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Sample records for alga callophycus serratus

  1. Bromophycoic acids: Bioactive natural products from a Fijian red alga Callophycus sp

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Margaret E.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Engel, Sebastian; Alexander, Troy S.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Torres, Manuel; Le Roch, Karine; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from a Fijian red alga in the genus Callophycus resulted in the isolation of five new compounds of the diterpene-benzoate class. Bromophycoic acids A-E (1–5) were characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses and represent two novel carbon skeletons, one with an unusual proposed biosynthesis. These compounds display a range of activities against human tumor cell lines, malarial parasite, and bacterial pathogens including low micromolar suppression of MRSA and VREF. PMID:22920243

  2. The invasion of the intertidal canopy-forming alga Fucus serratus L. to southwestern Iceland: Possible community effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingólfsson, Agnar

    2008-04-01

    The intertidal serrated wrack, Fucus serratus L. (Fucales: Phaeophyceae), has become an abundant canopy-forming alga along a ca. 100 km stretch of shore in southwestern Iceland in the last century. Its distribution has not changed noticeably since a survey in 1975/1976. Many experimental studies have shown that canopy-forming algae can have profound effects on the community structure. Although such experiments involving F. serratus are few it was decided to test predictions from these experiments on a geographical scale by comparing community compositions within the area where F. serratus is a dominant algae (since at least 1975/1976) with an adjacent area of similar size where F. serratus is absent (with a single exception without consequences). The work is based on measurements on some 372 stations in the F. serratus area, termed region A, and 227 stations from the F. serratus-free area, termed region B. Percentage cover of algae and sessile invertebrates was estimated on 2 m 2 on each station and animals collected from 800 cm 2 from each station. The vertical distribution of F. serratus was most similar to that of Fucus distichus and the two species often grew intermingled on the lower part of the shore. F. serratus appeared to have reduced the cover of F. distichus in the lowermost part of the shore, while having little or no effect on other canopy-forming species. The low abundance of Semibalanus balanoides in the F. serratus area (region A) is in line with experiments showing detrimental effect on this barnacle by whiplash of F. serratus. In general algal grazers were more abundant in region A, consistent with the greater attractiveness of F. serratus than other canopy-forming species to grazers, although this may be partly explained by the abundance of understorey algae in region A.

  3. Pronounced gradients of light, photosynthesis and O2 consumption in the tissue of the brown alga Fucus serratus.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Macroalgae live in an ever-changing light environment affected by wave motion, self-shading and light-scattering effects, and on the thallus scale, gradients of light and chemical parameters influence algal photosynthesis. However, the thallus microenvironment and internal gradients remain underexplored. In this study, microsensors were used to quantify gradients of light, O2 concentration, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and O2 consumption as a function of irradiance in the cortex and medulla layers of Fucus serratus. The two cortex layers showed more efficient light utilization compared to the medulla, calculated both from electron transport rates through photosystem II and from photosynthesis-irradiance curves. At moderate irradiance, the upper cortex exhibited onset of photosynthetic saturation, whereas lower thallus layers exhibited net O2 consumption. O2 consumption rates in light varied with depth and irradiance and were more than two-fold higher than dark respiration. We show that the thallus microenvironment of F. serratus exhibits a highly stratified balance of production and consumption of O2 , and when the frond was held in a fixed position, high incident irradiance levels on the upper cortex did not saturate photosynthesis in the lower thallus layers. We discuss possible photoadaptive responses and consequences for optimizing photosynthetic activity on the basis of vertical differences in light attenuation coefficients.

  4. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast: acclimatization potential to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-02-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45° latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the warmer temperatures. The main objectives of this study were to identify whether the thermal tolerance of the canopy-forming seaweed Fucus serratus is population-specific and where temperatures are likely to exceed its tolerance limits in the next 200 years. We measured the stress response of seaweed samples from four populations (Norway, Denmark, Brittany and Spain) to common-garden heat stress (20 °C-36 °C) in both photosynthetic performance and transcriptomic upregulation of heat shock protein genes. The two stress indicators did not correlate and likely measured different cellular components of the stress response, but both indicators revealed population-specific differences, suggesting ecotypic differentiation. Our results confirmed that thermal extremes will regularly reach physiologically stressful levels in Brittany (France) and further south by the end of the 22nd century. Although heat stress resilience in photosynthetic performance was higher at the species' southern distributional edge in Spain, the hsp expression pattern suggested that this edge-population experienced reduced fitness and limited responsiveness to further stressors. Thus, F. serratus may be unable to mitigate its predicted northward shift and may be at high risk to lose its center of genetic diversity and adaptability in Brittany (France). As it is an important intertidal key species, the disappearance of this seaweed will likely trigger major ecological changes in the entire associated ecosystem.

  5. Radiocarbon behaviour in seawater and the brown algae Fucus serratus in the vicinity of the COGEMA La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant (Goury)--France.

    PubMed

    Douville, Eric; Fiévet, Bruno; Germain, Pierre; Fournier, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Extensive studies of the radiocarbon (14C) distribution and transfer in the marine environment of the North-Cotentin peninsula and along the English Channel have been carried out. The main aims of these studies have been to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the 14C concentration in seawater and to calculate 14C concentration factors for some biological species. Such information will be helpful in order to calculate precisely radiation doses to humans. First results obtained in the vicinity of the COGEMA La Hague nuclear plant (Goury) indicate a 14C labelling of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater (8.0-26.2 Bq.m(-3)) and a tight relationship between the 14C in the liquid releases from the plant and the 14C concentrations in DIC. The particulate organic carbon (POC) is also labelled. The concentration factor calculations for the brown algae (Fucus serratus) sampled from Goury, and also along the English Channel, give 14C values around 3000 Bq.kg(-1) fresh weight / Bq.L(-1).

  6. Arabinogalactan proteins have deep roots in eukaryotes: identification of genes and epitopes in brown algae and their role in Fucus serratus embryo development.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; Siméon, Amandine; Jam, Murielle; Cassin, Andrew; Johnson, Kim L; Salmeán, Armando A; Willats, William G T; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony; Kloareg, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated, hydroxyproline-rich proteins found at the cell surface of plants, where they play key roles in developmental processes. Brown algae are marine, multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes. They belong to the phylum Stramenopiles, which is unrelated to land plants and green algae (Chloroplastida). Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell wall. They differ markedly from plants in their cell wall composition, and AGPs have not been reported in brown algae. Here we investigated the presence of chimeric AGP-like core proteins in this lineage. We report that the genome sequence of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus encodes AGP protein backbone motifs, in a gene context that differs considerably from what is known in land plants. We showed the occurrence of AGP glycan epitopes in a range of brown algal cell wall extracts. We demonstrated that these chimeric AGP-like core proteins are developmentally regulated in embryos of the order Fucales and showed that AGP loss of function seriously impairs the course of early embryogenesis. Our findings shine a new light on the role of AGPs in cell wall sensing and raise questions about the origin and evolution of AGPs in eukaryotes.

  7. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-07

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs.

  8. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varun Kumar; Vargaonkar, Gauresh Shantaram

    2014-01-01

    Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result.

  9. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia.

  10. Serratus anterior disruption: a complication of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Meythaler, J M; Reddy, N M; Mitz, M

    1986-10-01

    Pathology influencing the serratus anterior muscle contributes to classical medial winging of the scapula. Serratus anterior weakness or injury interferes with regular shoulder movement as this muscle stabilizes the medial border of the scapula against the thorax and rotates the scapula upward and laterally with arm elevation. Traumatic injury to the serratus anterior muscle without electrodiagnostic evidence of neurogenic involvement has only been reported once previously. We report an unusual case of disruption of the serratus anterior as a complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Involvement of the long thoracic nerve was ruled out by electromyography and nerve conduction studies. The injury occurred during routine activities of daily living and was complicated by a recurring subscapular hematoma. Contributing factors of shoulder joint contractures and coagulation abnormalities were associated with the course and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Initial treatment was by joint immobilization and reversal of coagulation abnormalities. Later treatment was directed toward joint protection and gradually increasing range of motion exercises.

  11. Pectoralis major transfer for serratus anterior paralysis.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Scott P; Wood, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    Serratus anterior paralysis can result in winging of the scapula and weakness of arm elevation. The etiology of the condition is injury to the long thoracic nerve. There are many proposed causes of long thoracic nerve injury including acute trauma, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or viral illness. The long length of the long thoracic nerve makes it prone to compression injury along the chest wall. Most patients recover nerve function with conservative treatment. In those in whom nerve function fails to recover, surgical treatment involving pectoralis major transfer may be beneficial. In this study 9 patients underwent pectoralis major transfer with a fascia lata extension graft. The symptoms of most were improved, with correction of the winging and improved movement in the affected shoulder.

  12. Ca2+ and Calmodulin Dynamics during Photopolarization in Fucus serratus Zygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Love, J.; Brownlee, C.; Trewavas, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Ca2+ in zygote polarization in fucoid algae (Fucus, Ascophyllum, and Pelvetia species) zygote polarization is controversial. Using a local source of Fucus serratus, we established that zygotes form a polar axis relative to unilateral light (photopolarization) between 8 and 14 h after fertilization (AF), and become committed to this polarity at approximately 15 to 18 h AF. We investigated the role of Ca2+, calmodulin, and actin during photopolarization by simultaneously exposing F. serratus zygotes to polarizing light and various inhibitors. Neither removal of Ca2+ from the culture medium or high concentrations of EGTA and LaCl3 had any effect on photopolarization. Bepridil, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino) octyl ester, nifedipine, and verapamil, all of which block intracellular Ca2 release, reduced photopolarization from 75 to 30%. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-L-naphthalenesulfonamide and trifluoperazine inhibited photopolarization in all zygotes, whereas N-(6-aminohexyl)-L-naphthalenesulfonamide had no effect. Cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D, and latrunculin B, all of which inhibit actin polymerization, had no effect on photopolarization, but arrested polar axis fixation. The role of calmodulin during polarization was investigated further. Calmodulin mRNA from the closely related brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera was cloned and the protein was expressed in bacteria. Photopolarization was enhanced following microinjections of this recombinant calmodulin into developing zygotes. Confocal imaging of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled recombinant calmodulin in photopolarized zygotes showed a homogenous signal distribution at 13 h AF, which localized to the presumptive rhizoid site at 15 h AF. PMID:12223805

  13. Physical therapy management of isolated serratus anterior muscle paralysis.

    PubMed

    Watson, C J; Schenkman, M

    1995-03-01

    This case report presents a patient who developed right shoulder pain following strenuous upper-extremity exercise. Approximately 6 weeks later his pain resolved, he noticed persistent right upper-extremity weakness. He was referred to physical therapy for evaluation and treatment. Physical therapy evaluation revealed isolated serratus anterior muscle paralysis. A long thoracic neuropathy was subsequently confirmed by electromyographic testing. The etiology, pathophysiology, and pathokinesiology of serratus anterior muscle paralysis are reviewed. A case is presented, illustrating how the clinical decision making is based on the pathokinesiology and pathophysiology. The patient was followed over the course of 17 months and has recovered full right shoulder active range of motion. His serratus anterior muscle strength has increased to Good minus, and he reports significantly improved functional use of the upper extremity.

  14. [Avulsion fracture of the serratus anterior muscle in a golfer].

    PubMed

    Winther, Annika Kloster Norland; Øhlenschlæger, Tommy F

    2015-01-26

    Golf is a sport with much repetitive actions often causing overuse injuries. We report a case of a left side avulsion fracture of the anterior serratus at the insertion on costa 4-6. A professionel golfer experienced sudden onset of pain of the chest during a golfswing. Clinically the patient had winging of the scapula and pain at the lateral side of costa 4-6. Ultrasonography showed an avulsion fracture of costa 5 at the insertion of the anterior serratus. The patient was referred to scapula-stabilising rehabilitation and fully recovered.

  15. Being abundant is not enough: a decrease in effective population size over eight generations in a Norwegian population of the seaweed, Fucus serratus.

    PubMed

    Coyer, James A; Hoarau, Galice; Sjøtun, Kjersti; Olsen, Jeanine L

    2008-12-23

    The brown alga Fucus serratus is a key foundation species on rocky intertidal shores of northern Europe. We sampled the same population off the coast of southern Norway in 2000 and 2008, and using 26 microsatellite loci, we estimated the changes in genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne). The unexpectedly low Ne (73-386) and Ne/N ratio (10-3-10-4), in combination with a significant decrease (14%) in allelic richness over the 8-year period, suggests an increased local extinction risk. If small Ne proves to be a common feature of F. serratus, then being abundant may not be enough for the species to weather future environmental changes.

  16. Adaptation to high light irradiances enhances the photosynthetic Cu2+ resistance in Cu2+ tolerant and non-tolerant populations of the brown macroalgae Fucus serratus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2010-05-01

    The relationship between light acclimation and Cu(2+) tolerance was studied in two populations of Fucus serratus known to be naturally non-tolerant and tolerant to Cu(2+). Acclimation to high irradiances increased the photosynthetic tolerance to Cu(2+). The xanthophyll cycle was apparently not involved in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against Cu(2+) toxicity, as results showed that Cu(2+) did not induce dynamic photoinhibition. The higher photosynthetic Cu(2+) resistance of high light algae did not result in increased growth. The excess energy acquired by high light-adapted algae appeared to be utilized in Cu(2+) defense mechanisms in the Cu(2+) non-tolerant population. The polyphenol content of the algae was reciprocal to the Cu(T) content, suggesting that polyphenol may be the primary Cu(2+) defense of non-tolerant low light algae, acting through secretion and extracellular chelating of Cu(2+), while the compounds do not seem to be involved in the primary Cu(2+) tolerance mechanism in Cu(2+) tolerant algae.

  17. Larvicidal algae.

    PubMed

    Marten, Gerald G

    2007-01-01

    Although most algae are nutritious food for mosquito larvae, some species kill the larvae when ingested in large quantities. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that kill larvae do so by virtue of toxicity. While blue-green algae toxins may offer possibilities for delivery as larvicides, the toxicity of live blue-green algae does not seem consistent enough for live algae to be useful for mosquito control. Certain species of green algae in the order Chlorococcales kill larvae primarily because they are indigestible. Where these algae are abundant in nature, larvae consume them to the exclusion of other food and then starve. Under the right circumstances, it is possible to introduce indigestible algae into a breeding habitat so they become abundant enough to render it unsuitable for mosquito production. The algae can persist for years, even if the habitat dries periodically. The main limitation of indigestible algae lies in the fact that, under certain conditions, they may not replace all the nutritious algae in the habitat. More research on techniques to ensure complete replacement will be necessary before indigestible algae can go into operational use for mosquito control.

  18. Combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior flaps for pelvic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Phan, Truong Q V; Spilker, Gerald; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Gossmann, Andreas; Heiss, Michael; Weinand, Christian

    2011-10-01

    In recurrent pressure sores, adjacent tissue has already been consumed by multiple surgeries. Additional problems are several co-morbidities of patients. Especially, severe atherosclerosis would be a contraindication for using free flaps. However, microsurgical techniques allow circumventing these limitations and preparing even severely atherosclerotic vessels. We performed a total of eight sacral pressure sore coverage in our standardized fashion, using the free combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior free flaps. All patients had severe atherosclerosis and needed large soft tissue coverage of the sacral defects. Five patients presented after bowel resection, three with recurrent sacral pressure sores. The average follow-up was 12 months. Postoperatively, all patients were allowed to be prone on the operated area. One minor wound dehiscence was sutured in local anesthesia. CT imaging analysis of the pelvis showed complete void space coverage. The combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior flaps are a valuable tool for pelvic reconstruction in our hands. In addition, severe atherosclerosis should not be considered an obstacle to microsurgery and the use of free flaps.

  19. An expressed sequence tag analysis of the intertidal brown seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in response to abiotic stressors.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Gareth A; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrão, Ester T A; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L

    2010-04-01

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat shock/recovery and desiccation/rehydration resulted in identification of 2,503, 1,290, and 2,409 unigenes from heat-shocked F. serratus, desiccated F. serratus, and desiccated F. vesiculosus, respectively. Low overall annotation rates (18-31%) were strongly associated with the presence of long 3' untranslated regions in Fucus transcripts, as shown by analyses of predicted protein-coding sequence in annotated and nonannotated tentative consensus sequences. Posttranslational modification genes were overrepresented in the heat shock/recovery library, including many chaperones, the most abundant of which were a family of small heat shock protein transcripts, Hsp90 and Hsp70 members. Transcripts of LI818-like light-harvesting genes implicated in photoprotection were also expressed during heat shock in high light. The expression of several heat-shock-responsive genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. However, candidate genes were notably absent from both desiccation/rehydration libraries, while the responses of the two species to desiccation were divergent, perhaps reflecting the species-specific physiological differences in stress tolerance previously established. Desiccation-tolerant F. vesiculosus overexpressed at least 17 ribosomal protein genes and two ubiquitin-ribosomal protein fusion genes, suggesting that ribosome function and/or biogenesis are important during cycles of rapid desiccation and rehydration in the intertidal zone and possibly indicate parallels with other poikilohydric organisms such as desiccation-tolerant bryophytes.

  20. Biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution by Fucus serratus: surface characterization and sorption mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ahmady-Asbchin, Salman; Andrès, Yves; Gérente, Claire; Cloirec, Pierre Le

    2008-09-01

    In this work, the brown alga Fucus serratus (FS) used as a low cost sorbent has been studied for the biosorption of copper(II) ions in batch reactors. Firstly, the characterization of the surface functional groups was performed with two methods: a qualitatively analysis with the study of FT-IR spectrum and a quantitatively determination with potentiometric titrations. From this latter, a total proton exchange capacity of 3.15 mmolg(-1) was extrapolated from the FS previously protonated. This value was similar to the total acidity of 3.56 mmolg(-1) deduced from the Gran method. Using the single extrapolation method, three kinds of acidic functional groups with three intrinsic pK(a) were determined at 3.5, 8.2 and 9.6. The point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) was found close to pH 6.3. Secondly, the biosorption of copper ions was studied. The equilibrium time was about 350 min and the adsorption equilibrium data were well described by the Langmuir's equation. The maximum adsorption capacity has been extrapolated to 1.60 mmolg(-1). The release of calcium and magnesium ions was also measured in relation to the copper biosorption. Finally, the efficiency of this biosorbent in natural tap water for the removal of copper was also investigated. All these observations indicate that the copper biosorption on FS is mainly based on ion exchange mechanism and this biomass could be then a suitable sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewaters.

  1. Free serratus anterior artery perforator flap: a case report with an anatomic and radiological study.

    PubMed

    Tamburino, Serena; Menez, Tiphaine; Laloze, Jérôme; Michot, Audrey; Paillet, Pierre; Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele; Casoli, Vincent

    2017-02-24

    Perforator flaps have become very popular in reconstructive surgery. The thoracodorsal and lateral thoracic artery perforator flaps are highly studied, and successful clinical series have been reported, whereas the literature concerning the lateral intercostal and serratus anterior artery perforator flaps is quite poor and their vascular anatomy needs yet to be clarified. We describe a case of free serratus anterior artery perforator flap for the reconstruction of a dorsal defect of the foot, followed by an anatomic and radiological study. A 17-year-old boy reported a fracture of the first and second metatarsal bone of the left foot, with a dorsal skin defect, due to a motorcycle accident. After the osteosynthesis treatment, a perforator was identified through a handheld Doppler in the lateral chest area and a cutaneous paddle was designed. Retrograde dissection revealed the perforator's direct link to the serratus anterior pedicle. In our knowledge, an elucidated method to preoperatively visualize the perforating vessel of the serratus anterior artery has not yet been described. Thus, an anatomic study on 8 hemithorax and a radiological study on 33 computed tomographic angiographies of the chest were carried out to clarify the vascular anatomy of the serratus anterior artery perforators and to verify the possibility of their preoperative visualization. The authors believe that the serratus anterior artery perforator could be preoperatively investigated, thus making this flap a valuable option when harvesting a perforator flap in the lateral chest area.

  2. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  3. Seasonal fluctuations in chemical defenses against macrofouling in Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Esther; Karsten, Ulf; Pohnert, Georg; Wahl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae, especially perennial species, are exposed to a seasonally variable fouling pressure. It was hypothesized that macroalgae regulate their antifouling defense to fouling pressure. Over one year, the macrofouling pressure and the chemical anti-macrofouling defense strength of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus were assessed with monthly evaluation. The anti-macrofouling defense was assessed by means of surface-extracted Fucus metabolites tested at near-natural concentrations in a novel in situ bioassay. Additionally, the mannitol content of both Fucus species was determined to assess resource availability for defense production. The surface chemistry of both Fucus species exhibited seasonal variability in attractiveness to Amphibalanus improvisus and Mytilus edulis. Of this variability, 50-60% is explained by a sinusoidal model. Only F. vesiculosus extracts originating from the spring and summer significantly deterred settlement of A. improvisus. The strength of macroalgal antifouling defense did not correlate either with in situ macrofouling pressure or with measured mannitol content, which, however, were never depleted.

  4. The free serratus anterior artery perforator flap-A case report and anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Oh; Chang, Hak; Imanishi, Nobuaki

    2016-05-01

    We report a reconstructive case using a free serratus anterior artery perforator flap and an anatomic study. A 50-year-old man with upper esophageal sphincter stricture underwent segmental cervical esophageal resection. The size of the defect was approximately 5.5 cm. We then performed esophageal reconstruction using the free serratus anterior artery perforator flap. Esophagography performed on postoperative day 7 revealed no definite leakage and a viable anastomosis site with wide patency. No complications developed during the long-term follow-up period of 3 years. We reviewed the literature and performed an anatomic study using four fresh cadavers. We performed an angiographic study using two specimens and dissection of this perforator using other two specimens. We found that a direct connection existed between the serratus anterior artery and intercostal perforator to the skin in two of eight chests. The connection was located at the 4th intercostal space in the left chest of one cadaver and at the 6th/7th intercostal space in the left chest of the other cadaver. The free serratus anterior artery perforator flap is a new flap that could be considered for use during the elevation of a perforator flap in the lateral chest area, and especially in the area overlying the serratus anterior muscle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:339-344, 2016.

  5. Incidence, recovery, and management of serratus anterior muscle palsy after axillary node dissection.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M A; Lotze, M T; Gerber, L H; Rosenberg, S A

    1983-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the occurrence of serratus anterior muscle weakness after axillary node dissection, to monitor the recovery of serratus anterior muscle strength, and to compare shoulder range of motion in palsied and nonpalsied groups. Thirty-six patients were studied who had 40 axillary node dissections for breast carcinoma or malignant melanoma. Range of motion and manual muscle tests were done preoperatively and at specific postoperative intervals by two observers. To regain range of motion, all subjects were treated daily while hospitalized and as needed when outpatients. Twelve of the 40 dissections (30%) resulted in serratus anterior muscle palsy after surgery. Strength was normal in all the palsied shoulders by the sixth month after surgery. Both the palsied and nonpalsied groups had comparable range of motion at each assessment. The mechanism of long thoracic nerve injury and the clinical significance of serratus anterior muscle palsy are discussed as well as the rationale for early detection and proper physical therapy management. This study suggests that serratus anterior muscle palsy is a frequent but reversible event after axillary node dissection.

  6. Traumatic Avulsion of the Serratus Anterior Muscle in a Collegiate Rower: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Carr, James B; John, Quincy E; Rajadhyaksha, Evan; Carson, Eric W; Turney, Kelly L

    2016-09-21

    A 19-year-old female collegiate rower presented with a new, painful mass along her right anterolateral chest wall after competition. The patient was diagnosed with a rupture of the serratus anterior muscle from its costal attachments, as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient fully recovered after a period of rest followed by a graduated 2-month physical therapy regimen consisting of stretching and scapulothoracic and core strengthening. A traumatic rupture of the serratus anterior muscle should be suspected in athletes who present with a painful chest wall mass after exertion of large forces through the scapulothoracic region. Athletes can return to play after nonoperative management.

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Serratus Anterior Plane Block in Breast Reconstruction Surgery.

    PubMed

    Khemka, Rakhi; Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Ahmed, Rosina; Datta, Taniya; Agarwal, Sanjit

    2016-05-01

    Pecs block and its variations have been used for various breast surgeries. We describe 2 cases of mastectomy and breast reconstruction by latissimus dorsi (LD) flap where regional analgesia was provided by a combination of ultrasound-guided Pecs-I block and serratus anterior plane block, a recently described technique in which local anesthetic is deposited in the plane between the LD and serratus anterior muscle. This resulted in excellent intraoperative and postoperative analgesia and a minimum of systemic analgesics. The described technique is safe to administer and provides good analgesia for breast reconstruction surgery by LD flap.

  8. Algae Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  9. Serratus anterior venous tributary as a second outflow vein in latissimus dorsi free flaps.

    PubMed

    Goh, Terence; Tan, Bien-Keem; Ong, Yee-Siang; Chew, Winston

    2011-10-01

    The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is a large and reliable myocutaneous flap with a consistently long vascular pedicle. However, the limitation of the thoracodorsal pedicle is that it has only one draining vein for anastomosis. We describe a simple technique of recruiting the tributary vein to the serratus anterior and using it as a second draining vein to alleviate congestion in lower limb reconstruction. The serratus anterior venous tributary segment is cut back to an avalvular segment which averages 5 mm in length. Provision of an additional venous outflow to the flap enabled a second venous anastomosis to the short saphenous vein (N = 1), the long saphenous vein (N = 2), a deep vein (N= 1), and to a deep vein via a vein graft (N = 1), respectively. Five patients with degloving injury of the lower extremity of sizes 150 cm(2) (10 × 15 cm) to 260 cm(2) (10 × 26 cm) underwent successful reconstruction using the LD muscle flap with the serratus anterior tributary vein as a second outflow vein. This serratus anterior venous tributary serves as a useful second outflow channel for alleviating venous congestion during lower limb reconstructive surgery and should be routinely preserved as a lifeboat.

  10. Bare serratus anterior free flap in the reconstruction of the partial pharyngoesophageal defect.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Kemal; Karsidag, Tamer; Akcal, Arzu; Karsidag, Semra; Yazar, Memet; Seven, Hüseyin

    2011-05-01

    Reconstruction of defects of the cervical esophagus is a challenge in head and neck surgery. Several methods have been used: flaps with local tissues, pharyngogastric anastomosis, deltopectoral skin flaps, skin muscle transplant from the pectoralis major, and microvascularized free skin fascial and small intestine flaps. A 81-year-old patient who has a partial pharyngoesophageal defect after resection of laryngeal carcinoma underwent reconstruction with bare serratus anterior fascial free flap. The subscapular artery and vein were anastomosed to the superior thyroid artery and vein. The patient's postoperative recovery went uneventfully. In the endoscopic examination, the defect was completely covered with native mucosa 8 weeks after surgery, and also, there were no stricture and fistula tract in the reconstructed area.Serratus fascial flap is a thin and pliable flap with good and reliable vascularity; it can be used in the reconstruction of partial cervical esophageal defect with its long pedicle. Serratus fascial flap can provide significant epithelialization that cannot be differentiated from native esophagus. We propose that serratus fascial free flap is an important alternative in esophageal reconstructions because it creates minimal donor-site morbidity and it can easily adapt to the defect.

  11. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica. PMID:19772656

  12. Serratus muscle stimulation effectively treats notalgia paresthetica caused by long thoracic nerve dysfunction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wang, Charlie K; Gowda, Alpana; Barad, Meredith; Mackey, Sean C; Carroll, Ian R

    2009-09-22

    Currently, notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a poorly-understood condition diagnosed on the basis of pruritus, pain, or both, in the area medial to the scapula and lateral to the thoracic spine. It has been proposed that NP is caused by degenerative changes to the T2-T6 vertebrae, genetic disposition, or nerve entrapment of the posterior rami of spinal nerves arising at T2-T6. Despite considerable research, the etiology of NP remains unclear, and a multitude of different treatment modalities have correspondingly met with varying degrees of success. Here we demonstrate that NP can be caused by long thoracic nerve injury leading to serratus anterior dysfunction, and that electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) of the serratus anterior can successfully and conservatively treat NP. In four cases of NP with known injury to the long thoracic nerve we performed transcutaneous EMS to the serratus anterior in an area far lateral to the site of pain and pruritus, resulting in significant and rapid pain relief. These findings are the first to identify long thoracic nerve injury as a cause for notalgia paresthetica and electrical muscle stimulation of the serratus anterior as a possible treatment, and we discuss the implications of these findings on better diagnosing and treating notalgia paresthetica.

  13. Different speciation for bromine in brown and red algae, revealed by in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample. The results highlight a diversity of fundamentally different bromine storage modes: while most of the stramenopile representatives and the dinoflagellate store mostly bromide, there is evidence for Br incorporated in nonaromatic hydrocarbons in Thalassiosira. Red algae operate various organic bromine stores - including a possible precursor (by the haloform reaction) for bromoform in Asparagopsis and aromatically bound Br in Polysiphonia and Corallina. Large fractions of the bromine in the red algae G. dura and C. crispus and the brown alga F. serratus are present as Br(-) defects in solid KCl, similar to what was reported earlier for Laminaria parts. These results are discussed according to different defensive strategies that are used within algal taxa to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses.

  14. Serratus Anterior Plane Block to Address Post-thoracotomy and Chest Tube-related Pain: A Report on 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Chu, George M; Jarvis, G Craig

    2017-03-16

    In this case report, the serratus anterior plane block was used in conjunction with multilevel continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks (TPVB) and general anesthesia in 3 thoracotomy cases. All blocks were accompanied by use of catheters that allowed continuous local anesthetic infusions and intermittent local anesthetic bolus injections to address postoperative pain. In all 3 patients, the serratus anterior plane block provided analgesia for chest tube-related pain that was not provided by the TPVB alone.

  15. Serratus anterior composite flaps for reconstruction of large-area oral and maxillofacial defects: a new neuromuscular flap.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Long, Jie; Feng, Fan; Guo, Lijuan; Gao, Chao; Tian, Weidong

    2009-11-01

    Large area defects in the maxillofacial field are difficult to restore with sufficient esthetic and functional outcome. This study was to assess the feasibility of using serratus anterior composite flaps for reconstruction of large-area oral and maxillofacial tissue defects and to determine subsequent effects on neuromuscular function. Six patients with severe maxillofacial deformities were treated with serratus anterior composite flaps. The neurovascularized pedicle of each flap retained the long thoracic nerve to supply motor innervation. The long thoracic nerve was anastomosed with a branch of the facial nerve. The remaining fine branches of the facial nerve were separated interfascicularly and intrafascicularly, and then implanted within the border of the serratus anterior muscle. Transplanted flaps survived in all patients without vascular crisis. At the 12-month follow-up examinations, patients were able to close their eyes, wrinkle their forehead, and blow through pursed lips using the reconstructed mimetic muscles. The free serratus anterior composite flap has different digitations of the serratus anterior and motor nerve innervations, which is an attractive choice for reconstruction of large defects of oral and maxillofacial tissue. The nerve anastomosis and facial nerve replantation technique may protect the pedicle from atrophy of the transferred flap. Facial motion can be animated by neurotization or reinnervation in-growth in the neurotized slips of the serratus.

  16. Lower extremity soft tissue defect reconstruction with the serratus anterior flap.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Melissa; Leto Barone, Angelo A; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Leonard, David A; Di Rosa, Luigi; Feingold, Randall S; Israeli, Ron; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2014-03-01

    Reconstruction of limb-threatening lower extremity defects presents unique challenges. The selected method must provide adequate coverage of exposed bone, joints, and tendons while maximizing function of the limb. The traditional workhorse flaps, the free latissimus dorsi and rectus abdominis flaps, have been associated with donor site morbidity and bulkiness that can impair rehabilitation. We report a case series (n = 18) in which the free serratus anterior muscle flap and split thickness skin graft (STSG) was used for lower limb soft tissue coverage. Injuries were due to diabetes (9/18), trauma (7/18), and chronic venous stasis (2/18). A 94% flap survival rate was observed and all but one patient was ambulatory. No donor site morbidity was reported. Our series demonstrates that serratus anterior is an advantageous, reliable free flap with minimal donor site morbidity.

  17. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

  18. Effect of isometric horizontal abduction on pectoralis major and serratus anterior EMG activity during three exercises in subjects with scapular winging.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isometric horizontal abduction using Thera-Band during three exercises (forward flexion, scaption, and wall push-up plus) in subjects with scapular winging by investigating the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the pectoralis major, serratus anterior and the pectoralis major/serratus anterior activity ratio. Twenty-four males with scapular winging participated in this study. The subjects performed the forward flexion, scaption, and wall push-up plus with and without isometric horizontal abduction using Thera-Band. Surface EMG was used to collect the EMG data of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior during the three exercises. Two-way repeated analyses of variance with two within-subject factors (isometric horizontal abduction condition and exercise type) were used to determine the statistical significance of pectoralis major and serratus anterior EMG activity and the pectoralis major/serratus anterior EMG activity ratio. Pectoralis major EMG activity was significantly lower during forward flexion and wall push-up plus with isometric horizontal abduction, and serratus anterior EMG activity was significantly greater with isometric horizontal abduction. Additionally, the pectoralis major/serratus anterior activity ratio was significantly lower during the forward flexion and wall push-up plus with isometric horizontal abduction. The results of this study suggest that isometric horizontal abduction using Thera-Band can be used as an effective method to facilitate the serratus anterior activity and to reduce excessive pectoralis major activity during exercises for activating serratus anterior.

  19. Treatment of recalcitrant air leaks: the combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior flap.

    PubMed

    Woo, Evan; Tan, Bien-Keem; Lim, Chong-Hee

    2009-08-01

    Pleural space problems after lung resection and persistent air leaks are among the commonest challenges posed to thoracic surgeons. Surgical repair of air leaks are indicated when conventional tube thoracostomy has failed to solve the problem. We would like to propose the novel application of the combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior transposition flap for selected cases of air leaks that are recalcitrant to conventional treatment. We discuss its indications and the surgical technique. Five patients underwent the procedure between 2004 and 2007. They were male patients aged between 32 and 70 years. Four patients had alveolar-pleural fistulas resulting in persistent air leaks while the fifth patient had, in addition, a space problem following lung volume reduction surgery. All patients had prolonged treatment with chest drains without success. With the patient in a lateral decubitus position, a lazy-S incision was used to expose the entire latissimus dorsi and the proximal slips of the serratus anterior muscles. They were raised as pedicled flaps and transferred in tandem. The latissimus dorsi was introduced into the pleural cavity via a thoracic window and used to reinforce the fistula repair. The serratus anterior muscle closed the rib window. In all cases, the lungs reexpanded and chest drains were removed within 5 days post surgery. There were no recurrent air leaks at 1-year follow-up with all patients. Conservative treatment in all our patients was unsuccessful. The dual flap technique has the advantage of allowing normal ventilation while providing a seal over the alveolar-pleural fistula. The muscle bulk of the latissimus dorsi fills the pleural dead space and the serratus anterior muscle seals the axilla preventing subcutaneous emphysema. There was minimal morbidity associated with the use of this dual muscle flap technique. This technique is an effective treatment option for recalcitrant air leaks.

  20. Pectoralis major transfer for the management of scapula winging secondary to serratus anterior injury or paralysis.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem

    2014-02-01

    Pectoralis major transfer (partial or complete) is the most common transfer to the scapula for winging as a result of serratus anterior paralysis or injury. The most commonly described technique is to transfer the pectoralis major prolonged with tendon allograft or autograft to the scapula. We present a technique that entails direct transfer of the sternal head of the pectoralis major with its bony insertion to the lower scapula.

  1. Hybridization and introgression in a mixed population of the intertidal seaweeds Fucus evanescens and F. serratus.

    PubMed

    Coyer, J A; Hoarau, G; Stam, W T; Olsen, J L

    2007-11-01

    The introduced Fucus evanescens (hermaphroditic) and the native F. serratus (dioecious) have been in secondary contact along the Danish coast of the Kattegat Sea for 60-100 years and dioecious hybrids have been observed at Blushøj for several years. Hybridization in Fucus is unusual because it appears to always involve a hermaphroditic and a dioecious parental pair. We determined the degree and spatial patterns of introgression for 286 individuals using 10 microsatellite loci and cpDNA. Hybrids accounted for nearly 13% of the population, yet parental species were well differentiated (F(ST) = 0.633). The presence of F. evanescens chloroplasts in 100% of F(1) hybrids revealed asymmetrical hybridization. Fucus evanescens cpDNA was observed in 50% of introgressed and 5.4% of pure F. serratus, but no F. serratus cpDNA was found in F. evanescens. In contrast, nuclear DNA introgression was symmetrical with an equal amount ( approximately 1.5%) of genes introgressed into each parental species. Survivorship and viability data suggest selection against hybrids in the hybrid zone.

  2. Genomic scans detect signatures of selection along a salinity gradient in populations of the intertidal seaweed Fucus serratus on a 12 km scale.

    PubMed

    Coyer, J A; Hoarau, G; Pearson, G; Mota, C; Jüterbock, A; Alpermann, T; John, U; Olsen, J L

    2011-03-01

    Detecting natural selection in wild populations is a central challenge in evolutionary biology and genomic scans are an important means of detecting allele frequencies that deviate from neutral expectations among marker loci. We used nine anonymous and 15 EST-linked microsatellites, 362 AFLP loci, and several neutrality tests, to identify outlier loci when comparing four populations of the seaweed Fucus serratus spaced along a 12km intertidal shore with a steep salinity gradient. Under criteria of at least two significant tests in at least two population pairs, three EST-derived and three anonymous loci revealed putative signatures of selection. Anonymous locus FsB113 was a consistent outlier when comparing least saline to fully marine sites. Locus F37 was an outlier when comparing the least saline to more saline areas, and was annotated as a polyol transporter/putative mannitol transporter - an important sugar-alcohol associated with osmoregulation by brown algae. The remaining loci could not be annotated using six different data bases. Exclusion of microsatellite outlier loci did not change either the degree or direction of differentiation among populations. In one outlier test, the number of AFLP outlier loci increased as the salinity differences between population pairs increased (up to 14); only four outliers were detected with the second test and only one was consistent with both tests. Consistency may be improved with a much more rigorous approach to replication and/or may be dependent upon the class of marker used.

  3. The supply of blood in the skin territory above the lower part of the serratus anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Mijatović, Davor; Bulić, Kresimir; Dzepina, Ivo; Unusić, Josip

    2006-09-01

    At present, the putative clinical use of the musculocutaneous and ostomusculocutaneous serratus anterior flaps has been compromised by the risk of partial or total necrosis of the skin overlying the lower part of the serratus anterior muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate a skin area vascularized by perforant musculocutaneous branches of arteries stemming from the lower segment of the anterior serrated muscle. Black ink was injected in thoracodorsal artery branches for the serratus anterior muscle in 50 human cadavers before the autopsies (the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board). The surface area of the labeled skin was determined and its borders delineated by means of transparent millimeter grid. Planimetry data were subsequently analyzed with the aid of PC computer program. The results show that the calculated mean surface area (143.79 +/- 2.68 x 2.077; range 138.22-149.36 cm2) of the skin vascularized by perforant musculocuaneous branches stemming from the lower segment of the anterior serrated muscle, can serve as a reliable guide for taking serratus anterior flap in any patient. Therefore, appropriately sized musculocutaneous or osteomusculocutaneous serratus anterior flap can be safely and efficiently used in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  4. Differential activation of parts of the serratus anterior muscle during push-up variations on stable and unstable bases of support.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2011-10-01

    No studies have examined the effects of an unstable surface on push-up and push-up plus exercises in terms of the two parts of the serratus anterior muscle. We hypothesized that the lower part of the serratus anterior would have greater activity with an unstable surface, which requires stabilizing the scapular position. The present study was performed to investigate the intramuscular differences between parts of the serratus anterior muscle during push-up and push-up plus exercises. Twelve healthy subjects were included in the study. The upper and lower parts of the serratus anterior and upper and lower parts of the trapezius were investigated by surface EMG during four types of exercise. Repeated one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Maintaining the push-up plus phase caused significant increases in EMG activity of the upper serratus anterior compared with the push-up ascending phase on both of stable and unstable bases (P<0.05). The lower serratus anterior showed increased activation on an unstable surface, which required more joint stability than did the stable base. Upper trapezius/upper serratus anterior ratio was significantly lower in the PUP than in the PUA phase with both stable and unstable bases of support (P<0.05). Further studies are required to investigate the intramuscular variation in activation of the serratus anterior during exercises for rehabilitation.

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Serratus Plane Block for Treatment of Postmastectomy Pain Syndromes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Zocca, Jennifer A; Chen, Grant H; Puttanniah, Vinay G; Hung, Joseph C; Gulati, Amitabh

    2017-01-01

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome is common after surgical treatment for breast cancer and may be challenging to manage. Currently, there are a wide variety of approaches to treat this type of pain, including medications, physical therapy, and interventional procedures. However, because of the complexity of innervation of the breast, the serratus plane block may better target the web of nerves innervating the anterior chest wall including the breast. We present a case series of 8 patients who were successfully treated with serratus plane block for pain after treatment for breast cancer. We feel that this particular application for the serratus plane block deserves further investigation, as it is relatively easy to perform and has good clinical utility for this type of pain.

  6. Aberrant perfusion of the serratus anterior muscle flap: report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Sönmez, Ahmet; Bayramiçli, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Free serratus anterior muscle flap, classified as Mathes-Nahai type III, is a versatile and frequently preferred choice for soft tissue coverage of small to moderate-sized defects owing to its reliable circulation pattern; however, some anatomic variations in the flap vascularity can result in partial flap loss. Here we present two cases with free serratus anterior muscle transfer where the distalmost portion of the flap was not perfused by the thoracodorsal pedicle. The most likely explanation seems to be the large flap size and the lack of distal interconnections between lateral thoracic artery and thoracodorsal artery branches. Our clinical experience suggests that anatomic variations of serratus anterior muscle circulation might end up with distal perfusion loss if a large flap is to be harvested.

  7. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22-32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise.

  8. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After performing the exercise, each subject described the exercise intensity by using the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. [Results] The normalized serratus anterior muscle activity increased significantly in the order of Conditions 1 and 4 < Condition 3 < Condition 2. The Borg RPE scale increased significantly in the order of Condition 1 < Condition 2 < Condition 3 < Condition 4. [Conclusion] The results suggest that dynamic hug exercise with the use of a multi-air-cushion biofeedback device is an effective scapular stability exercise. PMID:26957774

  9. A novel cadaveric study of the morphometry of the serratus anterior muscle: one part, two parts, three parts, four?

    PubMed

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Stokes, Maria; Mottram, Sarah

    2016-10-18

    The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented. Orientation and size of each fascicle were measured and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) calculated. Three subdivisions of the serratus anterior were identified. A new finding was the discovery of two distinctive fascicles attached to the superior and inferior aspects of rib 2. The rib 2 inferior fascicle had the largest PCSA (mean 1.6 cm(2)) and attached, with the rib 3 fascicle, along the medial border of the scapula to form the middle division. The rib 2 superior and rib 1 fascicles attached to the superior angle of the scapula (upper division). Fascicles from ribs 4-8/9 attached to the inferior angle of the scapula (lower division). Mean fascicle angle relative to a vertical midline reference and PCSA for each division were 29° and 1.3 cm(2) (upper), 90° and 2.2 cm(2) (middle) and 59° and 3.0 cm(2) (lower). This novel study demonstrated the presence of morphologically distinct serratus anterior subdivisions. The results of this study will inform the development of optimal techniques for the assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of this architecturally complex muscle in shoulder and neck pain.

  10. The use of EMG biofeedback for learning of selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior muscle: a novel approach for rehabilitation of scapular muscle imbalance.

    PubMed

    Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L; Olsen, H B; Søgaard, K

    2010-04-01

    Motor control and learning possibilities of scapular muscles are of clinical interest for restoring scapular muscle balance in patients with neck and shoulder disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate whether selective voluntary activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior can be learned with electromyographical (EMG) biofeedback, and whether the lower serratus anterior and the lower trapezius muscle comprise the lower scapula rotation force couple by synergistic activation. Nine healthy males practiced selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior with visual EMG biofeedback, while the activity of four parts of the serratus anterior and four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. One subject was able to selectively activate both the upper and the lower serratus anterior respectively. Moreover, three subjects managed to selectively activate the lower serratus anterior, and two subjects learned to selectively activate the upper serratus anterior. During selective activation of the lower serratus anterior, the activity of this muscle part was 14.4+/-10.3 times higher than the upper serratus anterior activity (P<0.05). The corresponding ratio for selective upper serratus vs. lower serratus anterior activity was 6.4+/-1.7 (P<0.05). Moreover, selective activation of the lower parts of the serratus anterior evoked 7.7+/-8.5 times higher synergistic activity of the lower trapezius compared with the upper trapezius (P<0.05). The learning of complete selective activation of both the lower and the upper serratus anterior of one subject, and selective activation of either the upper or lower serratus anterior by five subjects designates the promising clinical application of EMG biofeedback for restoring scapular muscle balance. The synergistic activation between the lower serratus anterior and the lower trapezius muscle was observed in only a few subjects, and future studies including more subjects are required

  11. Serratus anterior plane block: a new analgesic technique for post-thoracotomy pain.

    PubMed

    Madabushi, Rajashree; Tewari, Saipriya; Gautam, Sujeet Ks; Agarwal, Amita; Agarwal, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Pain following thoracotomy is of moderate to severe nature. Management of thoracotomy pain is a challenging task. Post thoracotomy pain has acute effects in the post operative period by affecting respiratory mechanics, which increases the morbidity. Poorly controlled thoracotomy pain in the acute phase may also lead to the development of a chronic pain syndrome. A young male patient underwent esophagectomy and esophago-gastric anastomosis for corrosive stricture of the esophagus. Epidural analgesia is standard of care for patients undergoing thoracotomy. Due to hypotension and fluid losses following surgery, he was maintained on intravenous sedato-analgesia during postoperative mechanical ventilation. The thoracic epidural catheter which was placed pre-operatively, had developed blockage during the hospital stay. However, during weaning from ventilation and sedation, he indicated severe pain in the thoracotomy incision. The pain was severe enough to impair tidal breathing. We wanted to evaluate the efficacy of the serratus anterior plane block in the management of thoracotomy pain. The usefulness of this block has been discussed in the management of pain of rib fractures and breast surgeries. Despite the hypothesis of its usefulness in causing anaesthesia of the hemithorax, there are no available reports of clinical use for pain relief following thoracotomy. We performed the serratus anterior place block under ultrasound guidance and placed a catheter for continuous infusion of local anaesthetic and opioid. The patient had significant pain relief following a single bolus of the drug. The infusion was started thereafter, which provided excellent analgesia and facilitated an uneventful recovery. Here, we describe the successful management of thoracotomy pain using the serratus anterior plane block.

  12. Complex posterior thoracic wall reconstruction using a crossover combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior free flap.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Frédéric; Dissaux, Caroline; Steib, Jean-Paul; Massard, Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Radical resection of an extended malignant sarcoma of the chest wall requires full-thickness thoracic chest wall reconstruction. Reconstruction is tedious in the case of posteriorly located tumours, because the ipsilateral pedicled myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap is involved and hence not usable for soft tissue coverage. We report an original case of a left giant dorsal chondrosarcoma originating from the 11th costovertebral joint. After extended resection and skeletal reconstruction, soft tissue coverage was achieved with an original contralateral free flap encompassing both latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscles. The flap pedicle was anastomosed to the ipsilateral thoracodorsal vessels.

  13. Magnetic separation of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  14. Successfully treated descending necrotizing mediastinitis through thoracotomy using a pedicled muscular serratus anterior flap.

    PubMed

    Haremza, Céline; De Dominicis, Florence; Merlusca, Geoni; Berna, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is rare and aggressive. A 68-year-old female with no medical history, was admitted to our institution for cervical cellulitis. After a conventional medical treatment, multiple abscesses of the upper mediastinum appeared on computed tomography (CT) findings. Although two cervicotomies were performed, a new necrotic abscess appeared in the anterior upper and middle mediastinum. An extensive debridement of cellulitis and abscess extended to the pericardium was made by thoracotomy. Middle mediastinum and pericardium were covered and reconstructed by a right pedicled serratus anterior flap. After radical surgery, follow-up was uneventful. Early extensive and complete debridement of cervical and mediastinal collections and irrigation with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics is essential. Combined surgery is the best approach in DNM. The use of a pedicled muscular flap helps control the sepsis. In such cases, serratus anterior flap is a flap of choice because it is reliable and always available even in a skinny patient, contrary to omentum. In this life-threatening disease, an early aggressive combined surgery with debridement of all necrotic tissues extended to the pericardium if necessary associated with a pedicled flap is mandatory.

  15. Pectoralis major to scapula transfer for patients with serratus anterior palsy.

    PubMed

    Borges, Cristian Stein; Ruschel, Paulo Henrique; Ferreira, Marco Tonding

    2011-09-01

    Serratus anterior palsy can be a very disabling condition. However, not much has been written about many other upper limb palsies and the surgical approaches for them. In contrast, not much has been published about this particular muscle palsy. Most investigators engaged in the treatment of peripheral nerve palsies are focused on the restoration of elbow flexion/extension and shoulder abduction/external rotation. Nevertheless, scapulothoracic stability is of utmost importance for shoulder function inasmuch as it offers a stable base for arm motion--mostly forward flexion. As a result, serratus anterior palsy leads to loss of strength, range of motion, and pain due to fatigue of synergistic muscles--an issue disabling enough to warrant surgical intervention. Many investigators have suggested a variety of techniques including muscle transfers, fascial slings, or scapulothoracic fusion. The last option leads to obvious limitations in the final range of motion and should be avoided in young high-demand patients. Fascial slings have a tendency to attenuate over time.

  16. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  17. Glacial refugia and recolonization pathways in the brown seaweed Fucus serratus.

    PubMed

    Hoarau, G; Coyer, J A; Veldsink, J H; Stam, W T; Olsen, J L

    2007-09-01

    The last glacial maximum (20,000-18,000 years ago) dramatically affected extant distributions of virtually all northern European biota. Locations of refugia and postglacial recolonization pathways were examined in Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae) using a highly variable intergenic spacer developed from the complete mitochondrial genome of Fucus vesiculosus. Over 1,500 samples from the entire range of F. serratus were analysed using fluorescent single strand conformation polymorphism. A total of 28 mtDNA haplotypes was identified and sequenced. Three refugia were recognized based on high haplotype diversities and the presence of endemic haplotypes: southwest Ireland, the northern Brittany-Hurd Deep area of the English Channel, and the northwest Iberian Peninsula. The Irish refugium was the source for a recolonization sweep involving a single haplotype via northern Scotland and throughout Scandinavia, whereas recolonization from the Brittany-Hurd Deep refugium was more limited, probably because of unsuitable soft-bottom habitat in the Bay of Biscay and along the Belgian and Dutch coasts. The Iberian populations reflect a remnant refugium at the present-day southern boundary of the species range. A generalized skyline plot suggested exponential population expansion beginning in the mid-Pleistocene with maximal growth during the Eems interglacial 128,000-67,000 years ago, implying that the last glacial maximum mainly shaped population distributions rather than demography.

  18. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  19. Thriving in the Cold: Glacial Expansion and Post-Glacial Contraction of a Temperate Terrestrial Salamander (Plethodon serratus)

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Catherine E.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic geologic history of the southeastern United States has played a major role in shaping the geographic distributions of amphibians in the region. In the phylogeographic literature, the predominant pattern of distribution shifts through time of temperate species is one of contraction during glacial maxima and persistence in refugia. However, the diverse biology and ecology of amphibian species suggest that a “one-size-fits-all” model may be inappropriate. Nearly 10% of amphibian species in the region have a current distribution comprised of multiple disjunct, restricted areas that resemble the shape of Pleistocene refugia identified for other temperate taxa in the literature. Here, we apply genetics and spatially explicit climate analyses to test the hypothesis that the disjunct regions of these species ranges are climatic refugia for species that were more broadly distributed during glacial maxima. We use the salamander Plethodon serratus as a model, as its range consists of four disjunct regions in the Southeast. Phylogenetic results show that P. serratus is comprised of multiple genetic lineages, and the four regions are not reciprocally monophyletic. The Appalachian salamanders form a clade sister to all other P. serratus. Niche and paleodistribution modeling results suggest that P. serratus expanded from the Appalachians during the cooler Last Glacial Maximum and has since been restricted to its current disjunct distribution by a warming climate. These data reject the universal applicability of the glacial contraction model to temperate taxa and reiterate the importance of considering the natural history of individual species. PMID:26132077

  20. Thriving in the Cold: Glacial Expansion and Post-Glacial Contraction of a Temperate Terrestrial Salamander (Plethodon serratus).

    PubMed

    Newman, Catherine E; Austin, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic geologic history of the southeastern United States has played a major role in shaping the geographic distributions of amphibians in the region. In the phylogeographic literature, the predominant pattern of distribution shifts through time of temperate species is one of contraction during glacial maxima and persistence in refugia. However, the diverse biology and ecology of amphibian species suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" model may be inappropriate. Nearly 10% of amphibian species in the region have a current distribution comprised of multiple disjunct, restricted areas that resemble the shape of Pleistocene refugia identified for other temperate taxa in the literature. Here, we apply genetics and spatially explicit climate analyses to test the hypothesis that the disjunct regions of these species ranges are climatic refugia for species that were more broadly distributed during glacial maxima. We use the salamander Plethodon serratus as a model, as its range consists of four disjunct regions in the Southeast. Phylogenetic results show that P. serratus is comprised of multiple genetic lineages, and the four regions are not reciprocally monophyletic. The Appalachian salamanders form a clade sister to all other P. serratus. Niche and paleodistribution modeling results suggest that P. serratus expanded from the Appalachians during the cooler Last Glacial Maximum and has since been restricted to its current disjunct distribution by a warming climate. These data reject the universal applicability of the glacial contraction model to temperate taxa and reiterate the importance of considering the natural history of individual species.

  1. Midfoot reconstruction with serratus anterior-rib osteomuscular free flap following oncological resection of synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Artiaco, Stefano; Piana, Raimondo; Boux, Elena; Tos, Pierluigi

    2015-12-01

    During recent decades, the concept of surgical treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas has evolved, with the aim of preserving limb function. In this paper we report a case of metatarsal reconstruction by means of serratus and rib free flap after excision of a synovial sarcoma located in the dorsal aspect of the midfoot. Five years after the operation, the patient was free from recurrence and recovered full foot function. Amputation has been widely used in the past and this procedure still remains a valuable option when limb salvage is not possible. Nevertheless, in selected cases, reconstruction by means of composite free flaps may be successfully used for limb preservation in the treatment of malignant foot tumors after surgical excision.

  2. Serratus Anterior Plane (SAP) Block Used for Thoracotomy Analgesia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Okmen, Korgün; Okmen, Burcu Metin; Uysal, Serkan

    2016-07-01

    Thoracotomy is a surgical technique used to reach the thoracic cavity. Management of pain due to thoracotomy is important in order to protect the operative respiratory reserves and decrease complications. For thoracotomy pain, blocks (such as thoracic epidural, paravertebral, etc.) and pleural catheterization and intravenous drugs (such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], and opioids, etc., can be used. We performed a serratus anterior plane (SAP) block followed by catheterization for thoracotomy pain. We used 20 ml 0.25% bupivacaine for analgesia in a patient who underwent wedge resection for a lung malignancy. We provided analgesia for a period of close to seven hours for the patient, whose postoperative VAS (visual analog scale) scores were recorded. We believe that an SAP block is effective and efficient for the management of pain after thoracotomy.

  3. Effects of food limitation and pharmaceutical compounds on the larval development and morphology of Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Giménez, Luis; Blasco, Julian; Le Vay, Lewis

    2015-01-15

    Few ecotoxicological studies consider the roles of maternal influences and suboptimal environmental conditions when assessing the impact of pollutants on organisms. We studied the combined effects of pharmaceutical compounds, food condition and maternal body size on growth, development, body mass and morphology of larvae of the marine shrimp Palaemon serratus. Limited food availability is considered a factor leading to reduced survival and growth in marine crustacean larvae. It is known that P. serratus responses to food limitation vary among larvae hatched from females of different body length. The pharmaceuticals tested were the anti-inflammatory and analgesic diclofenac sodium (DS: at 77 μg L-1 and 720 μg L-1) the lipid regulator clofibric acid (CA: at 42 μg L-1 and 394 μg L-1) and the fungicide clotrimazole (CLZ: at 0.07 μg L-1 and 3.16 μg L-1). We observed morphological abnormalities in larvae exposed to CLZ. In addition, effects of this compound were stronger under food limitation leading to (1) reduced survival by 30%, (2) reduced juvenile body mass (22%) and (3) reduction in the number of molt stages (from 13 to 9) during larval development. This latter effect may indicate that CLZ reduced the larval capacity to respond to food limitation because development through a longer route, with additional stages, is considered an adaptive response to prioritize maintenance over morphogenesis. CA and DS affected developmental rate under food limitation but not growth or body mass. The toxic effects of CLZ, at lower concentrations than CA and DS, were stronger in larvae with higher body mass, hatched from the largest females. This suggests that maternal influences and suboptimal environmental conditions should be further studied to inform modeling of the effects of emergent compounds on larvae of marine coastal species.

  4. Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Esther; Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Richter, Hannes; Pohnert, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Perennial macroalgae within the genus Fucus are known to exude metabolites through their outer thallus surface. Some of these metabolites have pro- and/or antifouling properties. Seasonal fluctuations of natural fouling pressure and chemical fouling control strength against micro- and macrofoulers have previously been observed in Fucus, suggesting that control strength varies with threat. To date, a study on the seasonal composition of surface associated metabolites, responsible for much of the fouling control, has not been done. We sampled individuals of the two co-occurring species F. vesiculosus and F. serratus at monthly intervals (six per species and month) during a one-year field study. We analysed the chemical composition of surface associated metabolites of both Fucus species by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to describe temporal patterns in chemical surface composition. Additionally, we correlated abiotic and biotic parameters recorded monthly within the sampled habitat with the variation in the chemical surface landscape of Fucus. Our study revealed that the chemical surface composition of both Fucus species exhibits substantial seasonal differences between spring/summer and autumn/winter months. Light and temperature explained most of the seasonal variability in surface metabolite composition of both Fucus species. A strong summerly up-regulation of eighteen saccharides and two hydroxy acids in F. vesiculosus as well as of four fatty acids and two saccharides in F. serratus was observed. We discuss how these up-regulated molecules may have a complex effect on associated microfoulers, both promoting or decreasing fouling depending on metabolite and bacterial identity. These seasonal shifts in the surface metabolome seem to exert a compound control of density and composition of the Fucus associated biofilm. PMID:27959901

  5. Serratus anterior plane block for hybrid transthoracic esophagectomy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Barbera, Cinzia; Milito, Pamela; Punturieri, Michele; Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Background Pain is a major limiting factor in patient’s recovery from major thoracic surgical procedures. Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA), the current gold standard of perioperative management, has contraindications, can technically fail, and carries a risk of complications such as epidural abscess and spinal hematoma. The ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane (SAP) block is a promising regional analgesia technique. Objectives Since the anatomic space involved in the SAP block corresponds to the area exposed by the surgeon during right posterolateral thoracotomy, we investigated the feasibility of a “surgically guided” continuous SAP block as an alternative to TEA in selected esophagectomy patients. Study design This was a pilot case-series study. Setting This study was carried out in a tertiary-care university hospital. Methods The demographic and clinical data of patients in whom the continuous SAP block was performed were retrieved from a prospectively maintained database of hybrid (laparoscopy plus right thoracotomy) Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. The SAP block was performed upon closure of the thoracotomy incision using a 19-gauge catheter tunnelized subcutaneously and positioned in the deep plane between the serratus anterior muscle and the ribs. A bolus dose of 30 mL of levobupivacaine 0.25% was injected, followed by a continuous infusion of the 0.125% solution at 7 mL/h until postoperative day 4. Results Between January 2016 and July 2016, seven (20%) out of 37 esophagectomy patients underwent a SAP block rather than TEA for the following reasons: inability to insert the epidural catheter, antiaggregation or anticoagulant therapy, or unplanned thoracotomy. The procedure was uneventful in all patients. Only two patients required rescue analgesia on day 1. Conclusion Continuous SAP block under direct vision is feasible and safe. This novel “surgically guided” application of the SAP block may be useful in case of failure or contraindications to TEA

  6. Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Esther; Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Richter, Hannes; Pohnert, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Perennial macroalgae within the genus Fucus are known to exude metabolites through their outer thallus surface. Some of these metabolites have pro- and/or antifouling properties. Seasonal fluctuations of natural fouling pressure and chemical fouling control strength against micro- and macrofoulers have previously been observed in Fucus, suggesting that control strength varies with threat. To date, a study on the seasonal composition of surface associated metabolites, responsible for much of the fouling control, has not been done. We sampled individuals of the two co-occurring species F. vesiculosus and F. serratus at monthly intervals (six per species and month) during a one-year field study. We analysed the chemical composition of surface associated metabolites of both Fucus species by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to describe temporal patterns in chemical surface composition. Additionally, we correlated abiotic and biotic parameters recorded monthly within the sampled habitat with the variation in the chemical surface landscape of Fucus. Our study revealed that the chemical surface composition of both Fucus species exhibits substantial seasonal differences between spring/summer and autumn/winter months. Light and temperature explained most of the seasonal variability in surface metabolite composition of both Fucus species. A strong summerly up-regulation of eighteen saccharides and two hydroxy acids in F. vesiculosus as well as of four fatty acids and two saccharides in F. serratus was observed. We discuss how these up-regulated molecules may have a complex effect on associated microfoulers, both promoting or decreasing fouling depending on metabolite and bacterial identity. These seasonal shifts in the surface metabolome seem to exert a compound control of density and composition of the Fucus associated biofilm.

  7. A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ACROCHAETE AND OTHER ENDOPHYTIC GREEN ALGAE (ULVALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Rinkel, Barbara E; Hayes, Paul; Gueidan, Cécile; Brodie, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    A molecular phylogeny was reconstructed from a culture collection of >150 isolates of epi-endophytic and endophytic green algae, based on nucleotide sequences of the plastid tufA and nuclear ITS2 loci. The cultures were isolated from a variety of algal hosts, notably the red algae Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Osmundea species, and the brown algae Chorda filum and Fucus serratus. The phylogeny revealed that in the Ulvales the majority of isolates fell into Acrochaete (Ulvellaceae), Ulva (Ulvaceae), Bolbocoleon (Bolbocoleaceae), and at least two unknown genera provisionally assigned to the Kornmanniaceae. Acrochaete was monophyletic. The genus was also more specious than previously described with 12 species, including up to six new species awaiting formal description. Isolates identified as Acrochaete repens, the type species of the genus, were polyphyletic. The remainder of the isolates were placed in the Ulotrichales. The results confirm that the endophytic habit supports a broad diversity of algal taxa and suggest that blade formation is a relatively recent innovation within the green algae.

  8. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  9. The use of the serratus anterior muscle vascular pedicle as recipient site in DIEP flap transfer for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Longo, Benedetto; Laporta, Rosaria; Pagnoni, Marco; Cavalieri, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Currently, the choice for recipient vessels in microvascular breast reconstruction is made between axillary and internal mammary regions. The authors report their experience with anastomosis to a new, unconventional, axillary recipient vessel, the serratus anterior muscle vascular pedicle. Among 340 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstructions performed between 2004 and 2013, 11 were successfully revascularised to the serratus anterior (SA) pedicle: In three cases, complications led to a salvage procedure, while in eight cases, anastomosis to this recipient site was electively planned. The pedicle was constantly present, with calibre always comparable to that of flap's pedicle. At the mean 24-month follow-up, no recipient site complications were observed. The SA muscle pedicle resulted as a reliable choice in salvage procedures and a suitable option for recipient vessel selection in elective cases.

  10. Effect of Exercise Speed and Isokinetic Feedback on the Middle and Lower Serratus Anterior Muscles during Push-up Exercises.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the use of different exercise speeds and isokinetic feedback on the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles during push-up exercises. [Subjects] Ten male workers voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up exercises under three conditions. Surface electrodes were placed on the dominant right side of the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles. [Results] The middle and lower SA muscle activities under condition 2 were significantly decreased when compared with those under conditions 1 and 3. The middle SA activity under condition 3 was significantly increased when compared with that under condition 1. [Conclusion] This study suggests that proper selection of push-up exercise speed may be necessary for selective strengthening of the SA and that isokinetic feedback information obtained using an accelerator can help in selective strengthening of the middle SA.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Serratus Anterior Muscle Pain Syndrome: Description of Technique and Case Series.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Schaffer, Grisell; Nowakowsky, Michal; Eghtesadi, Marzieh; Cogan, Jennifer

    2015-09-15

    Chronic chest pain is a challenge, and serratus anterior muscle pain syndrome (SAMPS) is often overlooked. We have developed an ultrasound-guided technique for infiltrating local anesthetics and steroids in patients with SAMPS. In 8 patients, the duration of chronic pain was approximately 19 months. Three months after treatment, all patients had experienced a significant reduction in pain. Infiltration for SAMPS confirms the diagnosis and provides adequate pain relief.

  12. Electromyographic amplitude ratio of serratus anterior and upper trapezius muscles during modified push-ups and bench press exercises.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jaqueline; Tucci, Helga T; Andrade, Rodrigo; Araújo, Rodrigo C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2008-03-01

    Imbalance and weakness of the serratus anterior and upper trapezius force couple have been described in patients with shoulder dysfunction. There is interest in identifying exercises that selectively activate these muscles and including it in rehabilitation protocols. This study aims to verify the UT/SA electromyographic (EMG) amplitude ratio, performed in different upper limb exercises and on two bases of support. Twelve healthy men were tested (average age = 22.8 +/- 3.1 years), and surface EMG was recorded from the upper trapezius and serratus anterior using single differential surface electrodes. Volunteers performed isometric contractions over a stable base of support and on a Swiss ball during the wall push-up (WP), bench press (BP), and push-up (PU) exercises. All SEMG data are reported as a percentage of root mean square or integral of linear envelope from the maximal value obtained in one of three maximal voluntary contractions for each muscle studied. A linear mixed-effect model was performed to compare UT/SA ratio values. The WP, BP, and PU exercises showed UT/SA ratio mean +/- SD values of 0.69 +/- 0.72, 0.14 +/- 0.12, and 0.39 +/- 0.37 for stable surfaces, respectively, whereas for unstable surfaces, the values were 0.73 +/- 0.67, 0.43 +/- 0.39, and 0.32 +/- 0.30. The results demonstrate that UT/SA ratio was influenced by the exercises and by the upper limb base of support. The practical application is to show that BP on a stable surface is the exercise preferred over WP and PU on either surfaces for serratus anterior muscle training in patients with imbalance between the UT/SA force couple or serratus anterior weakness.

  13. A Modified Dual-plane Technique Using the Serratus Anterior Fascia in Primary Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dong Yeon; Park, Sang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast augmentations are commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures. As the breast is a changeable structure, the ideal location of an implant would be a plane that can adjust to the dynamic changes of the breast. We present a modified dual-plane technique for breast augmentation using the fascia for thin patients. Methods: Between June 2014 and June 2015, 27 patients with small breasts underwent breast augmentation using the modified dual-plane technique. The average age was 29.4 years (range, 20–41 y). The mean body mass index was 18.9 kg/m2 (range, 17.6–20.4 kg/m2). Results: The mean size of the implant was 288.9 ml (range, 255–360 ml) on the right side and 281.6 ml (range, 255–360 ml) on the left side. All the patients returned to daily-life activities within 1 week. There have been no complications during minimum follow-up periods of 18 months. The mean follow-up was 25.6 months (range, 18–36 mo). Conclusions: Visible, palpable implants and rippling after breast augmentation with implants are relatively common problems. Our modified dual-plane technique with the serratus anterior fascia can reduce visible rippling and yields a natural-looking breast, especially in thin patients. PMID:28280660

  14. Electromyographic analysis of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during push-ups on stable and unstable bases in subjects with scapular dyskinesis.

    PubMed

    Pirauá, André Luiz Torres; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Juliana Pereira; Pereira dos Passos, Muana Hiandra; Alves de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly; Batista, Laísla da Silva Paixão; Cappato de Araújo, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the electromyographic activity of the scapular muscles during push-ups on a stable and unstable surface, in subjects with scapular dyskinesis. Muscle activation (upper trapezius [UT]; lower trapezius [LT]; upper serratus anterior [SA_5th]; lower serratus anterior [SA_7th]) and ratios (UT/LT; UT/SA_5th; UT/ SA_7th) levels were determined by surface EMG in 30 asymptomatic men with scapular dyskinesis, during push-up performed on a stable and unstable surface. Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. The unstable surface caused a decrease in the EMG activity of the serratus anterior and an increase in EMG activity of the trapezius (p=0.001). UT/SA_5th and UT/ SA_7th ratios were higher during unstable push-ups (p=0.001). The results suggest that, in individuals with scapular dyskinesis, there is increased EMG activity of the trapezius and decreased EMG activity of the serratus anterior in response to an unstable surface. These results suggest that the performance of the push up exercise on an unstable surface may be more favorable to produce higher levels of trapezius activation and lower levels of serratus anterior activation. However, if the goal of the exercise program is the strengthening of the SA muscle, it is suggested to perform the push up on a stable surface.

  15. The effects of shoulder joint abduction angles on the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle while vibrations are applied.

    PubMed

    Jung, Da-Eun; Moon, Dong-Chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the ratio between the upper trapezius and the serratus anterior muscles during diverse shoulder abduction exercises applied with vibrations in order to determine the appropriate exercise methods for recovery of scapular muscle balance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects performed shoulder abduction at various shoulder joint abduction angles (90°, 120°, 150°, 180°) with oscillation movements. [Results] At 120°, all the subjects showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the serratus anterior muscle in comparison with the upper trapezius muscle. However, no significant difference was found at angles other than 120°. [Conclusion] To selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, applying vibration stimuli at the 120° shoulder abduction position is considered to be appropriate.

  16. Complete unilateral right-sided absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles in an adult male cadaver of South Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Stephen; Bhat, Rashmi; Shankar, Nachiket

    2014-01-01

    The unilateral complete absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles in the absence of other anomalies is very rare. The complete absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior on the right side was observed during routine dissection of an elderly male cadaver of South Indian origin. Nodularity of the right fifth rib near the fifth costochondral junction was seen. The lateral pectoral and long thoracic nerves were present on the right side. Moderate right-sided disuse atrophy was noted in the pectoralis minor and the rotator cuff muscles due to a shoulder arthrodesis performed on that side. No abnormalities were noted on the left side. There was no family history of any upper limb anomalies suggestive of Poland's syndrome. The findings in the present case could be either due to a sporadic variant of Poland's syndrome or an isolated congenital unilateral absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior.

  17. Physiological, cellular and biochemical thermal stress response of intertidal shrimps with different vertical distributions: Palaemon elegans and Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Diana; Mendonça, Vanessa; Dias, Marta; Roma, Joana; Costa, Pedro M; Larguinho, Miguel; Vinagre, Catarina; Diniz, Mário S

    2015-05-01

    The ability to cope with high temperature variations is a critical factor in intertidal communities. Two species of intertidal rocky shore shrimps (Palaemon sp.) with different vertical distributions were collected from the Portuguese coast in order to test if they were differentially sensitive to thermal stress. Three distinct levels of biological organization (organismal, biochemical, and cellular) were surveyed. The shrimp were exposed to a constant rate of temperature increase of 1°C x h(-1), starting at 20°C until reaching the CTMax (critical thermal maximum). During heat stress, two biomarkers of protein damage were quantified in the muscle via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: heat shock proteins HSP70 (hsp70/hsc70) and total ubiquitin. Muscle histopathological alterations caused by temperature were also evaluated. CTMax values were not significantly different between the congeners (P. elegans 33.4 ± 0.5 °C; P. serratus 33.0 ± 0.5 °C). Biomarker levels did not increase along the temperature trial, but P. elegans (higher intertidal) showed higher amounts of HSP70 and total ubiquitin than P. serratus (lower intertidal). HSP70 and total ubiquitin levels showed a positive significant correlation in both species, suggesting that their association is important in thermal tolerance. Histopathological observations of muscle tissue in P. serratus showed no gross alterations due to temperature but did show localized atrophy of muscle fibers at CTMax. In P. elegans, alterations occurred at a larger scale, showing multiple foci of atrophic muscular fascicles caused by necrotic or autolytic processes. In conclusion, Palaemon congeners displayed different responses to stress at a cellular level, with P. elegans having greater biomarker levels and histopathological alterations.

  18. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd

    2014-11-14

    Context :  Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective :  To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design :  Cross-sectional study. Setting :  Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants :  A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) :  Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results :  Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions :  Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.

  19. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus): a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rita M; Serrão, Ester A; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Åberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s)) of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s) much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity) of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s) that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental variability and

  20. Middle lobe preserving right lower lobectomy with a serratus anterior hammock flap in a patient with previous right upper lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jiro; Takahashi, Satomi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Tsukidate, Hisakatsu

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly, many patients are diagnosed with a second lung cancer after curative thoracotomy. It is very difficult to manage such patients surgically due to the significant loss of pulmonary function. Especially on the right side, avoiding a completion pneumonectomy may contribute to reducing postoperative functional loss and surgical complications as well as the morbidity of post-pneumonectomy syndrome. A technique is needed to prevent torsion of the preserved middle lobe. Following recently published cases utilizing a latissimus dorsi muscle flap, in this case report, we describe the use of the serratus anterior muscle flap as an alternative.

  1. Subcellular distribution and trophic transfer of Pb from bivalves to the common prawn Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Beiras, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The edible clam Dosinia exoleta has been reported to accumulate high contents of lead (Pb) in soft tissues disregarding the levels of Pb in the environment. This is due to the retention of Pb in the form of metal rich granules (MRG) in their kidneys throughout the mollusc lifespan. The potential for trophic transfer of Pb in this form to predators is expected to be low, since metals in the form of MRG are generally supposed to be trophically unavailable, but this assumption is based on studies with other metals (Ag, Cd, Cu or Zn) and has not been demonstrated with Pb until now. This study was designed to test if the Pb present in D. exoleta in the form of MRG is available to a decapod consumer, the common prawn Palaemon serratus, in comparison with a mussel diet showing a different subcellular distribution of Pb. As hypothesised, despite the high Pb concentrations (15µgg(-1)ww) offered to the prawns as D. exoleta tissues, Pb was almost completely unavailable for trophic transfer, and the prawns fed with this diet during 28 days showed the same Pb accumulation as prawns fed with a control diet with a much lower Pb concentration. On the contrary, individuals fed with mussel tissues containing the same Pb concentrations as the diet based on D. exoleta tissues showed 10 times higher Pb bioaccumulation, corresponding to a trophic transfer factor of 1.1%. Subcellular fractionation experiments revealed that the fraction of Pb in the form of MRG was much lower for the mussel, confirming, as observed for other metals, that MRG-associated Pb is not available for trophic transfer to decapod crustaceans.

  2. Shizukaol D, a Dimeric Sesquiterpene Isolated from Chloranthus serratus, Represses the Growth of Human Liver Cancer Cells by Modulating Wnt Signalling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lisha; Zhu, Hengrui; Yang, Xianmei; Xie, Fang; Peng, Jingtao; Jiang, Deke; Xie, Jun; Qi, Meiyan; Yu, Long

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have become sources of developing new drugs for the treatment of cancer. To seek candidate compounds that inhibit the growth of liver cancer, components of Chloranthus serratus were tested. Here, we report that shizukaol D, a dimeric sesquiterpene from Chloranthus serratus, exerted a growth inhibition effect on liver cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We demonstrated that shizukaol D induced cells to undergo apoptosis. More importantly, shizukaol D attenuated Wnt signalling and reduced the expression of endogenous Wnt target genes, which resulted in decreased expression of β-catenin. Collectively, this study demonstrated that shizukaol D inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by modulating Wnt pathway.

  3. Primary Combined Latissimus Dorsi and Serratus Anterior Flap Repair of Right-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Agenesis in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Madan; Parapurath, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    Large diaphragmatic defects can be repaired with latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flaps. We report the first successful primary repair of complete congenital diaphragmatic agenesis using a combination of autologous living bio-tissue and synthetic mesh in a neonate born in the NMC Specialty Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in May 2014. Poor Apgar scores, a scaphoid abdomen and absent breath sounds over the right hemithorax were observed at birth. Chest and abdominal X-rays revealed a diaphragmatic hernia. The neonate was stabilised using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, nitric oxide and sildenafil. The right diaphragm was reconstructed using combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flaps reinforced by a flexible composite mesh. At 12 months old, the infant had normal respiratory function and the diaphragm was intact. No disabilities of the shoulder or scapula were observed. This case indicates that a combination of living tissue and synthetic mesh can be used to reconstruct a functional diaphragm with efficient pleuroperitoneal separation.

  4. Coverage of Amputation Stumps Using a Latissimus Dorsi Flap With a Serratus Anterior Muscle Flap: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Jeon, Seung Bae; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Amputation of the extremities is a definitive reconstructive option, and surgeons should aim to preserve maximum overall function. If the exposed bone cannot be adequately covered using local tissues, the stump can be reconstructed using a number of well-described free flap transfer techniques. Between January 2002 and December 2011, 31 patients with severe injuries to the lower extremities underwent above-the-knee, below-the-knee, and Chopart and Ray amputations. Bony stumps were covered using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps alone (group 1), or together with serratus anterior muscle flaps (group 2). The groups were compared with respect to age, flap survival, skin flap size, immediate complications, wound sloughing, deep ulceration, need for bone amputation, limb visual analog scale score, time to prosthesis, and follow-up duration. The mean area of the latissimus dorsi skin flap was 255.9 cm, and immediate complications occurred in 8 (25.8%) patients. In the double-padding group, there were fewer cases of deep ulceration than in the single-flap group, and prostheses could be worn sooner. There were no statistically significant differences in other parameters. Successful reconstruction of amputation stumps requires an adequate, durable, weight-bearing, and well-contoured soft tissue cover. A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap together with a serratus anterior muscle flap provides well-vascularized muscle tissue and a durable skin paddle, leading to less ulceration than conventional flap techniques.

  5. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  6. Periodic appearance and disappearance of a chest wall (serratus anterior development) cavernous hemangioma that was finally resected in a child.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tomoki; Watanabe, Hajime; Nakazato, Kenei; Masuda, Daisuke; Ogura, Go; Masuda, Ryota; Nakamura, Naoya; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    Primary chest wall tumors occur infrequently; in particular, cavernous hemangioma of the chest wall is an extremely rare disease. We report a case of child with cavernous hemangioma of the chest wall, which was successfully resected. Obvious enlargement of the tumor and the appearance of pain were observed during a 2-year follow-up. In the present case, transcutaneous ultrasonography showed the appearance and disappearance of the mass. This was considered to be caused by the transfer of contents between the shallow and deep parts of the tumor. This may have resulted from serratus anterior muscle movement between the two-layered tumor. Transcutaneous ultrasonography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, was therefore extremely effective for preoperative diagnosis. Transcutaneous ultrasonography is easily performed, even in children, such as in the present case. Because of its simplicity and usefulness, transcutaneous ultrasonography may be considered as the first-line imaging modality for diagnosis.

  7. A tip-high, Ca(2+) -interdependent, reactive oxygen species gradient is associated with polarized growth in Fucus serratus zygotes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Susana M B; Brownlee, Colin; Bothwell, John H F

    2008-04-01

    We report the existence of a tip-high reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradient in growing Fucus serratus zygotes, using both 5-(and 6-) chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein and nitroblue tetrazolium staining to report ROS generation. Suppression of the ROS gradient inhibits polarized zygotic growth; conversely, exogenous ROS generation can redirect zygotic polarization following inhibition of endogenous ROS. Confocal imaging of fluo-4 dextran distributions suggests that the ROS gradient is interdependent on the tip-high [Ca(2+)](cyt) gradient which is known to be associated with polarized growth. Our data support a model in which localized production of ROS at the rhizoid tip stimulates formation of a localized tip-high [Ca(2+)](cyt) gradient. Such modulation of intracellular [Ca(2+)](cyt) signals by ROS is a common motif in many plant and algal systems and this study extends this mechanism to embryogenesis.

  8. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  9. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  10. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  11. Foot reconstruction using a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site after failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Kwon, Young Hun; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-02-01

    The free flap failure rate for the lower extremities is high, which adversely affects limb salvage efforts. In this article, we report a case of failure of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, which was simultaneously reconstructed with a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. A 56-year-old male patient had infected wound for 3 months due to Achilles tendon rupture. We reconstructed the defect using a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. However, 2 days after the operation, we found the congested flap. We were obliged to discard the whole flap and harvested a serratus anterior muscle flap from the same donor site. The patient's foot healed uneventfully. After flap failure, the use of a second free flap from the same donor site may be an effective and safe procedure in specific cases.

  12. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  13. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  14. Biological importance of marine algae.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  15. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  16. Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

    2015-03-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation.

  17. Thickness of the lower trapezius and serratus anterior using ultrasound imaging during a repeated arm lifting task.

    PubMed

    Day, Joseph M; Uhl, Timothy

    2013-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish the reliability for measuring scapular muscle thickness, and to examine how scapular muscle thickness changes with respect to external loads. Participants were asymptomatic subjects recruited from a sample of convenience. Thickness Measures were taken using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) under 11 conditions, rest and 10 progressive loads, for the Lower Trapezius (LT) and Serratus Anterior (SA). The procedures were repeated 1 week later to determine reliability. Bland and Altman limits of agreement and Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine reliability. Separate repeated measure ANOVAs were performed to determine differences in muscle thickness for both muscles across 3 conditions; rest and the 2 loaded conditions that represented the lowest and highest torque values. Results demonstrate good within and between day reliability for the LT (ICC = .86 to .99) and SA (ICC = .88 to .99). For the LT and SA, there were significant differences between the resting thickness and 2 lifting conditions (p ≤ .01) but not between the two lifting conditions. It was concluded that RUSI is reliable in measuring scapular muscle thickness. RUSI is sensitive enough to detect absolute changes in thickness from resting to a contracted state but unable to detect differences between loads imposed on the shoulder.

  18. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination.

  19. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  20. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  2. [Wide resection of chest wall for intramuscular lipoma in serratus anterior muscle reconstructed by autologous tissue;report of a case].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kiyomichi; Urabe, Norikazu; Nakatsuka, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Kayoko; Eguchi, Masanobu

    2015-02-01

    A 60-years-old man with a right lateral chest wall mass visited our hospital. There was a mass of 50×45 mm on the 5th rib. The mild atypical cells were detected by the percutaneous needle biopsy, and the tumor was resected with the chest wall of which detect was reconstructed with fascia lata and latissimus dorsi muscle cutaneous flap. Pathological diagnosis was lipoma in the serratus anterior muscle. The postoperative course was uneventful without paradoxical respiration and surgical site infection. Since intramuscular lipoma is very rare and is reported to have a risk of recurrence, careful observation is necessary.

  3. Characterization of the egg vesicular components in the seaweed, Fucus serratus L. (Fucales, Phaeophyta), using enzyme histochemistry and vital staining: the search for a lysosome-like body.

    PubMed

    Holland, R D; Pitt, D; Moore, M N; Brownlee, C

    1997-03-01

    Fucus serratus eggs were examined for evidence of the existence of a lysosome-like body using enzyme histochemical and vital staining techniques. Simultaneous coupling azo-dye techniques for lysosomal acid phosphatase proved inappropriate owing to endogenous phenolic binding artefacts. The large number of alginate polysaccharide and polyphenolic egg vesicles interfered with vital staining techniques for lysosomes. Lysosomal esterase activity was detected in the abundant egg lipid bodies. The role of the egg lipid body as an equivalent lysosome-like body of higher plants, the spherosome, is discussed in relation to egg fertilization and early zygote development.

  4. Acromiohumeral Distance During Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior Muscles in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Bdaiwi, Alya H.; Mackenzie, Tanya Anne; Herrington, Lee; Horsley, Ian; Cools, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Context Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance has been reported in participants with subacromial impingement syndrome compared with healthy participants. In clinical practice, patients with subacromial shoulder impingement are given strengthening programs targeting the lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles to increase scapular posterior tilt and upward rotation. We are the first to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation to stimulate these muscle groups and evaluate how the muscle contraction affects the acromiohumeral distance. Objective To investigate if electrical muscle stimulation of the LT and SA muscles, both separately and simultaneously, increases the acromiohumeral distance and to identify which muscle-group contraction or combination most influences the acromiohumeral distance. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting Human performance laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women, age = 26.9 ± 8.0 years, body mass index = 23.8) were screened. Intervention(s) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT and SA. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ultrasound measurement of the acromiohumeral distance. Results Acromiohumeral distance increased during contraction via neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT muscle (t19 = −3.89, P = .004), SA muscle (t19 = −7.67, P = .001), and combined LT and SA muscles (t19 = −5.09, P = .001). We observed no differences in the increased acromiohumeral distance among the 3 procedures (F2,57 = 3.109, P = .08). Conclusions Our results supported the hypothesis that the muscle force couple around the scapula is important in rehabilitation and scapular control and influences acromiohumeral distance. PMID:25933249

  5. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  6. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    PubMed

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  18. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  19. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  20. EMG activity of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during the different phases of the push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces and different hand positions.

    PubMed

    Gioftsos, George; Arvanitidis, Michail; Tsimouris, Dimitrios; Kanellopoulos, Assimakis; Paras, George; Trigkas, Panagiotis; Sakellari, Vasiliki

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The appropriate exercise prescription is crucial for achieving scapular stability and providing successful rehabilitation, and the Push-up Plus (PuP) exercise has an important role in shoulder rehabilitation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of support surface stability, hand positioning, and phase of exercise, on the trapezius and serratus anterior muscle contractions as well as on the EMG ratio of the upper/lower trapezius. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects performed the PuP exercise on stable and unstable supporting surfaces with three different hand orientations. During the PuP exercise, the muscle activities of the upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, as well as the serratus anterior (SA) were measured and expressed as percentages of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). [Results] The EMG activities of UT and LT were statistically greater during the push-up phase compared to the plus phase of the exercise. The contrary was recorded for the activity of the SA. SA was affected by the support surface as well as by the hand positioning. [Conclusion] The results suggest that different phases of the PuP exercise require different muscle stability actions with corresponding activations of appropriate muscle fibers. A detailed prescription of the required phase of the exercise can more effectively activate the scapula-thoracic musculature.

  1. Absence of Ca2+-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition but Presence of Bongkrekate-Sensitive Nucleotide Exchange in C. crangon and P. serratus

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Csaba; Kiss, Gergely; Torocsik, Beata; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria from the embryos of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) do not undergo Ca2+-induced permeability transition in the presence of a profound Ca2+ uptake capacity. Furthermore, this crustacean is the only organism known to exhibit bongkrekate-insensitive mitochondrial adenine nucleotide exchange, prompting the conjecture that refractoriness to bongkrekate and absence of Ca2+-induced permeability transition are somehow related phenomena. Here we report that mitochondria isolated from two other crustaceans, brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) and common prawn (Palaemon serratus) exhibited bongkrekate-sensitive mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transport, but lacked a Ca2+-induced permeability transition. Ca2+ uptake capacity was robust in the absence of adenine nucleotides in both crustaceans, unaffected by either bongkrekate or cyclosporin A. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ca2+-loaded mitochondria showed needle-like formations of electron-dense material strikingly similar to those observed in mitochondria from the hepatopancreas of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and the embryos of Artemia franciscana. Alignment analysis of the partial coding sequences of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) expressed in Crangon crangon and Palaemon serratus versus the complete sequence expressed in Artemia franciscana reappraised the possibility of the 208-214 amino acid region for conferring sensitivity to bongkrekate. However, our findings suggest that the ability to undergo Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and the sensitivity of adenine nucleotide translocase to bongkrekate are not necessarily related phenomena. PMID:22768139

  2. EMG activity of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during the different phases of the push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces and different hand positions

    PubMed Central

    Gioftsos, George; Arvanitidis, Michail; Tsimouris, Dimitrios; Kanellopoulos, Assimakis; Paras, George; Trigkas, Panagiotis; Sakellari, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The appropriate exercise prescription is crucial for achieving scapular stability and providing successful rehabilitation, and the Push-up Plus (PuP) exercise has an important role in shoulder rehabilitation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of support surface stability, hand positioning, and phase of exercise, on the trapezius and serratus anterior muscle contractions as well as on the EMG ratio of the upper/lower trapezius. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. The subjects performed the PuP exercise on stable and unstable supporting surfaces with three different hand orientations. During the PuP exercise, the muscle activities of the upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, as well as the serratus anterior (SA) were measured and expressed as percentages of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). [Results] The EMG activities of UT and LT were statistically greater during the push-up phase compared to the plus phase of the exercise. The contrary was recorded for the activity of the SA. SA was affected by the support surface as well as by the hand positioning. [Conclusion] The results suggest that different phases of the PuP exercise require different muscle stability actions with corresponding activations of appropriate muscle fibers. A detailed prescription of the required phase of the exercise can more effectively activate the scapula-thoracic musculature. PMID:27512278

  3. Glycolate Pathway in Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J. L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    No glycolate oxidase activity could be detected by manometric, isotopic, or spectrophotometric techniques in cell extracts from 5 strains of algae grown in the light with CO2. However, NADH:glyoxylate reductase, phosphoglycolate phosphatase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were detected in the cell extracts. The serine formed by Chlorella or Chlamydomonas after 12 seconds of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation contained 70 to 80% of its 14C in the carboxyl carbon. This distribution of label in serine was similar to that in phosphoglycerate from the same experiment. Thus, in algae serine is probably formed directly from phosphoglycerate. These results differ from those of higher plants which form uniformly labeled serine from glycolate in short time periods when phosphoglycerate is still carboxyl labeled. In glycolate formed by algae in 5 and 10 seconds of 14CO2 fixation, C2 was at least twice as radioactive as C1. A similar skewed labeling in C2 and C3 of 3-phosphoglycerate and serine suggests a common precursor for glycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate. Glycine formed by the algae, however, from the same experiments was uniformly labeled. Manganese deficient Chlorella incorporated only 2% of the total 14CO2 fixed in 10 minutes into glycolate, while in normal Chlorella 30% of the total 14C was found in glycolate. Manganese deficient Chlorella also accumulated more 14C in glycine and serine. Glycolate excretion by Chlorella was maximal in 10 mm bicarbonate and occurred only in the light, and was not influenced by the addition of glycolate. No time dependent uptake of significant amounts of either glycolate or phosphoglycolate was observed. When small amounts of glycolate-2-14C were fed to Chlorella or Scenedesmus, only 2 to 3% was metabolized after 30 to 60 minutes. The algae were not capable of significant glycolate metabolism as is the higher plant. The failure to detect glycolate oxidase, the low level glycolate-14C metabolism, and the formation of serine from phosphoglycerate

  4. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  5. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

  6. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  7. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature.

  8. Halogenated compounds from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-08-09

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  9. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  10. Behaviour and biomarkers as tools to assess the acute toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the common prawn Palaemon serratus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos; Oliveira, Cristiana; Gravato, Carlos; Almeida, Joana R

    2013-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is considered an important marine environmental contaminant, given its recognised environmental persistence and toxicity. However, its effects in marine crustaceans are poorly studied, namely the accumulation and sub-cellular effects that might be linked to behavioural alterations and may lead to ecologically relevant consequences. This study aims to investigate behavioural and physiological responses of the common prawn (Palaemon serratus) after acute exposure to BaP and infer the potential effects for the population in the wild. The applied approach included the evaluation of swimming performance after exposure, and several biochemical biomarkers involved in biotransformation, oxidative damage, energy production and levels of BaP-type compounds in tissues (eye, digestive gland and muscle) in a 96 h acute bioassay with exposure to BaP (16-4096 μg/L). The objective was to establish a link between behaviour (swimming velocity) and biochemical responses in order to assess the ecological relevance of the effects induced by BaP in P. serratus and to select useful tools for environmental risk assessment. Results showed swimming velocity impairment (LOEC = 128 μg/L), lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction (LOEC = 4096 μg/L) and BaP-type compounds increase in eye (LOEC = 32 μg/L), digestive gland and muscle (LOEC = 512 μg/L) of prawn after exposure to BaP. This oxidative damage in lipids seems to be caused by the incapacity to activate detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes, once glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were not affected by the exposure. This could be also an explanation to the increased levels of BaP-type compounds observed in tissues. An inability to increase the activities of enzymes involved in the production of energy was also observed, which may help to explain the detoxification failure and consequent increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The inhibition of swimming velocity was

  11. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  12. Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, C U; Aoyagi, H; Uchiyama, H

    2008-07-01

    Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the major factors that limits their practical application in algal mass cultures is mass transfer. Thus, a thorough understanding of mass transfer rates in photobioreactors is necessary for efficient operation of mass algal cultures. In this review article, various photobioreactors that are very promising for mass production of algae are discussed.

  13. Comparison of Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, and Serratus Anterior Muscle Activity during Push-up plus Exercise on Slings and a Stable Surface.

    PubMed

    Jeong, So Young; Chung, Sin Ho; Shim, Jae Hun

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify effects of push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces on upper extremity muscular activity. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students (10 males, 18 females) at B University. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up plus exercises either on slings or on a fixed support. [Results] Push-up plus exercises on slings showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the trapezius (upper fiber), deltoid (anterior fiber), and serratus anterior muscles compared with stabilization exercises on a fixed support. [Conclusion] Based on these results, it is considered that performance of the push-up plus exercise on slings will increase scapular muscle activity.

  14. Effect of the push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD) on the serratus anterior during push-up plus

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a push-up plus guide and resistance device and investigated the effectiveness of the device. [Subject and Methods] A 39-year-old man presented with moderate pain with left scapular dyskinesis. A newly designed assistance device was used as a push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD). The subject performed the push-up plus exercise without and then with the PPGRD for 2 weeks each. [Results] After performing the push-up plus exercise with the PPGRD for 2 weeks, the serratus anterior muscle power was increased, the pain score was decreased, and the absence of scapular dyskinesis was confirmed. [Conclusion] The PPGRD provided appropriate guidance and prevented excessive trunk flexion during the push-up plus exercise. PMID:27942157

  15. Effect of Vibration Frequency on Serratus Anterior Muscle Activity during Performance of the Push-up Plus with a Redcord Sling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eui-Ryong; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of vibration at various frequencies on serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. [Subjects] Ten male subjects were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed the push-up plus exercise supported by straps above the surface and vertical ropes in the Redcord sling. During the push-up plus, vibrations of 0, 30, 50, or 90 Hz were applied to the Redcord sling using a mechanical vibration apparatus attached to the rope. SA muscle activity was recorded using electromyography. [Results] SA muscle activity at the 50 Hz vibration frequency was significantly higher than that of no vibration. [Conclusion] Performing the push-up plus using a Redcord sling with mechanical vibration of 50 Hz effectively increased SA muscle activity.

  16. Repair of a wide lower extremity defect with cross-leg free transfer of latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior combined flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Gursel; Kayalı, Mahmut Ulvi; Köse, Ozkan; Baş, Lütfü

    2010-12-01

    Composite tissue loss in extremities involving neurovascular structures has been a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Reconstruction of large defects can only be achieved with microsurgical procedures. The success of free flap operations depends on the presence of healthy recipient vessels. In cases with no suitable donor artery and vein or in which even the use of vein grafts would not be feasible, the lower limb can be salvaged with a cross-leg free flap procedure. We present a case with a large composite tissue loss that was reconstructed with cross-leg free transfer of a combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior muscle flap. This case indicates that this large muscle flap can survive with the cross-leg free flap method and this technique may be a viable alternative for large lower extremity defects that have no reliable recipient artery.

  17. Effect of the push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD) on the serratus anterior during push-up plus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a push-up plus guide and resistance device and investigated the effectiveness of the device. [Subject and Methods] A 39-year-old man presented with moderate pain with left scapular dyskinesis. A newly designed assistance device was used as a push-up plus guide and resistance device (PPGRD). The subject performed the push-up plus exercise without and then with the PPGRD for 2 weeks each. [Results] After performing the push-up plus exercise with the PPGRD for 2 weeks, the serratus anterior muscle power was increased, the pain score was decreased, and the absence of scapular dyskinesis was confirmed. [Conclusion] The PPGRD provided appropriate guidance and prevented excessive trunk flexion during the push-up plus exercise.

  18. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs.

  19. ["Depilation" by micro-algae?].

    PubMed

    Ditrich, H

    1996-01-01

    Itching, reddening and depilation of body hairs was reported by swimmers in the Attersee-lake in Austria. Initially, an environmental crime was suspected. However, further investigations showed that a biological cause was probably responsible for these symptoms. The accrustations found on body hairs turned out in the scanning electron microscope to be dried mucus containing numerous diatoms. The prevailing micro-algae were identified as Cyclotella comensis. Thus, although the phenomenon had a natural, harmless cause, it may happen again given the appropriate environmental conditions.

  20. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  1. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  2. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  3. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  4. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  5. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    PubMed

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined.

  6. Flocculation of model algae under shear.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

  7. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  8. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited.

  9. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  10. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  11. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  12. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  13. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  14. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  15. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  16. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  17. The biogeochemical effect of seaweeds upon close-to natural concentrations of dissolved iodate and iodide in seawater Preliminary study with Laminaria digitata and Fucus serratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdale, Victor W.

    2008-06-01

    Toward assessing the biogeochemical significance of seaweeds in relation to dissolved iodine in seawater, the effect of whole seaweeds ( Laminaria digitata and Fucus serratus) upon iodide and iodate, at essentially natural concentrations, has been studied. The weeds were carefully removed from the sub-littoral zone of the Menai Straits and exposed to iodide and iodate at their natural temperature (6 °C), but under continuous illumination. Laminaria digitata was found to decrease the concentration of iodate with an exponential rate constant of 0.008-0.24 h -1. This is a newly discovered process which, if substantiated, will require an entirely new mechanism. Generally, apparent iodide concentration increased except in a run with seawater augmented with iodide, where it first decreased. The rate constant for loss of iodide was 0.014-0.16 h -1. Meanwhile, F. serratus was found not to decrease iodate concentrations, as did L. digitata. Indeed, after ˜30 h iodate concentrations increased, suggesting that the weed may take in iodide before oxidising and releasing it. If substantiated, this finding may offer a way into one of the most elusive of processes within the iodine cycle - iodide oxidation. With both seaweeds sustained long-term increases of apparent iodide concentration are most easily explained as a secretion by the weeds of organic matter which is capable of reducing the Ce(IV) reagent used in determination of total iodine. Modelling of the catalytic method used is provided to support this contention. The possibility of developing this to measure the strain that seaweeds endure in this kind of biogeochemical flux experiment is discussed. A Chemical Oxygen Demand type of approach is applied using Ce(IV) as oxidant. The results of the iodine experiments are contrasted with the several investigations of 131I interaction with seaweeds, which have routinely used discs of weed cut from the frond. It is argued that experiments conducted with stable iodine may

  18. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  19. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  20. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately.

  1. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  2. Effect of Interactions Among Algae on Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) in Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; Greene, Sarah; Alexander, Martin

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by algae in flooded soil was limited by interactions within the algal community. Nitrogen fixation by either indigenous algae or Tolypothrix tenuis was reduced severalfold by a dense suspension of the green alga Nephrocytium sp. Similarly, interactions between the nitrogen-fixing alga (cyanobacterium) Aulosira 68 and natural densities of indigenous algae limited nitrogen-fixing activity in one of two soils examined. This was demonstrated by developing a variant of Aulosira 68 that was resistant to the herbicide simetryne at concentrations that prevented development of indigenous algae. More nitrogen was fixed by the resistant variant in flooded soil containing herbicide than was fixed in herbicide-free soil by either the indigenous algae or indigenous algae plus the parent strain of Aulosira. Interference from indigenous algae may hamper the development of nitrogen-fixing algae introduced into rice fields in attempts to increase biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:16345463

  3. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  5. Hybridization of the marine seaweeds, Fucus serratus and Fucus evanescens (Heterokontophyta: Phaeophyceae) in a 100-year-old zone of secondary contact.

    PubMed Central

    Coyer, J A; Peters, A F; Hoarau, G; Stam, W T; Olsen, J L

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the intertidal seaweeds Fucus serratus (Fs) and Fucus evanescens (Fe) were sympatric only along the western coast of Norway. In the mid-1890s, Fe (monoecious) was accidentally introduced into the Oslofjord. Putative hybridization with the endemic Fs (dioecious) was observed in Oslofjord by 1977 and in the Kattegat and western Baltic Seas by 1998. At Blushøj, Denmark (Kattegat Sea) putative Fs x Fe hybrids were present only when densities of Fe and Fs exceeded 14 and 2 m(-2), respectively. All of the 58 putative hybrids that were collected in 1999 were dioecious and intermediate in morphology. Essentially all (57 out of 58) were reproductively mature, but the oogonia possessed fewer and more variably sized eggs than either parent. Examination of each parental species and putative hybrids with nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast molecular markers confirmed the occurrence of hybridization. Furthermore, all of the hybrids possessed Fe-type chloroplasts and mitochondria, indicating that only the Fe egg x Fs sperm pairing was successful in the field. The reciprocal cross of Fs egg x Fe sperm was absent in the field and significantly less successful in laboratory crossings. Asymmetrical hybridization has also been reported for several species of plants and animals. PMID:12350271

  6. Application of free serratus anterior fascial flap for reconstruction of ear deformity due to hemifacial microsomia: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Nuri, Takashi; Ueda, Koichi; Yamada, Akira

    2016-12-17

    Reconstructing congenital auricular defects due to hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is often required to deal with low hairline and defects of the temporal fascia/muscular systems. In this report, we present two cases of HFM patients (16-year-old and 20-year-old) with positional anomaly of the remnant lobule and 95% low hairline, who were treated with serratus anterior fascial flap (SFF) at the second stage of auricular construction. At the first stage, 3D costal cartilage framework was placed following the removal of hair-bearing skin, and was resurfaced with the pericranial flap. At the second stage, ear elevation was performed with cartilage block grafting, then the free SFF was used to construct cephaloauricular sulcus because of local fascial defect. The pedicles of SFF, subscapular vessels were anastomosed to the cervical vessels. No complications developed during the follow-up period of 4 years in both cases and projections of the constructed ears were satisfactorily maintained. The free SFF is naturally thin and flexible with sufficient circulation and it may be an alternative to temporo-parietal fascia flap in complicated microtia construction in HFM.

  7. Treatment of a chronic vesicocutaneous fistula and abdominal wall defect after resection of a soft tissue sarcoma using a bipedicled latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior free flap.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ingo; Apel, Hendrik; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2014-11-01

    We present a surgical treatment for bladder reconstruction in a case of chronic vesicocutaneous radiation-induced fistula and reconstruction of the abdominal wall after resection of a liposarcoma in the rectus abdominis muscle. Fistulas are sequelae after radiotherapy. To regain bladder function and reconstitute abdominal wall stability, a microsurgical flap approach should be considered. A male patient underwent resection of a liposarcoma in the rectus abdominis muscle with adjuvant radiotherapy, suffering from a chronic vesicocutaneous fistula. A bipedicled combined latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior flap was carried out after resection of the fistula for reconstruction of the urine bladder and the abdominal wall. Ascending urethrography 4 weeks postoperatively showed no leakage. In the 4-month follow-up period, no signs of recurrence of the fistula or herniation occurred. A bipedicled flap allowed reconstruction of the urine bladder and the abdominal wall. Using non-irradiated, well-perfused intra-abdominal muscle tissue over the urine bladder prevented recurrence of the fistula.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-01-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal obbjects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charopyhte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorbance spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900 nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance in the wave band of 400-550 nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did not change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400 – 500 nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  10. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  11. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  12. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications.

  13. [Functional components in fish and algae oils].

    PubMed

    Conchillo, A; Valencia, I; Puente, A; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I

    2006-01-01

    An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio was lower than 0.4 in both oils. In the unsaponificable fraction, algae oil had a Mold lower cholesterol content and a higher proportion of squalene than fish oil. The phytosterol content was significantly higher in the algae oil.

  14. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  15. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements.

  16. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  17. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  18. Unusual Antimalarial Meroditerpenes from Tropical Red Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Stout, E. Paige; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine; Fairchild, Craig R.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.; Kubanek, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Three antimalarial meroditerpenes have been isolated from two Fijian red macroalgae. The absolute stereochemistry of callophycolide A (1), a unique macrolide from Callophycus serratus, was determined using a combination of Mosher’s ester analysis, circular dichroism analysis with a dimolybdenum tetraacetate complex, and conformational analysis using NOEs. In addition, two known tocopherols, β-tocopherylhydroquinone (4) and δ-tocopherylhydroquinone (5), were isolated from Amphiroa crassa. By oxidizing 5 to the corresponding δ-tocopherylquinone (6), antimalarial activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was increased by more than 20-fold. PMID:20801038

  19. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  20. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  1. Lipids and lipid metabolism in eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Guschina, Irina A; Harwood, John L

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic algae are a very diverse group of organisms which inhabit a huge range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to deserts. They account for over half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain. In recent years studies on the lipid biochemistry of algae has shifted from experiments with a few model organisms to encompass a much larger number of, often unusual, algae. This has led to the discovery of new compounds, including major membrane components, as well as the elucidation of lipid signalling pathways. A major drive in recent research have been attempts to discover genes that code for expression of the various proteins involved in the production of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Such work is described here together with information about how environmental factors, such as light, temperature or minerals, can change algal lipid metabolism and how adaptation may take place.

  2. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  3. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  4. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  5. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  6. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  7. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  8. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  9. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  10. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  11. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  12. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Wu, Jilong

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W, lambda(max) = 365 nm) was investigated. Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algae-water systems. The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration, and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution. Meanwhile, the cooperation action of algae and Fe(III), and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxacin. The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae. In addition, we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae. This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae, for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  13. Neonatal sepsis caused by Shewanella algae: A case report.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marie Victor Pravin; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Kali, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality among neonates, especially in developing countries. Most cases of neonatal sepsis are attributed to Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Shewanella algae (S. algae) is a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, commonly associated with the marine environment, which has been isolated from humans. Early onset neonatal sepsis caused by S. algae is uncommon. We report a case of S. algae blood stream infection in a newborn with early onset neonatal sepsis.

  14. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  15. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  16. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  17. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  20. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  1. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  2. Sterol chemotaxonomy of marine pelagophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Zhao, Hui; Boyer, Gregory L; Satchwell, Michael F; Andersen, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    Several marine algae of the class Pelagophyceae produce the unusual marine sterol 24-propylidenecholesterol, mainly as the (24E)-isomer. The (24Z)-isomer had previously been considered as a specific biomarker for Aureococcus anophagefferens, the 'brown tide' alga of the Northeast coast of the USA. To test this hypothesis and to generate chemotaxonomic information, the sterol compositions of 42 strains of pelagophyte algae including 17 strains of Aureococcus anophagefferens were determined by GC analysis. A more comprehensive sterol analysis by HPLC and (1)H-NMR was obtained for 17 selected pelagophyte strains. All strains analyzed contained 24-propylidenecholesterol. In all strains belonging to the order Sarcinochrysidales, this sterol was found only as the (E)-isomer, while all strains in the order Pelagomonadales contained the (Z)-isomer, either alone or together with the (E)-isomer. The occurrence of Delta(22) and 24alpha-sterols was limited to the Sarcinochrysidales. The first occurrence of Delta(22)-24-propylcholesterol in an alga, CCMP 1410, was reported. Traces of the rare sterol 26,26-dimethyl-24-methylenecholesterol were detected in Aureococcus anophagefferens, and the (25R)-configuration was proposed, based on biosynthetic considerations. Traces of a novel sterol, 24-propylidenecholesta-5,25-dien-3beta-ol, were detected in several species.

  3. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  4. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Paul N.

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  5. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice.

  6. Polyamine biosynthetic diversity in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Fuell, Christine; Elliott, Katherine A; Hanfrey, Colin C; Franceschetti, Marina; Michael, Anthony J

    2010-07-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis in plants differs from other eukaryotes because of the contribution of genes from the cyanobacterial ancestor of the chloroplast. Plants possess an additional biosynthetic route for putrescine formation from arginine, consisting of the enzymes arginine decarboxylase, agmatine iminohydrolase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase, derived from the cyanobacterial ancestor. They also synthesize an unusual tetraamine, thermospermine, that has important developmental roles and which is evolutionarily more ancient than spermine in plants and algae. Single-celled green algae have lost the arginine route and are dependent, like other eukaryotes, on putrescine biosynthesis from the ornithine. Some plants like Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens have lost ornithine decarboxylase and are thus dependent on the arginine route. With its dependence on the arginine route, and the pivotal role of thermospermine in growth and development, Arabidopsis represents the most specifically plant mode of polyamine biosynthesis amongst eukaryotes. A number of plants and algae are also able to synthesize unusual polyamines such as norspermidine, norspermine and longer polyamines, and biosynthesis of these amines likely depends on novel aminopropyltransferases similar to thermospermine synthase, with relaxed substrate specificity. Plants have a rich repertoire of polyamine-based secondary metabolites, including alkaloids and hydroxycinnamic amides, and a number of polyamine-acylating enzymes have been recently characterised. With the genetic tools available for Arabidopsis and other model plants and algae, and the increasing capabilities of comparative genomics, the biological roles of polyamines can now be addressed across the plant evolutionary lineage.

  7. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals. PMID:21822416

  8. [Allelopathic effect of artemisinin on green algae].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Long-Yun

    2013-05-01

    To study the growth effects of differing concentrations of artemisinin on green algae and to evaluate the ecological risk. The effects of artemisinin on the growth and the content change of chlorophyll, protein, oxygen, conductivity, SOD, CAT, MDA in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus oblique were studied through 96 h toxicity tests. Artemisinin accelerated the growth of algae at a lower concentration ( <40 microg . L-1) with content increase of chlorophyll or protein and so on, and it inhibited the growth of algae at higher concentration ( >80 microg . L-1). The content of chlorophyll or protein in algae cells reduced with the increasing concentration of artemisinin, exhibiting the good concentration-effect relationship. SOD and CAT activity was stimulated at low concentrations ( <40 microg . L-1 ) and inhibited at high concentrations ( >80 microg . L- 1). However, MDA content increased significantly with the increase of concentration. According to the seven kinds of indicators changes, the time-response and dose-response suggested that the surfactant first hurt in Ch. pyrenoidosa was damaging membrane by changing membrane lipid molecules soluble. And primary mechanism on Chlorophyta cells might be related to the oxidation damage of lipid and other biological large molecules caused by artemisinin. The large-scale intensive planting of Artemisia annua may reduce the surrounding water productivity.

  9. Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

  10. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  11. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  12. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

  13. Comparison of pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscle activities during different push-up plus exercises in subjects with and without scapular winging.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    To examine the differences between men with and without scapular winging in the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and activity ratio between the pectoralis major (PM) and serratus anterior (SA) during 3 push-up plus exercises: (a) the standard push-up plus (SPP), (b) the knee push-up plus (KPP), and (c) the wall push-up plus (WPP), and to determine which exercise induced the lowest PM/SA ratio in each group. Twenty-eight men participated in this study (13 scapular winging group: age, 21.8 ± 2.1 years; 15 control group: age, 23.3 ± 2.0 years). Surface EMG of the PM, SA, and activity ratio between the PM and SA were collected during 3 push-up plus exercises, and the EMG data were expressed as a percentage of the reference voluntary contraction (%RVC). The normalized PM activity for subjects in the scapular winging group was significantly greater than that in the control group (79.16 ± 6.65 %RVC vs. 39.66 ± 6.19 %RVC, p ≤ 0.05). The normalized SA activity was significantly lower in the scapular winging group compared with the control group (39.80 ± 4.09 %RVC vs. 56.28 ± 3.81 %RVC, p ≤ 0.05) and was significantly decreased in the following order: SPP > KPP > WPP; 77.09 ± 5.12 %RVC > 39.48 ± 3.38 %RVC > 27.55 ± 3.07 %RVC, p < 0.016). The PM/SA EMG ratio was significantly greater in the scapular winging group compared with that in the control group across all exercises and was significantly lower during SPP than that during KPP and WPP in both groups (1.13 ± 0.58 vs. 0.53 ± 0.25 for SPP, 3.50 ± 2.07 vs. 0.92 ± 0.63 for KPP, 4.04 ± 3.13 vs. 1.19 ± 0.66 for WPP, p < 0.016). Greater PM activity was found in the scapular winging group, and the SPP is an optimal exercise for subjects with scapular winging, where maximum SA activation with minimal PM activation is desired.

  14. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality.

  15. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms are capable of absorbing light and storing up to 10-13% of its energy into the H-H bond of hydrogen gas. This process, which takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms to convert sunlight into chemical energy, could conceivably be harnessed for production of significant amounts of energy from a renewable resource, water. The harnessed energy could then be coupled to a fuel cell for electricity generation and recycling of water molecules. In this review, current biochemical understanding of this reaction in green algae, and some of the major challenges facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production have been discussed.

  16. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Beer, Laura L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2009-06-01

    There is currently substantial interest in utilizing eukaryotic algae for the renewable production of several bioenergy carriers, including starches for alcohols, lipids for diesel fuel surrogates, and H2 for fuel cells. Relative to terrestrial biofuel feedstocks, algae can convert solar energy into fuels at higher photosynthetic efficiencies, and can thrive in salt water systems. Recently, there has been considerable progress in identifying relevant bioenergy genes and pathways in microalgae, and powerful genetic techniques have been developed to engineer some strains via the targeted disruption of endogenous genes and/or transgene expression. Collectively, the progress that has been realized in these areas is rapidly advancing our ability to genetically optimize the production of targeted biofuels.

  17. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  18. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  19. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  20. Algae: America’s Pathway to Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    Bioenergy, Biofuel, Energy Policy CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The United States is dependent on foreign oil to meet 63% of its petroleum demand...source of bioenergy. ALGAE: AMERICA’S PATHWAY TO INDEPENDENCE Ensuring a secure supply of energy is a strategic challenge for...150 years,6 the U.S. will be competing with other nations to procure the 2 finite commodity. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that by the

  1. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  2. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

  3. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  4. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    PubMed

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  5. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  6. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops.

  7. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  8. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, where heterotrophic bacteria grow on organics produced by algae and recycle nutrients. Ecological studies have identified the co-occurrence of particular species of algae and bacteria, suggesting the presence of their specific interactions. Algae/bacteria interactions are categorized into nutrient exchange, signal transduction and gene transfer. Studies have examined how these interactions shape aquatic communities and influence geochemical cycles in the natural environment. In parallel, efforts have been made to exploit algae for biotechnology processes, such as water treatment and bioenergy production, where bacteria influence algal activities in various ways. We suggest that better understanding of mechanisms underlying algae/bacteria interactions will facilitate the development of more efficient and/or as-yet-unexploited biotechnology processes.

  9. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2016-07-12

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  10. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  11. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  12. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae cr cyanobacteria . Although cyanobacteria are found in almost any environment ranging from hot...p ecst Available Copy ~’ COPy Ni AD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS:’ I ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION < DTIC ANNUAL/FINAL...AA I 78 11. TITLE (In•.ju . ’,curry Ci.si fication) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolatior and CharacteriZation 12. PERSONAL

  13. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  14. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  15. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  16. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  17. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in

  18. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO(2) and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  19. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  20. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  1. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  2. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  3. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  4. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  5. Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stuart A; Davey, Matthew P; Dennis, John S; Horst, Irmtraud; Howe, Christopher J; Lea-Smith, David J; Smith, Alison G

    2010-06-01

    Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel, but the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding of algae to identify potential paradigm shifts. In doing this, integration of biology and engineering will be essential. In this review we present an overview of a potential algal biofuel pipeline, and focus on recent work that tackles optimization of algal biomass production and the content of fuel molecules within the algal cell.

  6. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated.

  7. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  8. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  9. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  10. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Curtis, Tom P; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production from a phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73 +/- 1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m(2) (277 W/m(3)) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m(2) (215 W/m(3)) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs.

  11. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  12. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  13. Algae Farming in Low Earth Orbit: Past Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, N.

    Algal strains used as a production engine represent a novel example of living mechanical systems with tremendous potential for applications in space. Algae use photosynthesis to create lipids, glycerin, and biomass, with different strains of algae producing different oils. Algae can be grown to produce many types of oils, with low, medium or long hydrocarbon chain lengths. This article examines the history of algae research, as well as its value to astronauts as both a food supplement and as an oxygen production and carbon sequester engine. Consideration is given to ways algae is currently being used and tested in space, followed by a look forward envisioning dynamic living technological systems that can help to sustain our race as we travel the void between stars.

  14. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  15. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    SciTech Connect

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  16. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  17. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter.

  18. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  19. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins.

  20. Random flow induced by swimming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Rushkin, Ilia; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    In this work we studied the random flow induced in a fluid by the motion of a dilute suspension of the swimming algae Volvox carteri. The fluid velocity in the suspension is a superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions that decay as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocity fluctuations are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet. Deviations from Gaussianity are shown to arise from near-field effects. Comparison is made with the statistical properties of abiotic sedimenting suspensions. The experimental results are supplemented by extensive numerical studies.

  1. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-01-06

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia.

  2. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  3. Interactions of metals and protons with algae

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Oberholser, K.; Schwartz, D.; Marzoff, J.; Ryder, D.; Crist, D.R.

    1988-07-01

    Proton uptake by intact algal cells was found to consist of two processes: (1) a fast (<4 s) surface reaction and (2) a slow (2h) diffusion of protons into cells. A pH titration technique measured only the rapid surface reaction that forms negative sites at higher pH. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions on algae was quantitatively represented by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with its two parameters y/sub m/, the maximum amount of metal adsorbed, and K, the equilibrium constant taken as a measure of bond strength. Variations of these parameters with pH and type of metal indicate that metals adsorb to algal surfaces by electrostatic attraction to negative sites, such as carboxylate anions of poly(galaturonic acid) (pectin), as previously suggested.

  4. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  5. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.

  6. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-02-05

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences.

  7. Gas Exchange with Mass Cultures of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, P. J.; Patouillet, Constance

    1963-01-01

    Comparisons of oxygen production and carbon dioxide absorption by an algal gas exchanger were made over a 3-month period. The data do not represent a continuous test, but they do represent results obtained when identical light intensities, CO2 supply rates, and dilution rates with fresh culture medium had been used for more than 1 day. Steady-state conditions were thus assured, and the agreement in the data was excellent. Under the same experimental conditions, the unit was operated continuously for a 5-day period, and the daily variability in this test was less than in the results obtained from month to month. The variation between the average O2 production during the 5-day test and the average of the tests over a several-month period was less than 3%. It is concluded, therefore, that the reliability of the algae in producing oxygen is sufficient to warrant their use in either submarine or space ship use. PMID:14063790

  8. Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Diaz, J G; Odlare, M; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-01-01

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mälaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mälaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8±2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4±41.4% of PO4-P.

  9. Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium.

    PubMed

    Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Tsai, David Dah-Wei; Chen, Paris Honglay

    2015-01-01

    Algae are the dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Since algae are highly varied group organisms, which have important functions in ecosystem, and their biomass is an essential biological resource. Currently, algae have been applied increasingly to diverse range of biomass applications. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the ecological algae features of microalgal production by natural medium, ecological function by lab scale of the symbiotic reactor which is imitated nature ecosystem, and atmospheric CO2 absorption that was related the algal growth of biomass to understand algae in natural water body better. Consequently, this study took advantages of using the unsupplemented freshwater natural medium to produce microalgae. Algal biomass by direct measurement of total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) resulted as 0.14g/L and 0.08g/L respectively. The biomass measurements of TSS and VSS are the sensible biomass index for algae production. The laboratory results obtained in the present study proved the production of algae by the natural water medium is potentially feasible.

  10. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  11. [Numerical simulation on hydrodynamic character for algae growth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Pang, Yong

    2008-04-01

    In order to quantificationally study the direct effects of hydrodynamic condition on the growth of algae, the Microcystis aeruginosa was chosen to carry through the disturbance-experiment. By keeping the same value of illumination, temperature and nutrition and changing the rotate speed of oscillator, the growing processes of algae under different disturbance intensities were researched. The hydraulic parameter was presented to amend the formula for the growth of algae. Take Neijiang as an example. A 2-D unsteady model for algae growth was established to forecast the scope of water blooms in Neijiang. It is found that the growth of algae is obviously influenced by hydrodynamic condition, and a condign low velocity is beneficial for its growth while both the quiescence condition and high velocity will restrain its growth rate. After the close of the water gate in Leading Channel, the velocity in Neijiang will be decreased, which accelerated the growth rate of algae, and the area of water blooms will be increased to 2.5 km2 which is about 36.8 percent of the total water surface area of Neijiang. Under the quiescent condition and the improved hydrodynamic condition, the growth rate of algae will be effectively controlled and the area of water blooms will be reduced to 0.78 km2 and 0.18 km2 respectively.

  12. [Seasonal variation characteristics of algae biomass in Chaohu Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Wang, Shu-Hang; Zhong, Li-Xiang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Shi-Qun

    2010-09-01

    The biomass and distribution of algae community in Chaohu Lake were investigated in 2008. At the same time, the seasonal variations of algae translocation between the sediment and overlying water were also quantitative studied by self-made "algae up/down trap". Chaohu Lake was dominated by Cyanobacteria all the year, and dominant Cyanobacteria species changed in different seasons. In spring, Anabaena was the dominant species, and Microcystis was the subdominant species; In the whole summer and autumn, the dominant species is Microcystis. Algae biomass increased significantly from May and the maximum appeared in August, was 146.37 mg x m(-3) with Chl-a. The value of algae biomass were 9.75-16.24 mg x kg(-1) in the surface sediments, and the minimum appeared in Summer, then the algae biomass increased gradually with the maximum value in winter. Translocation process between the sediment and the overlying water occurred throughout the study period. The recruitment rates increased at first with the maximum rates in early August, was 0.036 8 mg x (m2 x d) (-1), and then had a downward tendency. However the sedimentation rates increased slowly firstly with the maximum rate in early September, then it decreased sharply, was 0.032 1 mg x (m2 x d)(-1). Multiple stepwise regression showed that temperature was the most significant factor for the algae biomass in Chaohu Lake, Total nitrogen (TN) and Total phosphorus(TP) are sub-important factors.

  13. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution.

  14. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  15. Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae.

    PubMed

    WELCH, A M

    1962-01-01

    Welch, Ann Marie (U. S. Veterans Administration Hospital, Durham, N. C.). Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae. J. Bacteriol. 83:97-99. 1962-Homogenized preparations of 35 marine algae were tested for inhibitory activity against 6 pathogenic or opportunistically pathogenic fungi with saturated filter-paper discs on seeded Sabouraud agar plates; 11 of these preparations produced wide zones of inhibition against 1 or more test organisms, and at least 4 of the 11 are considered to be worthy of further study. The results indicated that further search should be made for antifungal substances from marine algae.

  16. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies.

  17. [Parameter determination of algae growth based on ecological tank experiment].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Ding, Ling; Gao, Guang

    2005-05-01

    A dynamic simulation experiment of algae in an ecological tank was performed at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. During the experiment, water from Taihu Lake was infused into the ecological tank and samples were taken continually to observe algae growth under varying conditions, such as temperature, sunlight and nutrients. Based on the experiment, an algae growth model, considering nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, was developed by using the advanced PHREEQC model. After that, a detailed calibration and validation of parameters in the model were done on the basis of experimental results. The least square method was used to determine the optimal set of parameters. The calculated values of algae and nutrient concentrations show fairly satisfying fittness with measured data.

  18. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed. PMID:23049529

  19. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  20. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  1. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM GROUNDWATER IMMOBILIZED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to adsorb mercury from contamina...

  2. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  3. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application.

  4. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  5. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  6. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  7. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    SciTech Connect

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  8. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using algae to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial and small-scale utility power boilers. The operations are being studied for the use of CO2 from flue gas for algae growth along with the production of biofuels and other useful products to prepare a comprehensive characterization of the economic feasibility of using algae to capture CO2. Information is being generated for analyses of the potential for these technologies to advance in the market and assist in meeting environmental goals, as well as to examine their associated environmental implications. Three electric power generation plants (coal and fuel oil fired) equipped to send flue-gas emissions to algae culture at demonstration facilities are being studied. Data and process information are being collected and developed to facilitate feasibility and modeling evaluations of the CO2 to algae technology. An understanding of process requirements to apply this technology to existing industries would go far in advancing carbon capture opportunities. Documenting the successful use of this technology could help bring “low-tech”, low-cost, CO2 to algae, carbon capture to multiple size industries and

  9. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-03

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential.

  10. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  11. [Study on the sorption of 4-octylphenol by freshwater algae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang-e; Yang, Hai-zhen; Wang, Bei-bei; Deng, Nan-sheng

    2009-12-01

    The sorption of 4-octylphenol (4-OP) by two freshwater algae was investigated. Results showed that the sorption of 4-octylphenol by algae was obvious and quick, where 20% of initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and 46% initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Anabaena cylindrical (AC) after 5 min incubation. The sorption got equilibrium at 1 h after incubation. Langmuir sorption model was good appropriate type for this sorption. The effect of pH value on CV sorption was obvious than that on AC sorption. The sorption capacity of the biomass of two algae increased with the decrease of pH value. The analyzing of interaction between algae and 4-octylphenol was performed by fluorescence spectrum. Results showed that the algae could weaker the fluorescence spectrum intensity of 4-octylphenol and result in red shift of the maximum absorbance wavelength of mixture solution. Based on the results, it was speculated that algae bound with the contamination could use the near UV region of solar radiation and induced the contamination degradation.

  12. Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers.

  13. Phosphorus-Limited Growth of a Green Alga and a Blue-Green Alga

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Douglas S.; Brown, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nägeli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nägeli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nägeli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). PMID:16345896

  14. Phosphorus-limited growth of a green alga and a blue-green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.S.; Brown, E.J.

    1981-12-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nageli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nageli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nageli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). (Refs. 44).

  15. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  16. Coccolithophorid algae culture in closed photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Navid R; Isdepsky, Andreas; Lisec, Jan; Raes, Eric; Borowitzka, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of growth, calcium carbonate and lipid production of the coccolithophorid algae (Prymnesiophyceae), Pleurochrysis carterae, Emiliania huxleyi, and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, was investigated in plate, carboy, airlift, and tubular photobioreactors. The plate photobioreactor was the most promising closed cultivation system. All species could be grown in the carboy photobioreactor. However, P. carterae was the only species which grew in an airlift photobioreactor. Despite several attempts to grow these coccolithophorid species in the tubular photobioreactor (Biocoil), including modification of the airlift and sparger design, no net growth could be achieved. The shear produced by turbulence and bubble effects are the most likely reasons for this failure to grow in the Biocoil. The highest total dry weight, lipid and calcium carbonate productivities achieved by P. carterae in the plate photobioreactors were 0.54, 0.12, and 0.06 g L(-1) day(-1) respectively. Irrespective of the type of photobioreactor, the productivities were P. carterae > E. huxleyi > G. oceanica. Pleurochrysis carterae lipid (20-25% of dry weight) and calcium carbonate (11-12% of dry weight) contents were also the highest of all species tested.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Four Prymnesiophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Koid, Amy E.; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C.; Caron, David A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657

  18. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements. PMID:28245621

  19. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  20. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-10-22

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells.

  1. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga

    PubMed Central

    Schaum, C. Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: ‘migrate, acclimate, adapt or die’ (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167–178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298–230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells. PMID:25209938

  2. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  3. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  4. Evolution of reproductive development in the volvocine algae.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Armin

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of multicellularity, the separation of germline cells from sterile somatic cells, and the generation of a male-female dichotomy are certainly among the greatest innovations of eukaryotes. Remarkably, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the shift from simple to complex, differentiated multicellularity was not a unique progression in the evolution of life, but in fact a quite frequent event. The spheroidal green alga Volvox and its close relatives, the volvocine algae, span the full range of organizational complexity, from unicellular and colonial genera to multicellular genera with a full germ-soma division of labor and male-female dichotomy; thus, these algae are ideal model organisms for addressing fundamental issues related to the transition to multicellularity and for discovering universal rules that characterize this transition. Of all living species, Volvox carteri represents the simplest version of an immortal germline producing specialized somatic cells. This cellular specialization involved the emergence of mortality and the production of the first dead ancestors in the evolution of this lineage. Volvocine algae therefore exemplify the evolution of cellular cooperation from cellular autonomy. They also serve as a prime example of the evolution of complex traits by a few successive, small steps. Thus, we learn from volvocine algae that the evolutionary transition to complex, multicellular life is probably much easier to achieve than is commonly believed.

  5. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  6. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  7. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  8. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications.

  9. Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae.

    PubMed

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gachon, Claire M M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Species of filamentous brown algae in the family Ectocarpaceae are significant members of fouling communities. However, there are few systematic studies on the influence of surface physico-chemical properties on their adhesion. In the present paper the development of a novel, laboratory-based adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae, at an appropriate scale for the screening of sets of experimental samples in well-replicated and controlled experiments is described. The assays are based on the colonization of surfaces from a starting inoculum consisting of multicellular filaments obtained by blending the cultured alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum. The adhesion strength of the biomass after 14 days growth was assessed by applying a hydrodynamic shear stress. Results from adhesion tests on a set of standard surfaces showed that E. crouaniorum adhered more weakly to the amphiphilic Intersleek® 900 than to the more hydrophobic Intersleek® 700 and Silastic® T2 coatings. Adhesion to hydrophilic glass was also weak. Similar results were obtained for other cultivated species of Ectocarpus but differed from those obtained with the related ectocarpoid species Hincksia secunda. The response of the ectocarpoid algae to the surfaces was also compared to that for the green alga, Ulva.

  10. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor.

  11. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Gregg, Allison K; Smith, Jennifer E; Abieri, Maria L; Hatay, Mark; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L(- 1)) and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L(- 1)) conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  12. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  13. [Nutritive value of the spirulina algae (Spirulina maxima)].

    PubMed

    Tejada de Hernández, I; Shimada, A S

    1978-06-01

    Nine experiments were conducted, five of them in vivo to determine the limiting amino acids and digestibility of spiruline algae for the rat, and four in vitro to determine the digestibility of the product in pepsin and ruminal liquid. None of the amino acids studied (lysine, methionine, histidine) added alone or in combination to 10% protein (either crude or true) diets provided exclusively by spiruline, seems to be limiting although the results could be masked by the low palatability and acceptability of the product by the rats. The apparent digestibility of the algae was 67.4%. For the in vitro tests, the algae were subjected to several physical or chemical treatments, and the digestibility of the resulting product determined by four different techniques. In no case did the tested treatments have any effect on its digestibility.

  14. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  15. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  16. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  17. Potential anti-inflammatory natural products from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds. These include polyphenols, sulfated polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactives. Consumption of these marine algae could provide defense against the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases. With further investigation, algal anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have the potential to be used as therapeutics or in the synthesis of structural analogs with profound anti-inflammatory activity with reduced side effects. The current review summarizes the latest knowledge about the potential anti-inflammatory compounds discovered from marine algae.

  18. Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-03-15

    Algae have been suggested as a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the strong development of functional foods as a method to improve or maintain health, the exploration of new compounds with real health effects is now an intense field of research. The potential use of algae as source of functional food ingredients, such as lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, phenolics, carotenoids, etc., is presented, together with the different possibilities of improving valuable metabolites production either using the tools and the knowledge provided by marine biotechnology or improving the different factors involved in the production on a large scale of such metabolites. The bio-refinery concept is also presented as a way to improve the efficient use of algae biomass while favouring process sustainability.

  19. The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

  20. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized.

  1. Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier.

  2. [Sedimentary Phosphorus Forms Under Disturbances and Algae in Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Da-peng; Zhu, Pei-ying; Huang, Yong; Wang, Ren

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary phosphorus forms were investigated to clarify the release of sedimentary phosphorus forms under the repeated disturbance with the addition of algae at different initial concentrations. The sediments and overlying water were taken from the Meiliang Bay in Taihu Lake. The results showed that the concentrations of NH₄ Cl-P and Res-P decreased, while the content of Fe/Al-P and Ca-P increased without disturbance. In addition, the Ca-P increased with the increase of the initial concentration of algae and the net increase of Ca-P increased by 48% (30 µg · L⁻¹), 66% (60 µg · L⁻¹), 74% (120 µg · L⁻¹), respectively. However, under the disturbance, the NH₄Cl-P and Res-P were significantly reduced, the Fe/Al-P increased significantly. The percentage of Fe/Al-P to Tot-P was up to 66. 2% (average of the 3 experiments with the addition of algae of 30 µg · L⁻¹, 60 µg · L⁻¹ and 120 µg L-¹), it was higher than the value (53.%, average of the 3 experiments) without the disturbance. Moreover, under the disturbance, the percentage of Ca-P to Tot-P was 24.1% (average of the 3 experiments with the addition of algae of 30 µg · L⁻¹, 60 µg⁻¹ and 120 µg · L⁻¹) and it was slightly lower than that (33.0%, average of the 3 experiments) without the disturbance. It is suggested that the coexistence of disturbance and algae facilitated the formation of Fe/Al-P, but the algae accelerated the formation of Ca-P without disturbance.

  3. Aragonitic Pennsylvanian phylloid algae from New Mexico: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, B.L.; Moore, C.H. Jr. ); Dickson, J.A.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Remarkably well-preserved codiacean algae (Eugonophyllum and Anchicodium) retaining original aragonite are present in the Virgilian Holder Formation, Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico. The algae are preserved in a 20-cm-thick packstone between two thick (> 5m) shale beds. Aragonite is preserved as a felt-like mesh of needles in the algal skeletons, in the shell fragments of molluscs, in the walls of sponges, and in botryoidal and isopachous marine cements. The aragonite is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, by visual inspection of pristine aragonite needles with SEM, and by a high content of Sr as revealed by microprobe analysis. The average Sr content of the algae (9,091 ppm, n = 21) is comparable to modern codiaceans. Preservation of internal structure in Eugonophyllum was previously unknown. The medullary (interior) region of the Eugonophyllum thallus is composed of an aragonite felt punctuated by small (20 {mu}m diameter), parallel utricles. As in modern codiaceans, the utricles in the cortical (exterior) region of the thallus increase in diameter and their bulbous tips coalesce to form the outer cortex of the plant. This occurrence provides a key piece of evidence in support of hypotheses concerning the nature and origin of phylloid algal bioherms. Because the internal structure of most fossil phylloid algae is replaced by sparry mosaic calcite, taxonomic classification has been difficult even at the fundamental level of division (phylum). The authors discovery confirms that at least some ancient phylloid algae resembled the modern green algae Halimeda or Udotea, and lends credibility to the suggestion that ancient phylloid algal mounds are analogous to modern Halimeda mounds of the South Pacific.

  4. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants.

  5. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-29

    The Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada uses chemical stoichiometry to estimate Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon atom availability from waste water and carbon dioxide emissions streams, and requirements for those same elements to produce a unit of algae. This information is then combined to find limiting nutrient information and estimate potential productivity associated with waste water and carbon dioxide sources. Output is visualized in terms of distributions or spatial locations. Distances are calculated between points of interest in the model using the great circle distance equation, and the smallest distances found by an exhaustive search and sort algorithm.

  6. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B F; Holt, H M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Bundvad, A; Sogaard, P; Gram, L

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection.

  7. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  8. Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast

    SciTech Connect

    Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V.

    1996-12-31

    Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  10. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant.

  11. Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF ALGAE HARVESTING, DEWATERING AND DRYING (HDD) SYSTEMS by FENGMING LI Submitted in partial fulfillment of the...Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ALTERNATIVE ENERGY .................................................................................................................. 3 1.3 ALGAE OIL

  12. Where Have All the Algae Gone, or, How Many Kingdoms Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined 10 introductory college-level, general biology survey textbooks for the coverage of algae to assess the efficacy of coverage. Describes a proposal of seven kingdoms and discusses the disposition of algae among five of these kingdoms. Contends that textbooks should highlight the concept of algae across the five kingdoms. Contains 59…

  13. MONITORING CHLOROPHYLL-A AS A MEASURE OF ALGAE IN LAKE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are an important quality component in water bodies. They are photosynthesizing organisms and are the foundation of most aquatic food webs; however, some algae (e.g. blue-green algae) can produce algal toxins. The presence of algal toxins in water bodies has important ...

  14. Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-10

    Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices Key...Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This is the report of a project to use photosynthetic antenna pigment complexes from algae and plants as

  15. Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Gloe, Lindsey M; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Grillet, Anne M; Hankins, Matthew G; Pohl, Phillip I

    2012-02-01

    The effects of algae concentration, ferric chloride dose, and pH on the flocculation efficiency of the freshwater algae Chlorella zofingiensis can be understood by considering the nature of the electrostatic charges on the algae and precipitate surfaces. Two critical conditions are identified which, when met, result in flocculation efficiencies in excess of 90% for freshwater algae. First, a minimum concentration of ferric chloride is required to overcome the electrostatic stabilization of the algae and promote bridging of algae cells by hydroxide precipitates. At low algae concentrations, the minimum amount of ferric chloride required increases linearly with algae concentration, characteristic of flocculation primarily through electrostatic bridging by hydroxide precipitates. At higher algae concentrations, the minimum required concentration of ferric chloride for flocculation is independent of algae concentration, suggesting a change in the primary flocculation mechanism from bridging to sweep flocculation. Second, the algae must have a negative surface charge. Experiments and surface complexation modeling show that the surface charge of C. zofingiensis is negative above a pH of 4.0 ± 0.3 which agrees well with the minimum pH required for effective flocculation. These critical flocculation criteria can be extended to other freshwater algae to design effective flocculation systems.

  16. MicroRNAs in a multicellular green alga Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrui; Wu, Yang; Qi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key components in the eukaryotic gene regulatory network. We and others have previously identified many miRNAs in a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To investigate whether miRNA-mediated gene regulation is a general mechanism in green algae and how miRNAs have been evolved in the green algal lineage, we examined small RNAs in Volvox carteri, a multicellular species in the same family with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We identified 174 miRNAs in Volvox, with many of them being highly enriched in gonidia or somatic cells. The targets of the miRNAs were predicted and many of them were subjected to miRNA-mediated cleavage in vivo, suggesting that miRNAs play regulatory roles in the biology of green algae. Our catalog of miRNAs and their targets provides a resource for further studies on the evolution, biological functions, and genomic properties of miRNAs in green algae.

  17. Sexual reproduction and sex determination in green algae.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-10

    The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt(+)) and mating type minus (mt(-)), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt(+) and mt(-) mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion. The loci of sex-limited genes and the conformation of sex-determining regions have been rearranged during the evolution of volvocine algae; however, the essential function of the sex-determining genes of the isogamous unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is conserved in the multicellular oogamous Volvox carteri. The sexual reproduction of the unicellular charophycean alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, is also focused on here. The sexual reproductive processes of heterothallic strains are controlled by two multifunctional sex pheromones, PR-IP and PR-IP Inducer, which independently promote multiple steps in conjugation at the appropriate times through different induction mechanisms. The molecules involved in sexual reproduction and sex determination have also been characterized.

  18. Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and the Enolase Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Jürgen E. W.; Neofotis, Peter; Huang, Andy; Chang, William; Sury, Kiran; Wiech, Eliza M.

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae. PMID:25093929

  19. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  20. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  1. Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 μg L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 μg L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 μg L(-1), NOEC was 5 μg L(-1) and LOEC was 15 μg L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 μg L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage.

  2. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3 MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption.

  3. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management.

  4. Lysis of Blue-Green Algae by Myxobacter

    PubMed Central

    Shilo, Miriam

    1970-01-01

    Enrichment from local fishponds led to the isolation of a bacterium capable of lysing many species of unicellular and filamentous blue-green algae, as well as certain bacteria. The isolate is an aflagellate, motile rod which moves in a gliding, flexuous manner; the organism is capable of digesting starch and agar, but not cellulose and gelatin. Its deoxyribonucleic acid base pair composition (per cent guanine plus cytosine ∼70) shows a close resemblance to that of the fruiting myxobacteria. Algae in lawns on agar plates were lysed rapidly by the myxobacter, but only limited and slow lysis occurred in liquid media, and no lysis took place when liquid cultures were shaken. No diffusible lytic factors would be demonstrated. Continuous observation of the lytic process under a phase-contrast microscope suggested that a close contact between the polar tip of the myxobacter and the alga is necessary for lysis. The lytic action is limited to the vegetative cells of the algae, whereas heterocysts are not affected. The gas vacuoles of the algal host are the only remnant visible after completion of digestion by the myxobacter. Images PMID:4990764

  5. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  6. Energy-water nexus for mass cultivation of algae.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cynthia Folsom; Allen, David T

    2011-07-01

    Microalgae are currently considered a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. This work addresses the energy needed to manage the water used in the mass cultivation of saline, eukaryotic algae grown in open pond systems. Estimates of both direct and upstream energy requirements for obtaining, containing, and circulating water within algae cultivation systems are developed. Potential productivities are calculated for each of the 48 states within the continental U.S. based on theoretical photosynthetic efficiencies, growing season, and total available land area. Energy output in the form of algal biodiesel and the total energy content of algal biomass are compared to energy inputs required for water management. The analysis indicates that, for current technologies, energy required for water management alone is approximately seven times greater than energy output in the form of biodiesel and more than double that contained within the entire algal biomass. While this analysis addresses only currently identified species grown in an open-pond system, the water management requirements of any algae system will be substantial; therefore, it is critical that an energy assessment of water management requirements be performed for any cultivation technology and algal type in order to fully understand the energy balance of algae-derived biofuels.

  7. Optimization of light use efficiency for biofuel production in algae.

    PubMed

    Simionato, Diana; Basso, Stefania; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge for next decades is development of competitive renewable energy sources, highly needed to compensate fossil fuels reserves and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different possibilities, which are currently under investigation, there is the exploitation of unicellular algae for production of biofuels and biodiesel in particular. Some algae species have the ability of accumulating large amount of lipids within their cells which can be exploited as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Strong research efforts are however still needed to fulfill this potential and optimize cultivation systems and biomass harvesting. Light provides the energy supporting algae growth and available radiation must be exploited with the highest possible efficiency to optimize productivity and make microalgae large scale cultivation energetically and economically sustainable. Investigation of the molecular bases influencing light use efficiency is thus seminal for the success of this biotechnology. In this work factors influencing light use efficiency in algal biomass production are reviewed, focusing on how algae genetic engineering and control of light environment within photobioreactors can improve the productivity of large scale cultivation systems.

  8. Basis for the Resistance of Several Algae to Microbial Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Gunnison, Douglas; Alexander, Martin

    1975-01-01

    The basis for the resistance of certain algae to microbial decomposition in natural waters was investigated using Pediastrum duplex, Staurastrum sp., and Fischerella muscicola as test organisms. Enzyme preparations previously found to convert susceptible algae into spheroplasts had no such effect on the resistant species, although glucose and galacturonic acid were released from P. duplex walls. Little protein or lipid but considerable carbohydrate was found in the walls of the refractory organisms, but resistance was not correlated with the presence of a unique sugar monomer. A substance present in Staurastrum sp. walls was characterized as lignin or lignin-like on the basis of its extraction characteristics, infrared spectrum, pyrolysis pattern, and content of an aromatic building block. Sporopollenin was found in P. duplex, and cellulose in Staurastrum sp. Cell walls of the algae were fractionated, and the fractions least susceptible to microbial degradation were the sporopollenin of P. duplex, the polyaromatic component of Staurastrum sp., and two F. muscicola fractions containing several sugar monomers. The sporopollenin content of P. duplex, the content of lignin or a related constituent of Staurastrum sp., and the resistance of the algae to microbial attack increased with age. It is suggested that resistance results from the presence of sporopollenin in P. duplex, a lignin-like material in Staurastrum sp., and possibly heteropolysaccharides in F. muscicola. PMID:808166

  9. Study of ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles using algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, L. M.; Abramenko, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared and tested for their ecotoxicity using Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. algae as a hydrobiotic test organism and a photometric method of control. The toxicity was supposed to originate from Ag+ ions released into the aqueous solution. Also, the toxicity of the stabilizing agent was found to be comparable to that of silver nanoparticles.

  10. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  11. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  12. Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Ann C; Mulbry, Walter W

    2002-08-01

    Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of this research was to assess the ability of benthic freshwater algae to recover nutrients from dairy manure and to evaluate nutrient uptake rates and dry matter/crude protein yields in comparison to a conventional cropping system. Benthic algae growth chambers were operated in semi-batch mode by continuously recycling wastewater and adding manure inputs daily. Using total nitrogen (TN) loading rates of 0.64-1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), the dried algal yields were 5.3-5.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The dried algae contained 1.5-2.1% P and 4.9-7.1% N. At a TN loading rate of 1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), algal biomass contained 7.1% N compared to only 4.9% N at a TN loading rate of 0.64 g m(-2) d(-1). In the best case, algal biomass had a crude protein content of 44%, compared to a typical corn silage protein content of 7%. At a dry matter yield of 5.5 g m(-2) d(-1), this is equivalent to an annual N uptake rate of 1,430 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). Compared to a conventional corn/rye rotation, such benthic algae production rates would require 26% of the land area requirements for equivalent N uptake rates and 23% of the land area requirements on a P uptake basis. Combining conventional cropping systems with an algal treatment system could facilitate more efficient crop production and farm nutrient management, allowing dairy operations to be environmentally sustainable on fewer acres.

  13. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand.

  14. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lin; Wang, Hongli; Deng, Nansheng

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps (lambda = 365 nm, 250 W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 mg L(-1) and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS(algae) (the absorbency of algae) = 0.025 to ABS(algae) = 0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250 W metal halide lamps was V0 = kC(0)(0.1718)A(algae)(0.5235) (C0 was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A(algae) was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4.

  15. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  16. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  17. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  18. Plant algae method for arsenic removal from arsenic contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    de la Paix, Mupenzi Jean; Lanhai, Li; de Dieu, Habumugisha Jean; John, Maina Nyongesah

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in Urumqi River Basin in Northwest China. The study focused on experimentation on a plant algae method that was tested by taking various water chemistries into consideration. The results from a greenhouse experiment evaluated for four doses of P (0, 100, 200, and 300 μmol/L) using two ferns (30 and 60 day old) on 15 L of contaminated groundwater per plant revealed that the biomass of 30-day old ferns gained was higher than 60-day fern. As solution-P increased from 0 to 450 μmol/L, Phosphorus concentration in the fronds increased from 1.9 to 3.9 mg/kg and 1.95 to 4.0 mg/kg for 30-d and 60-d ferns respectively. This study showed that the plant algae method may be a good solution to maximize arsenic uptake in the short term under normal climatic conditions.

  19. Production of phthalate esters by nuisance freshwater algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bakthavachalam; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    2010-10-01

    Phthalate esters are widely distributed pollutants which originate from synthetic plasticizer and are known to act as toxicants as well as environmental pheromones in the aquatic ecosystems. From investigating sixteen species of freshwater algae and cyanobacteria we revealed that some of them were capable of producing either di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) or mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) or both. These phthalate esters would be released into the environment under stress conditions. The incubation of the cells in culture medium containing NaH(13)CO(3) confirmed that both phthalates were de novo synthesized by the studied cells. This study suggested that the nuisance freshwater micro-algae and cyanobacteria growing in eutrophic waters might affect the aquatic ecosystem via the production of these phthalate esters.

  20. Proton channels in algae: reasons to be excited.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison R; Brownlee, Colin; Wheeler, Glen L

    2012-11-01

    A fundamental requirement of all eukaryotes is the ability to translocate protons across membranes. This is critical in bioenergetics, for compartmentalized metabolism, and to regulate intracellular pH (pH(i)) within a range that is compatible with cellular metabolism. Plants, animals, and algae utilize specialized transport machinery for membrane energization and pH homeostasis that reflects the prevailing ionic conditions in which they evolved. The recent characterization of H(+)-permeable channels in marine and freshwater algae has led to the discovery of novel functions for these transport proteins in both cellular pH homeostasis and sensory biology. Here we review the potential implications for understanding the origins and evolution of membrane excitability and the phytoplankton-based marine ecosystem responses to ocean acidification.

  1. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-05-15

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  2. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  3. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms. PMID:26594068

  4. A New Noncalcified Dasycladalean Alga from the Silurian of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LoDuca, S.T.; Kluessendorf, Joanne; Mikulic, Donald G.

    2003-01-01

    Noncalcified thalli, consisting of a narrow main axis with numerous branched hairlike laterals in whorls and a subapical array of undivided clavate laterals, from the Silurian (Llandovery) Brandon Bridge Formation of southeastern Wisconsin, constitute the basis for a new genus and species of dasycladalean alga, Heterocladus waukeshaensis. A relationship within the family Triploporellaceae is indicated by the whorled arrangement of the laterals and the absence of gametophores on mature specimens. A compilation of occurrence data suggests that noncalcified dasyclads, as a whole, were more abundant and diverse during the Ordovician and Silurian than at any other time in their history. The heterocladous thallus architecture of this alga adds to a wide range of morphological variation documented among Ordovician and Silurian dasyclads, the sum of which indicates that Dasycladales underwent a significant evolutionary radiation during the early Paleozoic.

  5. Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales performed particularly well in this descending sequence: Fucus > Ascophyllum > Sargassum. Although decreasing the swelling of wetted biomass particles, their reinforcement by crosslinking may significantly affect the biosorption performance. Lead uptakes up to 370 mg Pb/g were observed in crosslinked Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. At low equilibrium residual concentrations of lead in solution, however, ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 had a higher lead uptake than the biosorbent materials. An order-of-magnitude lower uptake of nickel was observed in all of the sorbent materials examined.

  6. Biosorption of Lead from Wastewater Using Fresh Water Algae Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Jeyanthi, J

    2014-04-01

    The potential use of fresh water algae Chlorella to sorb lead ions from wastewater was evaluated in this study. Fourier transform infra-red analysis of algal species revealed the presence of amino, carboxylic, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of lead ions. Batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the effects of contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH on the adsorption of Pb2+ ions. The optimum conditions of biosorbent dosage, pH and contact time were found to be l0 g/L, 5 and 100 min respectively. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for representation of the experimental data was investigated. The adsorption of lead ions on the algae Chlorella fitted well with Freundlich isotherm with a very high correlation coefficient.

  7. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms

    PubMed Central

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11888.001 PMID:27054497

  8. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  9. A preliminary study on automated freshwater algae recognition and classification system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated analyses and identification of algae images were limited to only one type of algae. Automated identification system for tropical freshwater algae is even non-existent and this study is partly to fill this gap. Results The development of the automated freshwater algae detection system involved image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification by using Artificial neural networks (ANN). Image preprocessing was used to improve contrast and remove noise. Image segmentation using canny edge detection algorithm was then carried out on binary image to detect the algae and its boundaries. Feature extraction process was applied to extract specific feature parameters from algae image to obtain some shape and texture features of selected algae such as shape, area, perimeter, minor and major axes, and finally Fourier spectrum with principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract some of algae feature texture. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify algae images based on the extracted features. Feed-forward multilayer perceptron network was initialized with back propagation error algorithm, and trained with extracted database features of algae image samples. System's accuracy rate was obtained by comparing the results between the manual and automated classifying methods. The developed system was able to identify 93 images of selected freshwater algae genera from a total of 100 tested images which yielded accuracy rate of 93%. Conclusions This study

  10. The problems of Prochloron. [evolution of green algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prokaryotic green algae (prochlorophytes), which contain chlorophylls a and b but no bilin pigments, may be phylogenetically related to ancestral chloroplasts if symbiogenesis occurred. They may be otherwise related to eukaryotic chlorophytes. They could have evolved from cyanophytes by loss of phycobilin and gain of chlorophyll b synthesis. These possibilities are briefly discussed. Relevant evidence from biochemical studies in many collaborative laboratories is now becoming available for the resolution of such questions.

  11. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION First Annual Report OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS 1 Sep - 31 May 76 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER ANNUAL...p’dioctyldephrylamine RJ-5 Phenyl-a-napthylamine Lubrication Additives Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine Hydrazine Symmetrical Dimethylhydrazine [continusd on .bnckj 20...Force Contract AF33615-76-C-5005. Work under this portion of the contract covers the period September 1 , 1975 to May 31, 1976. The project is

  12. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  13. Origins of multicellular complexity: Volvox and the volvocine algae.

    PubMed

    Herron, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    The collection of evolutionary transformations known as the 'major transitions' or 'transitions in individuality' resulted in changes in the units of evolution and in the hierarchical structure of cellular life. Volvox and related algae have become an important model system for the major transition from unicellular to multicellular life, which touches on several fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. The Third International Volvox Conference was held at the University of Cambridge in August 2015 to discuss recent advances in the biology and evolution of this group of algae. Here, I highlight the benefits of integrating phylogenetic comparative methods and experimental evolution with detailed studies of developmental genetics in a model system with substantial genetic and genomic resources. I summarize recent research on Volvox and its relatives and comment on its implications for the genomic changes underlying major evolutionary transitions, evolution and development of complex traits, evolution of sex and sexes, evolution of cellular differentiation and the biophysics of motility. Finally, I outline challenges and suggest future directions for research into the biology and evolution of the volvocine algae.

  14. Phycobilisome Heterogeneity in the Red Alga Porphyra umbilicalis1

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, Patricia; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Mousseau, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Phycobilisomes were isolated from Rhodophyceae brought from the field (Porphyra umbilicalis) or grown in culture under laboratory conditions (Antithamnion glanduliferum). In P. umbilicalis two kinds of well-coupled (ellipsoidal and hemidiscoidal) phycobilisomes were detected, in contrast to A. glanduliferum cultured algae in which only one kind of well-coupled, ellipsoidaltype phycobilisome appeared. The new phycobilisome-type particle detected in P. umbilicalis is characterized by an impoverishment in R-phycoerythrin and by sedimentation at lower density. The comparison between both phycobilisomes of P. umbilicalis allows determination of the presence of one colorless linker polypeptide (30 kilodaltons) associated with R-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin and two (40 and 38 kilodaltons) associated to R-phycoerythrin. The percentage of linker polypeptides associated with this pigment is low in the new phycobilisome-like particle detected. This suggests that part of the R-phycoerythrin is less strongly bound to the phycobilisome than the other pigments. This feature could probably explain the existence of two kinds of phycobilisomes as intermediary steps of phycobilisome organization in algae exposed to rapid changes in environmental factors. In contrast, algae growing in culture and adapted to specific conditions do not present intermediary organization steps. Polypeptide composition and identification are given for this phycobilisome-like particle. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667317

  15. Partitioning of monomethylmercury between freshwater algae and water.

    PubMed

    Miles, C J; Moye, H A; Phlips, E J; Sargent, B

    2001-11-01

    Phytoplankton-water monomethylmercury (MeHg) partition constants (KpI) have been determined in the laboratory for two green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Cosmarium botrytis, the blue-green algae Schizothrix calcicola, and the diatom Thallasiosira spp., algal species that are commonly found in natural surface waters. Two methods were used to determine KpI, the Freundlich isotherm method and the flow-through/dialysis bag method. Both methods yielded KpI values of about 10(6.6) for S. capricornutum and were not significantly different. The KpI for the four algae studied were similar except for Schizothrix, which was significantly lower than S. capricornutum. The KpI for MeHg and S. capricornutum (exponential growth) was not significantly different in systems with predominantly MeHgOH or MeHgCl species. This is consistent with other studies that show metal speciation controls uptake kinetics, but the reactivity with intracellular components controls steady-state concentrations. Partitioning constants determined with exponential and stationary phase S. capricornutum cells at the same conditions were not significantly different, while the partitioning constant for exponential phase, phosphorus-limited cells was significantly lower, suggesting that P-limitation alters the ecophysiology of S. capricornutum sufficiently to impact partitioning, which may then ultimately affect mercury levels in higher trophic species.

  16. Uptake and distribution of technetium in several marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Myttenaere, C.; Van Baelen, J.; Cogneau, M.; van der Ben, D.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake or chemical form of technetium in different marine algae (Acetabularia, Cystoseira, Fucus) has been examined and a simple model to explain the uptake of technetium in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia, has been conceptualized. At low concentrations in the external medium, Acetabularia can rapidly concentrate technetium. Concentration factors in excess of 400 can be attained after a time of about 3 weeks. At higher mass concentrations in the medium, uptake of technetium by Acetabularia becomes saturated resulting in a decreased concentration factor (approximately 10 after 4 weeks). Approximately 69% of the total radioactivity present in /sup 95m/Tc labelled Acetabularia is found in the cell cytosol. In Fucus vesiculosus, labelled with /sup 95m/Tc, a high percentage of technetium is present in soluble ionic forms while approximately 40% is bound, in this brown alga, in proteins and polysaccharides associated with cell walls. In the algal cytosol of Fucus vesiculosus, about 45% of the /sup 95m/Tc appears to be present as anionic TcO/sup -//sub 4/ and the remainder is bound to small molecules. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  17. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  18. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Domozych, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In “ulvophytes,” uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell’s signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity. PMID:25477895

  19. Unveiling privacy: advances in microtomography of coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N; Ferreira, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Mariana C

    2015-05-01

    Marine calcareous algae are widespread in oceans of the world and known for their calcified cell walls and the generation of rhodolith beds that turn sandy bottoms into a complex structured ecosystem with high biodiversity. Rhodoliths are unattached, branching, crustose benthic marine red algae; they provide habitat for a rich variety of marine invertebrates. The resultant excavation is relevant to sediment production, while is common that the fragments or the whole specimens result in vast fossil deposits formed by rich material that can be "mined" for biological and geological data. Accordingly, microtomography (μCT) may enable a detailed investigation of biological and geological signatures preserved within the rhodolith structure in a non-destructive approach that is especially relevant when analyzing herbaria collections or rare samples. Therefore, we prepared coralline algae samples and submitted them to a range of capabilities provided by the SkyScan1176 micro-CT scanner, including reconstruction, virtual slicing, and pinpointing biological and geological signatures. To this end, polychaetes and mollusk shells, or their excavations, coral nucleation, sediment deposits and conceptacles were all observed. Although a similar technique has been applied previously to samples of living rhodoliths in Brazil, we show, for the first time, its successful application to fossil rhodoliths. We also provide a detailed working protocol and discuss the advantages and limitations of the microtomography within the rhodoliths.

  20. Exploitation of marine algae: biogenic compounds for potential antifouling applications.

    PubMed

    Bhadury, Punyasloke; Wright, Phillip C

    2004-08-01

    Marine algae are one of the largest producers of biomass in the marine environment. They produce a wide variety of chemically active metabolites in their surroundings, potentially as an aid to protect themselves against other settling organisms. These active metabolites, also known as biogenic compounds, produced by several species of marine macro- and micro-algae, have antibacterial, antialgal, antimacrofouling and antifungal properties, which are effective in the prevention of biofouling, and have other likely uses, e.g. in therapeutics. The isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to groups of fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, terpenoids, lactones, pyrroles and steroids. These biogenic compounds have the potential to be produced commercially using metabolic engineering techniques. Therefore, isolation of biogenic compounds and determination of their structure could provide leads for future development of, for example, environmentally friendly antifouling paints. This paper mainly discusses the successes of such research, and the future applications in the context of understanding the systems biology of micro-algae and cyanobacteria.

  1. Multi-centennial reconstruction of Aleutian climate from coralline algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Smith, E.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.; Jacob, D. E.; Fietzke, J.; Moore, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived encrusting coralline algae yield robust reconstructions of mid-to-high latitude environmental change from their annually-banded high-magnesium calcite skeleton. The magnesium to calcium ratio measured in their skeleton reflects ambient seawater temperature at the time of formation. Thus, reconstructions from these algae are important to understanding the role of natural modes of climate variability versus that of external carbon dioxide in controlling climate in data sparse regions such as the northern North Pacific Ocean/southern Bering Sea. Here, we reconstruct regional seawater temperature from the skeletons of nine algae specimens from two islands in the Aleutian Archipelago. We find that seawater temperature increased ~1.4°C degrees over the past 350 years. The detrended seawater reconstruction correlates with storminess because storms moving across the North Pacific Ocean bring warmer water to the archipelago. Comparison of the algal seawater temperature reconstruction with instrumental and terrestrial proxy reconstructions reveals that atmospheric teleconnections to North America via the North Pacific storm tracks are not robust before the 20th century. This indicates that North Pacific climate processes inferred from the instrumental records should be cautiously extrapolated when describing earlier non-analogous climates or future climate change.

  2. Cytotoxicity of algae extracts on normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis.

  3. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of phenanthrene applied to different freshwater algae

    SciTech Connect

    Hailing-Sorensen, B.; Nyholm, N.; Rucker, N.; Peterson, H.

    1994-12-31

    Phenanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon of medium lipophilicity (log K{sub ow} = 4.46) was chosen as a model compound for investigating mechanisms of bioaccumulation of hydrophobic chemicals in microalgae and relations between expressed toxicity and bioaccumulation. {sup 14}C labelled phenanthrene was used for easy quantification of its phase distribution. Results obtained with the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus armatus will be presented together with additional results from planned experiments with diatoms and cyanobacteria and interpreted considering cell size and lipid content of the different algae, For the same species bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were influenced to some extent by nutritional status and were slightly higher for unwashed cells than for washed cells. Much surprisingly, however, BCFs increased strongly with decreasing cell concentration. With chemostat grown nutrient deficient and washed Selenastrum cells, for example, the following BCF figures (mg phenanthrene/mg dry weight) were found: 3.8{center_dot}10{sup 4} 1.7{center_dot}10{sup 5} and 1.6{center_dot}10{sup 6}. Sorption of phenanthrene onto algae was rapid. Similar results have been reported in the literature for other compounds. The toxicity of phenanthrene increased with decreasing algal cell concentration probably as a result of increasing BCF`S. Toxicity experiments comprised both short term {sup 14}C assimilation assays and growth tests, and the phase distribution of phenanthrene was accounted for.

  4. Bioaccumulation and catabolism of prometryne in green algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen Peng; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Shuang; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Investigation on organic xenobiotics bioaccumulation/biodegradation in green algae is of great importance from environmental point of view because widespread distribution of these compounds in agricultural areas has become one of the major problems in aquatic ecosystem. Also, new technology needs to be developed for environmental detection and re-usage of the compounds as bioresources. Prometryne as a herbicide is widely used for killing annual grasses in China and other developing countries. However, overuse of the pesticide results in high risks to contamination to aquatic environments. In this study, we focused on analysis of bioaccumulation and degradation of prometryne in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga, along with its adaptive response to prometryne toxicity. C. reinhardtii treated with prometryne at 2.5-12.5 μg L(-1) for 4 d or 7.5 μg L(-1) for 1-6 d accumulated a large quantity of prometryne, with more than 2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight in cells exposed to 10 μg L(-1) prometryne. Moreover, it showed a great ability to degrade simultaneously the cell-accumulated prometryne. Such uptake and catabolism of prometryne led to the rapid removal of prometryne from media. Physiological and molecular analysis revealed that toxicology was associated with accumulation of prometryne in the cells. The biological processes of degradation can be interpreted as an internal tolerance mechanism. These results suggest that the green alga is useful in bioremediation of prometryne-contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae.

  6. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  7. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Ingredients from Algae.

    PubMed

    Adalbjörnsson, Björn V; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are not only a rich source of dietary fibre, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but also contain a great variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Marine macroalgae are a rich source of various natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially phlorotannins (made of polyphloroglucinol units) derived from brown algae, which play an important role in preventing lipid peroxidation. In recent years, a number of potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated and identified from different types of edible seaweeds. Extraction methods commonly used for the isolation of antioxidants are based on conventional water or organic solvent extractions. However, recent advances have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis can achieve higher yield of bioactive compounds from algae. Here we describe a method based on enzymatic hydrolysis which both increases yield and decreases cost associated with organic solvents. This method achieves cell wall disruption and breakdown of internal storage components for more effective release of intracellular bioactive compounds. In addition, hydrolysis of proteins produces peptides which may have antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the algal extract. The method described can be used for production of extracts from red and brown macroalgal species.

  8. [Quantitative remote sensing retrieval for algae in inland waters].

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Zhao-Bing; Guo, Qing-Hai

    2010-04-01

    Chlorophyll is a very important indictor for the eutrophication status of lake water body. Using remotely sensed data to achieve real-time dynamic monitoring of the spatial distribution of chlorophyll has great importance. This paper aims to find the best band for the hyperspectral ratio model of chlorophyll-a, and take advantage of this model to implement remote sensing retrieval of algae in Taihu Lake. By the analysis of the spectral reflectance and water quality sampling data of the surface water body, the regression model between the ratio of reflectance and chlorophyll-a was built, and it was showed that the ratio model between the wavelengths around 700 and 625 nm had a relatively high coefficient value of determination (R2), while the ratio model constructed with 710 nm and visible wavelengths showed a descended R2 following with the increment of the visible wavelengths. Combined with in-situ water samplings analysis and spectral reflectance measurement, the results showed that it's possible to retrieve algae water body using the MODIS green index (GI). The spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a and algae in Taihu Lake were extracted successfully using MODIS data with the algorithm developed in this paper.

  9. Photosynthetic circadian rhythmicity patterns of Symbiodium, the coral endosymbiotic algae

    PubMed Central

    Sorek, Michal; Yacobi, Yosef Z.; Roopin, Modi; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    Biological clocks are self-sustained endogenous timers that enable organisms (from cyanobacteria to humans) to anticipate daily environmental rhythms, and adjust their physiology and behaviour accordingly. Symbiotic corals play a central role in the creation of biologically rich ecosystems based on mutualistic symbioses between the invertebrate coral and dinoflagellate protists from the genus Symbiodinium. In this study, we experimentally establish that Symbiodinium photosynthesis, both as a free-living unicellular algae and as part of the symbiotic association with the coral Stylophora pistillata, is ‘wired’ to the circadian clock mechanism with a ‘free-run’ cycle close to 24 h. Associated photosynthetic pigments also showed rhythmicity under light/dark conditions and under constant light conditions, while the expression of the oxygen-evolving enhancer 1 gene (within photosystem II) coincided with photosynthetically evolved oxygen in Symbiodinium cultures. Thus, circadian regulation of the Symbiodinium photosynthesis is, however, complicated as being linked to the coral/host that have probably profound physiochemical influence on the intracellular environment. The temporal patterns of photosynthesis demonstrated here highlight the physiological complexity and interdependence of the algae circadian clock associated in this symbiosis and the plasticity of algae regulatory mechanisms downstream of the circadian clock. PMID:23554392

  10. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells.

  11. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time.

  12. An exogenous chloroplast genome for complex sequence manipulation in algae

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Bryan M.; Mikkelson, Kari L.; Gutierrez, Noel M.; Cunningham, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Kari L.; Szyjka, Shawn J.; Yohn, Christopher B.; Redding, Kevin E.; Mendez, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a system for cloning and modifying the chloroplast genome from the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Through extensive use of sequence stabilization strategies, the ex vivo genome is assembled in yeast from a collection of overlapping fragments. The assembled genome is then moved into bacteria for large-scale preparations and transformed into C. reinhardtii cells. This system also allows for the generation of simultaneous, systematic and complex genetic modifications at multiple loci in vivo. We use this system to substitute genes encoding core subunits of the photosynthetic apparatus with orthologs from a related alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Once transformed into algae, the substituted genome recombines with the endogenous genome, resulting in a hybrid plastome comprising modifications in disparate loci. The in vivo function of the genomes described herein demonstrates that simultaneous engineering of multiple sites within the chloroplast genome is now possible. This work represents the first steps toward a novel approach for creating genetic diversity in any or all regions of a chloroplast genome. PMID:22116061

  13. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  14. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  15. Presence of state transitions in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Otilia; Kotabová, Eva; Prášil, Ondřej; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Kaňa, Radek; Funk, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Plants and algae have developed various regulatory mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems even during fluctuating light conditions; these include state transitions as well as non-photochemical quenching. The former process maintains the balance by redistributing antennae excitation between the photosystems, meanwhile the latter by dissipating excessive excitation inside the antennae. In the present study, these mechanisms have been analysed in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching was observed in cultures only after they had entered the stationary growth phase. These cells displayed a diminished overall photosynthetic efficiency, measured as CO2 assimilation rate and electron transport rate. However, in the logarithmic growth phase G. theta cells redistributed excitation energy via a mechanism similar to state transitions. These state transitions were triggered by blue light absorbed by the membrane integrated chlorophyll a/c antennae, and green light absorbed by the lumenal biliproteins was ineffective. It is proposed that state transitions in G. theta are induced by small re-arrangements of the intrinsic antennae proteins, resulting in their coupling/uncoupling to the photosystems in state 1 or state 2, respectively. G. theta therefore represents a chromalveolate algae able to perform state transitions.

  16. Sulfated phenolic acids from Dasycladales siphonous green algae.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Welling, Matthew; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Sulfated aromatic acids play a central role as mediators of chemical interactions and physiological processes in marine algae and seagrass. Among others, Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Krasser 1898 uses a sulfated hydroxylated coumarin derivative as storage metabolite for a protein cross linker that can be activated upon mechanical disruption of the alga. We introduce a comprehensive monitoring technique for sulfated metabolites based on fragmentation patterns in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and applied it to Dasycladales. This allowed the identification of two new aromatic sulfate esters 4-(sulfooxy)phenylacetic acid and 4-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid. The two metabolites were synthesized to prove the mass spectrometry-based structure elucidation in co-injections. We show that both metabolites are transformed to the corresponding desulfated phenols by sulfatases of bacteria. In biofouling experiments with Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens the desulfated forms were more active than the sulfated ones. Sulfatation might thus represent a measure of detoxification that enables the algae to store inactive forms of metabolites that are activated by settling organisms and then act as defense.

  17. The effects of graphene oxide on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P F M; Nakabayashi, D; Zucolotto, V

    2015-09-01

    Graphene represents a new class of nanomaterials that has attracted great interest due to its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Once disposed in the environment, graphene can interact with biological systems and is expected to exhibit toxicological effects. The ecotoxicity of graphene and its derivatives, viz.: graphene oxide (GO) depends on their physicochemical properties, including purity, diameter, length, surface charge, functionalization and aggregation state. In this study we evaluated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. The algae were exposed to different concentrations of GO pre-equilibrated for 24h with oligotrophic freshwater medium (20ml) during incubation in a growth chamber under controlled conditions: 120μEm(-2)s(-1) illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 22±2°C. Algal growth was monitored daily for 96h by direct cell counting. Reactive oxygen species level (ROS), membrane damage (cell viability) and autofluorescence (chl-a fluorescence) were evaluated using fluorescent staining and further analyzed by flow cytometry. The toxic effects from GO, as observed in algal density and autofluorescence, started at concentrations from 20 and 10μgmL(-1), respectively. Such toxicity is probably the result of ROS generation and membrane damage (cell viability). The shading effect caused by GO agglomeration in culture medium may also contribute to reduce algal density. The results reported here provide knowledge regarding the GO toxicity on green algae, contributing to a better understanding of its environmental behavior and impacts.

  18. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome. PMID:26426800

  19. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged.

  20. Algae (Microcystis and Scenedesmus) absorption spectra and its application on Chlorophyll a retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Chen, Maosi; Wang, Qiao; Gao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Blue algae and green algae are the dominant phytoplankton groups that contribute to the eutrophication and the water bloom in inland water of China. The absorption coefficients (spectra) of the algae, which do not change with its intrinsic optical characteristics and the observation geometry, are strictly additive quantities. The characteristics of the absorption spectra of the two algae are presented. The pure blue algae and the pure green algae cultured in the laboratory environment are diluted and mixed at ten volume ratios. The Quantitative Filter Technique was applied to measure their absorption spectra. The "hot-ethanol extraction" method was chosen to calculate their concentration of Chlorophyll a. The retrieval algorithm developed in this study extracts the mapping information between each individual alga and their Chlorophyll a concentration via Continuous Wavelet Transform, and retrieves the Chlorophyll a concentration of each alga in their mixture using a trust region optimizer. The results show that the retrieved and the measured Chlorophyll a concentrations of the blue algae and the green algae components in the ten mixture match well with the average relative error of 5.55%.

  1. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  2. Capture of algae promotes growth and propagation in aquatic Utricularia

    PubMed Central

    Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas; Watzka, Margarete; Adlassnig, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Some carnivorous plants trap not only small animals but also algae and pollen grains. However, it remains unclear if these trapped particles are useless bycatch or whether they provide nutrients for the plant. The present study examines this question in Utricularia, which forms the largest and most widely spread genus of carnivorous plants, and which captures prey by means of sophisticated suction traps. Methods Utricularia plants of three different species (U. australis, U. vulgaris and U. minor) were collected in eight different water bodies including peat bogs, lakes and artificial ponds in three regions of Austria. The prey spectrum of each population was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, and correlated with data on growth and propagation, C/N ratio and δ15N. Key Results More than 50 % of the prey of the Utricularia populations investigated consisted of algae and pollen, and U. vulgaris in particular was found to capture large amounts of gymnosperm pollen. The capture of algae and pollen grains was strongly correlated with most growth parameters, including weight, length, budding and elongation of internodes. The C/N ratio, however, was less well correlated. Other prey, such as moss leaflets, fungal hyphae and mineral particles, were negatively correlated with most growth parameters. δ15N was positively correlated with prey capture, but in situations where algae were the main prey objects it was found that the standard formula for calculation of prey-derived N was no longer applicable. Conclusions The mass capture of immotile particles confirms the ecological importance of autonomous firing of the traps. Although the C/N ratio was little influenced by algae, they clearly provide other nutrients, possibly including phosphorus and trace elements. By contrast, mosses, fungi and mineral particles appear to be useless bycatch. Correlations with chemical parameters indicate that Utricularia benefits from nutrient-rich waters by uptake

  3. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  4. Enhancement of Taihu blue algae anaerobic digestion efficiency by natural storage.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hengfeng; Lu, Minfeng; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-12-01

    Taihu blue algae after different storage time from 0 to 60 d were anaerobic fermented to evaluate their digestibility and process stability. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) of blue algae under 15 d natural storage led to the highest CH4 production of 287.6 mL g(-1) VS at inoculum substrate ratio 2.0, demonstrating 36.69% improvement comparing with that from fresh algae. Storage of blue algae led to cell death, microcystins (MCs) release and VS reduction by spontaneous fermentation. However, it also played an important role in removing algal cell wall barrier, pre-hydrolysis and pre-acidification, leading to the improvement in CH4 yield. Closer examination of volatile fatty acids (VFA) variation, VS removal rates and key enzymes change during AD proved short storage time (≤ 15 d) of blue algae had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation. Furthermore, AD presented significant biodegradation potential for MCs released from Taihu blue algae.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Algae Biomass to Produce Energy during Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanshan; Colosi, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are asked to improve both energy efficiency and nutrient removal efficacy. Integration of algaculture offers several potential synergies that could address these goals, including an opportunity to leverage anaerobic digestion at WRRFs. In this study, bench-scale experiments are used to measure methane yield during co-digestion of Scenedesmus dimorphus or mixed WRRF-grown algae with WRRF biosolids. The results indicate that normalized methane yield decreases with increasing algae content in a manner than can be reasonably well fit using linear regression (R(2) = 67%). It is thus possible to predict methane yield for any mixture of algae and biosolids based on the methane yield of the biosolids alone. Using revised methane yields, the energy return on investment of a typical WRRF increases from 0.53 (without algae) to 0.66 (with algae). Thus, algae-based wastewater treatment may hold promise for improving WRRF energy efficiency without compromising effluent quality.

  6. AlgaeSim: a model for integrated algal biofuel production and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Ivy L C; Joustra, Caryssa; Prieto, Ana; Bair, Robert; Yeh, Daniel H

    2014-02-01

    AlgaeSim, a dynamic multiple-systems (C, N, P) mass balance model, was developed to explore the potential for algae biomass production from wastewater by coupling two photobioreactors into the main treatment train at a municipal wastewater resource recovery facility (WRRF) in Tampa, Florida. The scoping model examined the synergy between algae cultivation and wastewater treatment through algal growth and substrate removal kinetics, as well as through macroeconomic analyses of biomass conversion to bioproducts. Sensitivity analyses showed that biomass production is strongly dependent on Monod variables and harvesting regime, with sensitivity changing with growth phase. Profitability was sensitive to processing costs and market prices of products. Under scenarios based on current market conditions and typical algae production, AlgaeSim shows that a WRRF can potentially generate significant profit if algae are processed for biodiesel, biogas, or fertilizer. Wastewater resource recovery facilities could similarly save on operating costs resulting from the reduction in aeration (for nitrification) and chemicals (for denitrification).

  7. Microcontact imprinting of algae for biofuel systems: the effects of the polymer concentration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Hwa; Thomas, James L; Lai, Ming-Yuan; Shih, Ching-Ping; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2014-11-25

    Microcontact imprinting of cells often involves the deposition of a polymer solution onto a monolayer cell stamp, followed by solvent evaporation. Thus, the concentration of the polymer may play an important role in the final morphology and efficacy of the imprinted film. In this work, various concentrations of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the microcontact imprinting of algae on an electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence spectrometry were used to characterize the surface morphology and recognition capacity of algae to the algae-imprinted cavities. The readsorption of algae onto algae-imprinted EVAL thin films was quantified to obtain the EVAL concentration that maximized algal binding. Finally, the power and current density of an algal biofuel cell with the algae-imprinted EVAL-coated electrode were measured and found to be approximately double those of such a cell with a Pt/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) electrode.

  8. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  9. [Study on the degradation and transformation of nonylphenol in water containing algae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang-E; Feng, Jin-Mei; He, Shu-Ying; Wu, Feng

    2012-10-01

    The photodegradation of nonylphenol induced by two common freshwater algae was investigated. The mechanism of nonylphenol photodegradation induced by algae was analyzed. The synergistic induction of nonylphenol degradation by algae and substances in water such as humic acid and ferric ions was also investigated. Results showed that the algae could induce the photodegradation of nonylphenol. The degradation of nonylphenol in water in the presence of algae, humic acid and ferric ions was obvious and the efficiency of degradation could reach 58% after 4 h illumination. Based on the results, it was speculated that the algae, humic acid and ferric ions system could produce more active oxygen after illumination, which could promote the photodegradation of the organic contaminants in water.

  10. [Effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on algae growth in freshwater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Ling; Sun, Hong-Wen; Zhu, Lin; Yu, Yang; Dai, Shu-Gui; Zhuang, Yuan-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Aquarium microcosms were used to study the effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on the growth and species changes of algae in freshwater. Nitrate nitrogen(NO3(-) -N) and ammonia nitrogen(NH4(+) -N) were used as nitrogen sources. For each nitrogen source, four modes of aeration were selected, including control, continuous aeration, aeration during the day, and aeration at night. In the early stage of the experiment, algae in the NH4(+) -N treatment experiment grew well. In the later stage, algae in the NO3(-) -N treatment experiment grew better. For different aeration modes, continuous aeration show varied effects on algae growth in the two nitrogen source treatments. Day-only aeration had little effect on algae growth. Night-only aeration inhibited algae growth considerably. In NH(+) -N treatments, cyanophyta became dominant species easily. In contrast, chlorophyta dominated in NO3(-) -N treatments.

  11. Developing Molecular Genetic Tools to Facilitate Economic Production in Green Algae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    species they are not readily available for algae that are being identified as potential biofuel production strains . Our work was focused on developing...the genetic tools required to enable green algae to become efficient biofuel production strains . Being able to efficiently apply genetic...transformation techniques to green algae species will allow us to generate strains that contain ideal traits for maximally efficient fuel production, and will

  12. Biogasification of Marine Algae: Nannochloropsis oculata and Botryococcus braunii (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    results. biomass to energy; biogasification; anaerobic digestion; gasification ; algae U U U SAR 30 Robert Diltz Reset 1 A schematic for taking the...Biological Engineers Conference, 9-12 June 2010, in Jupiter FL. Algae has the potential to be a useful source of biomass derived energy due to the high...transesterification of lipids to biodiesel or thermal gasification of the cells to produce synthesis gases. A new approach was identified to use algae in a

  13. How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

  14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND APPLICABILITY AS FOOD AND FEED OF MASS-CULTURED UNICELLULAR ALGAE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ALGAE, * LACTOBACILLUS , CULTURE MEDIA, FOOD, FEED PELLETS, ACCEPTABILITY, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), HYDROCHLORIC ACID, PEPTONES, CHLOROPHYLLS, SOLVENT EXTRACTION, CELLS(BIOLOGY), COLORS, NUTRITION, SWINE, VITAMINS

  15. Biosorption of heavy metal ions to brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-10-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to carboxylic groups on alginic acid in brown algae.

  16. Kinetics and equilibrium properties of the biosorption of Cu2+ by algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Peckenham, John; Pinto, Jamie; Patterson, Howard

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetics and equilibrium properties of freshwater algae with Cu(2+). This was a model system to explore using algae as biosensors for water quality. Methods included making luminescence measurements (fluorescence) and copper ion-selective electrode (CuISE) measurements vs. time to obtain kinetic data. Results were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order model to calculate the rate constants of Cu(2+) uptake by algae: k (p(Cu-algae)) = 0.0025 ± 0.0006 s(-1) by CuISE and k (p(Cu-algae)) = 0.0034 ± 0.0011 s(-1) by luminescence. The binding constant of Cu-algae, K (Cu-algae), was 1.62 ± 0.07 × 10(7) M(-1). Fluorescence results analyzed using the Stern-Volmer relationship indicate that algae have two types of binding sites of which only one appears to affect quenching. The fluorescence-based method was found to be able to detect the reaction of algae with Cu(2+) quickly and at a detection limit of 0.1 mg L(-1).

  17. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Collins, Aaron M.; McBride, Robert C.; Behnke, Craig A.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for the outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multi-channel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a four-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximated as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For both the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a non-sampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared to auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The magnitudes of the sunlight and skylight water-surface contributions derived from the reflectance model compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the reflectance-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. To conlclude, the water temperature derived from the reflectance model exhibits excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours and highlights significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours.

  18. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  19. Multispectral sorter for rapid, nondestructive optical bioprospecting for algae biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Wu, Hauwen; Singh, Seema

    2014-03-01

    Microalgal biotechnology is a nascent yet burgeoning field for developing the next generation of sustainable feeds, fuels, and specialty chemicals. Among the issues facing the algae bioproducts industry, the lack of efficient means of cultivar screening and phenotype selection represents a critical hurdle for rapid development and diversification. To address this challenge, we have developed a multi-modal and label-free optical tool which simultaneously assesses the photosynthetic productivity and biochemical composition of single microalgal cells, and provides a means for actively sorting attractive specimen (bioprospecting) based on the spectral readout. The device integrates laser-trapping micro-Raman spectroscopy and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry of microalgal cells in a flow cell. Specifically, the instrument employs a dual-purpose epi-configured IR laser for single-cell trapping and Raman spectroscopy, and a high-intensity VISNIR trans-illumination LED bank for detection of variable photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. Micro-Raman scatter of single algae cells revealed vibrational modes corresponding to the speciation and total lipid content, as well as other major biochemical pools, including total protein, carbohydrates, and carotenoids. PSII fluorescence dynamics provide a quantitative estimate of maximum photosynthetic efficiency and regulated and non-regulated non-photochemical quenching processes. The combined spectroscopic readouts provide a set of metrics for subsequent optical sorting of the cells by the laser trap for desirable biomass properties, e.g. the combination of high lipid productivity and high photosynthetic yield. Thus the device provides means for rapid evaluation and sorting of algae cultures and environmental samples for biofuels development.

  20. Responses of certain freshwater planktonic algae to fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Hekman, W.E.; Budd, K.; Palmer, G.R.; MacArthur, J.D.

    1984-06-01

    The effects of dissolved fluoride supplied as NaF at up to 150 p.p.m. F/sup -/ (7.9 mM) on growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration, enolase activity and fluoride uptake were determined for six phytoplankters: Synechococcus leopoliensis (Racib.) Komarek (Cyanophyta), Oscillatoria limnetica Lemmermann (Cyanophyta), Ankistrodesmus braunii Brun (Chlorophyta), Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. (Chlorophyta), Cyclotella meneghiniana Kuetzing (Bacillariophyta) and Stephanodiscus minutus Grun. ex Cleve et Moll (Bacillariophyta). Growth (determined by absorbance at 660 nm or by cell-numbers) was unaffected by fluoride at up to 50 p.p.m. (2.6 mN) in all algae except S. leopoliensis. These effects showed a threshold at ca. 25 p.p.m. (1.3 mM) F/sup -/ and increased with increasing F/sup -/ concentration above this threshold. Photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution in the chlorophytes was unaffected by F/sup -/ at up to 50 p.p.m., whereas in S. leopoliensis F/sup -/ above ca. 25 p.p.m. caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthesis which was most pronounced at saturating irradiance. Dark O/sub 2/ uptake was unaffected at up to 50 p.p.m. in chlorophytes but was stimulated in S. leopoliensis. Enolase in clarified cell-extracts of all six algae was inhibited by F/sup -/, with K/sub i/ values ranging from 27 to 319 ..mu..M. Fluorine (measured by proton-induced gamma-ray emission) could not be detected in chlorophytes exposed during growth to up to 50 p.p.m. F/sup -/, but was detected in S. leopoliensis, O. limnetica and C. meneghiniana. Fluorine associated with cells of these algae increased as the external F/sup -/ concentration increased.

  1. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Thomas A; Collins, Aaron M; McBride, Robert C; Behnke, Craig A; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multichannel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a 4-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, which is dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximated as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water-surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a nonsampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared with auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The model-derived magnitudes of sunlight and skylight water-surface reflections compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the model-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. Finally, the water temperatures derived from the reflectance model exhibit excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours but correspond to significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours.

  2. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Collins, Aaron M.; McBride, Robert C.; ...

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for the outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multi-channel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a four-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximatedmore » as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For both the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a non-sampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared to auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The magnitudes of the sunlight and skylight water-surface contributions derived from the reflectance model compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the reflectance-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. To conlclude, the water temperature derived from the reflectance model exhibits excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours and highlights significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours.« less

  3. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy of phycobiliproteins from cryptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    We describe new spectroscopic measurements which reveal additional information regarding the observed quantum coherences in proteins extracted from photosynthetic algae. The proteins we investigate are the phycobiliproteins phycoerythrin 545 and phycocyanin 645. Two new avenues have been explored. We describe how changes to the chemical and biological environment impact the quantum coherence present in the 2D electronic correlation spectrum. We also use new multidimensional spectroscopic techniques to reveal insights into the nature of the quantum coherence and the nature of the participating states.

  4. Multi-scale Characterization of Improved Algae Strains

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Taraka T.

    2015-04-01

    This report relays the important role biofuels such as algae could have in the energy market. The report cites that problem of crude oil becoming less abundant while the demand for energy continues to rise. There are many benefits of producing energy with biofuels such as fewer carbon emissions as well as less land area to produce the same amount of energy compared to other sources of renewable fuels. One challenge that faces biofuels right now is the cost to produce it is high.

  5. Waltzing Volvox/: Orbiting Bound States of Flagellated Multicellular Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, K.; Leptos, K.; Pedley, T. J.; Goldstein, R. E.; Ishikawa, T.

    2008-11-01

    The spherical colonial alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size makes it a model organism for the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby colonies swim close to a solid surface, they are attracted together and can form a stable bound state in which they continuously waltz around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction between colonies combined with the rotational motion of bottom-heavy Volvox are shown to explain the stability and dynamics of the bound state. This phenomenon is suggested to underlie observed clustering of colonies at surfaces.

  6. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2009-04-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces.

  7. Dancing volvox: hydrodynamic bound states of swimming algae.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-04-24

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they "waltz" or "minuet" around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces.

  8. Cryopreservation of the unicellular marine alga, Nannochloropsis oculata.

    PubMed

    Poncet, Jean-Marc; Véron, Benoît

    2003-12-01

    In microalgal culture collections, as in many biological resource centres, cryoconservation is the most attractive method for the long-term, secure storage of living material. Nannochloropsis oculata, a marine unicellular alga, is of interest in the field of biotechnology due to its high lipid content. Of various cryoprotectants tested for their toxicity and for their ability to prevent cryoinjury, glycerol (final concentration 1.1 M) was the most efficient. When glycerol-treated cultures were submitted to a strictly regulated cooling rate (-3 degrees C min(-1)), they attained the control culture density within 13 d after thawing.

  9. Expression of human antibodies in eukaryotic micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Stephen P; Franklin, Scott E

    2005-03-07

    Protein based therapeutics have enjoyed great success over the past decade. Unfortunately, with this clinical success comes a heavy price tag, owing to the inherently high costs of capitalization and production using mammalian cell fermentation. To address this problem, we have begun developing a system for the expression of recombinant proteins in the unicellular eukaryotic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, leading to the production of human IgA single chain antibodies. The expression of human monoclonal antibodies in C. reinhardtii offers an attractive alternative to traditional mammalian based expression systems for several reasons, including an ability to rapidly obtain stable plastid and nuclear transformants, coupled with inherently low costs of capitalization and production.

  10. Micro-algae as a source of protein.

    PubMed

    Becker, E W

    2007-01-01

    About five decades ago, the mass production of certain protein-rich micro-algae was considered as a possibility to close the predicted so called "protein gap". Comprehensive analyses and nutritional studies have demonstrated that these algal proteins are of high quality and comparable to conventional vegetable proteins. However, due to high production costs as well as technical difficulties to incorporate the algal material into palatable food preparations, the propagation of algal protein is still in its infancy. To date, the majority of micro-algal preparations are marketed as health food, as cosmetics or as animal feed.

  11. Antibacterial Neurymenolides from the Fijian Red Alga Neurymenia fraxinifolia

    PubMed Central

    Stout, E. Paige; Hasemeyer, Adam P.; Lane, Amy L.; Davenport, Theresa M.; Engel, Sebastian; Hay, Mark E.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine; Aalbersberg, William

    2009-01-01

    Two novel α-pyrone macrolides, neurymenolides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the Fijian red alga Neurymenia fraxinifolia and characterized using a combination of NMR and mass spectral analyses. These molecules represent only the second example of α-pyrone macrolides, with 1 existing as interchanging atropisomers due to restricted rotation about the α-pyrone ring system. Neurymenolide A (1) displayed moderately potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). PMID:19053716

  12. The value of post-extracted algae residue

    DOE PAGES

    Bryant, Henry; Gogichaishvili, Ilia; Anderson, David; ...

    2012-07-26

    This paper develops a hedonic pricing model for post-extracted algae residue (PEAR), which can be used for assessing the economic feasibility of an algal production enterprise. Prices and nutritional characteristics of commonly employed livestock feed ingredients are used to estimate the value of PEAR based on its composition. We find that PEAR would have a value lower than that of soybean meal in recent years. The value of PEAR will vary substantially based on its characteristics. PEAR could have generated algal fuel co-product credits that in recent years would have ranged between $0.95 and $2.43 per gallon of fuel produced.

  13. Trihydroxylated linear diterpenes from the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata.

    PubMed

    Culioli, Gérald; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Daoudi, Mohammed; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Valls, Robert; Piovetti, Louis

    2004-07-01

    Two novel polar diterpenes were isolated from the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata collected off the Atlantic coast of Morocco, and their structures established by spectral methods. Both compounds are trihydroxylated acyclic diterpenes derived from 12-hydroxygeranylgeraniol. They were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity and proved to be active against the NSCLC-N6 cell line. Their absolute configuration at the C-12 position has been determined with a modified Mosher's method [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113 (1991) 4092] and that of the 12-hydroxygeranylgeraniol (bifurcadiol) has been revised.

  14. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Fucoidan from Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is a technique that can be applied to extract compounds from different natural resources. In this chapter, the use of this technique to extract fucoidan from marine algae is described. The method involves a closed MAE system, ultrapure water as extraction solvent, and suitable conditions of time, pressure, and algal biomass/water ratio. By using this procedure under the specified conditions, the penetration of the electromagnetic waves into the material structure occurs in an efficient manner, generating a distributed heat source that promotes the fucoidan extraction from the algal biomass.

  15. Interaction of organic solvents with the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, G.W.; Smith, T.M. )

    1988-06-01

    Solvents are often a component of bioassay systems when water-insoluble toxicants are being tested. These solvents must also be considered as xenobiotics and therefore, as potential toxicants in the bioassay. However, the effects of solvents on the organisms being tested and their possible interaction with the test compound are often overlooked by researchers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the inhibitory effects of six solvents commonly used in pesticide bioassays towards growth of the common green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and to examine the occurrence of solvent-pesticide interactions with this organism.

  16. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  17. Hydrocarbons in benthic marine algae of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    1987-02-01

    Recently, Antarctic continent has been the center for diverse research activities. This has resulted in a large number of research and supply vessels visiting Antarctica, which may lead to the contamination of Antarctic environment due to unintentional release of petroleum products. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in water, sediment, flora and fauna of this region which may also serve as a baseline data for future comparison. With this in view, total hydrocarbon concentration in some marine benthic algae collected from the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy.

  18. The auxin concentration in sixteen Chinese marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lijun

    2006-09-01

    The author determined the occurrence of indole-3-acetic acid in sixteen Chinese marine algae collected from the east coast of China with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) and wheat coleoptile bioanalysis methods (WCB). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) presented was from 1.1 46.9 ng/g Fw (fresh weight) with FS and 5.3 110.2 ng/g Fw with WCB. The results by the two methods were in the orders of 10-3 103 ng/g Fw reported previously from multiple references.

  19. PCD and autophagy in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata.

    PubMed

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a central role in normal plant development and is also induced by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as the appearance of autophagosomes, increased production of ROS and degradation of genomic DNA into small fragments ("DNA laddering") indicate PCD. Our data not only demonstrate that Micrasterias is capable of performing PCD under salt stress, but also that it is triggered by the ionic and not osmotic component of salinity. Additionally, results from the present and previous studies suggest that different inducers may lead to different cell death pathways in one and the same organism.

  20. The role of algae in mine drainage bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The effect of mine drainage effluent on aquatic ecosystems has been abundantly documented and remediation efforts to data have always been costly and temporary at best. Bioremediation, using natural environmental microbes, to treat acid mine drainage has shown great promise as an affordable, permanent treatment. At Lambda, we used mixatrophic cultures of bacteria, algae, protozoans and fungal groups on four different jobs and it has proven effective. The role of two particular algal groups, the Euglena mutabilis and the Ochramonas sp. are particularly of phycological interest.

  1. Unlocking nature's treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Stephen P; Zhang, QianYi; Ross, Michael; Anderson, Avril; Thomas, Naomi J; Lapresa, Ángela; Rad-Menéndez, Cecilia; Campbell, Christine N; Black, Kenneth D; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G

    2015-07-23

    Micro-algae synthesize high levels of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins photoautotrophically, thus attracting considerable interest for the biotechnological production of fuels, environmental remediation, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, only a few micro-algae species are grown commercially at large-scale, primarily for "health-foods" and pigments. For a range of potential products (fuel to pharma), high lipid productivity strains are required to mitigate the economic costs of mass culture. Here we present a screen concentrating on marine micro-algal strains, which if suitable for scale-up would minimise competition with agriculture for water. Mass-Spectrophotometric analysis (MS) of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) was subsequently validated by measurement of total fatty acids (TFA) by Gas-Chromatography (GC). This identified a rapid and accurate screening strategy based on elemental analysis. The screen identified Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 and a marine isolate of Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211/21A as the best lipid producers. Analysis of C, N, protein, carbohydrate and Fatty Acid (FA) composition identified a suite of strains for further biotechnological applications e.g. Dunaliella polymorpha CCAP 19/14, significantly the most productive for carbohydrates, and Cyclotella cryptica CCAP 1070/2, with utility for EPA production and N-assimilation.

  2. Drift algae reduce foraging efficiency of juvenile flatfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, Marie; Booth, Dale M.

    2007-11-01

    Although flatfish species utilise a wide range of habitats as adults, several species are confined to a very limited habitat as juveniles. Recruitment levels are dependent on the quality and quantity of these nursery areas and changes therein. In the Baltic Sea, these shallow environments are often subject to influxes of drifting macroalgae, which add structure to otherwise bare sandy substrate. Structure, such as vegetation, alters predator-prey interactions of a wide range of fauna and in an array of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. The aim of our study was to assess the inhibition potential of drifting macroalgae on the foraging efficiency of juvenile flatfish (young of the year Scophthalmus maximus L., young of the year- and group 1 + Platichthys flesus L.) through a series of microcosm experiments. Our results show that foraging success is restricted by drift algae as predation efficiency of all predator species and size classes was negatively affected by the presence of macroalgae. Overall, there was a reduction in predation success by 80 ± 12% due to structural effects and/or the induced changes in water chemistry associated with the algae. Flatfish depend on shallow sandy areas as feeding and nursery grounds during their juvenile stage and frequently occurring macroalgal assemblages drastically change the features of the otherwise bare substrate, setting the stage for small-scale, localised processes potentially affecting population dynamics.

  3. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development.

  4. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  5. Polyploidy of endosymbiotically derived genomes in complex algae.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte algae have complex plastids that were acquired by the uptake of a green or red algal endosymbiont via secondary endosymbiosis. The plastid is surrounded by four membranes, and a relict nucleus, called the nucleomorph, remains in the periplastidal compartment that is the remnant cytoplasm of the endosymbiont. Thus, these two algae possess four different genomes in a cell: Nuclear, nucleomorph, plastid, and mitochondrial. Recently, sequencing of the nuclear genomes of the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans and the cryptophyte Guillardia theta has been completed, and all four genomes have been made available. However, the copy number of each genome has never been investigated. It is important to know the actual DNA content of each genome, especially the highly reduced nucleomorph genome, for studies on genome evolution. In this study, we calculated genomic copy numbers in B. natans and G. theta using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach. The nuclear genomes were haploid in both species, whereas the nucleomorph genomes were estimated to be diploid and tetraploid, respectively. Mitochondria and plastids contained a large copy number of genomic DNA in each cell. In the secondary endosymbioses of chlorarachniophytes and cryptophytes, the endosymbiont nuclear genomes were highly reduced in size and in the number of coding genes, whereas the chromosomal copy number was increased, as in bacterial endosymbiont genomes. This suggests that polyploidization is a general characteristic of highly reduced genomes in broad prokaryotic and eukaryotic endosymbionts.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants.

  7. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, J.; Motti, C. A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D. M.; Negri, A. P.; Schupp, P. J.; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P. D.; Harder, T.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds – glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides – as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  8. Sulfur utilization of corals is enhanced by endosymbiotic algae

    PubMed Central

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Takei, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11) was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis. In this study, we performed autoradiography using 35S-labeled sulfate ions (35SO4 2−) to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae. Incorporated 35SO4 2− was detected in symbiotic algal cells, nematocysts, ectodermal cells and calicoblast cells. The combined results of 35S autoradiography and Alcian Blue staining showed that incorporated 35S accumulated as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the ectodermal cell layer. We also compared the relative incorporation of 35SO4 2− into coral tissues and endosymbiotic algae, and their chemical fractions in dark versus light (photosynthetic) conditions. The amount of sulfur compounds, such as GAGs and lipids, generated from 35SO4 2− was higher under photosynthetic conditions. Together with the upregulation of sulfate transporters by symbiosis, our results suggest that photosynthesis of algal endosymbionts contributes to the synthesis and utilization of sulfur compounds in corals. PMID:27493203

  9. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    DOE PAGES

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; ...

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence ofmore » phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.« less

  10. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  11. Valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae via pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Andrés I; Zunino, Josefina; Piccolo, María C; Volpe, María A

    2016-09-01

    The valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae through pyrolysis for obtaining bio-oils is studied in this work. The reaction is carried out at 400°C, at high contact time. The bio-oil has a practical yield of 35% and is rich in phytol. Besides, it is simpler than the corresponding to lignocellulosic biomass due to the absence of phenolic compounds. This property leads to a bio-oil relatively stable to storage. In addition, heterogeneous catalysts (Al-Fe/MCM-41, SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15), in contact with algae during pyrolysis, are analyzed. The general trend is that the catalysts decrease the concentration of fatty alcohols and other high molecular weight products, since their mild acidity sites promote degradation reactions. Thus, the amount of light products increases upon the use of the catalysts. Particularly, acetol concentration in the bio-oils obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis with SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15 is notably high.

  12. Biotransformation of arsenic by a Yellowstone thermoacidophilic eukaryotic alga

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jie; Lehr, Corinne R.; Yuan, Chungang; Le, X. Chris; McDermott, Timothy R.; Rosen, Barry P.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is the most common toxic substance in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund list of hazardous substances. It is introduced primarily from geochemical sources and is acted on biologically, creating an arsenic biogeocycle. Geothermal environments are known for their elevated arsenic content and thus provide an excellent setting in which to study microbial redox transformations of arsenic. To date, most studies of microbial communities in geothermal environments have focused on Bacteria and Archaea, with little attention to eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we show the potential of an extremophilic eukaryotic alga of the order Cyanidiales to influence arsenic cycling at elevated temperatures. Cyanidioschyzon sp. isolate 5508 oxidized arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)], reduced As(V) to As(III), and methylated As(III) to form trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)]. Two arsenic methyltransferase genes, CmarsM7 and CmarsM8, were cloned from this organism and demonstrated to confer resistance to As(III) in an arsenite hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli. The 2 recombinant CmArsMs were purified and shown to transform As(III) into monomethylarsenite, DMAs(V), TMAO, and trimethylarsine gas, with a Topt of 60–70 °C. These studies illustrate the importance of eukaryotic microorganisms to the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in geothermal systems, offer a molecular explanation for how these algae tolerate arsenic in their environment, and provide the characterization of algal methyltransferases. PMID:19276121

  13. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Tebben, J; Motti, C A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D M; Negri, A P; Schupp, P J; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P D; Harder, T

    2015-06-04

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds--glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides--as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples.

  14. Health benefit of fucosterol from marine algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Qudeer Ahmed; Choi, Ran Joo; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds belong to a group of marine plants known as algae, which are consumed as sea vegetables in several Asian countries. Recent studies have focused on the biological and pharmacological activities of seaweeds and their highly bioactive secondary metabolites because of their potential in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Although several varieties of bioactive novel compounds such as phlorotannins, diterpenes and polysaccharides from seaweeds have already been well scrutinized, fucosterol as a phytosterol still needs to reinvent itself. Fucosterol (24-ethylidene cholesterol) is a sterol that can be isolated from algae, seaweed and diatoms. Fucosterol exhibits various biological therapeutics, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antifungal, antihistaminic, anticholinergic, antiadipogenic, antiphotodamaging, anti-osteoporotic, blood cholesterol reducing, blood vessel thrombosis preventive and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. In this review, we address some potential approaches for arbitrating novel fucosterol biologics in the medical field, focusing on the selection of personalized drug candidates and highlighting the challenges and opportunities regarding medical breakthroughs. We also highlight recent advances made in the design of this novel compound, as the significant health benefits from using these optimized applications apply to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields.

  15. [Food value of the spiruline algae to man].

    PubMed

    Sautier, C; Tremolieres, J

    1975-01-01

    The acceptability of various culinary products based on the algae spirulina was tested by questionaire: formulas rich in proteins, soups, omelets, desserts. Spirulina are little appreciated in France due to offensive color, smell and taste. Tomato and chocolate are the most acceptable flavors. Lyophilisation is preferable to atomisation, and discoloration using alcohol is preferable to the acetone method. The hydrolysate obtained, having neither the smell nor the taste of algae, is excellent. Nitrogen, sodium and potassium balances were recorded in 5 undernourished subjects fed via a gastric tube. The spirulina provided respectively 15 p. 100 (1 subject), 30 p. 100 (2 subjects), and 50 p. 100 (2 subjects) of the protein ration. There were no intestinal problems. The spirulina did not modify the investigated balances. However, faecal nitrogen increased to 2.08 g (compared to control period values, 1.33 g and 1.51 g). The various coefficients: digestibility, nitrogen retention and protein utilization did not vary. In man as in animals, nitrogen retention is satisfactory, but digestibility is diminished. Uric acid did not vary in the urine, but serum values increased slightly. Ingestion of spirulina in small doses even over a long period should be tolerable in the normal subject.

  16. Unearthing the molecular phylodiversity of desert soil green algae (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Louise A; Lewis, Paul O

    2005-12-01

    Deserts are not usually considered biodiversity hotspots, but desert microbiotic crust communities exhibit a rich diversity of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic life forms. Like many communities dominated by microscopic organisms, they defy characterization by traditional species-counting approaches to assessing biodiversity. Here we use exclusive molecular phylodiversity (E) to quantify the amount of evolutionary divergence unique to desert-dwelling green algae (Chlorophyta) in microbiotic crust communities. Given a phylogenetic tree with branch lengths expressed in units of expected substitutions per site, E is the total length of all tree segments representing exclusively desert lineages. Using MCMC to integrate over tree topologies and branch lengths provides 95% Bayesian credible intervals for phylodiversity measures. We found substantial exclusive molecular phylodiversity based on 18S rDNA data, showing that desert lineages are distantly related to their nearest aquatic relatives. Our results challenge conventional wisdom, which holds that there was a single origin of terrestrial green plants and that green algae are merely incidental visitors rather than indigenous components of desert communities. We identify examples of lineage diversification within deserts and at least 12 separate transitions from aquatic to terrestrial life apart from the most celebrated transition leading to the embryophyte land plants. [Bayesian phylogenetics; biodiversity; exclusive molecular phylodiversity; microbiotic crusts.].

  17. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia -Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  18. Solar-driven hydrogen production in green algae.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Steven J; Tamburic, Bojan; Zemichael, Fessehaye; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The twin problems of energy security and global warming make hydrogen an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels with its combustion resulting only in the release of water vapor. Biological hydrogen production represents a renewable source of the gas and can be performed by a diverse range of microorganisms from strict anaerobic bacteria to eukaryotic green algae. Compared to conventional methods for generating H(2), biological systems can operate at ambient temperatures and pressures without the need for rare metals and could potentially be coupled to a variety of biotechnological processes ranging from desalination and waste water treatment to pharmaceutical production. Photobiological hydrogen production by microalgae is particularly attractive as the main inputs for the process (water and solar energy) are plentiful. This chapter focuses on recent developments in solar-driven H(2) production in green algae with emphasis on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We review the current methods used to achieve sustained H(2) evolution and discuss possible approaches to improve H(2) yields, including the optimization of culturing conditions, reducing light-harvesting antennae and targeting auxiliary electron transport and fermentative pathways that compete with the hydrogenase for reductant. Finally, industrial scale-up is discussed in the context of photobioreactor design and the future prospects of the field are considered within the broader context of a biorefinery concept.

  19. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems.

    PubMed

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N; van Baren, Marijke J; Price, Dana C; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-11-04

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  20. Cellular response of freshwater green algae to perfluorooctanoic acid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Chen, Hong; Shao, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a kind of persistent organic pollutants and its aquatic eco-toxicity has attracted wide attention; however, the mechanism involved in its toxicity as well as the cell response against PFOA have not been well established. Herein, using single-celled green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum at the logarithmic growth stage as test organisms, we studied the toxic effects of PFOA on the cell permeability, The 96 h-EC(50) values of PFOA for C. pyrenoidosa and S. capricornutum were 207.46 mg L(-1) and 190.99 mg L(-1), respectively, lower than the 96 h-EC(50) values reported in the literatures. After 96 h of PFOA exposure, the permeability of the cell membranes of both algae was significantly decreased, and the chlorophyll concentration mirrored the trends of algal growth. In both algal species, after a 192-h exposure to a low concentration of PFOA, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were greater than those of the control. At higher concentrations of PFOA, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were strongly inhibited. These results indicate that long-term exposure to low levels of PFOA may induce excessive generation of reactive oxygen species in algal cells, causing oxidative damage to cells.

  1. [Extinguishment of harmful algae by organo-clay].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming

    2003-07-01

    Periodic and widespread algal blooms have caused a variety of problems for aquatic life and human activity throughout the world. Currently, the only remedial practice employed for removing algal blooms is to spread clay on the surface of the water. But, the algal removal efficiency by the crude minerals are not really ideal, and how to improve the capability of clays to remove algae is now the technological focus, which also is fatal to the practical value of clays. In this study, hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB), one kind of cationic organo-surfactants, was chosen to improve kaolin by surface sorption and cationic exchange, and was tested to remove Prorocentrum donghaiense, a red tide organism in Donghai Sea. The results indicated that organo-clay had an excellent ability to extinguish red tide organisms, even under the application of 0.01 g.L-1, and could subside more than 95% red tide organisms in 24 h. The efficient algae removal by organo-clay might be from the reversal of the surface electric charge on clay particles, the "net capture" by the long lipoid chains of HDTMAB, and the local high density of HDTMAB on particles surface, which could effectively kill algal cells.

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed to Fucoidan Preparations from Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Torode, Thomas A.; Marcus, Susan E.; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S.; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance. PMID:25692870

  3. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2014-01-01

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs. PMID:25276504

  4. Defined Media for Growth and Gamete Production by the Green Alga, Oedogonium cardiacum.

    PubMed

    Hill, G J; Machlis, L

    1970-08-01

    Defined media consisting of inorganic salts and vitamin B(12) are described for the male and female filaments of the green alga, Oedogonium cardiacum. These media provide for a maximal growth rate and for the induction of oogonia and antheridia under the prescribed conditions. The maximal amounts of growth, based on dry weight measurements, compare favorably with other green algae.

  5. Composition, mineral profiles and characterization of the ash component in 12 algae samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algae have been used as food, feed, fertilizer, and lately as an attractive biomass for renewable energy. Key advantages of algae include prolific growth rates, the ability to grow on lands that are marginal for other agricultural purposes, and the ability to clean up water resources with excess nu...

  6. How Embryophytic is the Biosynthesis of Phenylpropanoids and their Derivatives in Streptophyte Algae?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; de Vries, Sophie; Slamovits, Claudio H; Rose, Laura E; Archibald, John M

    2017-03-13

    The origin of land plants from algae is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. It is becoming increasingly clear that many characters that were once assumed to be "embryophyte-specific" can in fact be found in their closest algal relatives, the streptophyte algae. One such case is the phenylpropanoid pathway. While biochemical data indicate that streptophyte algae harbor lignin-like components, the phenylpropanoid core pathway, which serves as the backbone of lignin biosynthesis, has been proposed to have arisen at the base of the land plants. Here we revisit this hypothesis using a wealth of new sequence data from streptophyte algae. Tracing the biochemical pathway towards lignin biogenesis, we show that most of the genes required for phenylpropanoid synthesis and the precursors for lignin production were already present in streptophyte algae. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analyses and protein structure predictions of one of the key enzyme classes in lignin production, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), suggest that CADs of streptophyte algae are more similar to sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenases (SADs). This suggests that the end-products of the pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis in streptophyte algae may faciliate the production of lignin-like compounds and defense molecules. We hypothesize that streptophyte algae already possessed the genetic toolkit from which the capacity to produce lignin later evolved in vascular plants.

  7. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2014-01-01

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12-70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26-29%) when compared to the other sites (4-19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  8. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    PubMed

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  9. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark JA

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  10. Functional significance of genetically different symbiotic algae Symbiodinium in a coral reef symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Loram, J E; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G; Douglas, A E

    2007-11-01

    The giant sea anemone Condylactis gigantea associates with members of two clades of the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, either singly or in mixed infection, as revealed by clade-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction of large subunit ribosomal DNA. To explore the functional significance of this molecular variation, the fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon was investigated by (14)C radiotracer experiments. Symbioses with algae of clades A and B released ca. 30-40% of fixed carbon to the animal tissues. Incorporation into the lipid fraction and the low molecular weight fraction dominated by amino acids was significantly higher in symbioses with algae of clade A than of clade B, suggesting that the genetically different algae in C. gigantea are not functionally equivalent. Symbioses with mixed infections yielded intermediate values, such that this functional trait of the symbiosis can be predicted from the traits of the contributing algae. Coral and sea anemone symbioses with Symbiodinium break down at elevated temperature, a process known as 'coral bleaching'. The functional response of the C. gigantea symbiosis to heat stress varied between the algae of clades A and B, with particularly depressed incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into lipid of the clade B algae, which are more susceptible to high temperature than the algae of clade A. This study provides a first exploration of how the core symbiotic function of photosynthate transfer to the host varies with the genotype of Symbiodinium, an algal symbiont which underpins corals and, hence, coral reef ecosystems.

  11. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  12. The current potential of algae biofuels in the United Arab Emirates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of future uncertainties about industrial algae biofuel production, the UAE is planning to become "a world leader in biofuels from the algae industry by 2020;" thus joining major countries which have already started producing renewable energy and biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from rene...

  13. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  14. [The cultivation of Vibrio cholerae with green algae in an experiment].

    PubMed

    Titova, S V

    2000-01-01

    Relationships between Vibrio cholerae of different origin and some serogroups with green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda in mineral medium at two temperatures have been experimentally studied. Differences in the relationships of various strains with green algae under the above-mentioned experimental conditions have been established. The study has shown that a decrease in the concentration and the death of vct+ and vct- vibrios of all strains under study occur in the linear phase of the development of algae. 3 V. cholerae strains, serogroups O139 (vct+) and O50 (vct-), have been shown to be capable of survival under the conditions mix cultivation with algae for 50-100 days. The perish of green algae is supposed to increase the survival time and multiplication of V. cholerae under experimental conditions.

  15. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Osterloff, Jonas; Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, [Formula: see text]) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors.

  16. Cophylogenetics and biogeography reveal a coevolved relationship between sloths and their symbiont algae.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Carlson, Jenna; Peery, M Zachariah

    2017-05-01

    Specialized species, like arboreal folivores, often develop beneficial relationships with symbionts to exploit ecologically constrained lifestyles. Although coevolution can drive speciation by specialization of a symbiont to a host, a symbiotic relationship is not indicative of coevolution between host and symbiont. We tested for coevolved relationships between highly specialized two- and three-toed sloths (Choloepus spp. and Bradypus spp., respectively) and their symbiotic algae using cophylogenies and phylogeography. Our phylogeographic analysis showed a biogeographic pattern for the sloth distribution that was not found in the algal phylogeny. We found support for congruence between the sloth and algae phylogenies, implying cospeciation, only in the Bradypus lineage. Algae host-switching occurred from Bradypus spp. to Choloepus spp. Our results support a previously hypothesized symbiotic relationship between sloths and the algae in their fur and indicate that coevolution may have played a role in algae diversification. More broadly, convergent evolution may facilitate host switching between deeply diverged host lineages.

  17. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation

    PubMed Central

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, ΦPSIImax) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors. PMID:27285611

  18. [Hydrocarbons of the spiruline algae: nature, metabolism of heptadecane by rats and swine].

    PubMed

    Tulliez, J; Bories, G; Boudene, C; Fevrier, C

    1975-01-01

    Hydrocarbons represent about half of the insaponifiable fraction of spirulina algae (0.1 to 0.3 p. 100 of the dry alga); n-heptadecane is the major component (65 p. 100). The retention of this paraffin has been measured in animals receiving these algae as the main or partial protein source. Rats fed with a diet containing 280 ppm n-heptadecane (25 p. 100 alga meal) from weaning show an accumulation of this hydrocarbon in the carcass the retention levels off after 4 months and seems related to the lipid content; preferential fixation occurs in adipose tissue. Sows receiving a diet with 52 ppm heptadecane (5p. 100 alga meal) during growth, pregnancy and lactation retain comparatively much less hydrocarbon; nevertheless n-heptadecane is excreted in the milk.

  19. Evolution and diversity of plant cell walls: from algae to flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Popper, Zoë A; Michel, Gurvan; Hervé, Cécile; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T; Tuohy, Maria G; Kloareg, Bernard; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-01-01

    All photosynthetic multicellular Eukaryotes, including land plants and algae, have cells that are surrounded by a dynamic, complex, carbohydrate-rich cell wall. The cell wall exerts considerable biological and biomechanical control over individual cells and organisms, thus playing a key role in their environmental interactions. This has resulted in compositional variation that is dependent on developmental stage, cell type, and season. Further variation is evident that has a phylogenetic basis. Plants and algae have a complex phylogenetic history, including acquisition of genes responsible for carbohydrate synthesis and modification through a series of primary (leading to red algae, green algae, and land plants) and secondary (generating brown algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) endosymbiotic events. Therefore, organisms that have the shared features of photosynthesis and possession of a cell wall do not form a monophyletic group. Yet they contain some common wall components that can be explained increasingly by genetic and biochemical evidence.

  20. Red coralline algae assessed as marine pH proxies using 11B MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Kamenos, N. A.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tricot, G.

    2015-02-01

    Reconstructing pH from biogenic carbonates using boron isotopic compositions relies on the assumption that only borate, and no boric acid, is present. Red coralline algae are frequently used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction due to their widespread distribution and regular banding frequency. Prior to undertaking pH reconstructions using red coralline algae we tested the boron composition of the red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale using high field NMR. In bulk analysed samples, thirty percent of boron was present as boric acid. We suggest that prior to reconstructing pH using coralline algae 1) species-specific boron compositions and 2) within-skeleton special distributions of boron are determined for multiple species. This will enable site selective boron analyses to be conducted validating coralline algae as palaeo-pH proxies based on boron isotopic compositions.

  1. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae.

    PubMed

    Kalinová, Jana Pexová; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The consumption of polyamides produced from caprolactam is increasing continuously, and for that reason the danger of environmental contamination by this lactam is also rising. This study's aim was to evaluate the influence of caprolactam on the growth and oxygen production of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda and on caprolactam uptake by this alga. The presence of caprolactam in water was observed to cause the algae significantly to increase its oxygen production. Caprolactam concentration of 5,000 mg/L stopped algae growth after 6 days and influenced coenobia structure (seen as disappearance of pyrenoids, deformation of cells) but did not decrease the number of cells in the coenobia. Caprolactam uptake is probably passive but relatively rapid. Maximum concentration in the algae was reached after 18-24 h.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS BIOSORPTION BY REPRESENTATIVE EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE(1).

    PubMed

    Elrefaii, Abdelmonem H; Sallam, Lotfy A; Hamdy, Abdelhamid A; Ahmed, Eman F

    2012-04-01

    Marine algae-as inexpensive and renewable natural biomass-have attracted the attention of many investigators to be used to preconcentrate and biosorb many heavy metal ions. Impressed by this concept, the metal uptake capacity of Egyptian marine algae was examined using representatives of green and brown algae, namely, Ulva lactuca L. and Sargassum latifolium (Turner) C. Agardh, respectively. The biosorption efficiencies of Cu(2+) , Co(2+) , Ni(2+) , Cd(2+) , Hg(2+) , Ag(2+) , and Pb(2+) ions seem to depend on the type of the algae used as well as the conditions under which the uptake processes were conducted. It was demonstrated that a pH range of 7.5-8.8 was optimum for the removal of the tested metals. Similarly, the uptake process was markedly accelerated during the first 2 h using relatively low metal level and sufficient amounts of the dried powdered tested algae.

  3. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg.

  4. High iron content and bioavailability in humans from four species of marine algae.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Pereira, Ana C; Leets, Irene; Ramírez, José; Quiroga, Maria F

    2007-12-01

    Searching for economical, nonconventional sources of iron is important in underdeveloped countries to combat iron deficiency and anemia. Our objective was to study iron, vitamin C, and phytic acid composition and also iron bioavailability from 4 species of marine algae included in a rice-based meal. Marine algae (Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp) were analyzed for monthly variations in iron and for ascorbic acid and phytic acid concentrations. A total of 96 subjects received rice-based meals containing the 4 species of marine algae in different proportions, raw or cooked. All meals contained radioactive iron. Absorption was evaluated by calculating the radioactive iron incorporation in subjects' blood. Iron concentrations in algae were high and varied widely, depending on the species and time of year. The highest iron concentrations were found in Sargassum (157 mg/100 g) and Gracilariopsis (196 mg/100 g). Phytates were not detected in the algae and ascorbic acid concentration fluctuated between 38 microg/g dry weight (Ulva) and 362 microg/g dry weight (Sargassum). Algae significantly increased iron absorption in rice-based meals. Cooking did not affect iron absorption compared with raw algae. Results indicate that Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp are good sources of ascorbic acid and bioavailable iron. The percentage of iron absorption was similar among all algae tested, although Sargassum sp resulted in the highest iron intake. Based on these results, and on the high reproduction rates of algae during certain seasons, promoting algae consumption in some countries could help to improve iron nutrition.

  5. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  6. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  7. Control of cytokinin and auxin homeostasis in cyanobacteria and algae

    PubMed Central

    Žižková, Eva; Kubeš, Martin; Dobrev, Petre I.; Přibyl, Pavel; Šimura, Jan; Zahajská, Lenka; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Novák, Ondřej; Motyka, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims The metabolism of cytokinins (CKs) and auxins in vascular plants is relatively well understood, but data concerning their metabolic pathways in non-vascular plants are still rather rare. With the aim of filling this gap, 20 representatives of taxonomically major lineages of cyanobacteria and algae from Cyanophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Porphyridiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae were analysed for endogenous profiles of CKs and auxins and some of them were used for studies of the metabolic fate of exogenously applied radiolabelled CK, [3H]trans-zeatin (transZ) and auxin ([3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)), and the dynamics of endogenous CK and auxin pools during algal growth and cell division. Methods Quantification of phytohormone levels was performed by high-performance or ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS, UHPLC-MS/MS). The dynamics of exogenously applied [3H]transZ and [3H]IAA in cell cultures were monitored by HPLC with on-line radioactivity detection. Key Results The comprehensive screen of selected cyanobacteria and algae for endogenous CKs revealed a predominance of bioactive and phosphate CK forms while O- and N-glucosides evidently did not contribute greatly to the total CK pool. The abundance of cis-zeatin-type CKs and occurrence of CK 2-methylthio derivatives pointed to the tRNA pathway as a substantial source of CKs. The importance of the tRNA biosynthetic pathway was proved by the detection of tRNA-bound CKs during the course of Scenedesmus obliquus growth. Among auxins, free IAA and its oxidation catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid represented the prevailing endogenous forms. After treatment with [3H]IAA, IAA-aspartate and indole-3-acetyl-1-glucosyl ester were detected as major auxin metabolites. Moreover, different dynamics of endogenous CKs and auxin profiles during S. obliquus culture clearly

  8. The effect of low temperature on Antarctic endolithic green algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. A.; Morris, G. J.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that undercooling to about -5 degrees C occurs in colonized Beacon sandstones of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. High-frequency temperature oscillations between 5 degrees C and -5 degrees C or -10 degrees C (which occur in nature on the rock surface) did not damage Hemichloris antarctica. In a cryomicroscope, H. antarctica appeared to be undamaged after slow or rapid cooling to -50 degrees C. 14CO2 incorporation after freezing to -20 degrees C was unaffected in H. antarctica or in Trebouxia sp. but slightly depressed in Stichococcus sp. (isolated from a less extreme Antarctic habitat). These results suggest that the freezing regime in the Antarctic desert is not injurious to endolithic algae. It is likely that the freezing-point depression inside the rock makes available liquid water for metabolic activity at subzero temperatures. Freezing may occur more frequently on the rock surface and contribute to the abiotic nature of the surface.

  9. Simultaneous coupling of phototaxis and electrotaxis in Volvox algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Sugawara, Ken

    2014-04-01

    In nature, living creatures are affected by several stimuli simultaneously. The response of living creatures to stimuli is called taxis. In order to reveal the principles of taxis behavior in response to complex stimuli, we simultaneously applied photostimulation and electric stimulation perpendicularly to a Volvox algae solution. The probability distribution of the swimming direction showed that a large population of swimming cells moved in a direction that was the result of the composition of phototaxis and electrotaxis. More surprisingly, we uncovered the coupling of signs of taxis, i.e., coupling of phototaxis and electrotaxis induced positive electrotaxis, which did not emerge in the single stimulation experiments. We qualitatively explained the coupling of taxis based on the polarization of the swimming cells induced by the simultaneous photo- and electric stimulation.

  10. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    PubMed

    Rasala, Beth A; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  11. Genomic insights from the oleaginous model alga Nannochloropsis gaditana

    PubMed Central

    Jinkerson, Robert E.; Radakovits, Randor; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Nannochloropsis species have emerged as leading phototrophic microorganisms for the production of biofuels. Several isolates produce large quantities of triacylglycerols, grow rapidly, and can be cultivated at industrial scales. Recently, the mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes of Nannochloropsis gaditana were sequenced. Genomic interrogation revealed several key features that likely facilitate the oleaginous phenotype observed in Nannochloropsis, including an over-representation of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. Here we present additional analyses on gene orientation, vitamin B12 requiring enzymes, the acetyl-CoA metabolic node, and codon usage in N. gaditana. Nuclear genome transformation methods are established with exogenous DNA integration occurring via either random incorporation or by homologous recombination, making Nannochloropsis amenable to both forward and reverse genetic engineering. Completion of a draft genomic sequence, establishment of transformation techniques, and robust outdoor growth properties have positioned Nannochloropsis as a new model alga with significant potential for further development into an integrated photons-to-fuel production platform. PMID:22922732

  12. Amidic and acetonic cryoprotectants improve cryopreservation of volvocine green algae.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, A; Nishii, I

    2012-01-01

    A number of volvocalean green algae species were subjected to a two-step cryopreservation protocol with various cryoprotectants. Potential cryoprotectants were methanol (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide, N-methylformamide, and hydroxyacetone (HA). We confirmed prior reports that MeOH was effective for cryopreserving Chlamydomonas, but did not work well for larger volvocaleans such as Volvox. In contrast, DMF and HA were effective for both unicellular and multicellular representatives. When we used a cold-inducible transposon to probe Southern blots of Volvox DNA samples taken before and after storage for one month in LN, we could detect no differences, indicating that the genome had remained relatively stable and that the transposon had not been induced by the cryopreservation procedure. We believe these methods will facilitate long-term storage of several volvocine algal species, including Volvox strains harboring transposon-induced mutations of developmental interest.

  13. Grazing-activated chemical defence in a unicellular marine alga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Steinke, Michael; Kirst, Gunter O.

    1997-06-01

    Marine plankton use a variety of defences against predators, some of which affect trophic structure and biogeochemistry. We have previously shown that, during grazing by the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina on the alga Emiliania huxleyi, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) from the prey is converted to dimethyl sulphide (DMS) when lysis of ingested prey cells initiates mixing of algal DMSP and the enzyme DMSP lyase. Such a mechanism is similar to macrophyte defence reactions,. Here we show that this reaction deters protozoan herbivores, presumably through the production of highly concentrated acrylate, which has antimicrobial activity. Protozoan predators differ in their ability to ingest and survive on prey with high-activity DMSP lyase, but all grazers preferentially select strains with low enzyme activity when offered prey mixtures. This defence system involves investment in a chemical precursor, DMSP, which is not self-toxic and has other useful metabolic functions. We believe this is the first report of grazing-activated chemical defence in unicellular microorganisms.

  14. [Growth properties of typical water bloom algae in reclaimed water].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Based on Algal Growth Potential Test, the water bloom risk of reclaimed water was studied. Microcystis aeruginosa was proved as the main algae under the experimental conditions in this study. In 3 kinds of secondary effluent (A2O, Oxidation Ditch and Activated Sludge), its maximum density could attain above 10(6) cells x mL(-1), and the specific rate was above 0.39 d(-1). Advanced treatment (A2O-Ultrafiltration Membrane Filter-Activated Carbon and Chlorine Disinfection) did not reduce the growth potential of Microcystis aeruginosa. The effects of initial concentration of phosphorus in reclaimed water on maximum density (K(max)) and population growth rate (R(max)) of Microcystis aeruginosa can be described with Monod equation.

  15. Unicellular cyanobacterium symbiotic with a single-celled eukaryotic alga.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Anne W; Foster, Rachel A; Krupke, Andreas; Carter, Brandon J; Musat, Niculina; Vaulot, Daniel; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-09-21

    Symbioses between nitrogen (N)(2)-fixing prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes are important for nitrogen acquisition in N-limited environments. Recently, a widely distributed planktonic uncultured nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium (UCYN-A) was found to have unprecedented genome reduction, including the lack of oxygen-evolving photosystem II and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which suggested partnership in a symbiosis. We showed that UCYN-A has a symbiotic association with a unicellular prymnesiophyte, closely related to calcifying taxa present in the fossil record. The partnership is mutualistic, because the prymnesiophyte receives fixed N in exchange for transferring fixed carbon to UCYN-A. This unusual partnership between a cyanobacterium and a unicellular alga is a model for symbiosis and is analogous to plastid and organismal evolution, and if calcifying, may have important implications for past and present oceanic N(2) fixation.

  16. Satellite-Observed Algae Blooms in China's Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei

    2008-05-01

    During the spring of 2007, a massive blue-green algae (Microcystis) bloom broke out in Lake Taihu, one of the largest inland lakes in China. This freshwater lake is located in the Yangtze River delta (Figure 1), one of the world's most urbanized and heavily populated areas. The massive bloom event became an environmental crisis that prompted officials to cut tap water supply to several million residents in nearby Wuxi city in China's Jiangsu province. The outbreak, which the Chinese government identified as a major natural disaster, forced unprepared residents to rush to buy bottled water for their normal usage. This article presents results from an analysis of that event that demonstrate an application of satellite-derived imagery for inland lake water quality monitoring, assessment, and management.

  17. Surface gas-exchange processes of snow algae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, William E.; Gorton, Holly L.; Vogelmann, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The red-colored chlorophyte Chlamydomonas nivalis is commonly found in summer snowfields. We used a modified Li-Cor gas-exchange system to investigate surface gas-exchange characteristics of snow colonized by this alga, finding rates of CO2 uptake up to 0.3 μmol m−2⋅s−1 in dense algal blooms. Experiments varying the irradiance resulted in light curves that resembled those of the leaves of higher plants. Red light was more effective than white and much more effective than green or blue, because of the red astaxanthin that surrounds and masks the algal chloroplasts. Integrating daily course measurements of gas exchange showed CO2 uptake around 2,300 μmol⋅m−2⋅day−1 in heavily colonized patches, indicating that summer snowfields can be surprisingly productive. PMID:12518048

  18. Effects of the insecticide Zectran (Mexacarbate) on several algae.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R P; Simms, M A

    1975-05-01

    Field samples of freshwater algae were examined to determine the effect of the insecticide Zectran on photosynthesis rate. Concentrations of Zectran between 10 and 10(3) parts per billion (ppb) affected neither O2 production nor NaH14CO3 uptake in any of the seven genera tested. However, Zectran at a concentration of 10(4) ppb after 1 hour effected a reduction in photosynthesis of Chroococcus, Oedogonium and in a mixed sample composed of Zygnema,Mougeotia and Spirogyra. Mougeotia, Spirogyra and Schizogonium were not affected by exposure to 10(4) ppb Zectran after 1 hour, but O2 production was significantly reduced after 24 hours of exposure to this same concentration.

  19. Simultaneous coupling of phototaxis and electrotaxis in Volvox algae.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Sugawara, Ken

    2014-04-01

    In nature, living creatures are affected by several stimuli simultaneously. The response of living creatures to stimuli is called taxis. In order to reveal the principles of taxis behavior in response to complex stimuli, we simultaneously applied photostimulation and electric stimulation perpendicularly to a Volvox algae solution. The probability distribution of the swimming direction showed that a large population of swimming cells moved in a direction that was the result of the composition of phototaxis and electrotaxis. More surprisingly, we uncovered the coupling of signs of taxis, i.e., coupling of phototaxis and electrotaxis induced positive electrotaxis, which did not emerge in the single stimulation experiments. We qualitatively explained the coupling of taxis based on the polarization of the swimming cells induced by the simultaneous photo- and electric stimulation.

  20. Testing an Algae-Based Air-Regeneration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nienow, James

    1998-01-01

    The potential of an air-regeneration system based on the growth of unicellular algae on the surface of porous ceramic tubes was evaluated. The system is fairly robust with respect to environmental conditions and is capable of maintaining algal cultures for up to 365 days. Under standard conditions (50-66 micro mol/sq mm s (PPF), 450 micro mol mol of CO2), mature tubes can remove CO2 at a rate of up to 90 micro mol/sq m min. Under these conditions, approximately 200 square meters of area would be required for each member of the crew. However, the rate of uptake increases with both photon flux and CO2 concentration in accordance with Michaelis-Menton dynamics. An extrapolation to conditions of saturating light and carbon dioxide indicates that the area required can be reduced by a factor of at least 2.5.