced energetic particles (EPs) in a benchmark DIII-D discharge (142111) is calculated in a fully gyrokinetic model using the GYRO code's massively parallel linear eigenvalue solver. One cycle of the slow (equilibrium scale) frequency sweep of the reverse shear Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) at toroidal mode number n=3 is mapped. The RSAE second harmonic and an unstable beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) are simultaneously tracked alongside the primary RSAE. An observed twist in the eigenmode pattern, caused mostly by shear in the driving EP profile, is shown through artificially varying the E Multiplication-Sign B rotational velocity shear to depend generally on shear in the local wave phase velocity. Coupling to the BAE and to the toroidal Alfven eigenmode limit the RSAE frequency sweeps at the lower and upper end, respectively. While the present fully gyrokinetic model (including thermal ions and electrons) constitutes the best treatment of compressibility physics available, the BAE frequency is overpredicted by about 20% against experiment here and is found to be sensitive to energetic beam ion pressure. The RSAE frequency is more accurately matched except when it is limited by the BAE. Simulations suggest that the experiment is very close to marginal AE stability at points of RSAE-BAE coupling. A recipe for comparing the radial profile of quasilinear transport flux from local modes to that from global modes paves the way for the development of a stiff (critical gradient) local AE transport model based on local mode stability thresholds.

  8. A theory for narrow-banded radio bursts at Uranus - MHD surface waves as an energy driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A possible scenario for the generation of the narrow-banded radio bursts detected at Uranus by the Voyager 2 planetary radio astronomy experiment is described. In order to account for the emission burstiness which occurs on time scales of hundreds of milliseconds, it is proposed that ULF magnetic surface turbulence generated at the frontside magnetopause propagates down the open/closed field line boundary and mode-converts to kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) deep within the polar cusp. The oscillating KAW potentials then drive a transient electron stream that creates the bursty radio emission. To substantiate these ideas, Voyager 2 magnetometer measurements of enhanced ULF magnetic activity at the frontside magnetopause are shown. It is demonstrated analytically that such magnetic turbulence should mode-convert deep in the cusp at a radial distance of 3 RU.

  9. Absolute instability from linear conversion of counter-propagating positive and negative energy waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J.; Tracy, E.R.

    1997-12-31

    The resonant interaction of a negative-energy wave with a positive-energy wave gives rise to a linear instability. Whereas a single crossing of rays in a nonuniform medium leads to a convectively saturated instability, we show that a double crossing can yield an absolute instability.

  10. Study of Ocean Bottom Interactions with Acoustic Waves by a New Elastic Wave Propagation Algorithm and an Energy Flow Analysis Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Study Of Ocean Bottom Interactions With Acoustic Waves By A New Elastic Wave Propagation Algorithm And An Energy Flow Analysis Technique Ru-Shan Wu...imaging to study the wave/sea-bottom interaction, energy partitioning, scattering mechanism and other problems that are crucial for many ocean bottom...Elastic Wave Propagation Algorithm And An Energy Flow Analysis Technique 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  11. Nonlinear shock acceleration. III - Finite wave velocity, wave pressure, and entropy generation via wave damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear theory of shock acceleration developed in earlier papers, which treated the waves as being completely frozen into the fluid, is generalized to include wave dynamics. In the limit where damping keeps the wave amplitude small, it is found that a finite phase velocity (V sub ph) of the scattering waves through the background fluid, tempers the acceleration generated by high Mach number shocks. Asymptotic spectra proportional to 1/E sq are possible only when the ratio of wave velocity to shock velocity is less than 0.13. For a given asymptotic spectrum, the efficiency of relativistic particle production is found to be practically independent of the value of V sub ph, so that earlier results concerning its value remain valid for finite V sub ph. In the limit where there is no wave damping, it is shown that for modest Alfven Mach numbers, approximately greater than 4 and less than 6, the magnetic field is amplified by the energetic particles to the point of being in rough equipartition with them, as models of synchrotron emission frequently take the field to be. In this case, the disordering and amplification of field energy may play a major role in the shock transition.

  12. An oscillating wave energy converter with nonlinear snap-through Power-Take-Off systems in regular waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei

    2016-07-01

    Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.

  13. The synoptic setting and possible energy sources for mesoscale wave disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, Louis W.; Koch, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Published data on 13 cases of mesoscale wave disturbances and their environment were examined to isolate common features for these cases and to determine possible energy sources for the waves. These events are characterized by either a singular wave of depression or wave packets with periods of 1-4 h, horizontal wavelengths of 50-500 km, and surface-pressure perturbation amplitudes of 0.2-7.0 mb. These wave events are shown to be associated with a distinct synoptic pattern (including the existence of a strong inversion in the lower troposphere and the propagation of a jet streak toward a ridge axis in the upper troposphere) while displaying little correlation with the presence of convective storm cells. The observed development of the waves is consistent with the hypothesis that the energy source needed to initiate and sustain the wave disturbances may be related to a geostrophic adjustment process associated with upper-tropospheric jet streaks.

  14. Estimating wave energy dissipation in the surf zone using thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.; Chickadel, C. Chris; Jessup, Andrew T.; Thomson, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Thermal infrared (IR) imagery is used to quantify the high spatial and temporal variability of dissipation due to wave breaking in the surf zone. The foam produced in an actively breaking crest, or wave roller, has a distinct signature in IR imagery. A retrieval algorithm is developed to detect breaking waves and extract wave roller length using measurements taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC. The remotely derived roller length and an in situ estimate of wave slope are used to estimate dissipation due to wave breaking by means of the wave-resolving model by Duncan (1981). The wave energy dissipation rate estimates show a pattern of increased breaking during low tide over a sand bar, consistent with in situ turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from fixed and drifting instruments over the bar. When integrated over the surf zone width, these dissipation rate estimates account for 40-69% of the incoming wave energy flux. The Duncan (1981) estimates agree with those from a dissipation parameterization by Janssen and Battjes (2007), a wave energy dissipation model commonly applied within nearshore circulation models.

  15. Internal solitary wave transformation over a bottom step: loss of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Tatiana; Terletska, Katherina; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae; Pelinovsky, Efim; Grimshaw, Roger

    2013-04-01

    The interaction of an internal solitary wave with a bottom step is studied to estimate the energy loss of an incident internal solitary wave. It is studied numerically in a computing tank in the approximation of two-layer flow within the full Navier - Stokes equations. Five different regimes of internal solitary wave interaction were identified within the full range of ratios of height of bottom layer after the step to the incident wave amplitude: (1) weak interaction, when wave dynamics can fully described by weakly nonlinear theory, (2) moderate interaction when wave breaking mechanism over the step is mainly shear instability, (3) strong interaction when supercritical flow in the step vicinity results in backward jet and vortices for depression waves and in a forward moving vortex (bolus) transporting dense fluid on the step, (4) transitional regime of interaction at the step height between splash on the step and (5) complete reflection from the step, and reflection regime when almost all energy transfers to the energy of reflected wave. The mechanism of KH instability takes place for reasonable amplitude waves of both depression and elevation during interaction with the bottom step for all regimes except regime 1. For this two-layer flow the energy loss due to an internal solitary wave interacting with the bottom step does not exceed 50% of the energy of the incident wave. The maximum of energy loss an elevation incident wave is reached when the ratio of the height of bottom layer after the step to incident wave amplitude equals zero. For an incident depression wave this ratio in maximum of energy loss is close to one. Self-similarities of the energy loss versus the ratio of the height of upper layer after the step to incident wave amplitude take place for the values more than -0.75 for elevation ISW and for more than 0.5 for depression ISW. It is shown that incident depression ISW in the transitional regime reflects with the formation of secondary solitary

  16. Magnetic helicity conservation and inverse energy cascade in electron magnetohydrodynamic wave packets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2011-05-13

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.

  17. Weak turbulant theory estimation for non-linear energy, wave action and momentum fluxes in wind wave spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenov, I.

    2003-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the Hasselmann kinetic equation for gravity waves in water surface confirms basic predictions of the weak-turbulent theory. Three different stages can be defined in the wave spectrum evolution.. At the first stage the spectrum unstable growth is observed within the range of the external force input. High frequency spectrum development is observed at the second stage of spectrum evolution. The frequency spectrum is becoming larger within high frequency range and a spectral growth is penetrated to a larger frequency range. After that the spectrum remains almost constant at high frequency range. In both isotropic and non-isotropic cases the spectra are found out to be close to the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum pow(w,-4) not only in the universal range, but in the range of wave energy input. Formation of this asymptotic spectrum happens explosively. The third stage of spectrum evolution is revealed for a larger time period. It is characterized by a slow spectrum evolution into a low frequency range. The spectrum value becomes larger penetrating to a smaller frequency range with decreasing speed in accordance with experimental data. In low frequency range a power spectrum is revealed for both isotropic and non-isotropic cases with the spectra close to the Zakharov-Zaslavskii spectrum pow(w,-11/3). Main energy flux is directed to the high frequency range. Its value makes up 77 per cent of total value of wave energy input coming from external source. Main wave action flux is directed to low frequency range. Its relative value is equal to 75 per cents of total wave action flux input. 25 per cents of wave action is directed to high frequency range. Almost all wave momentum (up to 98 per cents) is directed to high frequency range. The investigations are supported by the Grants: RFBR 01-05-64846, and INTAS-(99)-666, INTAS - (01)-234, INTAS-(01)-2156.

  18. Experimental investigation of change of energy of infragavity waves in dependence on spectral characteristics of an irregular wind waves in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, Yana; Divinskii, Boris

    2013-04-01

    An infragravity waves are long waves with periods of 20 - 300 s. Most essential influence of infragarvity waves on dynamic processes is in a coastal zone, where its energy can exceed the energy of wind waves. From practical point of view, the infragravity waves are important, firstly, due to their influence on sand transport processes in a coastal zone. For example, interacting with group structure of wind waves the infragravity waves can define position of underwater bars on sandy coast. Secondly, they are responsible on formation of long waves in harbors. Main source of infragravity waves is wave group structure defined by sub-nonlinear interactions of wind waves (Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, 1962). These infragravity waves are bound with groups of wind waves and propagate with wave group velocity. Another type of infragravity waves are formed in a surf zone as a result of migration a wave breaking point (Symonds, et al., 1982). What from described above mechanisms of formation of infragravity waves prevails, till now it is unknown. It is also unknown how energy of infragravity waves depends on energy of input wind waves and how it changes during nonlinear wave transformation in coastal zone. In our work on the basis of the analysis of data of field experiment and numerical simulation a contribution of infragravity waves in total wave energy in depending on integral characteristics of an irregular wave field in the conditions of a real bathymetry was investigated. For analysis the data of field experiment "Shkorpilovtsy-2007" (Black sea) and data of numerical modeling of Boussinesq type equation with extended dispersion characteristics (Madsen et al., 1997) were used. It was revealed that infragravity waves in a coastal zone are defined mainly by local group structure of waves, which permanently changes due to nonlinearity, shoaling and breaking processes. Free infragravity waves appearing after wave breaking exist together with bound infragravity waves. There are

  19. A geospatial assessment of the relationship between reef flat community calcium carbonate production and wave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamylton, S. M.; Pescud, A.; Leon, J. X.; Callaghan, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The ability of benthic communities inhabiting coral reefs to produce calcium carbonate underpins the development of reef platforms and associated sedimentary landforms, as well as the fixation of inorganic carbon and buffering of diurnal pH fluctuations in ocean surface waters. Quantification of the relationship between reef flat community calcium carbonate production and wave energy provides an empirical basis for understanding and managing this functionally important process. This study employs geospatial techniques across the reef platform at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, to (1) map the distribution and estimate the total magnitude of reef community carbonate production and (2) empirically ascertain the influence of wave energy on community carbonate production. A World-View-2 satellite image and a field data set of 364 ground referencing points are employed, along with data on physical reef characteristics (e.g. bathymetry, rugosity) to map and validate the spatial distribution of the four major community carbonate producers (live coral, carbonate sand, green calcareous macroalgae and encrusting calcified algae) across the reef platform. Carbonate production is estimated for the complete reef platform from the composition of these community components. A synoptic model of wave energy is developed using the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) two-dimensional model for the entire reef platform. The relationship between locally derived measures of carbonate production and wave energy is evaluated at both the global scale and local scale along spatial gradients of wave energy traversing the reef platform. A wave energy threshold is identified, below which carbonate production levels appear to increase with wave energy and above which mechanical forcing reduces community production. This implies an optimal set of hydrodynamic conditions characterized by wave energy levels of approximately 300 J m-2, providing an empirical basis for management of potential changes

  20. Energy Sources of T-Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, N.; Albarran, J.

    1984-06-01

    We empirically estimated the total energy loss from the atmospheric regions above the photo sphere in T Tauri stars. We have also estimated the flux input into the atmosphere by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) aves produced in the subphotospheric convection zone. Within the uncertainties of both theory and observations, this flux seems to represent the basic energy input into the atmosphere provided that a large surface coverage of magnetic regions exists. In addition to this basic energy input from the convection zone the T Tauri atmospheres must have other energy sources, originating in the stellar surfitee. Among those we can include the flux of energy carried by Alfven waves resulting from the action of surface material motions on magnetic flux tubes, as well as dissipation and annihilation of magnetic fields in flare events. The observed decrease in emission line fluxes with luminosity seems to indicate that MHD wave fluxes heat the chromosphere, while the uppermost atmospheric regions require another source of heating.

  1. Wave energy saturation on a natural beach of variable slope.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H.; Holman, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Time series of flow were measured across the inner surf zone during a storm. These data were used to quantify the dependence of wave height (transformed from measured flow) and velocity on local slope and depth. Local depth increased with local slope and was independent of deepwater wave steepness.-from Authors

  2. Gravitational waves, energy and Feynman’s “sticky bead”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstock, F. I.

    2015-07-01

    It is noted that in the broader sense, gravitational waves viewed as spacetime curvature which necessarily accompanies electromagnetic waves at the speed of light, are the routine perception of our everyday experience. We focus on the energy issue and Feynman’s “sticky bead” argument which has been regarded as central in supporting the conclusion that gravitational waves carry energy through the vacuum in general relativity. We discuss the essential neglected aspects of his approach which leads to the conclusion that gravitational waves would not cause Feynman’s bead to heat the stick on which it would supposedly rub. This opens the way to an examination of the entire issue of energy in general relativity. We briefly discuss our naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. When the cosmological term is included in the field equations, our energy expression includes the vacuum energy as required.

  3. Quantified Energy Dissipation Rates in the Terrestrial Bow Shock. 2; Waves and Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Breneman, A. W.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C.; Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first quantified measure of the energy dissipation rates, due to wave-particle interactions, in the transition region of the Earth's collision-less bow shock using data from the Time History of Events and Macro-Scale Interactions during Sub-Storms spacecraft. Our results show that wave-particle interactions can regulate the global structure and dominate the energy dissipation of collision-less shocks. In every bow shock crossing examined, we observed both low-frequency (less than 10 hertz) and high-frequency (approximately or greater than10 hertz) electromagnetic waves throughout the entire transition region and into the magnetosheath. The low-frequency waves were consistent with magnetosonic-whistler waves. The high-frequency waves were combinations of ion-acoustic waves, electron cyclotron drift instability driven waves, electrostatic solitary waves, and whistler mode waves. The high-frequency waves had the following: (1) peak amplitudes exceeding delta B approximately equal to 10 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 300 millivolts per meter, though more typical values were delta B approximately equal to 0.1-1.0 nanoteslas and delta E approximately equal to 10-50 millivolts per meter (2) Poynting fluxes in excess of 2000 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter) (typical values were approximately 1-10 microWm(sup -2) (micro-waves per square meter); (3) resistivities greater than 9000 omega meters; and (4) associated energy dissipation rates greater than 10 microWm(sup -3) (micro-waves per cubic meter). The dissipation rates due to wave-particle interactions exceeded rates necessary to explain the increase in entropy across the shock ramps for approximately 90 percent of the wave burst durations. For approximately 22 percent of these times, the wave-particle interactions needed to only be less than or equal to 0.1 percent efficient to balance the nonlinear wave steepening that produced the shock waves. These results show that wave

  4. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment.

  5. Low-energy D-wave positronium-hydrogen scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Denton; van Reeth, P.; Ward, S. J.

    2014-03-01

    We are investigating the four-body Coulomb process of positronium-hydrogen (Ps-H) scattering below the Ps(n=2) excitation threshold using the Kohn variational method and variants. Our Ps-H 1 D -wave phase shifts compare reasonably well with the close-coupling results, but our 3 D -wave phase shifts are appreciably lower. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of these, we are employing a sectors-based approach and the modification of the short-range Hylleraas terms with an exponential in the r12 coordinate. We are investigating the use of the Born approximation for higher partial waves. We plan also to present our latest S-wave and P-wave results using the Kohn variational method. S.J. Ward acknowledges support from NSF under grant no. PHYS-968638.

  6. On the interpretation of energy and energy fluxes of nonlinear internal waves: An example from Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.; Butman, B.

    2006-01-01

    A self-consistent formalism to estimate baroclinic energy densities and fluxes resulting from the propagation of internal waves of arbitrary amplitude is derived using the concept of available potential energy. The method can be applied to numerical, laboratory or field data. The total energy flux is shown to be the sum of the linear energy flux ??? u??? p??? dz (primes denote baroclinic quantities), plus contributions from the non-hydrostatic pressure anomaly and the self-advection of kinetic and available potential energy. Using highly resolved observations in Massachusetts Bay, it is shown that due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves periodically propagating in the area, ??? u??? p??? dz accounts for only half of the total flux. The same data show that equipartition of available potential and kinetic energy can be violated, especially when the nonlinear waves begin to interact with the bottom. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  7. H-He elastic scattering at low energies: Contribution of nonzero partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports the nonzero partial wave elastic cross sections together with s-wave results for the scattering of an antihydrogen atom off a gaseous helium target at thermal energies (up to 10{sup -2} a.u.). We have used a nonadiabatic atomic orbital method having different basis sets to investigate the system. The consideration of all the significant partial waves (up to J=24) reduces the oscillatory nature present in the individual partial wave cross section. The added elastic cross section is almost constant up to 10{sup -7} a.u. and then decreases steadily and very slowly with increasing energy.

  8. Measurement of Phase Space Structure of Fast Ions Interacting with Alfven Eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Osakabe, Masaki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Ogawa, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Fontdecaba, Jose M.

    2015-11-01

    Experimentally observed Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) shows nonlinear behaviors such as intermittency, fast sweep in frequency and so on. In order to understand such nonlinear behaviors of AEs, it is widely recognized that the phase space structure have to be taken into account. However, there are few direct measurements of phase space structure in experiments so far. Here, we propose to apply the wave-particle interaction analyzer (WPIA) technique being developed for magnetosphere plasma physics (ERG project) to magnetically confinement fusion experiments. In the meeting, we present a high speed pulse analyzer system for WPIA using the field programmable gate array (FPGA) module and discuss the phase space structures observed in the LHD experiment. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 26709071.

  9. Investigation on the possibility of extracting wave energy from the Texas coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haces-Fernandez, Francisco

    Due to the great and growing demand of energy consumption in the Texas Coast area, the generation of electricity from ocean waves is considered very important. The combination of the wave energy with offshore wind power is explored as a way to increase power output, obtain synergies, maximize the utilization of assigned marine zones and reduce variability. Previously literature has assessed the wave energy generation, combined with wind in different geographic locations such as California, Ireland and the Azores Island. In this research project, the electric power generation from ocean waves on the Texas Coast was investigated, assessing its potential from the meteorological data provided by five buoys from National Data Buoy Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, considering the Pelamis 750 kW Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and the Vesta V90 3 MW Wind Turbine. The power output from wave energy was calculated for the year 2006 using Matlab, and the results in several locations were considered acceptable in terms of total power output, but with a high temporal variability. To reduce its variability, wave energy was combined with wind energy, obtaining a significant reduction on the coefficient of variation on the power output. A Matlab based interface was created to calculate power output and its variability considering data from longer periods of time.

  10. Laboratory air-entraining breaking waves: Imaging visible foam signatures to estimate energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Deane, G. B.; Stokes, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    Oceanic air-entraining breaking waves fundamentally influence weather and climate through bubble-mediated ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and influence marine engineering design by impacting statistics of wave heights, crest heights, and wave loading. However, estimating individual breaking wave energy dissipation in the field remains a fundamental problem. Using laboratory experiments, we introduce a new method to estimate energy dissipation by individual breaking waves using above-water images of evolving foam. The data show the volume of the breaking wave two-phase flow integrated in time during active breaking scales linearly with wave energy dissipated. To determine the volume time-integral, above-water images of surface foam provide the breaking wave timescale and horizontal extent of the submerged bubble plume, and the foam decay time provides an estimate of the bubble plume penetration depth. We anticipate that this novel remote sensing method will improve predictions of air-sea exchanges, validate models of wave energy dissipation, and inform ocean engineering design.

  11. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  12. Effect of Stress on Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis fiber axis) and the x1 axis for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.

  13. The physical basis for estimating wave-energy spectra with the radar ocean-wave spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Frederick C.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of the reflectivity modulation spectrum of the sea surface for near-nadir-viewing microwave radars using geometrical optics is described. The equations required for the derivation are presented. The derived reflectivity modulation spectrum provides data on the physical basis of the radar ocean-wave spectrometer measurements of ocean-wave directional spectra.

  14. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions.

  15. Small amplitude transverse waves on taut strings: exploring the significant effects of longitudinal motion on wave energy location and propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David R.

    2013-03-01

    Introductory discussions of energy transport due to transverse waves on taut strings universally assume that the effects of longitudinal motion can be neglected, but this assumption is not even approximately valid unless the string is idealized to have a zero relaxed length, a requirement approximately met by the slinky spring. While making this additional idealization is probably the best approach to take when discussing waves on strings at the introductory level, for intermediate to advanced undergraduate classes in continuum mechanics and general wave phenomena where somewhat more realistic models of strings can be investigated, this paper makes the following contributions. First, various approaches to deriving the general energy continuity equation are critiqued and it is argued that the standard continuum mechanics approach to deriving such equations is the best because it leads to a conceptually clear, relatively simple derivation which provides a unique answer of greatest generality. In addition, a straightforward algorithm for calculating the transverse and longitudinal waves generated when a string is driven at one end is presented and used to investigate a cos2 transverse pulse. This example illustrates much important physics regarding energy transport in strings and allows the ‘attack waves’ observed when strings in musical instruments are struck or plucked to be approximately modelled and analysed algebraically. Regarding the ongoing debate as to whether the potential energy density in a string can be uniquely defined, it is shown by coupling an external energy source to a string that a suggested alternative formula for potential energy density requires an unphysical potential energy to be ascribed to the source for overall energy to be conserved and so cannot be considered to be physically valid.