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Sample records for alga caulerpa racemosa

  1. Bioactive constituents from the green alga Caulerpa racemosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Liu, Ding-Quan; Liang, Tong-Jun; Li, Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ai-Hong; Guo, Yue-Wei; Mao, Shui-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Three diterpenoids, including a pair of epimers, racemobutenolids A and B (1 and 2), and 4',5'-dehydrodiodictyonema A (3), an α-tocopheroid, α-tocoxylenoxy (8), and an 28-oxostigmastane steroid, (23E)-3β-hydroxy-stigmasta-5,23-dien-28-one (11), together with 12 known compounds, were isolated from the green alga Caulerpa racemosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data, and by comparison with data for related known compounds. The epimers (1 and 2) are two unusual diterpenoid lactones bearing a β-methyl-γ-substituted butenolide moiety, and 3 and 8 represent the first naturally occurring natural products with a hematinic acid ester group and 3,5-dimethylphenoxy functionality, respectively. The enzyme inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against PTP1B and related PTPs (TCPTP, CDC25B, LAR, SHP-1, and SHP-2). Compounds 3, 5, 6, and 9-14 exhibited different levels of PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 2.30 to 50.02μM. Of these compounds, 3, 9, and 11 showed the most potent inhibitory activities towards PTP1B with IC50 values of 2.30, 3.85, and 3.80μM, respectively. More importantly, the potent PTP1B inhibitors 3, 9, and 11 also displayed high selectivity over the highly homologous TCPTP and other PTPs. Also, the neuroprotective effects of the isolates against Aβ25-35-induced cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. Compounds 10, 11, and 14 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage with 11.31-15.98% increases in cell viability at 10μM. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against the human cancer cell lines A-549 and HL-60. PMID:25497963

  2. Removal of malachite green by using an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea.

    PubMed

    Bekçi, Zehra; Seki, Yoldaş; Cavas, Levent

    2009-01-30

    The biosorption of a cationic dye, malachite green oxalate (MG) from aqueous solution onto an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (CRC) was investigated at different temperatures (298, 308 and 318 K). The dye adsorption onto CRC was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. All of the isotherm parameters were calculated. The Freundlich model gave a better conformity than Langmuir equation. The mean free energy values (E) from DR isotherm were also estimated. In order to clarify the sorption kinetic, the fit of pseudo-first-order kinetic model, second-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model were investigated. It was obtained that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From thermodynamic studies the free energy changes were found to be -7.078, -9.848 and -10.864 kJ mol(-1) for 298, 308 and 318 K, respectively. This implied the spontaneous nature of biosorption and the type of adsorption as physisorption. Activation energy value for MG sorption (E(a)) was found to be 37.14 kJ mol(-1). It could be also derived that this result supported physisorption as a type of adsorption. PMID:18562093

  3. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion. PMID:20621771

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine algae Caulerpa racemosa and their antibacterial activity against some human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiraven, T.; Sundaramanickam, A.; Shanmugam, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present the synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Caulerpa racemosa, a marine algae. Fresh C. racemosa was collected from the Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. The seaweed extract was used for the synthesis of AgNO3 at room temperature. UV-visible spectrometry study revealed surface plasmon resonance at 413 nm. The characterization of silver nanoparticle was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FT-IR measurements revealed the possible functional groups responsible for reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry.TEM micrograph has shown the formation of silver nanoparticles with the size in the range of 5-25 nm. The synthesized AgNPs have shown the best antibacterial activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The above eco-friendly synthesis procedure of AgNPs could be easily scaled up in future for the industrial and therapeutic needs.

  5. Racemosin C, a novel minor bisindole alkaloid with protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B inhibitory activity from the green alga Caulerpa racemosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Ding-Quan; Liang, Tong-Jun; Li, Jia; Liu, Ai-Hong; Yang, Peng; Lin, Kun; Yu, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Yue-Wei; Mao, Shui-Chun; Wang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    A novel minor bisindole alkaloid, racemosin C (1), characterized by a naturally unprecedented 8-hydroxy-2,4,6-cyclooctatrienone ring fused with two indole systems, was isolated from the green alga Caulerpa racemosa, together with one known related metabolite, caulersin (2). The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with the data of related known compounds. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of 1 was proposed. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 5.86 ± 0.57 and 7.14 ± 1.00 μM, respectively, compared with the positive control oleanolic acid (IC50 = 3.03 ± 0.20 μM). On the basis of the data obtained, the Caulerpa bisindole alkaloids may be considered as a new class of PTP1B inhibitors. PMID:25296343

  6. Caprellid assemblages (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in shallow waters invaded by Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea from southeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Luis, M.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.; Bayle-Sempere, J. T.

    2009-06-01

    Growth of the invasive algae Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in shallow habitats may influence the faunal assemblage composition. We studied its effects on caprellid assemblages associated with shallow-water habitats of hard and soft bottoms from the SE Iberian Peninsula (native rocky-bottom algae, C. racemosa from hard and soft bottoms, and Caulerpa prolifera, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica from soft bottoms). Samples were taken in two different sampling periods (September 2004 and March 2005). A total of seven caprellid species were identified, with important differences in their distribution in different habitats. Total abundance of caprellids was very high in March on native algae on hard bottoms, and on C. racemosa on both soft and hard bottoms. On both hard and soft bottoms, abundances of Caprella hirsuta recorded from C. racemosa were low. On the other hand, a higher abundance of other species, namely C. acanthifera, C. santosrosai, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma, was recorded from C. racemosa. The results indicate that C. racemosa may have a positive influence on some caprellid species, while seasonal changes are also evident. It is concluded that introduced C. racemosa may serve as a new habitat, promoting and maintaining caprellid populations in shallow Mediterranean habitats.

  7. Caulerpa racemosa: a marine green alga for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its catalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Kamal, Chennappan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simple and green method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa) as a reducing and capping agent. The formation and stability of AgNPs were studied using visual observation and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) methods. The biosynthesized AgNPs showed a sharp surface plasmon resonance peak at 441 nm in the visible region and they have extended stability which has been confirmed by the UV-Vis spectroscopic results. XRD result revealed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and they are mainly oriented in (111) plane. FT-IR studies proved that the phytoconstituents of C. racemosa protect the AgNPs from aggregation and also which are responsible for the high stability. The size of synthesized AgNPs was approximately 25 nm with distorted spherical shape, identified from the HR-TEM images. The synthesized AgNPs showed excellent catalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue. PMID:27129459

  8. Comparison between amphipod assemblages associated with Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea and those of other Mediterranean habitats on soft substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.

    2009-09-01

    The spread of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in shallow-water habitats can present different faunal assemblage composition. We compared the amphipod assemblages associated with C. racemosa and natural habitats found on shallow-water Mediterranean soft substrata. Four vegetated habitats were compared: C. racemosa, Caulerpa prolifera, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica with unvegetated substrata. Samples were collected during two sampling periods (September 2004 and March 2005). A total of 63 amphipod species were recorded. The results showed that the vegetated habitats sampled, including C. racemosa stands, supported a higher abundance and species richness of amphipods. Furthermore, the assemblage structure differed between the different habitats, while the abundance of some species was significantly different, depending on habitat. For example, Microdeutopus obtusatus was favoured by C. racemosa habitat; Ampelisca diadema was associated with C. prolifera beds; and Hyale schmidti was more abundant in P. oceanica meadows. Habitat invasion by C. racemosa can exert an important influence on biotic assemblages, modifying habitat structure and associated fauna.

  9. Persistence of biological invasion effects: Recovery of macroalgal assemblages after removal of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzi, Luigi; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2006-07-01

    The present study evaluated the capability of recovery of Mediterranean macroalgal assemblages on rocky bottom invaded by Caulerpa racemosa. A manipulative experiment was performed to compare the structure of native assemblages that: (a) were invaded by the alga, (b) were invaded, but where the invasive alga was removed, and (c) had never been invaded. Macroalgal assemblages differed significantly between areas invaded by C. racemosa and control areas. Moreover, one year after removal of the invader, the recovery of community was minimal. Overall, recovery consisted of a significant increase in species richness and cover of macroalgae, but cover of each vegetation layer (encrusting, turf and erect) did not vary significantly between cleared and Invaded plots through time. Results showed that the effects of the colonization persist after the removal of the alga and the process of recovery of the assemblages appears to be quite slow. This finding might be an important contribution to evaluate invasion costs and thus potentially useful for an effective addressing of control strategies.

  10. Invasion Is a Community Affair: Clandestine Followers in the Bacterial Community Associated to Green Algae, Caulerpa racemosa, Track the Invasion Source

    PubMed Central

    Aires, Tania; Serrão, Ester A.; Kendrick, Gary; Duarte, Carlos M.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions rank amongst the most deleterious components of global change inducing alterations from genes to ecosystems. The genetic characteristics of introduced pools of individuals greatly influence the capacity of introduced species to establish and expand. The recently demonstrated heritability of microbial communities associated to individual genotypes of primary producers makes them a potentially essential element of the evolution and adaptability of their hosts. Here, we characterized the bacterial communities associated to native and non-native populations of the marine green macroalga Caulerparacemosa through pyrosequencing, and explored their potential role on the strikingly invasive trajectory of their host in the Mediterranean. The similarity of endophytic bacterial communities from the native Australian range and several Mediterranean locations confirmed the origin of invasion and revealed distinct communities associated to a second Mediterranean variety of C. racemosa long reported in the Mediterranean. Comparative analysis of these two groups demonstrated the stability of the composition of bacterial communities through the successive steps of introduction and invasion and suggested the vertical transmission of some major bacterial OTUs. Indirect inferences on the taxonomic identity and associated metabolism of bacterial lineages showed a striking consistency with sediment upheaval conditions associated to the expansion of their invasive host and to the decline of native species. These results demonstrate that bacterial communities can be an effective tracer of the origin of invasion and support their potential role in their eukaryotic host’s adaptation to new environments. They put forward the critical need to consider the 'meta-organism' encompassing both the host and associated micro-organisms, to unravel the origins, causes and mechanisms underlying biological invasions. PMID:23874625

  11. Preliminary evaluation of hydrocarbon removal power of Caulerpa racemosa in seawater by means of infrared and visible spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroletti, Marco; Capobianchi, Alfredo; Ragosta, Emanuela; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we tested the power of Caulerpa racemosa for removal hydrocarbons from seawater. C. racemosa was implanted in two aquariums filled with natural seawater having a hydrocarbon content lower than 0.05 mg/L which is the detection limit of the FTIR spectrophotometric method used for the determination. One aquarium was submitted to sequential additions of hydrocarbons (n-esadecane 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, n-docosane 15 mg/L) and diesel fuels (20 mg/L) while the second one remained uncontaminated and used as control. After any addition, hydrocarbon content in seawater was determined at regular time intervals (one or two days) and when comparable hydrocarbon contents (i.e. lower than 0.05 mg/L) were again observed, the real removal power of hydrocarbons was verified by several spectroscopic measurements performed on algae from both aquariums. Total hydrocarbon contents in algae determined by infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, always resulted higher in the polluted aquarium for all the concentrations of added pollutants. Further FTIR studies performed on algae showed the presence of marked quantitative and structural molecular modifications involving carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and chlorophyll pigments in C. racemosa from the aquarium test. In addition, visible (VIS) spectroscopic examination of C. racemosa showed a reduction of chlorophyll pigments in the polluted aquarium with respect to the control one. At last, FTIR spectra all the algal samples submitted to hydrocarbon pollution were re-examined by means of two-dimensional correlation analysis, a statistical tool helpful for studying the dynamic evolution of any molecular and biological system submitted to an external perturbation producing compositional and structural changes. This approach showed differences among the molecular modifications caused by any type of hydrocarbon used, modifications related reasonably to the molecular dimensions and concentration of the added pollutants. All these

  12. First assessment of the Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) invasion along the French Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Ruitton, Sandrine; Javel, Fabrice; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Meinesz, Alexandre; Pergent, Gérard; Verlaque, Marc

    2005-10-01

    The introduced green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has been rapidly spreading in the Mediterranean Sea since 1990. It was first observed in France in 1997 (Marseilles). In early 2004, the stretch of the French Mediterranean coastline and the surface area affected by the invasion were estimated at about 83 km and 4014 ha, respectively. The depth range of colonized areas was usually 10-35 m depth. Shallow (0-10 m) and deep (down to 40 m) dense meadows were rarely observed. In contrast to the dead matte of Posidonia oceanica, which constituted the most widely colonized substratum, dense P. oceanica meadows and fine sand with large ripple-marks were not invaded. Few rocky areas were colonized and coarse sand bottoms were usually colonized below 20 m depth. All the colonized areas were exposed to human activities and more than 40% were fishing areas. Mild climate, suitable substrata, presence of vectors of dispersal and absence of efficient biological control make the French Mediterranean coast particularly vulnerable to the further spread of the alga. PMID:15893332

  13. Subtle Effects of Biological Invasions: Cellular and Physiological Responses of Fish Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa racemosa

    PubMed Central

    Felline, Serena; Caricato, Roberto; Cutignano, Adele; Gorbi, Stefania; Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Mollo, Ernesto; Regoli, Francesco; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has invaded Mediterranean seabed including marine reserves, modifying the structure of habitats and altering the distributional patterns of associated organisms. However, the understanding of how such invasion can potentially affect functional properties of Mediterranean subtidal systems is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that C. racemosa changes foraging habit of the native white seabream, Diplodus sargus. In invaded areas, we found a high frequency of occurrence of C. racemosa in the stomach contents of this omnivorous fish (72.7 and 85.7%), while the alga was not detected in fish from a control area. We also found a significant accumulation of caulerpin, one of the main secondary metabolites of C. racemosa, in fish tissues. The level of caulerpin in fish tissues was used here as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the invasive pest and related with observed cellular and physiological alterations. Such effects included activation of some enzymatic pathways (catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, total glutathione and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, 7-ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase), the inhibition of others (acetylcholinesterase and acylCoA oxidase), an increase of hepatosomatic index and decrease of gonadosomatic index. The observed alterations might lead to a detrimental health status and altered behaviours, potentially preventing the reproductive success of fish populations. Results of this study revealed that the entering of alien species in subtidal systems can alter trophic webs and can represent an important, indirect mechanism which might contribute to influence fluctuations of fish stocks and, also, the effectiveness of protection regimes. PMID:22701707

  14. Subtle effects of biological invasions: cellular and physiological responses of fish eating the exotic pest Caulerpa racemosa.

    PubMed

    Felline, Serena; Caricato, Roberto; Cutignano, Adele; Gorbi, Stefania; Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Mollo, Ernesto; Regoli, Francesco; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has invaded Mediterranean seabed including marine reserves, modifying the structure of habitats and altering the distributional patterns of associated organisms. However, the understanding of how such invasion can potentially affect functional properties of Mediterranean subtidal systems is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that C. racemosa changes foraging habit of the native white seabream, Diplodus sargus. In invaded areas, we found a high frequency of occurrence of C. racemosa in the stomach contents of this omnivorous fish (72.7 and 85.7%), while the alga was not detected in fish from a control area. We also found a significant accumulation of caulerpin, one of the main secondary metabolites of C. racemosa, in fish tissues. The level of caulerpin in fish tissues was used here as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the invasive pest and related with observed cellular and physiological alterations. Such effects included activation of some enzymatic pathways (catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, total glutathione and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, 7-ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase), the inhibition of others (acetylcholinesterase and acylCoA oxidase), an increase of hepatosomatic index and decrease of gonadosomatic index. The observed alterations might lead to a detrimental health status and altered behaviours, potentially preventing the reproductive success of fish populations. Results of this study revealed that the entering of alien species in subtidal systems can alter trophic webs and can represent an important, indirect mechanism which might contribute to influence fluctuations of fish stocks and, also, the effectiveness of protection regimes. PMID:22701707

  15. The seaweed Caulerpa racemosa on Mediterranean rocky reefs: from passenger to driver of ecological change.

    PubMed

    Bulleri, Fabio; Balata, David; Bertocci, Iacopo; Tamburello, Laura; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2010-08-01

    Disentangling the ecological effects of biological invasions from those of other human disturbances is crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying ongoing biotic homogenization. We evaluated whether the exotic seaweed, Caulerpa racemosa, is the primary cause of degradation (i.e., responsible for the loss of canopy-formers and dominance by algal turfs) on Mediterranean rocky reefs, by experimentally removing the invader alone or the entire invaded assemblage. In addition, we assessed the effects of enhanced sedimentation on the survival and recovery of canopy-forming macroalgae at a relatively pristine location and how their loss affects the ability of C. racemosa to conquer space. C. racemosa did not invade dense canopy stands or influence their recovery in cleared plots. Competition with C. racemosa could not explain the rarity of canopy-forming species at degraded sites. Removing the assemblages invaded by C. racemosa and preventing reinvasion did not trigger the transition from algal turfs to canopies, but it enhanced the cover of morphologically complex erect macroalgae under some circumstances. Once established, C. racemosa, enhancing sediment accumulation, favors algal turfs over erect algal forms and enables them to monopolize space. Our results show that introduced species that rely on disturbance to establish can subsequently become the main drivers of ecological change. PMID:20836441

  16. Interactive effect of sedimentation and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion on macroalgal assemblages in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzi, Luigi; Balata, David; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Cinelli, Francesco

    2005-08-01

    In the present study the effect of the increase in sediment deposition on the spread of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea and the interactive effects of sedimentation and C. racemosa on native macroalgal assemblages have been evaluated. To achieve these objectives a field experiment has been carried out by transplanting of C. racemosa and manipulating sedimentation rates. Results showed that C. racemosa was not affected by an increase of sedimentation rate. The effects of C. racemosa colonization and those of sediment deposition appeared very similar, resulting in a decrease of erect and prostrate species, while turf was not affected. Synergistic mechanisms between sediment deposition and C. racemosa colonization resulted from the strong decrease in percent cover of the main structural species in areas where the two disturbances co-occurred.

  17. Temporal and spatial variability in shallow- and deep-water populations of the invasive Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrian, Emma; Ballesteros, Enric

    2009-08-01

    The invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea represents an important threat to the diversity of Mediterranean benthic coastal ecosystems by interfering with native species and modifying benthic assemblages. The present study deals, for the first time, with the temporal and spatial variability of the biomass and phenology of C. racemosa considering both deep- and shallow-water populations. Two sampling depths (30 and 10 m) were sampled at three different rocky bottom sites every 3 months in the Archipelago of Cabrera National Park (Western Mediterranean). All morphometric variables analysed showed a spatial variation and temporal patterns depending on depth. Between depths, C. racemosa biomass, stolon length, number of fronds and frond length were usually significantly higher at deep-water populations, suggesting that C. racemosa grows better in deep-waters. Deep- and shallow-water populations displayed a high temporal variation although no evidence of seasonal patterns was found, in contrast with what has been reported by other authors. The sources of this variability are still unknown but probably both physical factors and differential herbivory pressures display a key role.

  18. Biosorption of Cr (VI), Cr (III), Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solutions by Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa racemosa algal biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilselvan, Narayanaswamy; Saurav, Kumar; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important environmental problems today. Biosorption is an innovative technology that employs biological materials to accumulate heavy metals from waste water through metabolic process or physicochemical pathways of uptake. Even though several physical and chemical methods are available for removal of heavy metals, currently many biological materials such as bacteria, algae, yeasts and fungi have been widely used due to their good performance, low cost and large quantity of availability. The aim of the present study is to explore the biosorption of toxic heavy metals, Cr(VI), Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by algal biomass obtained from algae Sargassum wightii (brown) and Caulerpa racemosa (green). Biosorption of algal biomass was found to be biomass concentration- and pH-dependent, while the maximal biosorption was found at pH 5.0 and with the metal concentration of 100 mg L-1. S. wightii showed the maximal metal biosorption at the biomass concentration of 25 g L-1, followed by C. racemosa with the maximal biosorption at 30 g L-1. S. wightii showed 78% biosorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions. C. racemosa exhibited 85% biosorption of Cd(II) and Cr(VI), and 50% biosorption of Cr(III) and Pb(II). The results of our study suggest that seaweed biomass can be used efficiently for biosorption of heavy metals.

  19. Supply chain and marketing of sea grapes, Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta: Caulerpaceae) in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

    PubMed

    Morris, C; Bala, S; South, G R; Lako, J; Lober, M; Simos, T

    2014-01-01

    This report describes for the first time the supply chain of Caulerpa racemosa in three Pacific Island countries. The harvesting and marketing of C. racemosa are important subsistence activities for villagers in Fiji and Samoa, less so in Tonga. At least 150 harvesters are involved in Fiji, some 100 in Samoa and only a handful in Tonga. The annual combined crop is of some 123 t valued at around US$266,492. In Fiji, it is projected that supply does not meet local demand and there is a potential export market that is currently operating at a pilot project level. In Samoa, the supply is considered adequate for the current market. In Tonga, harvesting is carried out by a few families and supplies a niche market in that country. The possibilities of field cultivation of Caulerpa have been explored but, at present, with only limited success in Samoa. The supply chain is simple in all three countries, and only in Fiji are middlemen involved in the distribution process. The limitations for marketing include the fact that only a few sites supply most of the crop in all the three countries, that all sites need to be conserved through sustainable harvesting methods, the short shelf life of the crop and a lack of information on the carrying capacity of harvest sites. Caulerpa remains a crop that fulfils a niche market but has the potential to be scaled up for additional livelihood development in the future. PMID:24771972

  20. Functional changes due to invasive species: Food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbà, N.

    2011-06-01

    Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. δ 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. δ 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant

  1. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    PubMed Central

    da Matta, Carolina Babosa Brito; de Souza, Éverton Tenório; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the

  2. The sesquiterpene caulerpenyne from Caulerpa spp. is a lipoxygenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Sevilay; Cavas, Levent; Yurdakoc, Kadir; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-04-01

    Many algae contain secondary metabolites with the potential to gain importance as pharmaceutically active secretions. Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea and Caulerpa prolifera are very abundant on the Mediterranean coastlines. The methanolic extracts of C. racemosa and C. prolifera were tested for inhibitory effects on soybean lipoxygenase. The extract of C. prolifera showed potent inhibitory effect in a lipoxygenase enzyme activity assay. HPLC comparison revealed that C. racemosa extract contained less caulerpenyne, the major secondary metabolite of both algae. In accordance with these findings, purified caulerpenyne inhibited lipoxygenase with an IC(50) of 5.1 μM. The enzyme kinetic studies indicated that both K (M) and V (max) decreased from 0.041 to 0.019 mM and 312.5 to 151.5 U mL(-1) in the presence of 5 µM caulerpenyne, revealing an un-competitive type of inhibition kinetics. The major secondary metabolite of Caulerpa species, caulerpenyne, is thus a novel lipoxygenase inhibitor that can be easily obtained in high quantities from the abundant algae. PMID:20567870

  3. Mediterranean Species of Caulerpa Are Polyploid with Smaller Genomes in the Invasive Ones

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Rull Lluch, Jordi; Salvador Soler, Noemi; Serrao, Ester A.; Siguán, María Antonia Ribera

    2012-01-01

    Caulerpa species are marine green algae, which often act as invasive species with rapid clonal proliferation when growing outside their native biogeographical borders. Despite many publications on the genetics and ecology of Caulerpa species, their life history and ploidy levels are still to be resolved and are the subject of large controversy. While some authors claimed that the thallus found in nature has a haplodiplobiontic life cycle with heteromorphic alternation of generations, other authors claimed a diploid or haploid life cycle with only one generation involved. DAPI-staining with image analysis and microspectrophotometry were used to estimate relative nuclear DNA contents in three species of Caulerpa from the Mediterranean, at individual, population and species levels. Results show that ploidy levels and genome size vary in these three Caulerpa species, with a reduction in genome size for the invasive ones. Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases; all sampled C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindracea were in haplophasic phase, but in C. prolifera, the native species, individuals were found in both diplophasic and haplophasic phases. Different levels of endopolyploidy were found in both C. prolifera and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Life history is elucidated for the Mediterranean C. prolifera and it is hypothesized that haplophasic dominance in C. racemosa var. cylindracea and C. taxifolia is a beneficial trait for their invasive strategies. PMID:23110095

  4. Assessment of substratum effect on the distribution of two invasive Caulerpa (Chlorophyta) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantes, Eduardo; Terrados, Jorge; Orfila, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Two-year monitoring of the invasive marine Chlorophyta Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea shows the great influence of substratum on their spatial distribution. The cover of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa was measured in shallow (<8 m) areas indicating that these species are more abundant in rocks with photophilic algae and in the dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica than in sand or inside the P. oceanica meadow. A short-term experiment comparing the persistence of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa planted either in a model of dead matte of P. oceanica or in sand shows that the persistence of these species was higher in the dead matte model than in sand. Correlative evidence suggests that C. taxifolia and C. racemosa tolerate near-bottom orbital velocities below 15 cm s -1 and that C. taxifolia cover declines at velocities above that value. These results contribute to understand the process of invasion of these Caulerpa species predicting which substrata would be more susceptible to be invaded and to the adoption of appropriate management strategies.

  5. Antioxidant Activity and Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Extracts of the Marine Algae, Caulerpa peltata and Padina Gymnospora

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Kavitha; Iyer, Vidhya V.

    2014-01-01

    The results of our previous investigations on extracts of selected marine algae showed that Caulerpa peltata and Padina gymnospora had more promising antiproliferative and antioxidant activities than Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii. Based on these results, the more active chloroform extract of C. peltata and ethyl acetate extract of P. gymnospora were further analyzed for their constituents by using gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The GC-MS analysis (GC % peak area given in parentheses) showed that fucosterol (12.45%) and L-(+)-ascorbic acid 2, 6-dihexadecanoate (8.13%) were the major compounds present in P. gymnospora ethyl acetate extract. On the other hand, C. peltata chloroform extract had 1-heptacosanol (10.52%), hexacosanol acetate (9.28%), tetradecyl ester of chloroacetic acid (7.22%), Z,Z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.77%) and 10, 13-dimethyl-methyl ester of tetradecanoic acid (5.34%) as major compounds. Also described in the report are the beta-carotene bleaching inhibitory and total reducing activities of the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. peltata and P. gymnospora, respectively, relative to the other three extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate) of the two algae. PMID:25593390

  6. Raman spectroscopic insights into the chemical gradients within the wound plug of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia.

    PubMed

    Weissflog, Ina A; Grosser, Katharina; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Dietzek, Benjamin; Pohnert, Georg; Popp, Juergen

    2013-04-15

    The invasive unicellular green macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia has spread dramatically in the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades. Its success is based on rapid plug formation after wounding, to prevent the loss of cell content. This quick and efficient process involves the rapid transformation of the secondary metabolite caulerpenyne to the reactive 1,4-dialdehyde oxytoxin 2, which acts as a protein crosslinker. The main metabolites of the wound plug were identified as proteins, caulerpenyne derivatives, and sulfated polysaccharides. Because of a methodological deficit, however, the detailed distribution of the compounds within the wound plug of C. taxifolia was unknown. This study demonstrates the suitability of FT-Raman spectroscopy for the noninvasive in vivo determination of caulerpenyne and its derivatives, as well as β-carotene, from signals with special spectral features within the wound plug and the adjacent intact alga tissue, with a resolution of 100 μm. FT-Raman spectra allowed four different zones with distinct chemical compositions around the region of wounds to be characterized. Gradients of the investigated metabolites within the wound plug and the alga could be determined. Moreover, various caulerpenyne derivatives could be identified spectroscopically, and this has led to a mechanistic proposal for the internal and the external wound plug formation. PMID:23526760

  7. Purity of Chloroplasts Prepared from the Siphonous Green Alga, Caulerpa simpliciuscula, as Determined by Their Ultrastructure and Their Enzymic Content 1

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Bruce R.; Wright, Simon W.

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure and enzyme distribution in chloroplasts and other subcellular fractions isolated from the siphonous green alga, Caulerpa simpliciuscula, are described. The isolated chloroplasts were similar in appearance to those in the tissue from which they were derived, and in typical preparations 70% or more were intact. Chloroplasts which had lost their outer envelopes could be separated from intact plastids by centrifugation at low speeds through gradients of colloidal silica. Intact chloroplasts separated in this way retained their photosynthetic capacity and were impermeable to ferricyanide ions. The chloroplast preparations separated by differential centrifugation and refractionated using either discontinuous or continuous Percoll gradients contained non-chloroplast material. It was estimated that this amounted to a maximum of 10% of the mitochondrial population and 6% of cytoplasm extracted from the plant. The contaminating material surrounded the chloroplasts in a thin layer and was surrounded by a membrane. Images PMID:16661374

  8. Meiofauna communities, nematode diversity and C degradation rates in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica L.) and unvegetated sediments invaded by the algae Caulerpa cylindracea (Sonder).

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simona; Scopa, Mariaspina; Rizzo, Lucia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We investigated meiofauna and sedimentary C cycling in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) and unvegetated sediments invaded and not invaded by the non-indigenous tropical algae Caulerpa cylindracea. In both habitats, invaded sediments were characterized by higher organic matter contents. No effect was observed for prokaryotes and C degradation rates. In seagrass sediments, C turnover in invaded beds was about half that in not invaded ones. Meiofaunal communities varied significantly among invaded and not invaded grounds only in bare sediments. In both habitats, nematode species richness and assemblage composition were not affected by the algae. The effect of C. cylindracea on the turnover and nestedness components of the Jaccard dissimilarity varied between the two habitats. We show that the presence of C. cylindracea gives rise to variable consequences on meiofauna biodiversity and C cycling in different habitats. We conclude that further studies across different habitats and ecological components are needed to ultimately understand and predict the consequences of C. cylindracea invasion in shallow Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:27258353

  9. [Antimicrobial activity of various algae of the Panamanian Atlantic coast].

    PubMed

    Gupta, M P; Gómez, N E; Santana, A I; Solis, P N; Palacios, G

    1991-01-01

    The methanolic extracts in 5 of 7 alagae from the Atlantic coast of Panama: Caulerpa racemosa, Halimeda opuntia, Gelidiela acerosa, Laurencia papillosa y Acanthophora spicifera, showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis in a concentration of 50 mg/ml by the cylinder plate method. None of the algae studies showed activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The content of agar in Acanthophora spicifera was found to be the highest (33.5%) of all the species studied. PMID:2024058

  10. Differential herbivory of invasive algae by native fish in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, F.; Cebrian, E.; Ballesteros, E.

    2011-03-01

    The potential role of generalist herbivores to serve as a source of biotic resistance against algal invasion in marine ecosystems has been poorly examined. The present study investigates the capacity of Mediterranean herbivorous fishes to consume three of the most invasive seaweeds of the Western Mediterranean ( Caulerpa racemosa, Lophocladia lallemandii and Womersleyella setacea) and examines vertical and temporal variations of such consumption. Our results show that although fish feed throughout the depth gradient examined (5-35 m), they concentrate in shallow waters, and can consume high amounts of C. racemosa. Such high ingestion of C. racemosa does not appear to be random, since this alga is consistently chosen when offered in pairs with several native species. Conversely, L. lallemandii and W. setacea are barely eaten by fish even though they can be very abundant in the field throughout the year. Our results suggest that fish could be an important controlling agent that has been overlooked in temperate marine invasions, and they may be able to provide certain resistance to C. racemosa invasion. In contrast, they are unlikely to exert any important control effects on L. lallemandii or W. setacea.

  11. Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters. PMID:24340028

  12. Molecular Phylogeny and Barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) Based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters. PMID:24340028

  13. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  14. An Intracellular Transcriptomic Atlas of the Giant Coenocyte Caulerpa taxifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Aashish; Townsley, Brad T.; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Sinha, Neelima R.; Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent morphologies have arisen in plants multiple times. In non-vascular and vascular land plants, convergent morphology in the form of roots, stems, and leaves arose. The morphology of some green algae includes an anchoring holdfast, stipe, and leaf-like fronds. Such morphology occurs in the absence of multicellularity in the siphonous algae, which are single cells. Morphogenesis is separate from cellular division in the land plants, which although are multicellular, have been argued to exhibit properties similar to single celled organisms. Within the single, macroscopic cell of a siphonous alga, how are transcripts partitioned, and what can this tell us about the development of similar convergent structures in land plants? Here, we present a de novo assembled, intracellular transcriptomic atlas for the giant coenocyte Caulerpa taxifolia. Transcripts show a global, basal-apical pattern of distribution from the holdfast to the frond apex in which transcript identities roughly follow the flow of genetic information in the cell, transcription-to-translation. The analysis of the intersection of transcriptomic atlases of a land plant and Caulerpa suggests the recurrent recruitment of transcript accumulation patterns to organs over large evolutionary distances. Our results not only provide an intracellular atlas of transcript localization, but also demonstrate the contribution of transcript partitioning to morphology, independent from multicellularity, in plants. PMID:25569326

  15. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  16. BIOADHESION IN CAULERPA MEXICANA (CHLOROPHYTA): RHIZOID-SUBSTRATE ADHESION(1).

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Wayne R; Towle, Jennifer; Dawes, Clinton J; Böttger, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The attachment of the psammophytic alga Caulerpa mexicana Sond. ex Kütz., a coenocytic green alga, to crushed CaCO3 particles was examined utilizing the scanning electron microscope and fluorescently tagged antivitronectin antibodies. Plants attached to the substrate through morphologically variable tubular rhizoidal extensions that grew from the stolon. In this study, we describe two means of attachment: (i) the rhizoid attachment to limestone gravel by thigmoconstriction, where tubular extensions of the rhizoid wrapped tightly around the substrate and changed morphology to fit tightly into crevices in the limestone, and (ii) through adhesion pads that formed in contact with the limestone granules. Flattened rhizoidal pads were observed to secrete a fibrillar material that contained vitronectin-like proteins identified through immunolocialization and that facilitated binding of the rhizoid to the substrate. PMID:27009715

  17. Flavonoids from Symplocos racemosa.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mila; Choi, Janggyoo; Chae, Hee-Sung; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Young-Dong; Htwe, Khin Myo; Lee, Woo-Shin; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-01-01

    A novel isoflavone glycoside, peseudobatigenin 7-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1''''→5''')-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'')]-β-d-glucopyranoside, namely sympracemoside (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Symplocos racemosa along with 15 known flavonoids (2-16). Their structures were characterized by Q-TOF mass, optical rotation, UV, 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 9, 16 showed moderate inhibitory activities against NO production with IC50 value of 88.2, 42.1 and 74.3 μM, respectively. PMID:25549060

  18. High performance biosorbent (Caulerpa lentillifera) for basic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2007-05-01

    The sorptions of three basic dyes, Astrazon((R)) Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon((R)) Red GTLN (AR), and methylene blue (MB) onto green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera were investigated. The results were compared to the sorption performance of a commercial activated carbon (CARBON). The results revealed that the alga exhibited greater sorption capacities than activated carbon for the three basic dyes investigated in this work. The sorption process for all mixture systems (ALGA/AB, ALGA/AR, ALGA/MB, CARBON/AB, CARBON/AR, and CARBON/MB) obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. C. lentillifera could more rapidly sequester AR when compared with activated carbon, but was more slowly in the sorption of AB. For the sorption of MB, both ALGA and CARBON seemed to have the same sorption rate. The sorption processes were initially controlled by both film and pore-diffusion, and only were limited by pore diffusion in the later stage. The isotherms followed Langmuir model which suggested that the sorption was monolayer coverage. PMID:16920355

  19. Amantadine-Induced Livedo Racemosa.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Alavi, Afsaneh; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami

    2016-03-01

    Although livedo reticularis is a known adverse effect of amantadine, only limited studies have addressed this association. Livedo racemosa in contrast to livedo reticularis is characterized by a striking violaceous netlike pattern of the skin similar to livedo reticularis with a different histopathology and morphology (irregular, broken circular segments). In this case report, we present 2 cases of livedo racemosa and edema of lower extremities following amantadine treatment. The cutaneous biopsies in both cases showed intraluminal thrombi in subcutaneous blood vessels without evidence of vasculitis, which is consistent with livedo racemosa. PMID:26338517

  20. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by β-1,3-xylooligosaccharides prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Reiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2012-01-01

    β-1,3-Xylan was prepared from the green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera, and hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides by a mild acid treatment. The average degree of polymerization was about 5. The oligosaccharides reduced the number of viable human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and induced chromatin condensation and degradation of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, indicating that they induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. PMID:22738982

  1. The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Caulerpin, a Bisindole Alkaloid Isolated from Seaweeds of the Genus Caulerpa

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Éverton Tenório; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; da Silva, Diogo José Costa; de Aquino, Anansa Bezerra; Campessato Mella, Eliane A.; Lorenzo, Vitor Prates; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Célia; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of caulerpin was investigated. This bisindole alkaloid was isolated from the lipoid extract of Caulerpa racemosa and its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods, including IR and NMR techniques. The pharmacological assays used were the writhing and the hot plate tests, the formalin-induced pain, the capsaicin-induced ear edema and the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Caulerpin was given orally at a concentration of 100 μmol/kg. In the abdominal constriction test caulerpin showed reduction in the acetic acid-induced nociception at 0.0945 μmol (0.0103–1.0984) and for dypirone it was 0.0426 μmol (0.0092–0.1972). In the hot plate test in vivo the inhibition of nociception by caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) was also favorable. This result suggests that this compound exhibits a central activity, without changing the motor activity (seen in the rotarod test). Caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) reduced the formalin effects in both phases by 35.4% and 45.6%, respectively. The possible anti-inflammatory activity observed in the second phase in the formalin test of caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) was confirmed on the capsaicin-induced ear edema model, where an inhibition of 55.8% was presented. Indeed, it was also observed in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis that caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, reducing significantly the number of recruit cells by 48.3%. Pharmacological studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa. PMID:20098607

  2. 1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea

    PubMed Central

    De Pascali, Sandra A.; Del Coco, Laura; Felline, Serena; Mollo, Ernesto; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fanizzi, Francesco P.

    2015-01-01

    The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet. PMID:26058009

  3. 1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

    PubMed

    De Pascali, Sandra A; Del Coco, Laura; Felline, Serena; Mollo, Ernesto; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2015-06-01

    The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet. PMID:26058009

  4. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  5. Phytochemistry and biologic activities of caulerpa peltata native to oman sea.

    PubMed

    Movahhedin, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Fathi Azad, Fatemeh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    General toxicity, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Caulerpa peltata J.V.Lamouroux (Caulerpaceae) collected from Oman Sea were investigated. Dried, ground alga was Soxhlet-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol successively. The methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractionation on silica gel using a step gradient of different mixture of solvents. A known alkaloid, caulerpin, was subsequently isolated from the fraction eluted by ethyl acatete100%. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was assessed by using the (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity of the all extracts and caulerpin against the cancerous cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. General toxicity of extracts was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). Based on our results, a weak activity observed for all extracts in MTT assay, while they were toxic toward brine shrimp nauplii comparing to the podophylotoxin. This is the first report on phytochemistry and bioactivity of C. peltata which collected from Oman Sea. PMID:25237346

  6. Phytochemistry and Biologic Activities of Caulerpa Peltata Native to Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Movahhedin, Nasrin; Barar, Jaleh; Fathi Azad, Fatemeh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    General toxicity, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Caulerpa peltata J.V.Lamouroux (Caulerpaceae) collected from Oman Sea were investigated. Dried, ground alga was Soxhlet-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol successively. The methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) fractionation on silica gel using a step gradient of different mixture of solvents. A known alkaloid, caulerpin, was subsequently isolated from the fraction eluted by ethyl acatete100%. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was assessed by using the (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity of the all extracts and caulerpin against the cancerous cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. General toxicity of extracts was determined using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). Based on our results, a weak activity observed for all extracts in MTT assay, while they were toxic toward brine shrimp nauplii comparing to the podophylotoxin. This is the first report on phytochemistry and bioactivity of C. peltata which collected from Oman Sea. PMID:25237346

  7. Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Caulerpa mexicana Suppress Cell Migration and Ear Edema Induced by Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angelica Oliveira; Dantas, Gracielle Rodrigues; Lira, Daysianne Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; de Miranda, George Emmanuel Cavalcanti; de Oliveira Santos, Barbara Viviana; Souto, Janeusa Trindade

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of the inflammatory response is essential to maintaining homeostasis. Several studies have investigated new drugs that may contribute to avoiding or minimizing excessive inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of green algae Caulerpa mexicana on models inflammation. In mice, the inflammatory peritonitis model is induced by zymosan. Previous treatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. mexicana was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity, in a time-dependent but not in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of mice with C. mexicana extracts also decreased the xylene-induced ear edema, exerting strong inhibitory leukocyte migration elicited by zymosan into the air pouch. We concluded that administration of the extracts resulted in a reduction of cell migration to different sites as well as a decrease in edema formation induced by chemical irritants. This study demonstrates for the first time the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts from the green marine algae Caulerpa mexicana. PMID:21892348

  8. Effects of salinity and nutrients on the growth and chlorophyll fluorescence of Caulerpa lentillifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hui; Yao, Jianting; Sun, Zhongmin; Duan, Delin

    2015-03-01

    Caulerpa lentillifera is a green algae that distributes worldwide and is cultivated for food. We assessed vegetative propagation of C. lentillifera by measuring the specific growth rate (SGR) and chlorophyll fluorescence of the green algae cultured at different salinities and nutrient levels. The results indicated that C. lentillifera can survive in salinities ranging from 20 to 50, and can develop at salinities of 30 to 40. The maximum SGR for C. lentillifera occurred at a salinity of 35. Both chlorophyll content and the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence ( F v/ F m) were also at a maximum at a salinity of 35. Photosynthesis was inhibited in salinities greater than 45 and less than 25. Both the maximum SGR and maximum chlorophyll content were found in algae treated with a concentration of 0.5 mmol/L of NO3-N and 0.1 mmol/L of PO4-P. The photosynthetic capacity of photosystem II (PSII) was inhibited in cultures of C. lentillifera at high nutrient levels. This occurred when NO3-N concentrations were greater than 1.0 mmol/L and when PO4-P concentrations were at 0.4 mmol/L. As there is strong need for large-scale cultivation of C. lentillifera, these data contribute important information to ensure optimal results.

  9. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  10. Biosorption of Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ using dried marine green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Pavasant, Prasert; Apiratikul, Ronbanchob; Sungkhum, Vimonrat; Suthiparinyanont, Prateep; Wattanachira, Suraphong; Marhaba, Taha F

    2006-12-01

    The sorption of Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ by a dried green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was investigated. The removal efficiency increased with pH. The analysis with FT-IR indicated that possible functional groups involved in metal sorption by this alga were O-H bending, N-H bending, N-H stretching, C-N stretching, C-O, SO stretching, and S-O stretching. The sorption of all metal ions rapidly reached equilibrium within 20min. The sorption kinetics of these metals were governed by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion processes. The sorption isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm where the maximum sorption capacities was Pb2+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Zn2+. PMID:16330209

  11. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  12. Mechanisms Influencing the Spread of a Native Marine Alga

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dilys; Glasby, Tim M.; Ralph, Peter J.; Gribben, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Like invasive macrophytes, some native macrophytes are spreading rapidly with consequences for community structure. There is evidence that the native alga Caulerpa filiformis is spreading along intertidal rocky shores in New South Wales, Australia, seemingly at the expense of native Sargassum spp. We experimentally investigated the role physical disturbance plays in the spread of C. filiformis and its possible consequences for Sargassum spp. Cleared patches within beds of C. filiformis (Caulerpa habitat) or Sargassum spp. (Sargassum habitat) at multiple sites showed that C. filiformis had significantly higher recruitment (via propagules) into its own habitat. The recruitment of Sargassum spp. to Caulerpa habitat was rare, possibly due in part to sediment accretion within Caulerpa habitat. Diversity of newly recruited epibiotic assemblages within Caulerpa habitat was significantly less than in Sargassum habitat. In addition, more C. filiformis than Sargassum spp. recruited to Sargassum habitat at some sites. On common boundaries between these two macroalgae, the vegetative growth of adjacent C. filiformis into cleared patches was significantly higher than for adjacent Sargassum spp. In both experiments, results were largely independent of the size of disturbance (clearing). Lastly, we used PAM fluorometry to show that the photosynthetic condition of Sargassum spp. fronds adjacent to C. filiformis was generally suppressed relative to those distant from C. filiformis. Thus, physical disturbance, combined with invasive traits (e.g. high levels of recruitment and vegetative growth) most likely facilitate the spread of C. filiformis, with the ramifications being lower epibiotic diversity and possibly reduced photosynthetic condition of co-occurring native macrophytes. PMID:24722520

  13. Mechanisms influencing the spread of a native marine alga.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dilys; Glasby, Tim M; Ralph, Peter J; Gribben, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Like invasive macrophytes, some native macrophytes are spreading rapidly with consequences for community structure. There is evidence that the native alga Caulerpa filiformis is spreading along intertidal rocky shores in New South Wales, Australia, seemingly at the expense of native Sargassum spp. We experimentally investigated the role physical disturbance plays in the spread of C. filiformis and its possible consequences for Sargassum spp. Cleared patches within beds of C. filiformis (Caulerpa habitat) or Sargassum spp. (Sargassum habitat) at multiple sites showed that C. filiformis had significantly higher recruitment (via propagules) into its own habitat. The recruitment of Sargassum spp. to Caulerpa habitat was rare, possibly due in part to sediment accretion within Caulerpa habitat. Diversity of newly recruited epibiotic assemblages within Caulerpa habitat was significantly less than in Sargassum habitat. In addition, more C. filiformis than Sargassum spp. recruited to Sargassum habitat at some sites. On common boundaries between these two macroalgae, the vegetative growth of adjacent C. filiformis into cleared patches was significantly higher than for adjacent Sargassum spp. In both experiments, results were largely independent of the size of disturbance (clearing). Lastly, we used PAM fluorometry to show that the photosynthetic condition of Sargassum spp. fronds adjacent to C. filiformis was generally suppressed relative to those distant from C. filiformis. Thus, physical disturbance, combined with invasive traits (e.g. high levels of recruitment and vegetative growth) most likely facilitate the spread of C. filiformis, with the ramifications being lower epibiotic diversity and possibly reduced photosynthetic condition of co-occurring native macrophytes. PMID:24722520

  14. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa, Actaea racemosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Windsor, Regina C

    2014-08-25

    ABSTRACT An evidence-based systematic review of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa, Actaea racemosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. PMID:25153652

  15. [Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting as livedo racemosa].

    PubMed

    Klossowski, N; Vordenbäumen, S; Sewerin, P; Braun, S A; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

    2014-04-01

    As a rare antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is characterized by asthma, severe peripheral eosinophilia and the presence of extravascular granulomas. Cutaneous involvement usually includes palpable purpura or cutaneous to subcutaneous nodes. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman with EPGA and the unusual cutaneous manifestation of livedo racemosa. PMID:24700024

  16. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  17. Seasonal functioning and dynamics of Caulerpa prolifera meadows in shallow areas: An integrated approach in Cadiz Bay Natural Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Juan J.; García-Sánchez, M. Paz; Olivé, Irene; García-Marín, Patricia; Brun, Fernando G.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. Lucas; Hernández, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The rhizophyte alga Caulerpa prolifera thrives in dense monospecific stands in the vicinity of meadows of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa in Cadiz Bay Natural Park. The seasonal cycle of demographic and biometric properties, photosynthesis, and elemental composition (C:N:P) of this species were monitored bimonthly from March 2004 to March 2005. The number of primary assimilators peaked in spring as consequence of the new recruitment, reaching densities up to 104 assimilators·m-2. A second peak was recorded in late summer, with a further decrease towards autumn and winter. Despite this summer maximum, aboveground biomass followed a unimodal pattern, with a spring peak about 400 g dry weight·m-2. In conjunction to demographic properties of the population, a detailed biometric analysis showed that the percentage of assimilators bearing proliferations and the number of proliferations per assimilator were maximal in spring (100% and c.a. 17, respectively), and decreased towards summer and autumn. The size of the primary assimilators was minimal in spring (May) as a result of the new recruitments. However, the frond area per metre of stolon peaked in early spring and decreased towards the remainder of the year. The thallus area index (TAI) was computed from two different, independent approaches which both produced similar results, with a maximum TAI recorded in spring (transient values up to 18 m2·m-2). The relative contribution of primary assimilators and proliferations to TAI was also assessed. Whereas the number of proliferations accounted for most of the TAI peak in spring, its contribution decreased during the year, to a minimum in winter, where primary assimilators were the main contributors to TAI. The present study represents the first report of the seasonal dynamics of C. prolifera in south Atlantic Spanish coasts, and indicates the important contribution of this primary producer in shallow coastal ecosystems.

  18. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical trial of Ficus racemosa

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajnish Kumar; Nandy, Bankim Chandra; Maity, Siddhartha; Sarkar, Srimanta; Saha, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Ficus racemosa is an important medicinal plant, found in India, Australia, and Southeast Asia. It is popularly known as ‘gular.’ It reduces blood glucose concentration due to the presence of β-sitosterol. Many active constituents that have been isolated from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. The literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions that include antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal, antibacterial, hypolipidemic, antifilarial, and hepatoprotection. This review article elaborately describes the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. We also provide useful structures of the secondary metabolites along with their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. Some clinical trial data have also been provided in this review. This review would assist researchers to gather scientific information in future. PMID:26009696

  19. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical trial of Ficus racemosa.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajnish Kumar; Nandy, Bankim Chandra; Maity, Siddhartha; Sarkar, Srimanta; Saha, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Ficus racemosa is an important medicinal plant, found in India, Australia, and Southeast Asia. It is popularly known as 'gular.' It reduces blood glucose concentration due to the presence of β-sitosterol. Many active constituents that have been isolated from various parts of this plant possess useful pharmacological activities. The literature survey proposed that it has multiple pharmacological actions that include antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antifungal, antibacterial, hypolipidemic, antifilarial, and hepatoprotection. This review article elaborately describes the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of this plant. We also provide useful structures of the secondary metabolites along with their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. Some clinical trial data have also been provided in this review. This review would assist researchers to gather scientific information in future. PMID:26009696

  20. Cycloartane Triterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Actaea racemosa.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ayano; Lankin, David C; Nikolić, Dejan; Ahn, Soyoun; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-03-25

    Investigating the phytochemical equivalence of the aerial parts of Actaea racemosa (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) relative to the widely used roots/rhizomes, this study provides a perspective for the potential use of renewable ("green") plant parts as a source of black cohosh botanical preparations. In addition to the characterization of Nω-methylserotonin as one representative marker of the Actaea alkaloids, nine cycloartane triterpenes were isolated and characterized, including the two new triterpene glycosides (1S,15R)-1,15,25-trihydroxy-3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-acta-(16S,23R,24R)-16,23;16,24-binoxoside (1) and 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1S,24R)-1,24,25-trihydroxy-15-oxo-acta-(16R,23R)-16,23-monoxoside (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The relative configuration of 1 was deduced by (1)H iterative full-spin analysis (HiFSA), making it the first example of the complete analysis of the complex (1)H NMR spectrum of a triterpene glycoside. In addition to the new compounds 1 and 2, the aerial plant parts were shown to contain the previously known binoxosides 3, 4, 6, and 7, the monoxoside 8, and the binoxols 5 and 9. Overall, the metabolome of the aerial plant parts consists of a variety of Actaea triterpenes, similar to those found in roots/rhizomes, a tendency toward C-1 and C-7 hydroxylation of the cycloartanol skeleton, a greater abundance of aglycones, and the presence of comparable amounts of Nω-methylserotonin. PMID:26760374

  1. Cymodocea nodosa vs. Caulerpa prolifera: Causes and consequences of a long term history of interaction in macrophyte meadows in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (Spain, southwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Bernal, Carmen M.; Quintino, Victor; Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; García-Sánchez, Marta; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel M.

    2012-09-01

    Seagrass communities are under direct threat as a result of anthropogenic impact and competition with macroalgae. Present day macrophyte meadows in the Mar Menor are the result of successive colonization events, associated with changes in the hydrographical conditions. In the last of these events, Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskål) J.V. Lamouroux colonized the lagoon in the early 1970's following the widening and deepening of the El Estacio inlet into a navigation channel, which caused a substantial decrease in the salinity level and a lower annual water temperature range. The seaweed C. prolifera expanded rapidly and replaced the previous seagrass meadows with monospecific algae meadows or with meadows mixed with the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson. This work analyzes the factors that explain the distribution of macrophyte meadows and their evolution, as well as subsequent sediment alterations. The mean biomass of C. prolifera (Ca) in the deeper areas of the Mar Menor increased from 1982 to 1987 and remained constant thereafter until 2008, while the mean biomass of C. nodosa (Cy) showed a continuous decrease during the same period. The evolution of the Ca/Cy ratio showed a progressive expansion of C. prolifera monospecific meadows from north to south. The decline in the C. nodosa meadows was more pronounced in the deeper areas and was especially verified in the inner or more confined areas. At present, monospecific C. nodosa meadows are restricted to the southern and western, shallowest areas of the lagoon. The negative relationship between Caulerpa prolifera and Cymodocea nodosa shown by multiple regressions suggests that there is a competition between the two species. A complex interaction of factors could be responsible for the equilibrium and evolution of the relationships between both species in the Mar Menor. In shallow waters, coarse sediments, high light levels and physiological adaptations could favour C. nodosa. In deeper areas, light scarcity

  2. INFLUENCE OF RHIZOME PROPAGULE SIZE ON YIELDS AND TRITERPENE GLYCOSIDE CONCENTRATIONS OF BLACK COHOSH (ACTAEA RACEMOSA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nuttal) is a native North American medicinal plant traditionally harvested for its rhizomes and roots. Black cohosh products were listed in the top ten selling herbal supplements from 2002-2005. Due to increasing commercial demand ther...

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  4. INVASION OF THE GREEN ALGA CAULERPA OLLIVIERI IN THE BAHAMAS LINKED TO ANTHROPOGENIC NITROGEN ENRICHMENT. (R830414)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A.; Aref, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances. PMID:24596500

  6. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of microsatellite markers for two nonviviparous mangrove species, Acanthus ilicifolius and Lumnitzera racemosa.

    PubMed

    Geng, Q F; Lian, C L; Tao, J M; Hogetsu, T

    2008-03-01

    Eight and nine of microsatellite loci were isolated from two nonviviparous mangrove species, Acanthus ilicifolius and Lumnitzera racemosa, respectively. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight in A. ilicifolius and two to nine in L. racemosa. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.200 to 0.875 in A. ilicifolius and from 0.025 to 0.350 in L. racemosa. These loci would be effective for analysing genetic diversity and population genetic structure of these two mangrove species. PMID:21585797

  7. Propagation Research Results for Actaea racemosa L. (black cohosh) and analysis of Associated Triterpene Glycosides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actaea racemosa L. (black cohosh), is a native North American medicinal plant traditionally wild-harvested for its roots. Due to increasing international demand it is at risk of extirpation from its native habitat. There subsequently exists a large void of accessible research on specifics of propa...

  8. Polyphenols in Barringtonia racemosa and their protection against oxidation of LDL, serum and haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Ismail, Amin; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2014-03-01

    The polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots (leaves and stems) were explored. Two methods, freeze drying and air drying, for preparation of the shoots, were also compared. Freeze drying was better as air drying caused 5-41% reduction of polyphenols. Three phenolic acids and three flavonoids were identified, using UHPLC. The descending order of polyphenols in the leaves and stems was gallic acid>ellagic acid>quercetin>protocatechuic acid>rutin>kaempferol. In vitro antioxidant analyses were performed using biological samples. In the LDL oxidation assay, B. racemosa leaf extract (IC50=73.0μg/ml) was better than stem extract (IC50=226μg/ml) at inhibiting the formation of TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides. Similar trends were observed for serum and haemoglobin oxidation. B. racemosa leaf extract was better than its stem extract in delaying the time required to oxidise haemoglobin to methaemoglobin. The high polyphenolic content of B. racemosa shoots could have contributed towards their antioxidative effects. PMID:24176317

  9. Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2006-02-01

    The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20-1280 mgl(-1)), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye concentrations (20-80 mgl(-1)), an increase in the adsorbent dosage resulted in a higher removal percentage of the dye, but a lower amount of dye adsorbed per unit mass (q). The adsorption isotherm followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models within the temperature range employed in this work (18-70 degrees C). The highest maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) was obtained at 50 degrees C. The enthalpy of adsorption was estimated at 14.87 kJmol(-1) suggesting a chemical adsorption mechanism. PMID:16112338

  10. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  11. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOEpatents

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  12. Pollinator-mediated competition between two co-flowering Neotropical mangrove species, Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae) and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Landry, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Three ecological relationships are possible between co-flowering plant species; they may have no effect on one another, compete for pollination services, or facilitate one another by attracting more pollinators to the area. In this study, the pollinator-mediated relationship between two mangrove species with overlapping flowering phenologies was investigated in one south Florida community. Methods Pollinator observations were recorded between 0900 h and 1700 h during June and July, 2008–2010. Insect visitation rates to Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were estimated from 522 observation intervals of 10 min during three phenological time periods, when each species flowered alone and when they co-flowered. The number of timed intervals varied between years due to differences in flowering phenology, from four to 42 for A. germinans and from nine to 94 for L. racemosa. Key Results Avicennia germinans began flowering first in all years, and insect visitation rates were significantly greater to A. germinans than to L. racemosa (P<0·001). Flowers of both species received visits from bees, wasps, flies and butterflies; Apis mellifera was the most common floral visitor to both species. Visitation rates to L. racemosa increased significantly when A. germinans stopped flowering (P<0·001). However, there was no significant change in visitation rates to A. germinans after L. racemosa began flowering (P=0·628). Conclusions When they co-flowered, A. germinans outcompeted L. racemosa for pollinators. Laguncularia racemosa hermaphrodites self-pollinate autogamously when not visited by insects, so reduced visitation to L. racemosa flowers reduced the frequency of outcrossing and increased the frequency of selfing. Reduced outcrossing limits male reproductive success in this androdioecious species, which could lead to changes in the breeding system. The degree of overlap in flowering phenologies varied between years, so the effect on the mating

  13. Comparison of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Actaea racemosa L. and Actaea cordifolia DC.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Grażyna; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Zapała, Karolina; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Actaea racemosa L. is used as a component of drugs or dietary supplements to alleviate the menopause symptoms. Its biological activity is associated with the presence of phenolic compounds. In our work, the analysis of isoflavones and phenolic acids - caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid and isoferulic acid (iFA) - both free and bonded in two species of Actaea, was conducted using HPLC-PAD technique. Moreover, the antioxidant effect of extracts from different parts of the investigated plants was determined on the basis of DPPH assay. Significant variation of CA and iFA content was observed. The highest content of CA was found in A. racemosa, while Actaea cordifolia contained the highest amount of iFA. Isoflavones were not found in the investigated plants. The antioxidant activity assay showed the high free radical-scavenging ability of the extracts obtained from different parts of the plant. PMID:25427941

  14. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna; Karim, Alias A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the protective effects of sequential acetone extract of Ficus racemosa bark at two doses (FR250; 250 mg kg-1 and FR500; 500 mg kg-1 p.o.) against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Results: Doxorubicin administration resulted in significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total protein and glutathione concentrations, while increased (P ≤ 0.05) serum urea, creatinine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Extract pretreatment restored biochemical parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased serum creatinine levels by 22.5% and 44%, while serum urea levels were decreased by 30.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Extract pretreatment (500 mg kg-1) decreased TBARS and increased glutathione levels in the kidney and testis to control levels. These observations were substantiated by histopathological studies, wherein normal renal and testicular architecture was restored in FR500 group. Conclusion: Doxorubicin exposure results in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of F. racemosa stem bark extract offers significant renal and testicular protection by inhibiting lipidperoxidation-mediated through scavenging free radicals. PMID:23772108

  15. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Bolívar Balbás, Paulina; Juárez, Zaida Nelly; Sánchez Arreola, Eugenio; Hernández, Luis Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae). Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23843731

  16. Hypoglycemic activity of Ficus racemosa bark in combination with oral hypoglycemic drug in diabetic human.

    PubMed

    Gul-e-Rana; Karim, Sabiha; Khurhsid, Rukhshan; Saeed-ul-Hassan, Syed; Tariq, Imran; Sultana, Misbah; Rashid, Ahmad Junaid; Shah, Syed Haider; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs, used in indigenous medicines in crude forms for the management of diabetes mellitus, contain both the organic and inorganic constituents. The aim of the study was to find out the hypoglycemic effect of Ficus racemosa in a group of diabetic subjects taking oral hypoglycemic drug. Twenty five of each, male and female, diabetic patients, selected from Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan, taking oral hypoglycemic drug were included in this study and were given orally the extract (5 mL) of bark of Ficus racemosa (about 100 mg) two times for 15 days. Blood samples for estimation of blood glucose and parameters of liver and renal functions were estimated. It was observed that after taking the herb in combination with drug, blood glucose level (fasting and after breakfast) was markedly decreased in both male and female but significant difference was only observed in sugar level of males after 1.5 h after breakfast. To rule out herb toxicity, liver and renal functions tests of patients was also performed which were observed to be in normal range. Present investigation established a pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that Ficus racemosa is good anti-diabetic agent. PMID:24383328

  17. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work. PMID:26345026

  18. Batch and column studies of biosorption of heavy metals by Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Apiratikul, Ronbanchob; Pavasant, Prasert

    2008-05-01

    The biosorption of Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by a dried green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was investigated. The sorption kinetic data could be fitted to the pseudo second order kinetic model. The governing transport mechanisms in the sorption process were both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. Isotherm data followed the Sips isotherm model with the exponent of approximately unity suggesting that these biosorption could be described reasonably well with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum sorption capacities of the various metal components on C. lentillifera biomass could be prioritized in order from high to low as: Pb(II)>Cu(II)>Cd(II). The sorption energies obtained from the Dubinin-Radushkevich model for all sorption systems were in the range of 4-6 kJ mol(-1) indicating that a physical electrostatic force was potentially involved in the sorption process. Thomas model could well describe the breakthrough data from column experiments. Ca(II), Mg(II), and Mn(II) were the major ions released from the algal biomass during the sorption which revealed that ion exchange was one of the main sorption mechanisms. PMID:17698354

  19. Immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Caulerpa lentillifera on macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Reiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Caulerpa lentillifera by treating with water and then purified by size-exclusion chromatography. The purified polysaccharides, termed SP1, were found to be sulfated xylogalactans with a molecular mass of more than 100 kDa. Adding SP1 to murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner. NO was found by immunoblotting and RT-PCR analyses to be synthesized by an inducible NO synthase. SP1 caused the degradation of IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit p65 in macrophage cells. SP1 also increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). These results demonstrate that SP1 activated macrophage cells via both the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, SP1 increased the expression of various genes encoding cytokines, and the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells. These combined results show that SP1 immunostimulated the activity of macrophage cells. PMID:22451391

  20. [Harmful algae and health].

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Harri T

    2011-01-01

    Harmful algae are a worldwide problem. Phycotoxins is a general term for toxic compounds produced by harmful species of the phytoplankton. This review deals with the occurrence of harmful algae and phycotoxins in the Baltic Sea and other domestic waters, the ways of getting exposed to them, and their effects. Advice on how to avoid the exposure is provided. PMID:21834336

  1. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  2. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  3. Antiherpetic activities of sulfated polysaccharides from green algae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Kyoko; Maeda, Masaakira; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2004-09-01

    In order to evaluate the potency of novel antiviral drugs, 11 natural sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from 10 green algae ( Enteromorpha compressa, Monostroma nitidum, Caulerpa brachypus, C. okamurai, C. scapelliformis, Chaetomorpha crassa, C. spiralis, Codium adhaerens, C. fragille, and C. latum) and 4 synthetic sulfated xylans (SXs) prepared from the beta-(1,3)-xylan of C. brachypus, were assayed for anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Except for one from E. compressa, all SPs showed potent anti-HSV-1 activities with 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC (50)) of 0.38 - 8.5 microg/mL, while having low cytotoxicities with 50 % inhibitory concentrations of >2900 microg/mL. Anti-HSV-1 activities of SXs were dependent on their degrees of sulfation. To delineate the drug-sensitive phase, 4 polysaccharides, which showed potent anti-HSV-1 activities, were applied to time-of-addition experiments. Among the polysaccharides tested, 3 polysaccharides (SX4, SP4 from C. brachypus, and SP11 from C. latum) showed strong anti-HSV-1 activities with IC (50) of 6.0, 7.5, and 6.9 microg/mL, respectively, even when added to the medium 8 h post-infection. These experiments demonstrated that some sulfated polysaccharides not only inhibited the early stages of HSV-1 replication, such as virus binding to and penetration into host cells, but also interfered with late steps of virus replication. These results revealed that some sulfated polysaccharides from green algae should be promising candidates of antiviral agents which might act on different stages in the virus replication cycle. PMID:15386190

  4. Development of EST-SSR markers in Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongxian; Yuan, Yang; Fang, Xiaoting; Liu, Ying; Yang, Chao; Jin, Jianhua; Tan, Fengxiao; Huang, Yelin

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified and characterized to study the genetic diversity and structure of Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae). Methods and Results: Based on the transcriptome data of B. racemosa, 30 primer pairs were initially designed and tested, of which 15 were successfully amplified and displayed clear polymorphisms across the 43 individuals from three distant populations tested in the study. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven and the expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity per locus varied from 0 to 0.772 and from 0 to 0.933, respectively. Conclusions: The expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers described here will be useful for studying genetic diversity and structure of B. racemosa. Furthermore, all loci were successfully cross-amplified in B. asiatica and B. acutangula and will be of great value for genetic studies across this genus. PMID:26697277

  5. [Investigation and culture of microbial contaminants of Caulerpa lentillifera (Sea Grape)].

    PubMed

    Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Nakamura, Masaji; Iwanaga, Setsuko; Tominaga, Masaya; Ohno, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Caulerpa lentillifera is a kind of edible seaweed, known as 'sea grape' or 'green caviar'. It is used in fresh salads. However, it is sensitive to low temperature and osmotic pressure, and is easily spoilt by storage in a refrigerator or washing with tap water. That is the reason why it is difficult to prevent food poisoning, especially due to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In this study we investigated of marine bacteria and V. parahaemolyticus in C. lentillifera and cultured them in order to develop effective control of bacteria in commercial farms. The sixteen farms in the Okinawa Islands were investigated from August to September in 2006. A total of 176 samples were collected from eleven points during the cultivation processes and from the products. About 10(3) cfu/mL of marine bacteria were detected in the seawater used in the tank culture, but after cultivation of C. lentillifera the number had increased to about 10(6) cfu/mL. The number of marine bacteria in C. lentillifera did not change significantly through the process of planting to the final product (about 10(7) cfu/g). V. parahaemolyticus was detected in seawater from all processes and C. lentillifera was isolated from 56% of seawater, 25% of seed-stocks, and 18.8% of product samples, though but thermostable direct hemolysin gene was not detected from enrichment cultures or isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains. These results indicate that for prevention of food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in C. lentillifera, it is important to establish a suitable sterilization procedure for each process. PMID:18344653

  6. Cucurbitacins from Cayaponia racemosa: isolation and total assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Davina C; Assunção, João Carlos C; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q

    2007-05-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, 2beta,3beta,16alpha,20(R),25-pentahydroxy-9-methyl-19-norlanost-5-en-7,22-dione and 2beta,3beta,16alpha,20(R),25-pentahydroxy-9-methyl-19-norlanost-5-en-7,11,22-trione, were isolated from fruits of Cayaponia racemosa. The total (1)H and (13)C chemical shift assignment of these two closely related compounds is described, making use of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. PMID:17372957

  7. Isolation and characterisation of three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites from Symplocos racemosa.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umar; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Sara; Khan, Afsar; Ali, Mumtaz; Khan, Saleha Suleman

    2016-01-01

    Three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites were isolated from Symplocos racemosa, a small tree of family symplocaceae. The structures of compounds (1-3) were elucidated to be 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(ethoxymethyl)-8-propylanthracene-9,10-dione (1), 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-butylanthracene-9,10-dione (2) and 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-propyl anthracene-9,10-dione (3) using their spectral data, i.e. through IR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques including heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and correlation spectroscopy. PMID:26115076

  8. Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa is favorable on bone markers but neutral on an osteoblastic cell line.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel Angel; Pineda, Begoña; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Postmenopausal women treated with an isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa underwent a decrease in the urinary concentration of N-telopeptides, a marker of bone resorption, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation, at the third month of therapy. Serum from treated women did not modify the activity of alkaline phosphatase or the expression of three genes, runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2), alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin, when added to the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line. PMID:18555220

  9. Guanidine alkaloids and Pictet-Spengler adducts from black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

    PubMed

    Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C; Nikolic, Dejan; Chen, Shao-Nong; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2009-03-27

    As an extension of work on the recently discovered nitrogenous metabolites from Cimicifuga/Actaea species, three new guanidine alkaloids have been isolated and characterized from C. racemosa (syn. A. racemosa) roots. Of these, cyclo-cimipronidine (1) and cimipronidine methyl ester (2) are congeners of cimipronidine (3), whereas dopargine (5) is a derivative of dopamine. By employing NMR- and MS-guided chemodiversity profiling of a polar serotonergic (5-HT(7)) fraction, the guanidine alkaloids were initially detected in a clinical extract of black cohosh and were isolated along with a congener of salsolinol 4, 5, and 3-hydroxytyrosol 3-O-glucoside (7). The structures of 1, 2, and 5 were confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as LC-MS and HRMS spectroscopy. A plausible biosynthetic relationship may be inferred between the homoproline-analogue cimipronidines and the dopamine-derived Cimicifuga alkaloids. These strongly basic and frequently zwitterionic nitrogenous metabolites contribute considerable chemical diversity to the polar serotonergic fraction of black cohosh. PMID:19220011

  10. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints.

    PubMed

    Beer, A-M; Neff, A

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints. PMID:24062793

  11. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Beer, A.-M.; Neff, A.

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints. PMID:24062793

  12. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Huang, Huilian; Colson, Kimberly L.; Yuk, Jimmy; McCoy, Joe-Ann H.; Harbaugh Reynaud, Danica T.; Harrington, Peter B.; Fletcher, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa from a single source were distinguished from other Actaea species based on principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogies of flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry metabolic fingerprints. The chemometric results for flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry agreed well and showed similar agreement throughout the study. DNA sequencing using DNA sequence data from two independent gene regions confirmed the metabolic fingerprinting results. Differences were observed between A. racemosa samples from four different sources, although the variance within species was still significantly less than the variance between species. A model based on the combined A. racemosa samples from the four sources consistently permitted distinction between species. Additionally, the combined A. racemosa samples were distinguishable from commercial root samples and from commercial supplements in tablet, capsule, or liquid form. DNA sequencing verified the lack of authenticity of the commercial roots but was unsuccessful in characterizing many of the supplements due to the lack of available DNA. PMID:26692457

  13. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa).

    PubMed

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Huang, Huilian; Colson, Kimberly L; Yuk, Jimmy; McCoy, Joe-Ann H; Reynaud, Danica T Harbaugh; Harrington, Peter B; Fletcher, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa from a single source were distinguished from other Actaea species based on principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogies of flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry metabolic fingerprints. The chemometric results for flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry agreed well and showed similar agreement throughout the study. DNA sequencing using DNA sequence data from two independent gene regions confirmed the metabolic fingerprinting results. Differences were observed between A. racemosa samples from four different sources, although the variance within species was still significantly less than the variance between species. A model based on the combined A. racemosa samples from the four sources consistently permitted distinction between species. Additionally, the combined A. racemosa samples were distinguishable from commercial root samples and from commercial supplements in tablet, capsule, or liquid form. DNA sequencing verified the lack of authenticity of the commercial roots but was unsuccessful in characterizing many of the supplements due to the lack of available DNA. PMID:26692457

  14. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  15. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit Extracts in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Norliyana; Rani, Anis Najwa Abdul; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy. Objective: This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts toward human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and its antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Total antioxidant activities of extracts were assayed using 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals, total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin–Ciocalteu's reagent, respectively. Cytotoxic activity in vitro was investigated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: B. racemosa extract exhibited high antioxidant activities compared to H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay (inhibitory concentration [IC50] 15.26 ± 1.25 μg/mL) and ί-carotene bleaching assay (I% 98.13 ± 1.83%). B. racemosa also showed higher TPC (14.70 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g) and TFC (130 ± 1.18 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/g) compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g and 40.75 ± 1.15 mg QE/g, respectively). In MTT assay, B. racemosa extract also showed a higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 57.61 ± 2.24 μg/mL) compared to H. sabdariffa. Conclusion: The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known for oxidizing activities indicated an important role among the contents of these plants extract. B. racemosa methanol extract have shown potent cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7. Following these promising results, further fractionation of the plant extract is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for the development of potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use. SUMMARY The phenolic and flavonoid compounds were

  16. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated water using ethylenediamine-modified green seaweed (Caulerpa serrulata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Isaac W.; Ngila, J. Catherine

    The demand for clean water is on the increase as the population increases. One of the ways to address the water shortage is to treat the polluted water through removal of the contaminants. The use of adsorbents for pollutant removal is one of the promising methods. Seaweed is an aquatic plant and its sorption ability for selected metals in water was investigated in this study. We report the performance of the seaweed (Caulerpa serrulata) before and after modification with ethylenediamine (EDA), on adsorption of copper, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution. The adsorption capacities for Cu, Cd and Pb were 5.27 mg g-1, 2.12 mg g-1 and 2.16 mg g-1, respectively, with the EDA-modified seaweed, and 3.29 mg g-1, 4.57 mg g-1 and 1.06 mg g-1, with the unmodified weed, respectively. The pH for maximum adsorption was found to be within the range of pH 4-pH 6. In a separate investigation, it was found that 0.1 g of dried seaweed leached 20 mg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using 100 ml of distilled-deionised water. The resulting solution was green. The leaching phenomenon contributes to secondary pollution. Modification of the seaweed with EDA reduced the DOC content by half (50%) and also removed the green colouration. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorbent was able to take up to 95% of the metals (in synthetic standard solutions) in less than 10 min. The adsorbed metals were then stripped using a solution of 0.5 M HNO3 indicating that the adsorbent can be regenerated. In addition, the study revealed that modification improved the thermal stability of the adsorbent such that even when the temperature was raised to 1000 °C, more than 80% (compared to <50% for unmodified weed) of the modified adsorbent was not degraded, indicating that modification had a significant influence on the thermal stability of seaweed. The modified seaweed has been shown to have great potential for the removal of metals and DOC in polluted water. The modified adsorbent can therefore be applied

  17. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open. PMID:25516500

  18. Cimicifuga racemosa impairs fatty acid β-oxidation and induces oxidative stress in livers of ovariectomized rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Campos, Lilian Brites; Gilglioni, Eduardo Hideo; Garcia, Rosângela Fernandes; Brito, Márcia do Nascimento; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic doses of Cimicifuga racemosa on cardiovascular parameters and on liver lipid metabolism and redox status in an animal model of estrogen deficiency associated with hypertension, a condition that could make the liver more vulnerable to drug-induced injuries. Female Wistar rats were subjected to the surgical procedures of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and induction of renovascular hypertension (two-kidneys, one-clip; 2K1C). These animals (OVX + 2K1C) were treated with daily doses of a C. racemosa extract, using a dose that is similar to that recommended to postmenopausal women (0.6 mg/kg), over a period of 15 days. The results were compared to those of untreated OVX + 2K1C, OVX, and control rats. The treatment with C. racemosa caused a significant reduction in blood pressure. In the liver, treatment did not prevent the development of steatosis, and it reduced the mitochondrial and peroxisomal capacity to oxidize octanoyl-CoA compared to the untreated animals. In addition, C. racemosa caused numerous undesirable effects on the liver redox status: it increased the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, an event that was not accompanied by an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, and it induced a decrease in peroxisomal catalase activity. Although the reduced glutathione content had not been affected, a phenomenon that probably reflected the restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by C. racemosa, oxidative damage was evidenced by the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances found in the liver of treated animals. PMID:22684021

  19. Clocks in algae.

    PubMed

    Noordally, Zeenat B; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-01-20

    As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in other taxa have not been as widely applied to algae. We review results from seven species: the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ostreococcus tauri, and Acetabularia spp.; the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium spp.; the euglenozoa Euglena gracilis; and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The relative simplicity, experimental tractability, and ecological and evolutionary diversity of algal systems may now make them particularly useful in integrating quantitative data from "omic" technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with computational and mathematical methods. PMID:25379817

  20. Ecophysiological responses of three Mediterranean invasive seaweeds (Acrothamnion preissii, Lophocladia lallemandii and Caulerpa cylindracea) to experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Samperio-Ramos, Guillermo; Olsen, Ylva S; Tomas, Fiona; Marbà, Núria

    2015-07-15

    The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot for invasive species and projected Mediterranean warming might affect their future spreading. We experimentally examined ecophysiological responses to the temperature range 23-31 °C in three invasive seaweeds commonly found in the Mediterranean: Acrothamnion preissii, Caulerpa cylindracea and Lophocladia lallemandii. The warming range tested encompassed current and projected (for the end of 21st Century) maximum temperatures for the Mediterranean Sea. Optimal ecophysiological temperatures for A. preissii, C. cylindracea and L. lallemandii were 25 °C, 27 °C and 29 °C, respectively. Warming below the optimal temperatures enhanced RGR of all studied invasive seaweeds. Although sensitive, seaweed photosynthetic yield was less temperature-dependent than growth. Our results demonstrate that temperature is a key environmental parameter in regulating the ecophysiological performance of these invasive seaweeds and that Mediterranean warming conditions may affect their invasion trajectory. PMID:25986653

  1. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    PubMed

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain. PMID:8123711

  2. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates psychological and physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Yasue, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-01

    Dried rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), which are known as black cohosh, have been widely used as herbal dietary supplements to treat menopausal symptoms. The present study examined the effect of CR extracts on human psychological and physiological responses to acute stress induced by mental arithmetic tests, by measuring the subjective stress intensity, the brain-wave patterns according to electroencephalography, and the concentrations of salivary chromogranin-A and cortisol. The experiments were performed double-blind and their order was counterbalanced. Treatment with CR significantly attenuated the elevated subjective perception of stress and the increased salivary chromogranin-A levels compared with placebo treatment. CR extract also rapidly recovered the decrease in alpha waveband induced by performing the mental arithmetic task. We therefore propose that CR extracts might be suitable for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:22790213

  3. Alteration of the chemical composition of mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa) leaf litter fall by freeze damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, William L.; Bowles, Justin W.; Erickson, Amy A.; Stafford, Nate; Bell, Susan S.; Thomas, Melanie

    2006-06-01

    Resorption, the remobilization and subsequent transport of leaf constituents (e.g. N, C, and P) into the perennial structures of the plant prior to leaf abscission, may be interrupted or prevented by stressors that interfere with the normal course of leaf senescence. Mangroves that lie along the latitudinal extremes of their distribution are susceptible to freeze damage that may periodically disrupt the normal resorptive process. On January 24, 2003, the white mangroves ( Laguncularia racemosa) in a northern portion of Tampa Bay, Florida were exposed to freezing temperatures for 8 h. The leaves of these trees were noticeably withered by this freeze event. Over a four-month period following the freeze, we compared the subsequent rate of leaf litter production at this site to that of two, apparently undamaged, fringing mangrove forests in Tampa Bay. We also examined the carbon and nitrogen concentrations of the leaf litter from the litter traps at these three sites and compared it to that of green, yellow (nearly senescent), and freeze-damaged leaves hand-picked from the mangroves. A pronounced pulse of leaf litter fall (maximum: 7 g dw m -2 d -1) was found at the putatively freeze-damaged site but not at the two comparison sites. In addition, the leaf litter at the freeze-damaged site was richer in nitrogen and carbon, and had a lower C:N than litter collected at the comparison sites. Comparison of the elemental composition of this leaf litter with leaves hand-picked from the mangroves suggests that the freeze event killed the leaves of L. racemosa, interrupting the process of resorption. This perturbation to nutrient flow may have implications for mangrove forest structure and the entry of mangrove material into food webs.

  4. Absence of positive effect of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on fracture healing in osteopenic rodent model.

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Daub, Florian; Sehmisch, Stephan; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Tezval, Mohammed; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-12-01

    The healing of predominantly metaphyseal fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis is delayed and comparatively poor. Due to the potential side effects of HRT, natural alternatives are appealing. The aim of this study was to determine whether Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 improves metaphyseal fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone in rats. Thirty-three 12-week-old female rats developed severe osteopenia during 10 weeks after ovariectomy. After metaphyseal tibial-osteotomy and standardized T-plate-osteosynthesis, the healing periods in ovariectomized rats (C), 17-α-estradiol (E) and Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) supplemented diets were assessed for 35 days. Changes in callus morphology were evaluated qualitatively by biomechanical testing and quantitatively in microradiographies and fluorochrome-labeled histological sections. The CR-supplementation slightly improved callus quality and trabecular bone formation. It significantly enhanced the endosteal callus density compared to C group (Cl.Dn.e C: 59.08 ± 21.89, E: 45.95 ± 18.39, CR: 60.85 ± 18.66*), though most of the other morphological parameters examined showed no improvement. The time course of fracture healing did not change due to CR. Estrogen-supplementation enhanced the biomechanical properties of the fracture site. Trabecular bone was improved indicating the physiological endosteal healing process. The CR-supplementation did not exhibit positive effects in severe (senile) osteopenic fracture healing as seen in early (postmenopausal) osteoporosis in rats. Callus formation was slightly improved under CR. Estrogen improved fracture healing in severe osteopenic bone, while the extent of callus formation played a minor role. PMID:20564511

  5. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the phenological models for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kalvāns, Andis; Bitāne, Māra; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2015-02-01

    A historical phenological record and meteorological data of the period 1960-2009 are used to analyse the ability of seven phenological models to predict leaf unfolding and beginning of flowering for two tree species-silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa-in Latvia. Model stability is estimated performing multiple model fitting runs using half of the data for model training and the other half for evaluation. Correlation coefficient, mean absolute error and mean squared error are used to evaluate model performance. UniChill (a model using sigmoidal development rate and temperature relationship and taking into account the necessity for dormancy release) and DDcos (a simple degree-day model considering the diurnal temperature fluctuations) are found to be the best models for describing the considered spring phases. A strong collinearity between base temperature and required heat sum is found for several model fitting runs of the simple degree-day based models. Large variation of the model parameters between different model fitting runs in case of more complex models indicates similar collinearity and over-parameterization of these models. It is suggested that model performance can be improved by incorporating the resolved daily temperature fluctuations of the DDcos model into the framework of the more complex models (e.g. UniChill). The average base temperature, as found by DDcos model, for B. pendula leaf unfolding is 5.6 °C and for the start of the flowering 6.7 °C; for P. racemosa, the respective base temperatures are 3.2 °C and 3.4 °C. PMID:24789346

  6. Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Ahmed; Nafeh, Hanan

    2009-11-01

    In this prospective longitudinal clinical trial, 87 postmenopausal women receiving for 12 consecutive months a daily dose of 40 mg of a dry extract preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa (Klimadynon) for relief of vasomotor symptoms were followed up by evaluation of total hepatic blood flow, assessed by color Doppler ultrasound, as well as prothrombin time and concentration, serum albumin, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Because no significant changes in total hepatic blood flow or any of the liver functions tested were reported, we concluded that use of C. racemosa for 1 year by healthy postmenopausal women without evidence of liver disease does not seem to influence the liver. PMID:19539907

  7. Arsoniumphospholipid in algae*

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Robert V.; Mumma, R. O.; Benson, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A novel phospholipid containing arsenic was formed by all marine algae cultured in [74As]arsenate. Components of the labeled algal extracts readily separated by two-dimensional paper radiochromatography. Base-catalyzed deacylation of the major lipid yielded a phosphodiester identical to one of the two major water-soluble compounds. Acid or enzymic hydrolysis of the phosphodiester produced a product identified as trimethylarsoniumalactic acid. The structure of the phospholipid therefore is O-phosphatidyltrimethylarsoniumlactic acid. Detoxication of arsenate by marine algae leads to accumulation of the arsoniumphospholipid as a major reservoir for arsenic. Its degradation to trimethylarsoniumbetaine, dimethylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, and arsenate in marine food chains and its metabolism in human beings are of considerable interest. Images PMID:16592562

  8. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  9. Adaptive plasticity of Laguncularia racemosa in response to different environmental conditions: integrating chemical and biological data by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    da Souza, Iara; Bonomo, Marina Marques; Morozesk, Mariana; Rocha, Lívia Dorsch; Duarte, Ian Drumond; Furlan, Larissa Maria; Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are dynamic environments under constant influence of anthropic contaminants. The correlation between environmental contamination levels and possible changes in the morphology of plants, evaluated by multivariate statistics helps to highlight matching between these variables. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of metals and metalloids in roots and leaves as well as the changes induced in both anatomy and histochemistry of roots of Laguncularia racemosa inhabiting two estuaries of Espírito Santo (Brazil) with different pollution degrees. The analysis of 14 elements in interstitial water, sediments and plants followed by multivariate statistics, allowed the differentiation of studied sites, showing good match between levels of elements in the environment with the corresponding in plants. L. racemosa showed variations in their root anatomy in different collection areas, with highest values of cortex/vascular cylinder ratio, periderm thickness and air gap area in Vitória Bay, the most polluted sampling area. These three parameters were also important to differentiate the mangrove areas by linear discriminant analysis. The development stage of aerenchyma in roots reflected the oxygen availability in the water, being found a negative correlation between these variables. The combined use of chemical and biological analyses responded quite well to different pollution scenarios, matching morphological responses to physical and chemical parameters, measured at different partitions within the estuary. Thus, L. racemosa can be confirmed as a reliable sentinel plant for biomonitoring of estuaries impacted by anthropic pollution. PMID:24445776

  10. One new and six known triterpene xylosides from Cimicifuga racemosa: FT-IR, Raman and NMR studies and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Marta K.; Jamróz, Michał H.; Cz. Dobrowolski, Jan; Gliński, Jan A.; Gleńsk, Michał

    One new and six known triterpene xylosides were isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh, Actaea racemosa). The structure of a new compound, designated as isocimipodocarpaside (1), was established to be (24S)-3β-hydroxy-24,25-oxiirane-16,23-dione-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanost-1(10),7(8),9(11)-trien 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, by means of 1H and 13C NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopies and Mass Spectrometry. The six known compounds are: 23-epi-26-deoxycimicifugoside (2), 23-epi-26-deoxyactein (3), 25-anhydrocimigenol xyloside (4), 23-O-acetylshengmanol xyloside (5), 25-O-acetylcimigenol xyloside (6) and 3'-O-acetylcimicifugoside H-1 (7). On the basis of NMR data supported by DFT calculations of NMR shielding constants of (2), its structure, previously described as 26-deoxycimicifugoside was corrected and determined as 23-epi-26-deoxycimicifugoside. The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of the studied compounds (1)-(7) provided data on their solid-state interactions. The IR and Raman spectra in the Cdbnd O, Cdbnd C, and Csbnd H stretching vibration regions clearly discriminate different triterpenes found in C. racemosa.

  11. One new and six known triterpene xylosides from Cimicifuga racemosa: FT-IR, Raman and NMR studies and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Jamróz, Marta K; Jamróz, Michał H; Cz Dobrowolski, Jan; Gliński, Jan A; Gleńsk, Michał

    2012-07-01

    One new and six known triterpene xylosides were isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh, Actaea racemosa). The structure of a new compound, designated as isocimipodocarpaside (1), was established to be (24S)-3β-hydroxy-24,25-oxiirane-16,23-dione-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanost-1(10),7(8),9(11)-trien 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, by means of (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopies and Mass Spectrometry. The six known compounds are: 23-epi-26-deoxycimicifugoside (2), 23-epi-26-deoxyactein (3), 25-anhydrocimigenol xyloside (4), 23-O-acetylshengmanol xyloside (5), 25-O-acetylcimigenol xyloside (6) and 3'-O-acetylcimicifugoside H-1 (7). On the basis of NMR data supported by DFT calculations of NMR shielding constants of (2), its structure, previously described as 26-deoxycimicifugoside was corrected and determined as 23-epi-26-deoxycimicifugoside. The (13)C CPMAS NMR spectra of the studied compounds (1)-(7) provided data on their solid-state interactions. The IR and Raman spectra in the CO, CC, and CH stretching vibration regions clearly discriminate different triterpenes found in C. racemosa. PMID:22465763

  12. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Firenzuoli, Fabio; Gori, Luigi; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500-1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107) and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107) to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance. PMID:21660145

  13. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    PubMed

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples. PMID:20819367

  14. Studies on the cytotoxicity of cucurbitacins isolated from Cayaponia racemosa (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Dantas, Ivana Nogueira Fernandes; Gadelha, Gardenia Carmen Militão; Chaves, Davina Camelo; Monte, Francisco José Queiroz; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras

    2006-01-01

    The cytotoxic potential of three cucurbitacins, 2,3,16,20(R),25-pentahydroxy-11,22-dioxo-cucurbita-5-en (cucurbitacin P, 1), 2,3,16,20(R),25-pentahydroxy-22-oxocucurbita-5-en (2) and 2,3,16,20(R),25-pentahydroxy-22-oxocucurbita-5,23(E)-diene (deacetylpicracin, 3), obtained from Cayaponia racemosa was evaluated as their ability to induce brine shrimp lethality, to inhibit the development of sea urchin eggs and tumor cell proliferation, and to lysis mouse erythrocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 were highly toxic with LC50 of (29.6+/-.1) (56.8) and (38.8 +/-.0) (76.6) micro/mL (umicro), respectively, while compound 3 was not effective at the tested concentrations. All tested compounds possessed an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of tumor cell lines, compound 1 being the most active, followed by 2 and 3. Nevertheless, no hemolytic activity or inhibition of the development of sea urchin eggs was observed for these compounds. PMID:17137107

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of Symplocos racemosa bark on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wakchaure, Dhananjay; Jain, Dilpesh; Singhai, Abhay Kumar; Somani, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) bark on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. CCl4 with olive oil (1 : 1) (0.2 ml/kg, i.p.) was administered for ten days to induce hepatotoxicity. EESR (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.) were administered concomitantly for fourteen days. The degree of hepatoprotection was measured using serum transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin, and total protein levels. Metabolic function of the liver was evaluated by thiopentone-induced sleeping time. Antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring liver malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels. Histopathological changes of liver sample were also observed. Significant hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 in experimental animals. EESR treatment showed significant dose-dependent restoration of serum enzymes, bilirubin, albumin, total proteins, and antioxidant levels. Improvements in hepatoprotection and morphological and histopathological changes were also observed in the EESR treated rats. It was therefore concluded that EESR bark is an effective hepatoprotective agent in CCl4-induced hepatic damage, and has potential clinical applications for treatment of liver diseases. PMID:22022156

  16. Evaluation of Potential Thrombin Inhibitors from the White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Caroline Fabri Bittencourt; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; Belchor, Mariana Novo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Pena; Pinho, Marcus Vinícius Terashima; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the effects of methanol (MeOH) and hydroalcoholic (HA) extracts and their respective partition phases obtained from white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.) leaves on human thrombin activity. Among the extracts and phases tested, only the ethyl acetate and butanolic partitions significantly inhibited human thrombin activity and the coagulation of plasma in the presence of this enzyme. Chromatographic analyses of the thrombin samples incubated with these phases revealed that different compounds were able to interact with thrombin. The butanolic phase of the MeOH extract had the most potent inhibitory effects, reducing enzymatic activity and thrombin-induced plasma coagulation. Two glycosylated flavonoids in this partition were identified as the most potent inhibitors of human thrombin activity, namely quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (QAra) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Qn). Chromatographic analyses of thrombin samples incubated with these flavonoids demonstrated the chemical modification of this enzyme, suggesting that the MeOH extract contained other compounds that both induced structural changes in thrombin and diminished its activity. In this article, we show that despite the near absence of the medical use of mangrove compounds, this plant contains natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26197325

  17. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. and Chemical Content.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Khaled; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Methanol 70% extract of Bauhinia racemosa aerial parts was tested for antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract was determined. The results have showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and also it was highly active against Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections. The extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content while it has shown a lower value of oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Phytochemical analysis has shown that it has interesting phytochemical bioconstituents, include flavonoids, tannins and others, and the deep phytochemical study results in the isolation of methyl gallate, gallic, kaempferol, quercetin, querection 3-O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-β- glucoside, querection-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin). All compounds were identified by different spectroscopic analyses (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). PMID:25276210

  18. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  19. Effect of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa) on Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nahaee, Jila; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bayatipayan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. Conclusion:According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25276716

  20. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates immobilization stress-induced reactions.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Watanabe, Kazuki; Yasue, Masaaki; Sami, Manabu; Kitagawa, Yasushi; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Dried rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), known as black cohosh, have been widely used as a herbal dietary supplement in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Here we used experimental mouse stress models to investigate the role of anti-stress food factors, and found that a CR extract had stress-relieving effects. A single oral administration of CR extract (1,000 mg/kg) significantly attenuated plasma corticosterone and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels that had increased as a result of enforced immobilization. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CR extract resulted in the isolation of 10 triterpenes, among which actein, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, and cimiracemoside F (100 mg/kg, per os) were shown to contribute to the anti-stress effects. Furthermore, the CR extract significantly prevented the development of water immersion stress-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. We propose that the CR extract might be suitable for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:22428232

  1. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V R; Janardhanan, K

    1994-12-01

    Two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. viz., Ayyanarkoil Forest and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary, were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude proteins, crude lipids, ash and nitrogen free extractives constituted 19.84%, 9.52%, 3.31% and 60.65%, respectively in Ayyanarkoil Forest germplasm; whereas, in Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary germplasm they constituted 19.31%, 8.94%, 3.81% and 61.30%, respectively. The caloric values were found to be 407.64 KCal (Ayyanarkoil Forest) and 402.90 KCal (Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary) germplasms. Essential amino acids like isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and lysine were found to be high in the seed proteins of both the germplasms. The fatty acids, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, were found to be relatively higher in the seed lipids of both the germplasms. Both the germplasms seemed to be a rich source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and iron. Antinutritional substances like total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA and phytohaemagglutinating activity also were investigated. PMID:7716120

  2. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  3. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  4. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  5. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and estrogen on metaphyseal fracture healing in the early stage of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kolios, Leila; Schumann, Jacob; Sehmisch, Stephan; Rack, Thomas; Tezval, Mohammed; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Stuermer, Ewa Klara

    2010-06-01

    Osteoporosis and its accompanying, predominantly metaphyseal, fractures are a major health problem. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and estrogen positively influence osteoporotic bone. Both substances may improve fracture healing in early osteoporosis as well. In 48 twelve-week-old ovariectomized or, respectively, sham-operated (SHAM) rats, a standardized metaphyseal tibia osteotomy with bridging T-plate fixation was performed. During the healing process of 35 days, rats received soy-free (SHAM, osteopenic C), estrogen- (E) or Cimicifuga racemosa- (CR) supplemented diets. After sacrifice, the callus formation was analyzed with regard to biomechanical quality, morphology, quantity, time course of new bone built and gene expression. CR induced a high rate of metaphyseal callus formation. The biomechanical properties and the amount of new callus formation indicated that fracture healing was still in progress. Therefore, gene expression of osteoblasts was comparatively high. Body weight and the trabecular structure were influenced little by CR. Estrogen improved the biomechanical properties of the callus. Resistance to microfracturing was significantly enhanced in the E group and even superior to SHAM. Remodeling of the callus formation had already begun. The trabecular network and the typical endosteal fracture healing were especially improved. Osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture healing was improved by estrogen more than by Cimicifuga racemosa. The process of fracture healing occurred nearly physiologically. The generation of callus formation was supported by Cimicifuga racemosa as well, but the five-week duration of application was too short for Cimicifuga racemosa to show its complete potential. Already-initiated Cimicifuga racemosa therapy for menopausal symptoms could be continued during fracture healing without hesitation. PMID:20104444

  6. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  7. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the degree-day method for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitāne, Māra; Kalvans, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2013-04-01

    A phenological and meteorological data series for period 1960-2009 were used to evaluate the usefulness of the degree-day approach for forecasting beginning of leaf unfolding and flowering for two tree species - silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa in Latvia (Kalvane et al, 2009). The degree days - sum of the active temperatures accumulated after the winter calm period - were calculated for a range of base temperatures (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10oC). The results were compared to the timing of the phenological events observed at eight stations in order to evaluate year-to-year as well as regional variations. Different base temperatures gave surprisingly similar results. The most appropriate threshold temperatures was found to be +7° C for both the budburst and flowering of silver birch, +3oC for the budburst of bird cherry and +5oC for flowering of bird cherry. Giving the most appropriate estimated base temperatures, it is found that the budburst of the Betula pendula takes place when 70 degree-days after the winter calm is accumulated and the flowering takes place when 85 degree days are accumulated. The respective degree day values for the Padus racemosa are 117 and 164. The conclusions should be considered as indicative because the exact locations of the phenological observations originating from the network of the volunteers are not known exactly. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309 and grant No. 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Key words: phenology, degree day, Betula pendula, Padus racemosa, Latvia References: Kalvane, G., Romanovskaja, D., Briede, A., Baksiene, E. 2009. Influence of the climate change to the phenological changes in Latvia and Lithuania. Climate Research. Vol. 39, 209-219.

  8. Effects of partial throughfall exclusion on the phenology of Coussarea racemosa (Rubiaceae) in an east-central Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo; Ray, David; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Curran, Lisa M; Oliveira, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Severe droughts may alter the reproductive phenology of tropical tree species, but our understanding of these effects has been hampered by confounded variation in drought, light and other factors during natural drought events. We used a large-scale experimental reduction of throughfall in an eastern-central Amazon forest to study the phenological response to drought of an abundant subcanopy tree, Coussarea racemosa. We hypothesized that drought would alter the production and the timing of reproduction, as well as the number of viable fruits. The study system comprised two 1-ha plots in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil: a dry plot where 50% of incoming precipitation (80% throughfall) was diverted from the soil during the six-month wet season beginning in January 2000, and a wet plot that received natural rainfall inputs. Fruit production of C. racemosa was quantified every 15 days using 100 litter traps (0.5 m(2)) in each plot. The production of new leaves and flowers was recorded monthly for C. racemosa individuals. Soil water, pre-dawn leaf water potential and solar radiation were measured to help interpret phenological patterns. Over the approximately 3.5-year period (April 2000 through December 2003), total fruit production remained similar between plots, declining by 12%. In 2003, production was four times higher in both plots than in previous years. In the dry plot, fruit fall shifted 40 and 60 days later into the dry season in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Total fruit fall dry mass production was variable across the study period. Foliage and flower production coincided with peak irradiance early in the dry season until delays in flowering appeared in the dry plot in 2002 and 2003. Plant water stress, through its influence on leaf developmental processes and, perhaps, inhibition of photosynthesis, appears to have altered both the timing of fruit fall and the quality and number of seeds produced. PMID:16955290

  9. Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.

    PubMed

    Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

    2012-11-01

    In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

  10. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  11. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    PubMed

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  12. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  13. Phytochemistry of Cimicifugic Acids and Associated Bases in Cimicifuga racemosa Root Extracts

    PubMed Central

    GÖdecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.; Van Breemen, Richard B.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Objective Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. Methodology A new 5-HT7 bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new 2-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by 1H NMR using a structure based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. Results A new CA was characterized. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT7 ligand, Nω–methylserotonin. Conclusion This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of Nω–methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. PMID:19140115

  14. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the phenological models for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Bitāne, Māra; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2015-02-01

    A historical phenological record and meteorological data of the period 1960-2009 are used to analyse the ability of seven phenological models to predict leaf unfolding and beginning of flowering for two tree species—silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa—in Latvia. Model stability is estimated performing multiple model fitting runs using half of the data for model training and the other half for evaluation. Correlation coefficient, mean absolute error and mean squared error are used to evaluate model performance. UniChill (a model using sigmoidal development rate and temperature relationship and taking into account the necessity for dormancy release) and DDcos (a simple degree-day model considering the diurnal temperature fluctuations) are found to be the best models for describing the considered spring phases. A strong collinearity between base temperature and required heat sum is found for several model fitting runs of the simple degree-day based models. Large variation of the model parameters between different model fitting runs in case of more complex models indicates similar collinearity and over-parameterization of these models. It is suggested that model performance can be improved by incorporating the resolved daily temperature fluctuations of the DDcos model into the framework of the more complex models (e.g. UniChill). The average base temperature, as found by DDcos model, for B. pendula leaf unfolding is 5.6 °C and for the start of the flowering 6.7 °C; for P. racemosa, the respective base temperatures are 3.2 °C and 3.4 °C.

  15. The Cimicifuga racemosa special extract BNO 1055 prevents hot flashes in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Priya; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-09-01

    Hot flashes are a disorder of thermoregulation due to the lack of estrogens and are the most common and characteristic climacteric complaint. Hormone replacement therapy is the gold standard treatment but now its use is limited due to several side effects. Need therefore arises to search for non-estrogenic alternatives. It is well established that extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) ease climacteric complaints but solid animal experimental data supporting such effects are not available. The availability of sensitive transponders which record subcutaneous temperature continuously enables nowadays experiments in rats to establish whether they have hot flashes following ovariectomy (Seidlova-Wuttke et al. 2003) and if so, whether they can be influenced by the extract of CR BNO 1055. Intact Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were acclimatized and their subcutaneous body temperature was measured in 5 min intervals and mean values from 3h recordings were calculated. Thereafter, the rats were ovx and fed either with soy free (sf) or CR BNO 1055 (25 mg/animal/day) food. Temperature was recorded again after acute and sub-acute application of CR. In individual intact animals temperature was stable over the 3h recording period. Following ovx temperature pulses appeared with peaks occurring every 20-40 min. These fluctuations were not seen in CR BNO 1055 treated animals resulting in significantly higher mean temperatures in ovx in comparison to intact or ovx CR BNO treated rats. This reduction of hot flashes by BNO 1055 outlasted the experimental period of 3 weeks. These results suggest that the ovx rats and the new temperature-sensitive device may be useful for the study of hot flashes. Furthermore the results prove that the CR BNO 1055 exerts hot flash reducing effects. PMID:20696560

  16. Influence of particle size and salinity on adsorption of basic dyes by agricultural waste: dried seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).

    PubMed

    Punjongharn, Pimol; Meevasana, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2008-01-01

    Green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have reasonable adsorption capacity for basic dyes, Astrazon Blue FGRL (AB), Astrazon Red GTLN (AR), and Astrazon Golden Yellow GL-E (AY). The initial dye concentration was in the range of 100-1,800 mg/L. The dried algal sorbent was ground and sieved into 3 sizes: S (0.1-0.84 mm), M (0.84-2.0 mm), and L sizes (larger than 2.0 mm). For all conditions examined in this work (at 25 degrees C in batch systems), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second order kinetic model where the rate constant, k2, decreased as the sorbent size increased for all dyes. The adsorption isotherms followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Among three sorbent sizes, S size gave the highest adsorption capacity followed by M and L sizes. A reduction of sorbent size increased the specific surface area for mass transfer, and also increased the total pore volume, thus providing more active sites for adsorption. The adsorption of AB was adversely influenced by the protonation of algal surface at low pH. On the other hand, the adsorption of AR and AY could be due to weak electrostatic interaction, which was not significantly affected by pH. Increasing salinity of the system caused a decrease in adsorption capacity possibly due to the competition between Na+ and the dye cations for the binding sites on algal surface. Moreover, an increase in salinity generated a compressed electrical double layer on the algal surface which exerted repulsive force, retarding the adsorption of positive charged molecules such as the basic dyes. PMID:18763573

  17. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  18. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  19. Cambrian calcareous algae and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinina, Veronica A.; Terleev, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Individual calcareous algae were known in Riphean. Their mass distribution is connected to the beginning of Cambrian. Despite of a long history of study, the nature of this group long time remained not clear. The new unique finds of algae from East Sayan region have shown, that primary carbonate thallus disappeared in the process of fossilization, and after it the calcareous cover formed by association of bacteria and cyanobacteria only.

  20. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  1. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE) and stem (BSE) from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80%) at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage. PMID:26839752

  2. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE) and stem (BSE) from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80%) at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage. PMID:26839752

  3. Metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin, a serotonergic constituent of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa, L. (Nutt.)), by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Dejan; Li, Jinghu; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-12-01

    The roots/rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L. (Nutt.) (syn. Actaea racemosa L.) are a popular dietary supplements among women for management of menopausal symptoms. Although not estrogenic, Nω -methylserotonin has been identified in black cohosh as a potent agonist of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. In the present study, in vitro metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin was investigated to gain insights into aspects of the bioavailability of this compound. The major metabolic pathway was determined to be conversion into 5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde catalyzed by the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). 5-Hydroxyindole acetaldehyde could be further oxidized to form 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid by the action of microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase or reduced to 5-hydroxy tryptophol by the action of aldehyde reductase. The cytochrome P450 enzymes had only a minor role in the metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin and then only when MAO-A was inhibited. In many aspects, the metabolism of Nω -methylserotonin was similar to the metabolism of serotonin, suggesting that this compound is unlikely to elicit CNS effects due to rapid metabolism by the widely distributed MAO-A. PMID:24817649

  4. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  5. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Methods Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. Key Results The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. Conclusions It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass

  6. Substitution and phase shift within the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows of NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montefalcone, M.; Morri, C.; Peirano, A.; Albertelli, G.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the conservation status and ecosystem substitution in six Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in 2002 along 300 km of the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). We studied the meadows by scuba transects and we compared the meadows state of health through in situ shoot density counts and computing the Conservation Index (CI), the latter measuring the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live P. oceanica. Both measures evidenced a generalised state of regression for most of the six meadows. We also reported the occurrence, within the meadows, of the other common Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, the Mediterranean green alga Caulerpa prolifera, and the invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. We measured the replacement of P. oceanica by these species using the Substitution Index (SI), related to the proportional cover of each substitutes. These were ranked in order of their colonisation potential with respect to P. oceanica. We identified and measured a community "phase shift" occurring within the Mediterranean seagrass meadows using a combined index, the Phase-Shift Index (PSI). The analysis of the three environmental indices (CI, SI and PSI) at regional scale allowed to introduce three "regional" ordinal scales to classify the conservation status, the degree of substitution and the level of phase shift in P. oceanica meadows.

  7. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  8. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  9. Deoxyactein Isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2013-06-01

    Deoxyactein is one of the major constituents isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of deoxyactein on antimycin A (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to antimycin A caused significant cell viability loss, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) elevation and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with deoxyactein prior to antimycin A exposure significantly reduced antimycin A-induced cell damage by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, [Ca(2+) ]i elevation and oxidative stress. Moreover, deoxyactein increased the activation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt (protein kinase B) and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) inhibited by antimycin A. All these data indicate that deoxyactein may reduce or prevent osteoblasts degeneration in osteoporosis or other degenerative disorders. PMID:22180388

  10. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms. PMID:25793872

  11. Aqueous extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa and phenolcarboxylic constituents inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Diethart; Woehs, Florian; Svoboda, Martin; Thalhammer, Theresia; Chiba, Peter; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) is commonly used in traditional medicines as treatment for menopausal symptoms and as an antiinflammatory remedy. To clarify the mechanism of action and active principle for the antiinflammatory action, the effects of aqueous C. racemosa root extracts (CRE) and its major constituents on the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and the chemokine IL-8 were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood of healthy volunteers. CRE (3 microg/microL and 6 microg/microL) reduced LPS-induced release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and almost completely blocked release of IFN-gamma into the plasma supernatant. Except for IFN-gamma, these effects were attenuated at longer incubation periods. IL-8 secretion was stimulated by CRE. As shown by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, effects on cytokines were based on preceding changes in mRNA levels except for IL-8. According to their content in CRE, the phenolcarboxylic compounds caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid, as well as the triterpene glycosides 23-epi-26-deoxyactein and cimigenol-3-O-xyloside, were tested at representative concentrations. Among these, isoferulic acid was the prominent active principle in CRE, responsible for the observed inhibition of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, but not for IL-8 stimulation. The effect of this compound may explain the antiinflammatory activities of CRE and its beneficial actions in rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:19935904

  12. A Comparison of the Effects of Estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the Lacrimal Gland and Submandibular Gland in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups—a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms. PMID:25793872

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  3. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  4. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  5. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  6. Gene identification in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.): expressed sequence tag profiling and genetic screening yields candidate genes for production of bioactive secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Spiering, Martin J; Urban, Lori A; Nuss, Donald L; Gopalan, Vivek; Stoltzfus, Arlin; Eisenstein, Edward

    2011-04-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa, Nutt., Ranunculaceae) is a popular herb used for relieving menopausal discomforts. A variety of secondary metabolites, including triterpenoids, phenolic dimers, and serotonin derivatives have been associated with its biological activity, but the genes and metabolic pathways as well as the tissue distribution of their production in this plant are unknown. A gene discovery effort was initiated in A. racemosa by partial sequencing of cDNA libraries constructed from young leaf, rhizome, and root tissues. In total, 2,066 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 1,590 unique genes (unigenes). Most of the unigenes were predicted to encode primary metabolism genes, but about 70 were identified as putative secondary metabolism genes. Several of these candidates were analyzed further and full-length cDNA and genomic sequences for a putative 2,3 oxidosqualene cyclase (CAS1) and two BAHD-type acyltransferases (ACT1 and HCT1) were obtained. Homology-based PCR screening for the central gene in plant serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), identified two TDC-related sequences in A. racemosa. CAS1, ACT1, and HCT1 were expressed in most plant tissues, whereas expression of TDC genes was detected only sporadically in immature flower heads and some very young leaf tissues. The cDNA libraries described and assorted genes identified provide initial insight into gene content and diversity in black cohosh, and provide tools and resources for detailed investigations of secondary metabolite genes and enzymes in this important medicinal plant. PMID:21188383

  7. Consumer Depletion Alters Seagrass Resistance to an Invasive Macroalga

    PubMed Central

    Caronni, Sarah; Calabretti, Chiara; Delaria, Maria Anna; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Navone, Augusto; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Few field studies have investigated how changes at one trophic level can affect the invasibility of other trophic levels. We examined the hypothesis that the spread of an introduced alga in disturbed seagrass beds with degraded canopies depends on the depletion of large consumers. We mimicked the degradation of seagrass canopies by clipping shoot density and reducing leaf length, simulating natural and anthropogenic stressors such as fish overgrazing and water quality. Caulerpa racemosa was transplanted into each plot and large consumers were excluded from half of them using cages. Potential cage artifacts were assessed by measuring irradiance, scouring by leaf movement, water flow, and sedimentation. Algal invasion of the seagrass bed differed based on the size of consumers. The alga had higher cover and size under the cages, where the seagrass was characterized by reduced shoot density and canopy height. Furthermore, canopy height had a significant effect depending on canopy density. The alteration of seagrass canopies increased the spread of C. racemosa only when large consumers were absent. Our results suggest that protecting declining habitats and/or restoring fish populations will limit the expansion of C. racemosa. Because MPAs also enhance the abundance and size of fish consuming seagrass they can indirectly promote algal invasion. The effects of MPAs on invasive species are context dependent and require balancing opposing forces, such as the conservation of seagrass canopy structure and the protection of fish grazing the seagrass. PMID:25723466

  8. Macroalgal assemblages of disturbed coastal detritic bottoms subject to invasive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Judith C.; Verlaque, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Characteristic flora and fauna that are highly sensitive to disturbances colonize coastal detritic bottoms in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, a comparison of the assemblage composition and colonization by invasive macroalgae was made between two coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages, one dominated by rhodoliths (free-living non-geniculate Corallinales) and the other dominated by fleshy algae, in an area that has been exposed to important levels of anthropogenic disturbance, mainly pollution (including changed sedimentation regimes) in the recent past (bay of Marseilles, France). In comparison with less strongly impacted Mediterranean regions, the macrophyte assemblages in the bay of Marseilles were characteristic in terms of species identity and richness of coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages. However, extremely low species abundance (cover) was observed. As far as invasive species were concerned, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea was only abundant in the rhodolith assemblage whereas the two invasive Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata and Womersleyella setacea were mainly found in the fleshy algae assemblage. The seasonality observed in the Rhodolith assemblage seemed to be related to the development of C. racemosa var. cylindracea and did not follow the typical pattern of other Mediterranean assemblages. This study represents the first study of coastal detritic assemblages invaded by C. racemosa var. cylindracea.

  9. Consumer depletion alters seagrass resistance to an invasive macroalga.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Sarah; Calabretti, Chiara; Delaria, Maria Anna; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Navone, Augusto; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Few field studies have investigated how changes at one trophic level can affect the invasibility of other trophic levels. We examined the hypothesis that the spread of an introduced alga in disturbed seagrass beds with degraded canopies depends on the depletion of large consumers. We mimicked the degradation of seagrass canopies by clipping shoot density and reducing leaf length, simulating natural and anthropogenic stressors such as fish overgrazing and water quality. Caulerpa racemosa was transplanted into each plot and large consumers were excluded from half of them using cages. Potential cage artifacts were assessed by measuring irradiance, scouring by leaf movement, water flow, and sedimentation. Algal invasion of the seagrass bed differed based on the size of consumers. The alga had higher cover and size under the cages, where the seagrass was characterized by reduced shoot density and canopy height. Furthermore, canopy height had a significant effect depending on canopy density. The alteration of seagrass canopies increased the spread of C. racemosa only when large consumers were absent. Our results suggest that protecting declining habitats and/or restoring fish populations will limit the expansion of C. racemosa. Because MPAs also enhance the abundance and size of fish consuming seagrass they can indirectly promote algal invasion. The effects of MPAs on invasive species are context dependent and require balancing opposing forces, such as the conservation of seagrass canopy structure and the protection of fish grazing the seagrass. PMID:25723466

  10. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  11. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. PMID:24845347

  12. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  13. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  14. A cycloartane glycoside derived from Actaea racemosa L. modulates GABAA receptors and induces pronounced sedation in mice.

    PubMed

    Strommer, Barbara; Khom, Sophia; Kastenberger, Iris; Cicek, Serhat Sezai; Stuppner, Hermann; Schwarzer, Christoph; Hering, Steffen

    2014-11-01

    23-O-Acetylshengmanol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (Ac-SM) isolated from Actaea racemosa L.-an herbal remedy for the treatment of mild menopausal disorders-has been recently identified as a novel efficacious modulator of GABAA receptors composed of α1-, β2-, and γ2S-subunits. In the present study, we analyzed a potential subunit-selective modulation of GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) at GABA concentrations eliciting 3-8% of the maximal GABA response (EC3-8) through nine GABAA receptor isoforms expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by Ac-SM with two-microelectrode voltage clamp and behavioral effects 30 minutes after intraperitoneal application in a mouse model. Efficacy of IGABA enhancement by Ac-SM displayed a mild α-subunit dependence with α2β2γ2S (maximal IGABA potentiation [Emax] = 1454 ± 97%) and α5β2γ2S (Emax = 1408 ± 87%) receptors being most efficaciously modulated, followed by slightly weaker IGABA enhancement through α1β2γ2S (Emax = 1187 ± 166%), α3β2γ2S (Emax = 1174 ± 218%), and α6β2γ2S (Emax = 1171 ± 274%) receptors and less pronounced effects on receptors composed of α4β2γ2S (Emax = 752 ± 53%) subunits, whereas potency was not affected by the subunit composition (EC50 values ranging from α1β2γ2S = 35.4 ± 12.3 µM to α5β2γ2S = 50.9 ± 11.8 µM). Replacing β2- with β1- or β3-subunits as well as omitting the γ2S-subunit affected neither efficacy nor potency of IGABA enhancement by Ac-SM. Ac-SM shifted the GABA concentration-response curve toward higher GABA sensitivity (about 3-fold) and significantly increased the maximal GABA response by 44 ± 13%, indicating a pharmacological profile distinct from a pure allosteric GABAA receptor modulator. In mice, Ac-SM significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze test at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg, total ambulation in the open field test at doses ≥6 mg/kg, stress-induced hyperthermia at doses ≥0.6 mg/kg, and significantly elevated seizure threshold at

  15. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  16. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  17. Pronounced genetic differentiation and recent secondary contact in the mangrove tree Lumnitzera racemosa revealed by population genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianfang; Yang, Yuchen; Chen, Qipian; Fang, Lu; He, Ziwen; Guo, Wuxia; Qiao, Sitan; Wang, Zhengzhen; Guo, Miaomiao; Zhong, Cairong; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Systematically investigating the impacts of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations on mangrove plants may provide a better understanding of their demographic history and useful information for their conservation. Therefore, we conducted population genomic analyses of 88 nuclear genes to explore the population dynamics of a mangrove tree Lumnitzera racemosa across the Indo-West Pacific region. Our results revealed pronounced genetic differentiation in this species between the populations from the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which may be attributable to the long-term isolation between the western and eastern coasts of the Malay Peninsula during sea-level drops in the Pleistocene glacial periods. The mixing of haplotypes from the two highly divergent groups was identified in a Cambodian population at almost all 88 nuclear genes, suggesting genetic admixture of the two lineages at the boundary region. Similar genetic admixture was also found in other populations from Southeast Asia based on the Bayesian clustering analysis of six nuclear genes, which suggests extensive and recent secondary contact of the two divergent lineages in Southeast Asia. Computer simulations indicated substantial migration from the Indian Ocean towards the South China Sea, which likely results in the genetic admixture in Southeast Asia. PMID:27380895

  18. Pronounced genetic differentiation and recent secondary contact in the mangrove tree Lumnitzera racemosa revealed by population genomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfang; Yang, Yuchen; Chen, Qipian; Fang, Lu; He, Ziwen; Guo, Wuxia; Qiao, Sitan; Wang, Zhengzhen; Guo, Miaomiao; Zhong, Cairong; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Systematically investigating the impacts of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations on mangrove plants may provide a better understanding of their demographic history and useful information for their conservation. Therefore, we conducted population genomic analyses of 88 nuclear genes to explore the population dynamics of a mangrove tree Lumnitzera racemosa across the Indo-West Pacific region. Our results revealed pronounced genetic differentiation in this species between the populations from the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which may be attributable to the long-term isolation between the western and eastern coasts of the Malay Peninsula during sea-level drops in the Pleistocene glacial periods. The mixing of haplotypes from the two highly divergent groups was identified in a Cambodian population at almost all 88 nuclear genes, suggesting genetic admixture of the two lineages at the boundary region. Similar genetic admixture was also found in other populations from Southeast Asia based on the Bayesian clustering analysis of six nuclear genes, which suggests extensive and recent secondary contact of the two divergent lineages in Southeast Asia. Computer simulations indicated substantial migration from the Indian Ocean towards the South China Sea, which likely results in the genetic admixture in Southeast Asia. PMID:27380895

  19. Nutrient removal in a closed silvofishery system using three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle).

    PubMed

    De-León-Herrera, R; Flores-Verdugo, F; Flores-de-Santiago, F; González-Farías, F

    2015-02-15

    The removal of ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrite (NO2(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and phosphate (PO4(-3)) in a closed silvofishery system was examined using three mangrove species (i.e., Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle). Specifically, six closed tanks were installed for this experiment with a population of 60 Dormitator latifrons fishes per tank. We planted 40 seedlings in each of three experimental tanks separated by species, while the remaining tanks were used as control. During 15 weeks, nutrient concentrations among the three mangrove systems presented no significant differences (P>0.05). However, nutrient removal variability was minimum during the last 2-5 weeks. Mangroves presented an average efficiency of 63% for the removal of NH4(+) and NO2(-). Contrary, the average removal potential of NO3(-) and PO4(-3) was 50%. Results from this study suggest that the three mangrove species could be used in a closed silvofishery systems for the biological removal of NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), and PO4(-3). PMID:25499182

  20. Effects of Hepatoprotective Compounds from the Leaves of Lumnitzera racemosa on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ahmed Gomaa Gomaa; Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Abdel-Salam, Hosni; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH fraction of the mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa WILLD. (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of one new flavonoid glycoside; myrcetin 3-O-methyl glucuronate (1), one new phenolic glycoside; lumniracemoside (2) and one new aliphatic alcohol glycoside; n-hexanol 1-O-rutinoside (3), in addition to seven known compounds (4-10). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS, one- and two-dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR). Compound 7 showed the highest hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity using human HepG2 cells at protection % value of 34.2±3.1%, while compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 showed weak to moderate hepatoprotective activity (11.6-18.9%). Almost all of these compounds showed stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared with the standard Trolox. These results suggest the usefulness of this plant extract and the isolated compounds as promising hepatoprotective agents. PMID:27039833

  1. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract affects immobilization stress-induced changes in murine cerebral monoamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Yasue, Masaaki; Sami, Manabu; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) plant extracts on the changes in levels of the cerebral monoamines norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), the respective metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and plasma corticosterone in mice subjected to acute immobilization stress. Single oral administration of the CR extract (1,000 mg/kg) significantly attenuated plasma corticosterone levels that had been increased as a result of enforced immobilization. Acute immobilization stress caused significant changes in the corresponding amine-to-metabolite ratios in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex; however, CR-extract treatment significantly attenuated the MHPG/NE change in the hypothalamus, and the 5-HIAA/5- HT changes in each region of the brain. Our results suggest that the CR extract interacts not only with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but also with the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system under stress conditions. Thus the CR extract can alleviate acute stress responses by suppressing the changes of amine-to-metabolite ratio in brain. PMID:22572387

  2. Bioactivity-guided isolation of GABA(A) receptor modulating constituents from the rhizomes of Actaea racemosa.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Serhat S; Khom, Sophia; Taferner, Barbara; Hering, Steffen; Stuppner, Hermann

    2010-12-27

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) is a frequently used herbal remedy for the treatment of mild climacteric symptoms. In the present study, the modulation of γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA)-induced chloride currents (I(GABA)) through GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors by black cohosh extracts and isolated compounds was investigated. GABA(A) receptors, consisting of α(1), β(2), and γ(2S) subunits, were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and potentiation of I(GABA) was measured using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. In a bioactivity-guided isolation procedure the positive modulation of I(GABA) could be restricted to the plant terpenoid fractions, resulting in the isolation of 11 cycloartane glycosides, of which four significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced I(GABA). The most efficient effect was observed for 23-O-acetylshengmanol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (4, 100 μM), enhancing I(GABA) by 1692 ± 201%, while actein (1), cimigenol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (6), and 25-O-acetylcimigenol 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (8) were significantly less active. In the absence of GABA, only 4 induced small (not exceeding 1% of I(GABA-max)) chloride inward currents through GABA(A) receptors. It is hypothesized that the established positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A) receptors may contribute to beneficial effects of black cohosh extracts in the treatment of climacteric symptoms. PMID:21082802

  3. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  4. Effects of methanolic macroalgae extracts from Caulerpa sertularioides and Ulva lactuca on Litopenaeus vannamei survival in the presence of Vibrio bacteria.

    PubMed

    Esquer-Miranda, Edgard; Nieves-Soto, Mario; Rivas-Vega, Martha Elisa; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Piña-Valdez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that are useful for the development of new functional ingredients. This study was conducted to determine whether methanolic extracts from Caulerpa sertularioides and Ulva lactuca macroalgae might be possible alternatives for the prevention of shrimp vibriosis, which is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Macroalgae extracts prepared with methanol as the solvent were evaluated for antibacterial activity with the microplate method. The extracts' effects on the mortality of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated at doses of 150 and 300 mg L(-1). Two independent assays for V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were performed. The methanolic extract of C. sertularioides exhibited activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, and it had minimal inhibitory concentrations of <1000 and < 1500 μg mL(-1), respectively. L. vannamei mortality in the presence of both The methanolic extract of C. sertularioides exhibited activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, and it had minimal inhibitory concentrations of <1000 and <1500 μg mL(-1), respectively. and V. alginolyticus bacteria significantly decreased after treatment with 300 mg L(-1) C. sertularioides methanolic extract. PMID:26915309

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of Caulerpa lentillifera: stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and enhancement of glucose uptake in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Caulerpa lentillifera (C. lentillifera). Methods The inhibitory effect of C. lentillifera extract on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and α-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Then, interleukin-1β and interferon-γ induced cell death and insulin secretion were measured in rat insulinoma (RIN) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ELISA kit, respectively. Glucose uptake and glucose transporter expression were measured by fluorometry and western blotting, using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results C. lentillifera extract significantly decreased dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and α-glucosidase enzyme activities, and effectively inhibited cell death and iNOS expression in interleukin-1β and interferon-γ induced RIN cells. Furthermore, C. lentillifera extract significantly enhanced insulin secretion in RIN cells and glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions Thus, our results suggest that C. lentillifera could be used as a potential anti-diabetic agent. PMID:25183280

  6. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats. PMID:20482284

  7. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  8. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  9. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  10. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  11. Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  12. Flocculation of model algae under shear.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

  13. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. PMID:24602833

  14. Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Burkhard; Marin, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background Land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte green algae, a small group of freshwater algae ranging from scaly, unicellular flagellates (Mesostigma) to complex, filamentous thalli with branching, cell differentiation and apical growth (Charales). Streptophyte algae and embryophytes form the division Streptophyta, whereas the remaining green algae are classified as Chlorophyta. The Charales (stoneworts) are often considered to be sister to land plants, suggesting progressive evolution towards cellular complexity within streptophyte green algae. Many cellular (e.g. phragmoplast, plasmodesmata, hexameric cellulose synthase, structure of flagellated cells, oogamous sexual reproduction with zygote retention) and physiological characters (e.g. type of photorespiration, phytochrome system) originated within streptophyte algae. Recent Progress Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Mesostigma (flagellate) and Chlorokybus (sarcinoid) form the earliest divergence within streptophytes, as sister to all other Streptophyta including embryophytes. The question whether Charales, Coleochaetales or Zygnematales are the sister to embryophytes is still (or, again) hotly debated. Projects to study genome evolution within streptophytes including protein families and polyadenylation signals have been initiated. In agreement with morphological and physiological features, many molecular traits believed to be specific for embryophytes have been shown to predate the Chlorophyta/Streptophyta split, or to have originated within streptophyte algae. Molecular phylogenies and the fossil record allow a detailed reconstruction of the early evolutionary events that led to the origin of true land plants, and shaped the current diversity and ecology of streptophyte green algae and their embryophyte descendants. Conclusions The Streptophyta/Chlorophyta divergence correlates with a remarkably conservative preference for freshwater/marine habitats, and the early freshwater

  15. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kin Weng; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Razali, Nurhanani; Aminuddin, Norhaniza

    2016-01-01

    Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE) has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p < 0.05) with a fold change difference of at least 1.5. SERPINE1 was the most significantly up-regulated gene at 2.8-fold while HAMP was the most significantly down-regulated gene at 6.5-fold. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed that “Cancer, cell death and survival, cellular movement” was the top network affected by the BLE with a score of 44. The top five canonical pathways associated with BLE were Methylglyoxal Degradation III followed by VDR/RXR activation, TR/RXR activation, PXR/RXR activation and gluconeogenesis. The expression of genes that encode for enzymes involved in methylglyoxal degradation (ADH4, AKR1B10 and AKR1C2) and glycolytic process (ENO3, ALDOC and SLC2A1) was significantly regulated. Owing to the Warburg effect, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells may increase the level of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply.

  16. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  17. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  18. The non-estrogenic alternative for the treatment of climacteric complaints: Black cohosh (Cimicifuga or Actaea racemosa).

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Haunschild, Jutta; Stecher, Guenter; Schuh, Markus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    In postmenopausal women estrogens in combination with progestins have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints and on osteoporosis but this hormone replacement therapy (HRT) bears the risk of increased mammary carcinomas and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens at low doses have little or no effects on climacteric complaints, at high doses they mimic the effects of estrogens. Therefore other plant derived substances are currently intensively investigated. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa=CR) did not bind to estrogen receptors and were shown to be devoid of estrogenic effects on mammary cancer cells in vitro and on mammary gland and uterine histology in ovariectomized rats. In addition in this rat model the special extract CR BNO 1055 inhibited the occurrence of hot flushes and development of osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women CR BNO 1055 reduced major climacteric complaints as effectively as conjugated estrogens and significantly more than placebo. Similar data were published for other European CR preparations whereas 2 US American preparations were ineffective. This was most likely due to the too high doses or due to the adulteration with Asian Cimicifuga preparations. In all European studies neither effects in the uterus nor in mammary glands were observed. The effective compounds in CR are most likely neurotransmitter-mimetic in nature: dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic effects were demonstrated and some have been structurally identified. We conclude that CR extracts at low doses are effective to ameliorate climacteric complaints but are devoid of adverse estrogenic effects. These finding strengthens the role of CR extracts as substitutes for HRT. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Special Issue on Phytoestrogens. PMID:23459142

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) extract in female B6C3F1/N mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Frawley, Rachel P.; White, Kimber L.

    2013-01-01

    Black cohosh extracts (BCE; Actaea racemosa) are being used worldwide as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for the management of menstrual and menopausal symptoms, yet the effects of BCE on the immune system are largely unknown. Female B6C3F1/N mice were treated daily with BCE (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg) for 28 days by oral gavage. Liver weights were significantly increased (26%–32%) at the 1000 mg/kg dose. Dose-related increases in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were observed. Decreasing trends were observed in all thymic T cell populations, with the most notable dose-responsive effects on immature thymocytes. In the spleen, dose-related decreases were observed in all cell phenotypes evaluated, reaching the level of statistical significance at the 1000 mg/kg BCE dose. Splenic natural killer (NK) cell numbers were significantly decreased at all BCE doses, with the exception of absolute NK numbers at the 125 mg/kg dose. No effects were observed on T-dependent antibody responses of the humoral immune system, including the antibody-forming cell response to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC) and IgM antibody levels to both sRBC and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Cytotoxic T cell (TCTL) activity was increased, as was the mixed leukocyte response in one of two studies. Anti-CD3 mediated proliferation and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response were unaffected. No effects were observed on innate immunity or on bone marrow cellularity and colony-forming units. Overall, BCE exposure in B6C3F1/N mice for 28 days at doses up to 1000 mg/kg had minimal immune effects, with the exception of an increased TCTL response. PMID:23571075

  20. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of constituents of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong Thao; Bui, Thi Thuy Luyen; Chau, Ngoc Diep; Bui, Huu Tai; Kim, Eun Ji; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jang, Hae Dong; Nguyen, The Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Xuan Cuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Chau, Van Minh; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-04-01

    This study performed phytochemical and bioactive assessments of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. leaves. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts led to the identification of thirty-six compounds (1-36), their structures were elucidated using detailed NMR spectroscopic and MS analysis. The extracts, fractions, and the isolated compounds were screened for potential antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Antioxidant assays were performed using peroxyl radical-scavenging and reducing assays, whereas cytotoxicity was measured using MTT assays in HL-60 and Hel-299 cell lines. The methanolic extract, CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH fractions (10.0 μg/mL) exhibited potent antioxidant activity, with Trolox equivalent (TE) values of 24.94 ± 0.59, 28.34 ± 0.20, and 27.09 ± 0.37 (μM), respectively. In addition, the isolated compounds exerted cytotoxic effects in a dose-dependent manner; compounds 1 and 14 exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells, with IC50 values of 0.15 ± 0.29 and 0.60 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. To clarify the mechanism(s) behind these cytotoxic effects, we measured the time-dependent changes in apoptotic markers including the condensation and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin, and the downregulation of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, and c-Myc levels. PMID:25001899

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) extract in female B6C3F1/N mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Germolec, Dori R; Frawley, Rachel P; White, Kimber L

    2013-06-01

    Black cohosh extracts (BCE; Actaea racemosa) are being used worldwide as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for the management of menstrual and menopausal symptoms, yet the effects of BCE on the immune system are largely unknown. Female B6C3F1/N mice were treated daily with BCE (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1000mg/kg) for 28 days by oral gavage. Liver weights were significantly increased (26-32%) at the 1000mg/kg dose. Dose-related increases in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were observed. Decreasing trends were observed in all thymic T cell populations, with the most notable dose-responsive effects on immature thymocytes. In the spleen, dose-related decreases were observed in all cell phenotypes evaluated, reaching the level of statistical significance at the 1000mg/kg BCE dose. Splenic natural killer (NK) cell numbers were significantly decreased at all BCE doses, with the exception of absolute NK numbers at the 125mg/kg dose. No effects were observed on T-dependent antibody responses of the humoral immune system, including the antibody-forming cell response to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC) and IgM antibody levels to both sRBC and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Cytotoxic T cell (TCTL) activity was increased, as was the mixed leukocyte response in one of two studies. Anti-CD3 mediated proliferation and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response were unaffected. No effects were observed on innate immunity or on bone marrow cellularity and colony-forming units. Overall, BCE exposure in B6C3F1/N mice for 28 days at doses up to 1000mg/kg had minimal immune effects, with the exception of an increased TCTL response. PMID:23571075

  2. Discovery of a novel pharmacological and structural class of gamma secretase modulators derived from the extract of Actaea racemosa.

    PubMed

    Findeis, Mark A; Schroeder, Frank; McKee, Timothy D; Yager, Debra; Fraering, Patrick C; Creaser, Steffen P; Austin, Wesley F; Clardy, Jon; Wang, Rong; Selkoe, Dennis; Eckman, Christopher B

    2012-11-21

    A screen of a library of synthetic drugs and natural product extracts identified a botanical extract that modulates the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cultured cells to produce a lowered ratio of amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) (Aβ42) relative to Aβ40. This profile is of interest as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The extract, from the black cohosh plant (Actaea racemosa), was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation to isolate active components. Using a combination of normal-phase and reverse-phase chromatography, a novel triterpene monoglycoside, 1, was isolated. This compound was found to have an IC(50) of 100 nM for selectively reducing the production of amyloidogenic Aβ42 while having a much smaller effect on the production of Aβ40 (IC(50) 6.3 μM) in cultured cells overexpressing APP. Using IP-MS methods, this compound was found to modulate the pool of total Aβ produced by reducing the proportion of Aβ42 while increasing the relative amounts of shorter and less amyloidogenic Aβ37 and Aβ39. Concentrations of 1 sufficient to lower levels of Aβ42 substantially (up to 10 μM) did not significantly affect the processing of Notch or other aspects of APP processing. When 1 (10 μg) was administered to CD-1 normal mice intracerebroventricularly, the level of Aβ42 in brain was reduced. Assays for off-target pharmacology and the absence of overt signs of toxicity in mice dosed with compound 1 suggest a comparatively selective pharmacology for this triterpenoid. Compound 1 represents a new lead for the development of potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease via modulation of gamma-secretase. PMID:23205187

  3. An evaluation of the protective role of Ficus racemosa Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy with neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Nilay D.; Bhavsar, Shailesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ficus racemosa (FR) is one of the herbs mentioned in the scriptures of the Ayurveda as Udumbara with high medicinal value. The objective of this study was to estimate the protective effect of FR against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy with neurodegeneration (DNN). Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with STZ and were divided into six groups namely diabetic vehicle control, FR (four) and glibenclamide (one) treated rats; while one group was of normal control rats. After the 4th week of diabetes, induction treatment was started for further 28 days (5th to 8th week) with FR aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg). Investigation of DNN was carried out through biochemical and behavioral parameter assessment in rats. Results: Study showed a significant fall in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood glucose level by the treatment of FR in diabetic rats. Antioxidant potential of FR showed a great rise in superoxide dismutase, catalase content and reduction observed in serum nitrite level; while significant fall in lipid peroxidation level and of C-reactive protein was observed in FR treated diabetic rats. Further FR treated diabetic rats also showed marked improvement in tail flick latency, pain threshold, the rise in locomotion and fall latency period. Conclusion: Treatment with FR shows protection in the multiple pathways of DNN by improving blood glucose, HbA1c, biochemical, and behavioral parameters, which suggest the protective role of FR in the reversal of DNN. PMID:26729951

  4. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  5. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  6. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  7. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  8. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  9. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  10. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  11. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by volatile oils from two specimens of Marlierea racemosa (Myrtaceae) collected from different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda; Silva, Michelle C; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine M; Cordeiro, Inês; Sobral, Marcos E G; Young, Maria Cláudia M; Moreno, Paulo R H

    2009-08-01

    The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia. PMID:19769001

  12. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Ruediger; Saller, Reinhard; Hess, Lorenzo; Melzer, Jörg; Zimmermann, Christian; Drewe, Juergen; Zahner, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa) have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo). Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic), assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients' self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL), responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65-19.35) score points, P < 0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55-11.39) score points, P = 0.0003 for 6.5 mg). QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women. PMID:23346194

  13. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, Ruediger; Saller, Reinhard; Hess, Lorenzo; Melzer, Jörg; Zimmermann, Christian; Drewe, Juergen; Zahner, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa) have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo). Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic), assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients' self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL), responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65–19.35) score points, P < 0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55–11.39) score points, P = 0.0003 for 6.5 mg). QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women. PMID:23346194

  14. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  15. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately. PMID:27206398

  16. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  17. The Alga Ochromonas danica Produces Bromosulfolipids.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander R; Duggan, Brendan M; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-01

    Many halogenases interchangeably incorporate chlorine and bromine into organic molecules. On the basis of an unsubstantiated report that the alga Ochromonas danica, a prodigious producer of chlorosulfolipids, was able to produce bromosulfolipids, we have investigated the promiscuity of its halogenases toward bromine incorporation. We have found that bromosulfolipids are produced with the exact positional and stereochemical selectivity as in the chlorosulfolipid danicalipin A when this alga is grown under modified conditions containing excess bromide ion. PMID:26889956

  18. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  19. Effect of Interactions Among Algae on Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) in Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; Greene, Sarah; Alexander, Martin

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by algae in flooded soil was limited by interactions within the algal community. Nitrogen fixation by either indigenous algae or Tolypothrix tenuis was reduced severalfold by a dense suspension of the green alga Nephrocytium sp. Similarly, interactions between the nitrogen-fixing alga (cyanobacterium) Aulosira 68 and natural densities of indigenous algae limited nitrogen-fixing activity in one of two soils examined. This was demonstrated by developing a variant of Aulosira 68 that was resistant to the herbicide simetryne at concentrations that prevented development of indigenous algae. More nitrogen was fixed by the resistant variant in flooded soil containing herbicide than was fixed in herbicide-free soil by either the indigenous algae or indigenous algae plus the parent strain of Aulosira. Interference from indigenous algae may hamper the development of nitrogen-fixing algae introduced into rice fields in attempts to increase biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:16345463

  20. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production. PMID:25859392

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  2. Inhibition of mast cells by algae.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A; Sanny, Charles; Shevlin, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    There is a history of use of algae as foods and as food additives, or nutraceuticals. Although algae are a safe component of human foods and animal feeds, the effects of the algae other than as a source of protein are not clear. We examined the prevalence of an antiinflammatory activity in selected algae using, as an assay system, the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. Methanolic extracts of eleven algae were examined for activity to inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells in vitro. This activity was found widely among the samples tested. The activities of these extracts were not uniformly stable in acid methanol. Selected extracts studied further did not separate with the use of size-exclusion filtration filters. LH-20 chromatography suggested at least two main elution areas of activity of the Chlorella extract. In summary, we saw wide phylogenetic dispersion of mast cell inhibition activity, suggesting that this antiinflammatory property is common in algae. This effect was apparently due to multiple activities within the algal extracts. PMID:12639395

  3. Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) in treating early symptoms of menopause: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) in treating early menopausal symptoms. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 84 early post-menopausal participants with Greene climacteric scale (GCS) scores of 15 to 42, who were referred to two public health care centers in Tehran, Iran, in 2011–2012. The participants were randomly allocated into treatment (6.5 mg of dried extract of Black cohosh roots daily) and control (placebo) groups with a ratio of 1:1. The participants took one tablet per day for 8 weeks. The GCS scores were recorded at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Data analysis was carried out using a general linear model with repeated measures with SPSS software. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results There was no loss to follow-up during the 8 weeks of treatment. The GCS total score (primary outcome) in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group at both week 4 [adjusted mean difference: -7.8 (95% confidence interval: -11.1 to -4.4)] and week 8 [-12.9 (-16.2 to -9.3)]. The treatment group showed significantly more improvement than the control group in all GCS subscale scores (vasomotor, psychiatric, physical, and sexual symptoms; secondary outcomes). The differences between the treatment and control groups at week 8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those at week 4 in terms of the total scores and the vasomotor and psychiatric subscale scores. No side effects were reported. Conclusions Black cohosh reduced the GCS total score and all GCS subscale scores (vasomotor, psychiatric, physical, and sexual symptoms) during 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Clinical trial registration This study was approved (Code 9061) by the Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with IRCT201107186709N4 on 15 January 2012. PMID

  4. Effects of estradiol benzoate, raloxifen and an ethanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa in nonclassical estrogen regulated organs of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    The special extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) BNO 1055 was shown to have bone protective effects without exerting estrogenic effects in the uterus or mammary gland. Whether the effects of CR BNO 1055 would be exerted in other organs that also express estrogen receptors (ERs) but in which the effects of estrogens and of the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifen (Ral) were not thoroughly studied was therefore investigated in the present contribution. Rats were ovariectomized (ovx) and their food immediately substituted with estradiol benzoate (EB), Ral or 2 doses of CR BNO 1055 for 3 months. Expressions of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) genes were determined in the vagina, liver, thyroid gland, lung, spleen, colon and kidney by means of quantitative RT-PCRs. Body weights in all treatment groups were significantly reduced and uterine weights in the EB treated animals were largely and in the Ral treated animals slightly but significantly increased. CR BNO 1055 was without effects in the uterus. We tested 3 genes: ERalpha gene expression was significantly reduced in the vagina, liver and kidney and remained unaffected in all other organs with the exception of the thyroid gland where ERalpha gene expression was stimulated by EB, Ral had--if any--similar effects in these organs. The CR extract BNO 1055 was devoid of any effect on ERalpha gene expression. ERbeta gene expression was suppressed in the vagina and colon by EB and this effect was shared by Ral in the colon. In the thyroid, EB and Ral stimulated ERbeta gene expression. Expression of IGF-1 gene was stimulated by EB and CR BNO 1055 in the vagina and kidney and inhibited by EB and Ral in the liver. No effects were observed by CR BNO 1055 in these organs. The effects of Ral, if occurring, were similar to those of EB while CR BNO 1055 was ineffective in all organs but the vagina. In the colon, reduced ERbeta gene activity may

  5. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  6. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  7. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  8. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature. PMID:16414751

  9. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  10. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  11. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. PMID:27618564

  12. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  13. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2014-06-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  14. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  15. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  16. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  17. Contrasting Effects of Historical Sea Level Rise and Contemporary Ocean Currents on Regional Gene Flow of Rhizophora racemosa in Eastern Atlantic Mangroves.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Van der Stocken, Tom; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Koedam, Nico; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are seafaring taxa through their hydrochorous propagules that have the potential to disperse over long distances. Therefore, investigating their patterns of gene flow provides insights on the processes involved in the spatial genetic structuring of populations. The coastline of Cameroon has a particular geomorphological history and coastal hydrology with complex contemporary patterns of ocean currents, which we hypothesize to have effects on the spatial configuration and composition of present-day mangroves within its spans. A total of 982 trees were sampled from 33 transects (11 sites) in 4 estuaries. Using 11 polymorphic SSR markers, we investigated genetic diversity and structure of Rhizophora racemosa, a widespread species in the region. Genetic diversity was low to moderate and genetic differentiation between nearly all population pairs was significant. Bayesian clustering analysis, PCoA, estimates of contemporary migration rates and identification of barriers to gene flow were used and complemented with estimated dispersal trajectories of hourly released virtual propagules, using high-resolution surface current from a mesoscale and tide-resolving ocean simulation. These indicate that the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is not a present-day barrier to gene flow. Rather, the Inter-Bioko-Cameroon (IBC) corridor, formed due to sea level rise, allows for connectivity between two mangrove areas that were isolated during glacial times by the CVL. Genetic data and numerical ocean simulations indicated that an oceanic convergence zone near the Cameroon Estuary complex (CEC) presents a strong barrier to gene flow, resulting in genetic discontinuities between the mangrove areas on either side. This convergence did not result in higher genetic diversity at the CEC as we had hypothesized. In conclusion, the genetic structure of Rhizophora racemosa is maintained by the contrasting effects of the contemporary oceanic convergence and historical climate change

  18. Contrasting Effects of Historical Sea Level Rise and Contemporary Ocean Currents on Regional Gene Flow of Rhizophora racemosa in Eastern Atlantic Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Ngeve, Magdalene N.; Van der Stocken, Tom; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Koedam, Nico; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are seafaring taxa through their hydrochorous propagules that have the potential to disperse over long distances. Therefore, investigating their patterns of gene flow provides insights on the processes involved in the spatial genetic structuring of populations. The coastline of Cameroon has a particular geomorphological history and coastal hydrology with complex contemporary patterns of ocean currents, which we hypothesize to have effects on the spatial configuration and composition of present-day mangroves within its spans. A total of 982 trees were sampled from 33 transects (11 sites) in 4 estuaries. Using 11 polymorphic SSR markers, we investigated genetic diversity and structure of Rhizophora racemosa, a widespread species in the region. Genetic diversity was low to moderate and genetic differentiation between nearly all population pairs was significant. Bayesian clustering analysis, PCoA, estimates of contemporary migration rates and identification of barriers to gene flow were used and complemented with estimated dispersal trajectories of hourly released virtual propagules, using high-resolution surface current from a mesoscale and tide-resolving ocean simulation. These indicate that the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is not a present-day barrier to gene flow. Rather, the Inter-Bioko-Cameroon (IBC) corridor, formed due to sea level rise, allows for connectivity between two mangrove areas that were isolated during glacial times by the CVL. Genetic data and numerical ocean simulations indicated that an oceanic convergence zone near the Cameroon Estuary complex (CEC) presents a strong barrier to gene flow, resulting in genetic discontinuities between the mangrove areas on either side. This convergence did not result in higher genetic diversity at the CEC as we had hypothesized. In conclusion, the genetic structure of Rhizophora racemosa is maintained by the contrasting effects of the contemporary oceanic convergence and historical climate change

  19. A Comprehensive Protocol for Improving the Description of Saprolegniales (Oomycota): Two Practical Examples (Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov.).

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Sierra, Jose Vladimir; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The description, identification and classification of organisms are the pillar in biodiversity and evolutionary studies. The fungal-like organism Saprolegnia contains important animal pathogens. However, its taxonomy is weak, making it difficult to perform further studies. This problem mainly arises from the unavailability of suitable holotypes. We propose a standardized protocol for describing Saprolegnia spp. that includes good cultural practices and proper holotype preservation. In order to illustrate this new proposal, we describe two species, Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov., based on the recently described molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), phylogenetic relationships, and the analyses of morphological features. We show that they belong to two different MOTUs that are grouped into two sister clades. Morphologically, we find that S. racemosa exhibits a species-specific character, i.e., aggrupation of oogonia in racemes, while S. aenigmatica does not have any specific characters. Analyses of a combined set of characters, i.e., length and breadth of sporangia, length/breadth ratio (l/b) of oogonia, cyst and oospore diameter, and the number of oospores per oogomium, allow distinguishing these two species. To improve Saprolegnia taxonomy, we propose to incorporate into the protologue: (i) several isolates of the new species; (ii) the rDNA sequences to compare them to data-bases of Saprolegnia sequences of reference; (iii) a phylogenetic analysis to check relationships with other species; (iv) to preserve holotypes in absolute ethanol and to include lyophilized material from holotype; and (v) the ex-type as a pure culture from single-spore isolates stored in at least two different collections. PMID:26186364

  20. A Comprehensive Protocol for Improving the Description of Saprolegniales (Oomycota): Two Practical Examples (Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov.)

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Sierra, Jose Vladimir; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The description, identification and classification of organisms are the pillar in biodiversity and evolutionary studies. The fungal-like organism Saprolegnia contains important animal pathogens. However, its taxonomy is weak, making it difficult to perform further studies. This problem mainly arises from the unavailability of suitable holotypes. We propose a standardized protocol for describing Saprolegnia spp. that includes good cultural practices and proper holotype preservation. In order to illustrate this new proposal, we describe two species, Saprolegnia aenigmatica sp. nov. and Saprolegnia racemosa sp. nov., based on the recently described molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), phylogenetic relationships, and the analyses of morphological features. We show that they belong to two different MOTUs that are grouped into two sister clades. Morphologically, we find that S. racemosa exhibits a species-specific character, i.e., aggrupation of oogonia in racemes, while S. aenigmatica does not have any specific characters. Analyses of a combined set of characters, i.e., length and breadth of sporangia, length/breadth ratio (l/b) of oogonia, cyst and oospore diameter, and the number of oospores per oogomium, allow distinguishing these two species. To improve Saprolegnia taxonomy, we propose to incorporate into the protologue: (i) several isolates of the new species; (ii) the rDNA sequences to compare them to data-bases of Saprolegnia sequences of reference; (iii) a phylogenetic analysis to check relationships with other species; (iv) to preserve holotypes in absolute ethanol and to include lyophilized material from holotype; and (v) the ex-type as a pure culture from single-spore isolates stored in at least two different collections. PMID:26186364

  1. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    PubMed

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  2. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  3. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Wu, Jilong

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W, lambda(max) = 365 nm) was investigated. Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algae-water systems. The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration, and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution. Meanwhile, the cooperation action of algae and Fe(III), and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxacin. The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae. In addition, we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae. This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae, for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution. PMID:22894111

  4. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  5. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  6. ALGAE BLOOMS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN LAKE LOWELL, IDAHO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae blooms limit recreational use of Lake Lowell, ID (17050114) by reducing water clarity and esthetic qualities. Under bloom conditions, algae have a negative impact on the reservoir fishery because of periodic oxygen depletion associated with respiration and decomposition. ...

  7. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  8. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  11. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  12. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  14. What remains after 2 months of starvation? Analysis of sequestered algae in a photosynthetic slug, Plakobranchus ocellatus (Sacoglossa, Opisthobranchia), by barcoding.

    PubMed

    Christa, Gregor; Wescott, Lily; Schäberle, Till F; König, Gabriele M; Wägele, Heike

    2013-02-01

    The sacoglossan sea slug, Plakobranchus ocellatus, is a so-called long-term retention form that incorporates chloroplasts for several months and thus is able to starve while maintaining photosynthetic activity. Little is known regarding the taxonomy and food sources of this sacoglossan, but it is suggested that P. ocellatus is a species complex and feeds on a broad variety of Ulvophyceae. In particular, we analysed specimens from the Philippines and starved them under various light conditions (high light, low light and darkness) and identified the species of algal food sources depending on starvation time and light treatment by means of DNA-barcoding using for the first time the combination of two algal chloroplast markers, rbcL and tufA. Comparison of available CO1 and 16S sequences of specimens from various localities indicate a species complex with likely four distinct clades, but food analyses do not indicate an ecological separation of the investigated clades into differing foraging strategies. The combined results from both algal markers suggest that, in general, P. ocellatus has a broad food spectrum, including members of the genera Halimeda, Caulerpa, Udotea, Acetabularia and further unidentified algae, with an emphasis on H. macroloba. Independent of the duration of starvation and light exposure, this algal species and a further unidentified Halimeda species seem to be the main food source of P. ocellatus from the Philippines. It is shown here that at least two (or possibly three) barcode markers are required to cover the entire food spectrum in future analyses of Sacoglossa. PMID:23108662

  15. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  16. Potential of mass algae production in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, A.; Fekri, M.

    1984-11-01

    The rationale for efficient light absorption by algae at a production unit is given and design details of an intensive thin-layer technology outdoor (2.11m/sup 2/) unit are presented. Data on productivity under extreme conditions were collected. Maximum productivity data are close to those reported in the literature for similar geographic areas.

  17. Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

  18. OPTIMAL COST CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ATTACHED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis for alternative programs intended for the control of the nuisance growth of an attached alga (Cladophora). Such analyses require that changes in water quality be quantitatively related to the cost of implementation for specific manageme...

  19. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  20. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  1. Phycobilisomes in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Ruth B.; Bowen, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater blue-green algae, including unicellular, filamentous, and colonial forms, were subjected to a variety of fixatives, fixation conditions, and stains for comparison of the preservation of phycobilisomes. Absorption spectra of the corresponding in vivo and released photosynthetic pigments, in 10 of the species that were maintained in culture, demonstrated the presence of phycocyanin in all 10 species and phycoerythrin in only 2 of them. Spectroscope and electron microscope evidence was obtained for localization of phycobiliproteins in phycobilisomes of Nostoc muscorum. Phycobilisomes were observed in all species examined in situ, strenghening the hypothesis that phycobilisomes are common to all phycobiliprotein-containing photosynthetic blue-green algae. Images PMID:4204443

  2. Toxicity of chlorinated benzenes to marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Han-Zhang

    1997-12-01

    Growth of Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrachlorobenzene (1, 2, 3, 4-TeCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) was tested. Tests of 72 h- EC 50 values showed that the toxicity ranged in the order: MCB<1,2-DCB<1,2,3,4-TeCBalgae was almost in the order: Pyramidomonas sp. < Platymonas subcordiformis < Nannochloropsis oculata < Chlorella marine < Phaeodactylum tricomutum. Study of the QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) between K OW and toxicity of CBs to marine algae showed good relationships between -log EC 50 and log K OW.

  3. Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene in marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Lin; Ma, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Gang; Yu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Li-Jun

    1997-09-01

    Bioconcentration of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in Chlorella marine, Nannochloropsis oculata, Pyramidomonas sp., Platymonas subcordiformis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum; and toxicity of TeCB to the marine algae were tested. Values of bioconcentration potential parameters, including uptake rate constant k 1, elimination rate constant k 2 and bioconcentration factor BCF, were obtained not only from the time course of TeCB uptake by the marine algae by using a bioconcentration model, but also from the acute toxicity test data for percent inhibition PI(%)˜exposure concentration of TeCB-time by using a combined bioconcentration and probability model. The results showed good relationship between k 1(TOXIC) and k 1(UPTAKE) and k 2(TOXIC), k 2(UPTAKE), and BCF D(IOXIC) and BCF D(UPTAKE). Especially, the values of BCF D(TOXIC) were well consistent with those of BCF D(UPTAKE).

  4. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  5. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  6. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  7. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  8. Prokaryotic algae associated with Australian proterozoic stromatolites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licari, G. R.; Cloud, P.

    1972-01-01

    The most favorable sites in which to study the associations between stromatolites and the algae responsible for them are places where a variety of stromatolites of possibly early diagenetic or primary silica occupy a layer of substantial thickness of little metamorphosed ancient sediments. One such place is in northwestern Queensland, Australia. Five cases of association between stromatolites and blue-green algal nannofossils were observed within a 100-m sequence of carbonate rocks in that area.

  9. Sequestration of CO2 by halotolerant algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The potential of halotolerant algae isolated from natural resources was used to study CO2 fixation and algal lipid production. Biological fixation of CO2 in photobioreactor in presence of salinity is exploited. The CO2 concentration 1060 ppm gave the highest biomass yield (700 mg dry wt/l), the highest total lipid content (10.33%) with 80% of CO2 removal. PMID:24847439

  10. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice. PMID:686747

  11. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops. PMID:20085253

  12. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  13. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  14. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research. PMID:9005517

  15. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1–1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  16. Hydrogenases in green algae: do they save the algae's life and solve our energy problems?

    PubMed

    Happe, Thomas; Hemschemeier, Anja; Winkler, Martin; Kaminski, Annette

    2002-06-01

    Green algae are the only known eukaryotes with both oxygenic photosynthesis and a hydrogen metabolism. Recent physiological and genetic discoveries indicate a close connection between these metabolic pathways. The anaerobically inducible hydA genes of algae encode a special type of highly active [Fe]-hydrogenase. Electrons from reducing equivalents generated during fermentation enter the photosynthetic electron transport chain via the plastoquinone pool. They are transferred to the hydrogenase by photosystem I and ferredoxin. Thus, the [Fe]-hydrogenase is an electron 'valve' that enables the algae to survive under anaerobic conditions. During sulfur deprivation, illuminated algal cultures evolve large quantities of hydrogen gas, and this promises to be an alternative future energy source. PMID:12049920

  17. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  18. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, where heterotrophic bacteria grow on organics produced by algae and recycle nutrients. Ecological studies have identified the co-occurrence of particular species of algae and bacteria, suggesting the presence of their specific interactions. Algae/bacteria interactions are categorized into nutrient exchange, signal transduction and gene transfer. Studies have examined how these interactions shape aquatic communities and influence geochemical cycles in the natural environment. In parallel, efforts have been made to exploit algae for biotechnology processes, such as water treatment and bioenergy production, where bacteria influence algal activities in various ways. We suggest that better understanding of mechanisms underlying algae/bacteria interactions will facilitate the development of more efficient and/or as-yet-unexploited biotechnology processes. PMID:25744715

  19. Production of the anti-inflammatory compound 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol by Callus cultures of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae).

    PubMed

    Salinas, Roberta; Arellano-García, Jesús; Perea-Arango, Irene; Alvarez, Laura; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Marquina, Silvia; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo-España, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1) and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2), previously reported to have cytotoxic activity on several cancer cell lines. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of 1 in vivo by mouse ear edema induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 57.14% inhibition was observed. The aim of our study was to obtain callus cultures derived from this plant species with the ability to produce the compounds of interest. Callus cultures were initiated on MS basal medium amended with variable amounts of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), combined or not with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Ten treatments with these growth regulators were carried out, using in vitro germinated seedlings as source of three different explants: hypocotyl, stem node, and leaf. Highest yield of 1 was observed on callus derived from leaf explants growing in medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP. Selected callus lines produced less 1 than wild plants but the in vitro cultured seedlings showed higher production. So we conclude that it could be attractive to further investigate their metabolic potential. PMID:24962399

  20. Development of a fast and convenient method for the isolation of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa by high-speed countercurrent chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Serhat Sezai; Schwaiger, Stefan; Ellmerer, Ernst Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, a fast and simple method for the separation and purification of triterpene saponins from Actaea racemosa was successfully established. Accelerated solvent extraction was used for defatting and extracting of the subaerial parts, giving a triterpene enriched crude extract. Size exclusion chromatography was used to separate actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein from other triterpenoids, which were collected in a third fraction. This most complex third fraction was applied to high-speed countercurrent chromatography, a well-established technique for the separation of saponins. Separation parameters were first optimized on an analytical level, using a hyphenated HSCCC-ELSD setup, before the system was scaled up to preparative size. The resulting two-phase solvent system, consisting of N-hexane-acetone-ethyl acetate-2-propanol-ethanol-water (3.5 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 0.5 : 2, v/v/v/v/v/v), enabled the isolation of 23-O-acetylshengmanol-3-O- beta-D-xylopyranoside (17.4 mg), cimiracemoside D (19.5 mg), 25-O-acetylcimigenol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside (7.1 mg) and the aglycone cimigenol (5.9 mg). Purity of the isolated substances was 96.8 %, 96.2 %, 97.9 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. The same method was suitable for the purification of actein and 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, with purities of 97.0 % and 98.3 %. PMID:19847744

  1. Attenuation of nucleoside and anti-cancer nucleoside analog drug uptake in prostate cancer cells by Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO-1055.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Guggenberger, Fabian; Barthelmes, Jan; Stecher, Günther; Schuh, Markus; Intelmann, Daniel; Abel, Gudrun; Haunschild, Jutta; Klocker, Helmut; Ramoner, Reinhold; Sampson, Natalie

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of the ethanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO-1055 on prostate cells and evaluate its therapeutic potential. BNO-1055 dose-dependently attenuated cellular uptake and incorporation of thymidine and BrdU and significantly inhibited cell growth after long-time exposure. Similar results were obtained using saponin-enriched sub-fractions of BNO-1055. These inhibitory effects of BNO-1055 could be mimicked using pharmacological inhibitors and isoform-specific siRNAs targeting the equilibrative nucleoside transporters ENT1 and ENT2. Moreover, BNO-1055 attenuated the uptake of clinically relevant nucleoside analogs, e.g. the anti-cancer drugs gemcitabine and fludarabine. Consistent with inhibition of the salvage nucleoside uptake pathway BNO-1055 potentiated the cytotoxicity of the de novo nucleotide synthesis inhibitor 5-FU without significantly altering its uptake. Collectively, these data show for the first time that the anti-proliferative effects of BNO-1055 result from hindered nucleoside uptake due to impaired ENT activity and demonstrate the potential therapeutic use of BNO-1055 for modulation of nucleoside transport. PMID:23972793

  2. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  3. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  4. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2014-06-02

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  5. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  6. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  7. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  8. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in

  9. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  10. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  11. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  12. Inorganic carbon acquisition in some synurophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2008-05-01

    Some characteristics of photosynthesis of three synurophyte algae, Synura petersenii, Synura uvella and Tessellaria volvocina were investigated to determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake. All three species were found to have no external carbonic anhydrase, no capacity for direct bicarbonate uptake and a low whole-cell affinity for C(i). The internal pH of S. petersenii determined using (14)C-benzoic acid and [2-(14)C]-5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione was pH 7.0-7.5, over an external pH range of 5.0-7.5. Thus, the pH difference between the cell interior of S. petersenii and the external medium was large enough, over the alga's growth range, to allow the accumulation of C(i) by the diffusive uptake of CO(2). Monitoring O(2) evolution and CO(2) uptake by suspensions of S. petersenii at pH 7.0 by mass spectrometry did not indicate a rapid uptake of CO(2), and the final CO(2) compensation concentration reached was 24 +/- 0.7 microM. Furthermore, when the cells were darkened, a brief burst of CO(2) occurred before a steady rate of dark respiration was established, suggesting a loss of CO(2) by photorespiration. An examination of the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in homogenates of cells of S. petersenii, S. uvella and Mallomonas papillosa showed that values of the K(m) (CO(2)) were 28.4, 41.8 and 18.2 microM, respectively. These species lack the characteristics of cells with a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism because the cell affinity for C(i) appears to be determined by the relatively high CO(2) affinity of the Rubisco of these algae. PMID:18298411

  13. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  14. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  15. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  16. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated. PMID:19826917

  17. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with themore » requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.« less

  18. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  19. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  20. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppm (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppm NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppm NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

  1. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzinski, R.S.; Alexander, M.

    1980-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Anabaena flos-aquae in a soil suspension at an initial pH of 4.9 was almost totally eliminated after 3 days of exposure to 5.0 ppM (..mu..l/liter) NO/sub 2/, at which time the pH had fallen to 3.9. In contrast, A. flos-aquae in soil suspensions at an initial pH of 6.0 was not inhibited after 3 days by 5.0 ppM NO/sub 2/, but the activity was reduced by half in the presence of 15.0 ppM NO/sub 2/; the pH was 6.5 and 5.8, respectively, in the NO/sub 2/-treated samples on day 3. Photosynthesis by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in soil suspensions at an initial pH of approx. 4.2 was not appreciably affected by 15.0 ppM of NO/sub 2/ after 3 days, at which time the pH had fallen below 4.0. The high levels of NO/sub 2/ and low pH values required for toxicity suggest that blue-green and green algae probably will not be affected directly by NO/sub 2/ in polluted air.

  2. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  3. Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms - comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 "black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)".

    PubMed

    Beer, André-M; Osmers, Rüdiger; Schnitker, Jörg; Bai, Wenpei; Mueck, Alfred O; Meden, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Menopausal symptoms management with high-quality plant extracts from Actaea (Cimicifuga. racemosa rootstock is well-established. Efficacy and safety are supported by research and clinical trials since several decades and backed up by official monographs. However, the recent published Cochrane review on black cohosh neglects major evidence for beneficial effects. The authors' negative conclusions are questionable and call for reply and clarification. Our careful reconsideration of all appropriate placebo-controlled clinical studies reveals a standardized mean difference of 0.385 in favor of black cohosh (p < 0.0001). PMID:23992293

  4. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  5. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  6. Algae Farming in Low Earth Orbit: Past Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, N.

    Algal strains used as a production engine represent a novel example of living mechanical systems with tremendous potential for applications in space. Algae use photosynthesis to create lipids, glycerin, and biomass, with different strains of algae producing different oils. Algae can be grown to produce many types of oils, with low, medium or long hydrocarbon chain lengths. This article examines the history of algae research, as well as its value to astronauts as both a food supplement and as an oxygen production and carbon sequester engine. Consideration is given to ways algae is currently being used and tested in space, followed by a look forward envisioning dynamic living technological systems that can help to sustain our race as we travel the void between stars.

  7. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    SciTech Connect

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  8. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. IV. Plastoquinones in Algae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Elena; Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1968-01-01

    Plastoquinones A and C have been found in all classes of algae, including representatives of greens, yellow-greens, blue-greens, reds, browns and the flagellate, Euglena. Plastoquinone C from red and brown algae can be separated into 6 different types. An additional plastoquinone C has been found in Gigartina and Rhydomela. From chromatographic evidence this may be equivalent to plastoquinone Co, a C type with a hydroxyl group on the first isoprene unit of the terpenoid sidechain of this substituted benzo-quinone. The ubiquinone, vitamin K and α-tocopherylquinone content of several algae is also reported. The presence of plastoquinone A in all green plants and many algae indicates that it may be a functional element in photosynthesis. Our study shows that plastoquinone C is more regularly present in algae than has been previously shown. PMID:16656993

  9. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study. PMID:26623940

  10. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids. PMID:19946823

  11. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from Malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong

    2014-10-01

    The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 μg GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 μg AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 μg VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 μg TEAC/g sample), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics. PMID:25198055

  12. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-01-01

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences. PMID:26846729

  13. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  14. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia. PMID:23097503

  15. Random flow induced by swimming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Rushkin, Ilia; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    In this work we studied the random flow induced in a fluid by the motion of a dilute suspension of the swimming algae Volvox carteri. The fluid velocity in the suspension is a superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions that decay as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocity fluctuations are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet. Deviations from Gaussianity are shown to arise from near-field effects. Comparison is made with the statistical properties of abiotic sedimenting suspensions. The experimental results are supplemented by extensive numerical studies.

  16. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  17. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia

    PubMed Central

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia. PMID:23097503

  18. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  19. Quantitative determination of triterpenoids and formononetin in rhizomes of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and dietary supplements by using UPLC-UV/ELS detection and identification by UPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-03-01

    A UPLC-UV/ELSD method has been developed for analysis of major triterpenoids and formononetin in ACTAEA RACEMOSA L. (family Ranunculaceae) samples. The best results were obtained with an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mmx2.1 mm, i. d., 1 microm) column system using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile:methanol (7:3) at a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Owing to their low UV absorption, the triterpene saponins were detected by evaporative light scattering. Within 5.5 minutes, three main triterpenoid glycosides [cimiracemoside A, 23- EPI-26-deoxyactein, and actein] and an isoflavonoid, formononetin, could be separated, with detection limits of 5, 5, 10, and 0.01 microg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully used to analyze different Actaea racemosa market products as well as to distinguish between two other ACTAEA species. There was a significant variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides for the products containing black cohosh and rhizomes of black cohosh. The isoflavone formononetin was not detected in the samples analyzed. LC-MS coupled with the electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification of formononetin and triterpenoid glycosides in plant samples and dietary supplements that claim to contain black cohosh and different species of Actaea. PMID:19061153

  20. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 {mu}g C {center dot} {mu}g chl{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h{sup {minus}1} higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and {sup 14}C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and {sup 14}C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities.

  1. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution. PMID:23011851

  2. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  3. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Uses and restrictions. The color additive dried algae meal may be safely used in chicken feed in... color of chicken skin and eggs. (2) The quantity of the color additive incorporated in the feed is...

  4. The plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Costa, Joana F

    2015-06-01

    We present the 174,935 nt long plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia sp. JFC0032. It is the third plastid genome characterized for the largest order of red algae (Ceramiales). The circular-mapping plastid genome is small compared to most florideophyte red algae, and our comparisons show a trend toward smaller plastid genome sizes in the family Rhodomelaceae, independent from a similar trend in Cyanidiophyceae. The Laurencia genome is densely packed with 200 annotated protein-coding genes (188 widely conserved, 3 open reading frames shared with other red algae and 9 hypothetical coding regions). It has 29 tRNAs, a single-copy ribosomal RNA cistron, a tmRNA, and the RNase P RNA. PMID:26986672

  5. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application. PMID:24600873

  6. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM GROUNDWATER IMMOBILIZED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to adsorb mercury from contamina...

  7. EXTRACTION OF SUGARS FROM ALGAE FOR DIRECT CONVERSION TO BUTANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will have a complete full scale design at the end of this project including algae growth and butanol production. Further, the group will have a working prototype for display at the National Mall.

  8. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  9. [Parameter determination of algae growth based on ecological tank experiment].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Ding, Ling; Gao, Guang

    2005-05-01

    A dynamic simulation experiment of algae in an ecological tank was performed at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. During the experiment, water from Taihu Lake was infused into the ecological tank and samples were taken continually to observe algae growth under varying conditions, such as temperature, sunlight and nutrients. Based on the experiment, an algae growth model, considering nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, was developed by using the advanced PHREEQC model. After that, a detailed calibration and validation of parameters in the model were done on the basis of experimental results. The least square method was used to determine the optimal set of parameters. The calculated values of algae and nutrient concentrations show fairly satisfying fittness with measured data. PMID:16124474

  10. ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

  11. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed. PMID:23049529

  12. ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF BIOACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater (Selenastrum capricornutum) and estuarine (Skeketonema costatum) algae were exposed to liquid wastes from 10 industrial sites in laboratory bioassays. All wastes affected algal growth either by stimulation or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high ...

  13. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  14. Photobiological hydrogen production in green algae and photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have shown that, under appropriate physiological conditions, certain freshwater and marine green algae are capable of splitting water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen in a sustained steady-state reaction. In these algae, the gaseous-fuel-producing reaction can be driven by light throughout the visible portion of the solar emission spectrum, including the long wavelength (red) 700-nm region. No external energy sources are required.

  15. Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Varani, F.T.; Schellenbach, S.; Veatch, M.; Grover, P.; Benemann, J.

    1980-05-16

    The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into a fuel gas. The biogas produced would power the electrical generation plant already in service. Previous studies have established techniques of digester operation and the nutritional value for effluent solids as fed to cattle. The inclusion of a single-strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenidosa in the process was evaluated here for its capability (1) to be grown in both open and closed ponds of the discharge water from the solids separation part of the process, (2) to purify the discharge water, and (3) to act as a growth stimulant for cattle feed consumption and conversion when fed at a rate of 6 grams per head per day. Although it was found that the algae could be cultured and grown on the discharge water in the laboratory, the study was unable to show that algae could accomplish the other objectives successfully. However, the study yielded supplementary information useful to the overall process design of the utility plant. This was (1) measurement of undried digester solids fed to cattle in a silage finishing ration (without algae) at an economic value of $74.99 per dry ton based on nutritional qualities, (2) development of a centrate treatment system to decolorize and disinfect centrate to allow optimum algae growth, and (3) information on ionic and mass balances for the digestion system. It is the recommendation of this study that algae not be used in the process in the Lamar bioconversion plant.

  16. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  17. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  18. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  19. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  20. Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers. PMID:25499055

  1. Extraction of mercury from ground-water using immobilized algae

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bio-recovery Systems Inc., conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to absorb mercury from contaminated groundwater in laboratory studies and pilot-scale field tests. Algae biomass was incorporated in a permeable polymeric matrix. The product, AlgaSORB, packed into absorption columns, exhibited excellent flow characteristics, and functioned as a 'biological' ion exchange resin. A sequence of eleven laboratory tests demonstrated the ability of the product to absorb mercury from groundwater that contained high levels of total dissolved solids and hard water components. However, use of a single AlgaSORB preparation yielded non-repeatable results with samples collected at different times of the year. The strategy of extracting the groundwater through two columns containing different times of the year. The strategy of extracting the groundwater through two columns containing different preparations of AlgaSORB was developed and proved successful in laboratory and pilot-scale field tests. Field test results indicate that AlgaSORB could be economically competitive with ion exchange resins for removal of mercury, with the advantage that hardness and other dissolved solids do not appear to compete with heavy metals for binding capacity. (Copyright (c) 1991--Air and Waste Management Association.)

  2. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    SciTech Connect

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  3. Phosphorus-limited growth of a green alga and a blue-green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.S.; Brown, E.J.

    1981-12-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nageli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nageli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nageli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). (Refs. 44).

  4. Microfluidic one-way streets for algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-02-01

    Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of four prymnesiophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Koid, Amy E; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C; Caron, David A; Heidelberg, Karla B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Four Prymnesiophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Koid, Amy E.; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C.; Caron, David A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657

  7. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  8. Toxicity of haloacetic acids to freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jayne F; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R

    2010-01-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAA), such as trichloroacetic acid (TCA), are commonly occurring by-products from disinfection and bleaching processes using sodium hypochlorite. Currently, the lowest no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for TCA is reported to be 8.7microgL(-1), which was derived from a toxicity study conducted in 1981 on Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The purity of the test material was not documented and it is unknown if other halogenated impurities or co-formulants were present. However, this NOEC is used to derive a predicted no effect concentration, which is used in various regulatory risk assessments. We present a range of algal toxicity studies conducted on five different algal species and two HAAs and observed no toxicity of TCA to C. pyrenoidosa at 115mgL(-1). The most sensitive species to TCA (NOEC, 3mgL(-1)) were Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus subspicatus, demonstrating that the toxicity of TCA to algae is over two orders of magnitude less sensitive than previously reported. PMID:19828197

  9. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. PMID:27404042

  10. [Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Green Algae].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Coptis chinensis contains antiseptic alkaloids and thus its rhizomes and preparations are widely used for the treatment of.fish diseases. In order to realize the risk of water ecosystems produced by this medical herb and preparations used in aquaculture, the present experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of Coptis chinensis rhizome extract (CRE) to Scenedesmus oblique and Chlorella pyrenoidosa grown in culture solution with 0.00 (CK), 0.088 (Tl), 0.44 (T2) and 1.76 mg · L(-1) (T3) of CRE, respectively. The results show that low concentration of CRE (T1) inhibited the growth rate of the alga and high CRE (T2 and T3) ceased growth and reproductions. CRE also decreased the chlorophyll and proteins in alga cells, indicating the inhibition of photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis, which could be direct reasons for the low growth rate and death of green alga. The efflux of protons and substances from alga cells led to pH reduction and conductivity increment in culture solution with CRE. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase in alga increased at the beginning of CRE in T1 and T2 treatments but decreased as time prolonged which was in contrast to high CRE treatment. And the long exposure to low CRE treatment behaved otherwise. This suggests that the low concentration of CRE could induce the resistant reactions in alga at initial time but high CRE concentration or long exposure even at low CRE concentration could inhibit the enzyme synthesis. Similarly, malondialdehyde in alga increased as CRE concentrations increased in culture solutions, implying the damage and high permeability of cell membrane. In general, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more sensitive to CRE. The abuse of rhizomes and preparations in aquaculture and intensive cultivation of Coptis chinensis plants in a large scale might produce ecological risks to primary productivity of water ecosystems. PMID:26314112

  11. [Comparison of histone-like proteins from blue-green algae with ribosomal basic proteins of alga and wheat germ histones].

    PubMed

    Gofshteĭn, L V; Iurina, N P; Romashkin, V I; Oparin, A I

    1975-01-01

    Histone-like proteins was found in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, which has no nucleus. F2b2, F2a2, F2a1 fractions were found in histone-like algae proteins and no fraction F1. Content of basic amino acids (arginine being prevailing in algae protein) is quite identical in histone-like algae proteins and in wheat germs histones, while the content of acid amino acids is considerably higher in algae. The presence in procaryotic cells of basic proteins similar in a number of properties to histones of higher organisms suggests that these proteins are evolutionary precursors of eucaryotic histones. PMID:813782

  12. Green biochemistry approach for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Ficus racemosa latex and their pH-dependent binding study with different amino acids using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tetgure, Sandesh R; Borse, Amulrao U; Sankapal, Babasaheb R; Garole, Vaman J; Garole, Dipak J

    2015-04-01

    Simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis approach was developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Ficus racemosa latex as reducing agent. The presence of sunlight is utilized with latex and achieved the nanoparticles whose average size was in the range of 50-120 nm for SNPs and 20-50 nm for GNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy techniques toget understand the obtained nanoparticles. The pH-dependent binding studies of SNPs and GNPs with four amino acids, namely L-lysine, L-arginine, L-glutamine and glycin have been reported. PMID:25618751

  13. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  14. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  15. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term. PMID:20933402

  16. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  17. Anti-phytopathogenic activities of macro-algae extracts.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  18. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  19. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  20. Influence of algae on photolysis rates of chemicals in water

    SciTech Connect

    Zepp, R.G.; Schlotzhauer, P.F.

    1983-08-01

    Sunlight-induced algal transformations of 22 nonionic organic chemicals were studied in order to provide kinetic results and equations concerning the influence of algae on the behavior of pollutants in freshwater environments. Screening studies indicated that green and blue-green algae, at concentrations of 1-10 mg of chlorophyll a/L, accelerate photoreaction of certain polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus compounds, and anilines in water. The rate of change in aniline concentration, (P), in the aniline-Chlamydomonas photoreaction can be described by the following expression: rate = A(1 + B/(P))-1. At low substrate concentrations, the reaction rate is first order with respect to both algae and substrate concentration. Methyl parathion and parathion photoreacted 390 times more rapidly when sorbed by algae than in distilled water, and aniline and m-toluidine reacted over 12000 times faster, indicating that light-induced algal transformations of certain pollutants may be significant. Other results indicated that reaction rates are unaffected by heat-killing the algae. 27 references

  1. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor. PMID:26737928

  2. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. PMID:26657897

  3. Mg-lattice associations in red coralline algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenos, N. A.; Cusack, M.; Huthwelker, T.; Lagarde, P.; Scheibling, R. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations have shown red coralline algae to record ambient temperature in their calcite skeletons. Temperature recorded by variation in Mg concentrations within algal growth bands has sub-annual resolution and high accuracy. The conversion of Mg concentration to temperature is based on the assumption of Ca replacement by Mg within the algal calcite skeleton at higher temperatures. While Mg-temperature relationships in coralline algae have been calibrated for some species, the location of Mg within the calcite lattice remains unknown. Critically, if Mg is not a lattice component but associated with organic components this could lead to erroneous temperature records. Before coralline algae are used in large scale climate reconstructions it is therefore important to determine the location of Mg. Synchrotron Mg-X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES) indicates that Mg is associated with the calcite lattice in Lithothamnion glaciale (contemporary free-living, contemporary encrusting and sub-fossil free-living) and Phymatolithon calcareum (contemporary free-living) coralline algae. Mg is deposited within the calcite lattice in all seasons ( L. glaciale & P. calcareum) and thallus areas ( P. calcareum). These results suggest L. glaciale and P. calcareum are robust Mg-palaeotemperature proxies. We suggest that similar confirmation be obtained for Mg associations in other species of red coralline algae aiding our understanding of their role in climate reconstruction at large spatial scales.

  4. Mg-lattice associations in red coralline algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenos, N. A.; Cusack, M.,; Huthwelker, T.; Lagarde, P.; Scheibling, R. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations have shown red coralline algae to record ambient temperature in their calcite skeletons. Temperature recorded by variation in Mg concentrations within algal growth bands has sub-annual resolution and high accuracy. The conversion of Mg concentration to temperature is based on the assumption of Ca replacement by Mg within the algal calcite skeleton at higher temperatures. While Mg-temperature relationships in coralline algae have been calibrated for some species, the location of Mg within the calcite lattice remains unknown. Critically, if Mg is not a lattice component but associated with organic components this could lead to erroneous temperature records. Before coralline algae are used in large scale climate reconstructions it is therefore important to determine the location of Mg. Synchrotron Mg-X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES) indicates that Mg is associated with the calcite lattice in Lithothamnion glaciale (contemporary free-living, contemporary encrusting and sub-fossil free-living) and Phymatolithon calcareum (contemporary free-living) coralline algae. Mg is deposited within the calcite lattice in all seasons (L. glaciale & P. calcareum) and thallus areas (P. calcareum). These results suggest L. glaciale and P. calcareum are robust Mg-palaeotemperature proxies. We suggest that similar confirmation be obtained for Mg associations in other species of red coralline algae aiding our understanding of their role in climate reconstruction at large spatial scales.

  5. Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-03-15

    Algae have been suggested as a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the strong development of functional foods as a method to improve or maintain health, the exploration of new compounds with real health effects is now an intense field of research. The potential use of algae as source of functional food ingredients, such as lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, phenolics, carotenoids, etc., is presented, together with the different possibilities of improving valuable metabolites production either using the tools and the knowledge provided by marine biotechnology or improving the different factors involved in the production on a large scale of such metabolites. The bio-refinery concept is also presented as a way to improve the efficient use of algae biomass while favouring process sustainability. PMID:23339029

  6. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel. PMID:25535720

  7. [Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Smolina, T P; Mikheĭskaia, L V; Ovodova, R G

    1979-12-01

    The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum. PMID:117655

  8. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized. PMID:25443670

  9. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  10. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  11. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

  12. Aragonitic Pennsylvanian phylloid algae from New Mexico: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, B.L.; Moore, C.H. Jr. ); Dickson, J.A.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Remarkably well-preserved codiacean algae (Eugonophyllum and Anchicodium) retaining original aragonite are present in the Virgilian Holder Formation, Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico. The algae are preserved in a 20-cm-thick packstone between two thick (> 5m) shale beds. Aragonite is preserved as a felt-like mesh of needles in the algal skeletons, in the shell fragments of molluscs, in the walls of sponges, and in botryoidal and isopachous marine cements. The aragonite is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, by visual inspection of pristine aragonite needles with SEM, and by a high content of Sr as revealed by microprobe analysis. The average Sr content of the algae (9,091 ppm, n = 21) is comparable to modern codiaceans. Preservation of internal structure in Eugonophyllum was previously unknown. The medullary (interior) region of the Eugonophyllum thallus is composed of an aragonite felt punctuated by small (20 {mu}m diameter), parallel utricles. As in modern codiaceans, the utricles in the cortical (exterior) region of the thallus increase in diameter and their bulbous tips coalesce to form the outer cortex of the plant. This occurrence provides a key piece of evidence in support of hypotheses concerning the nature and origin of phylloid algal bioherms. Because the internal structure of most fossil phylloid algae is replaced by sparry mosaic calcite, taxonomic classification has been difficult even at the fundamental level of division (phylum). The authors discovery confirms that at least some ancient phylloid algae resembled the modern green algae Halimeda or Udotea, and lends credibility to the suggestion that ancient phylloid algal mounds are analogous to modern Halimeda mounds of the South Pacific.

  13. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-29

    The Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada uses chemical stoichiometry to estimate Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon atom availability from waste water and carbon dioxide emissions streams, and requirements for those same elements to produce a unit of algae. This information is then combined to find limiting nutrient information and estimate potential productivity associated with waste water and carbon dioxide sources. Output is visualized in terms of distributions or spatial locations. Distances are calculated between points of interest in the model using the great circle distance equation, and the smallest distances found by an exhaustive search and sort algorithm.

  14. Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens.

    PubMed

    Li, William K W; McLaughlin, Fiona A; Lovejoy, Connie; Carmack, Eddy C

    2009-10-23

    As climate changes and the upper Arctic Ocean receives more heat and fresh water, it becomes more difficult for mixing processes to deliver nutrients from depth to the surface for phytoplankton growth. Competitive advantage will presumably accrue to small cells because they are more effective in acquiring nutrients and less susceptible to gravitational settling than large cells. Since 2004, we have discerned an increase in the smallest algae and bacteria along with a concomitant decrease in somewhat larger algae. If this trend toward a community of smaller cells is sustained, it may lead to reduced biological production at higher trophic levels. PMID:19900890

  15. Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast

    SciTech Connect

    Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V.

    1996-12-31

    Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  17. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada

    2011-11-29

    The Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada uses chemical stoichiometry to estimate Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon atom availability from waste water and carbon dioxide emissions streams, and requirements for those same elements to produce a unit of algae. This information is then combined to find limiting nutrient information and estimate potential productivity associated with waste water and carbon dioxide sources. Output is visualized in terms of distributions or spatial locations. Distances are calculated betweenmore » points of interest in the model using the great circle distance equation, and the smallest distances found by an exhaustive search and sort algorithm.« less

  18. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-09-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  19. Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.

    PubMed

    He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

    2010-12-01

    A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3β,6β-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. PMID:20655992

  20. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  1. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

  2. CLOSING THE CARBON LOOP: GROWING ALGAE USING SUSTAINABLE CO2 FROM BIO-WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Record oil prices, poor air quality, and the threat of global warming have resulted in renewed interest in micro algae for its great potential as a biofuels feedstock. However, research is predominantly focused on growing algae with coal flue gas, and extracting the algae oils...

  3. MONITORING CHLOROPHYLL-A AS A MEASURE OF ALGAE IN LAKE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are an important quality component in water bodies. They are photosynthesizing organisms and are the foundation of most aquatic food webs; however, some algae (e.g. blue-green algae) can produce algal toxins. The presence of algal toxins in water bodies has important ...

  4. Where Have All the Algae Gone, or, How Many Kingdoms Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined 10 introductory college-level, general biology survey textbooks for the coverage of algae to assess the efficacy of coverage. Describes a proposal of seven kingdoms and discusses the disposition of algae among five of these kingdoms. Contends that textbooks should highlight the concept of algae across the five kingdoms. Contains 59…

  5. Relationship between carbohydrate movement and the symbiosis in lichens with green algae.

    PubMed

    Hill, D J; Ahmadjian, V

    1972-09-01

    When isolated in pure culture, four genera of lichen algae were able to produce the polyol which is known to move from the alga to the fungus in lichens with these algae. This conclusion corrects earlier suggestions that the mobile polyol is only formed by the alga in the lichen thallus. Stichococcus produced sorbitol and it is therefore suggested that, in lichens with this alga, sorbitol moves between the symbionts. Hyalococcus and Stichococcus had a similar pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light, suggesting a close relationship between these algae which are only separated now on morphological grounds.The pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light into Cladonia cristatella and its alga (Trebouxia erici) in culture indicates that in the cultured algae more (14)C was incorporated into ethanol insoluble substances and lipids and less into ribitol than in the lichen. The pattern in a joint culture of the alga and the fungus of C. cristatella was approximately intermediate between that of the lichen and the alga. However, only a small amount of (14)C fixed by the alga reached the fungus in the joint culture, and it is therefore suggested that the presence of the fungus without morphological differentiation into a lichen thallus is not sufficient to promote the alga to release carbohydrate. PMID:24481561

  6. Spectral shifting by dyes to enhance algae growth.

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Quinn, M F; Fekri, M; Murad, M; Ahmed, S A

    1984-11-01

    The photosynthetic growth action spectrum of a green alga at three bands of visible light (blue, orange, and red) at fixed quanta input and under light-limiting conditions was measured in a batch cultivation system. Quantum efficiencies (biomass dry weight increment per quanta absorbed) were better in the yellow-red region than in the blue region. Results served as a basis for the design and optimization of a dye system that would shift the energy of solar radiation to the required wavelength range by absorbing ultraviolet to blue radiation and emitting in the yellow-red, thus enhancing algae growth. Direct incorporation of dyes into the growth medium, although theoretically expected to enhance growth, in fact resulted in dye decomposition, toxicity to algae and consequently in growth inhibition. Indirect application of dyes in a double tubular reactor (algae inside and dye solution outside) demonstrated growth enhancement for certain dyes with high quantum yields and stability, which had suitable absorption/emission spectra for artificial light sources used. The maximum indirect growth enhancement was obtained using rhodamine 6G at a concentration of 3x10(-5)M with tungsten filament lamp sources. PMID:18551655

  7. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  8. Biodegradation of phenols by the alga Ochromonas danica.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, K T; Cain, R B

    1996-01-01

    The eukaryotic alga Ochromonas danica, a nutritionally versatile, mixotrophic chrysophyte, grew on phenol as the sole carbon source in axenic culture and removed the phenol carbon from the growth medium. Respirometric studies confirmed that the enzymes involved in phenol catabolism were inducible and that the alga oxidized phenol; the amount of oxygen consumed per mole of oxidized substrate was approximately 65% of the theoretical value. [U-14C]phenol was completely mineralized, with 65% of the 14C label appearing as 14CO2, approximately 15% remaining in the aqueous medium, and the rest accounted for in the biomass. Analysis of the biomass showed that 14C label had been incorporated into the protein, nucleic acid, and lipid fractions; phenol carbon is thus unequivocally assimilated by the alga. Phenol-grown cultures of O. danica converted phenols to the corresponding catechols, which were further metabolized by the meta-cleavage pathway. This surprising result was rigorously confirmed by taking the working stock culture through a variety of procedures to check that it was axenic and repeating the experiments with algal extracts. This is, as far as is known, the first definitive identification of the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic ring degradation in a eukaryotic alga, though its incidence in other eukaryotes has been (infrequently) suggested. PMID:8919787

  9. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  10. Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to combat toxic algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClimans, T. A.; Hansen, A. H.; Fredheim, A.; Lien, E.; Reitan, K. I.

    2003-04-01

    During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some arts of toxic algae dominate the flora. We describe an experiment employing a bubble curtain to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone and provide an environment in which useful algae can survive. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region in which mussels can be cleansed from the effects of toxic algae. Three 100-m long, perforated pipes were suspended at 40 m depth in the Arnafjord, a side arm of the Sognefjord. Large amounts of compressed air were supplied during a period of three weeks. The deeper water mixed with the surface water and flowed from the mixing region at 5 to 15 m depth. Within a few days, the mixture of nutrient-rich water covered most of the inner portion of Arnafjord. Within 10 days, the plankton samples showed that the artificial upwelling produced the desired type of algae and excluded the toxic blooms that were occurring outside the manipulated fjord arm. The project (DETOX) is supported by the Norwegian ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture and Public Administration.

  11. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management. PMID:26988318

  12. Optimization of light use efficiency for biofuel production in algae.

    PubMed

    Simionato, Diana; Basso, Stefania; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge for next decades is development of competitive renewable energy sources, highly needed to compensate fossil fuels reserves and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different possibilities, which are currently under investigation, there is the exploitation of unicellular algae for production of biofuels and biodiesel in particular. Some algae species have the ability of accumulating large amount of lipids within their cells which can be exploited as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Strong research efforts are however still needed to fulfill this potential and optimize cultivation systems and biomass harvesting. Light provides the energy supporting algae growth and available radiation must be exploited with the highest possible efficiency to optimize productivity and make microalgae large scale cultivation energetically and economically sustainable. Investigation of the molecular bases influencing light use efficiency is thus seminal for the success of this biotechnology. In this work factors influencing light use efficiency in algal biomass production are reviewed, focusing on how algae genetic engineering and control of light environment within photobioreactors can improve the productivity of large scale cultivation systems. PMID:23876487

  13. Basis for the Resistance of Several Algae to Microbial Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Gunnison, Douglas; Alexander, Martin

    1975-01-01

    The basis for the resistance of certain algae to microbial decomposition in natural waters was investigated using Pediastrum duplex, Staurastrum sp., and Fischerella muscicola as test organisms. Enzyme preparations previously found to convert susceptible algae into spheroplasts had no such effect on the resistant species, although glucose and galacturonic acid were released from P. duplex walls. Little protein or lipid but considerable carbohydrate was found in the walls of the refractory organisms, but resistance was not correlated with the presence of a unique sugar monomer. A substance present in Staurastrum sp. walls was characterized as lignin or lignin-like on the basis of its extraction characteristics, infrared spectrum, pyrolysis pattern, and content of an aromatic building block. Sporopollenin was found in P. duplex, and cellulose in Staurastrum sp. Cell walls of the algae were fractionated, and the fractions least susceptible to microbial degradation were the sporopollenin of P. duplex, the polyaromatic component of Staurastrum sp., and two F. muscicola fractions containing several sugar monomers. The sporopollenin content of P. duplex, the content of lignin or a related constituent of Staurastrum sp., and the resistance of the algae to microbial attack increased with age. It is suggested that resistance results from the presence of sporopollenin in P. duplex, a lignin-like material in Staurastrum sp., and possibly heteropolysaccharides in F. muscicola. PMID:808166

  14. THE OCCURRENCE OF HORMESIS IN PLANTS AND ALGAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one fung...

  15. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3 MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption. PMID:26964936

  16. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%). PMID:11014298

  17. Settlement of marine periphytic algae in a tropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, S.; Goh, B. P. L.; Chou, L. M.

    2005-08-01

    This note describes settlement studies of marine periphytic algae on glass substrata in a tropical estuary in Singapore. The rates of production in terms of 14C radiotracer uptake, biomass in terms of chlorophyll a, community structure and cell abundance were measured from the settled periphytic algae at various depths in the water column and compared with the prevailing hydrographical conditions. Relatively higher periphytic algal settlement was observed at 1 m depth, even though it was not statistically different from other depths. Diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira rotula dominated the assemblage, together with the marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. The three settlement parameters viz., periphytic algal production, chlorophyll a and cell counts showed significant differences between the days of settlement, with no significant differences observed for different depths. The periphytic algal community in this study comprised 30 microalgal species, dominated by diatoms (78%), followed by cyanobacteria (19% - primarily Synechococcus sp.), green flagellates (1%), dinoflagellates (1%) and other forms accounting for the remaining 1% of the total cell counts. Correlation studies and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed significant influence of silicate concentrations in the water column with the settlement of periphytic algae in this estuary. Though photoinhibited at the surface, photosynthetically available radiation did not seem to influence the overall settlement of periphytic algae. Diatoms and Synechococcus in the periphytic algal community were influenced by water temperature, PAR, pH and dissolved oxygen as seen in the PCA plots.

  18. A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin-Fen, Pan; Rong-Gen, Lin; Li, Ma

    2000-09-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  19. Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.

    PubMed

    Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

    2003-07-01

    Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

  20. INFLUENCE OF ALGAE ON PHOTOLYSIS RATES OF CHEMICALS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sunlight-induced algal transformations of 22 nonionic organic chemicals were studied in order to provide kinetic results and equations concerning the influence of algae on the behavior of pollutants in freshwater environments. Screening studies indicated that green and blue-green...

  1. ASPECTS OF PHOSPHATE UTILIZATION BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of various external phosphate concentrations on physiological and cytological aspects of Plectonema boryanum have been studied. P. boryanum was found to tolerate a wide range of phosphate concentrations, from 1 to 1000 mg of phosphate per liter. Growth of the alga in ...

  2. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Phagomixotrophic Green Alga Cymbomonas tetramitiformis

    PubMed Central

    Paasch, Amber E.; Graham, Linda E.; Kim, Eunsoo

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cymbomonas tetramitiformis strain PLY262, which is a prasinophycean green alga that retains a phagomixotrophic mode of nutrition. The genome is 84,524 bp in length, with a G+C content of 37%, and contains 3 rRNAs, 26 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. PMID:27313295

  3. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  4. Lysis of Blue-Green Algae by Myxobacter

    PubMed Central

    Shilo, Miriam

    1970-01-01

    Enrichment from local fishponds led to the isolation of a bacterium capable of lysing many species of unicellular and filamentous blue-green algae, as well as certain bacteria. The isolate is an aflagellate, motile rod which moves in a gliding, flexuous manner; the organism is capable of digesting starch and agar, but not cellulose and gelatin. Its deoxyribonucleic acid base pair composition (per cent guanine plus cytosine ∼70) shows a close resemblance to that of the fruiting myxobacteria. Algae in lawns on agar plates were lysed rapidly by the myxobacter, but only limited and slow lysis occurred in liquid media, and no lysis took place when liquid cultures were shaken. No diffusible lytic factors would be demonstrated. Continuous observation of the lytic process under a phase-contrast microscope suggested that a close contact between the polar tip of the myxobacter and the alga is necessary for lysis. The lytic action is limited to the vegetative cells of the algae, whereas heterocysts are not affected. The gas vacuoles of the algal host are the only remnant visible after completion of digestion by the myxobacter. Images PMID:4990764

  5. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  6. MicroRNAs in a multicellular green alga Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrui; Wu, Yang; Qi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key components in the eukaryotic gene regulatory network. We and others have previously identified many miRNAs in a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To investigate whether miRNA-mediated gene regulation is a general mechanism in green algae and how miRNAs have been evolved in the green algal lineage, we examined small RNAs in Volvox carteri, a multicellular species in the same family with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We identified 174 miRNAs in Volvox, with many of them being highly enriched in gonidia or somatic cells. The targets of the miRNAs were predicted and many of them were subjected to miRNA-mediated cleavage in vivo, suggesting that miRNAs play regulatory roles in the biology of green algae. Our catalog of miRNAs and their targets provides a resource for further studies on the evolution, biological functions, and genomic properties of miRNAs in green algae. PMID:24369344

  7. BIOCONCENTRATION OF A HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL IN GREAT LAKES PLANKTONIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioconcentration of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) was examined in the Great Lakes algae Fragilaria crotonensis, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Microcystis sp. The bioconcentration factors varied from species to species, whether they were expressed in terms of cell num...

  8. Effect of tetramethyl lead on freshwater green algae.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, B A; Wong, P T; Chau, Y K

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of tetramethyl lead (Me4Pb) towards freshwater algae was studied by bubbling biologically generated Me4Pb from one flask containing 5 mg of Pb 1-1 as Me3PbOAc into the culture medium in another flask where a test alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was grown. As Me4Pb is not soluble in water and is volatile, the exposure of an alga to this lead compound was only momentary. It was estimated that less than 0.5 mg of Pb(Me4Pb) had passed through the culture medium. The primary productivity and cell growth (determined by dry weight), however, decreased by 85% and 32% respectively, as compared with the controls without exposure to Me4Pb. Furthermore, cells exposed to Me4Pb tended to clump together and striking alterations in cell fine-structure were observed. An electron microscopic analysis by an energy dispersive spectrometer revealed that Pb ions had penetrated the cell and were deposited within concretion bodies. Similar results were obtained with the green algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. PMID:869587

  9. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Phagomixotrophic Green Alga Cymbomonas tetramitiformis.

    PubMed

    Satjarak, Anchittha; Paasch, Amber E; Graham, Linda E; Kim, Eunsoo

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cymbomonas tetramitiformis strain PLY262, which is a prasinophycean green alga that retains a phagomixotrophic mode of nutrition. The genome is 84,524 bp in length, with a G+C content of 37%, and contains 3 rRNAs, 26 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. PMID:27313295

  10. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  11. Studies on the hormonal relationships of algae in pure culture : I. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid on the growth of blue-green and green algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M R; Winter, A

    1968-09-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) stimulated the growth (increase in dry weight) of the blue-green algae Anacystis nidulans, Chlorogloea fritschii, Phormidium foveolarum, Nostoc muscorum, Anabaena cylindrica, and Tolypothrix tenuis and the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Scenedesmus obliquus growing under as sterile conditions as possible. The optimum concentration varied from species to species; in the blue-green algae it ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-9) M and in the green algae it was 10(-3) M. These results are discussed in the light of present studies in this field. PMID:24522736

  12. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lin; Wang, Hongli; Deng, Nansheng

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps (lambda = 365 nm, 250 W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 mg L(-1) and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS(algae) (the absorbency of algae) = 0.025 to ABS(algae) = 0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250 W metal halide lamps was V0 = kC(0)(0.1718)A(algae)(0.5235) (C0 was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A(algae) was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4. PMID:16839665

  13. Recovery of dilute metal ions by biosorption on river algae and its component

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Kogita, Hiroki; Mamiya, Mitsuo; Yen, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    Green algae taken from an acidic mine drainage and blue-green algae take from an alkaline hot spring stream were collected and tested for their ability to recover or remove dilute metal ions. Experimental results demonstrated that unwashed blue-green algae and washed green algae effectively adsorbed base metals ions and eluted the at pH 1. It was also found that washed and dried algae adsorbed precious metal ions more effectively than unwashed algae. For example, the washed and dried blue-green algae was capable of adsorbing 0.31 kg of gold pre kg of algae. The gold from tetrachloroaurate solution which was adsorbed on washed blue-green algae was found to change to a metallic state following initial metal binding. In the case of a dilute gold complex solution leached with thiourea, only a small amount of gold could be captured by algae. Further experiments were conducted on components of the algae, such as alginic acid, agar, cellulose and chitin and mixtures of these components, in order to determine their contribution to metal adsorption characteristics. However, a mixture of these two components demonstrated both good adsorption and desorption characteristics indicating an interaction between the individual components.

  14. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Yacoob Syed; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Beula, Johanson Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa), Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg). Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value (0.055 6±0.010 3) µg/mL, (0.067 5±0.136 0) µg/mL and (0.066 1±0.007 6) µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  15. A New Noncalcified Dasycladalean Alga from the Silurian of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LoDuca, S.T.; Kluessendorf, Joanne; Mikulic, Donald G.

    2003-01-01

    Noncalcified thalli, consisting of a narrow main axis with numerous branched hairlike laterals in whorls and a subapical array of undivided clavate laterals, from the Silurian (Llandovery) Brandon Bridge Formation of southeastern Wisconsin, constitute the basis for a new genus and species of dasycladalean alga, Heterocladus waukeshaensis. A relationship within the family Triploporellaceae is indicated by the whorled arrangement of the laterals and the absence of gametophores on mature specimens. A compilation of occurrence data suggests that noncalcified dasyclads, as a whole, were more abundant and diverse during the Ordovician and Silurian than at any other time in their history. The heterocladous thallus architecture of this alga adds to a wide range of morphological variation documented among Ordovician and Silurian dasyclads, the sum of which indicates that Dasycladales underwent a significant evolutionary radiation during the early Paleozoic.

  16. Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

    PubMed

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2004-02-01

    The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or continuous leaks of raw oil and refined products, which happen each year with the growth of the industrialization and the demand of energy. The fat of the samples were Soxhlet extracted using hexane:dichloromethane (1:1) for 7h. The organic fractions were purified using silica microcolumns. The identification and quantification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons have been carried out using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The total hydrocarbon content was between 14.8 and 40.2 microg g(-1) dry weight. PMID:14759670

  17. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  18. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  19. Antiallergic benefit of marine algae in medicinal foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis has increased during the past two decades and contributed a great deal to morbidity and an appreciable mortality in the world. Until now, few novel efficacious drugs have been discovered to treat, control, or even cure these disorders with a low adverse-effect profile. Meanwhile, glucocorticoids are still the mainstay for the treatment of allergic disease. Therefore, it is essential to isolate novel antiallergic therapeutics from natural resources. Recently, marine algae have received much attention as they are a valuable source of chemically diverse bioactive compounds with numerous health benefit effects. This contribution focuses on antiallergic agents derived from marine algae and presents an overview of their potential application in medicinal foods for the treatment of allergic disorders. PMID:22054954

  20. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G.; Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R.; Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  1. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  2. Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales performed particularly well in this descending sequence: Fucus > Ascophyllum > Sargassum. Although decreasing the swelling of wetted biomass particles, their reinforcement by crosslinking may significantly affect the biosorption performance. Lead uptakes up to 370 mg Pb/g were observed in crosslinked Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. At low equilibrium residual concentrations of lead in solution, however, ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 had a higher lead uptake than the biosorbent materials. An order-of-magnitude lower uptake of nickel was observed in all of the sorbent materials examined.

  3. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms. PMID:26594068

  4. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms.

    PubMed

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. PMID:27054497

  5. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms

    PubMed Central

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11888.001 PMID:27054497

  6. A preliminary study on automated freshwater algae recognition and classification system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated analyses and identification of algae images were limited to only one type of algae. Automated identification system for tropical freshwater algae is even non-existent and this study is partly to fill this gap. Results The development of the automated freshwater algae detection system involved image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification by using Artificial neural networks (ANN). Image preprocessing was used to improve contrast and remove noise. Image segmentation using canny edge detection algorithm was then carried out on binary image to detect the algae and its boundaries. Feature extraction process was applied to extract specific feature parameters from algae image to obtain some shape and texture features of selected algae such as shape, area, perimeter, minor and major axes, and finally Fourier spectrum with principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract some of algae feature texture. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify algae images based on the extracted features. Feed-forward multilayer perceptron network was initialized with back propagation error algorithm, and trained with extracted database features of algae image samples. System's accuracy rate was obtained by comparing the results between the manual and automated classifying methods. The developed system was able to identify 93 images of selected freshwater algae genera from a total of 100 tested images which yielded accuracy rate of 93%. Conclusions This study

  7. Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan; Price, Dana C; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-08-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) comprise a monophyletic eukaryotic lineage of ~6,500 species with a fossil record that extends back 1.2 billion years. A surprising aspect of red algal evolution is that sequenced genomes encode a relatively limited gene inventory (~5-10 thousand genes) when compared with other free-living algae or to other eukaryotes. This suggests that the common ancestor of red algae may have undergone extensive genome reduction, which can result from lineage specialization to a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle or adaptation to an extreme or oligotrophic environment. We gathered genome and transcriptome data from a total of 14 red algal genera that represent the major branches of this phylum to study genome evolution in Rhodophyta. Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: (i) in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway; and (ii) in the common ancestor of the extremophilic Cyanidiophytina. Red algal genomes are also characterized by the recruitment of hundreds of bacterial genes through horizontal gene transfer that have taken on multiple functions in shared pathways and have replaced eukaryotic gene homologs. Our results suggest that Rhodophyta may trace their origin to a gene depauperate ancestor. Unlike plants, it appears that a limited gene inventory is sufficient to support the diversification of a major eukaryote lineage that possesses sophisticated multicellular reproductive structures and an elaborate triphasic sexual cycle. PMID:26986787

  8. The problems of Prochloron. [evolution of green algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prokaryotic green algae (prochlorophytes), which contain chlorophylls a and b but no bilin pigments, may be phylogenetically related to ancestral chloroplasts if symbiogenesis occurred. They may be otherwise related to eukaryotic chlorophytes. They could have evolved from cyanophytes by loss of phycobilin and gain of chlorophyll b synthesis. These possibilities are briefly discussed. Relevant evidence from biochemical studies in many collaborative laboratories is now becoming available for the resolution of such questions.

  9. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    PubMed

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  10. Mathematical simulation of photophobic responses in blue-green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Hader, D.P.; Burkart, U.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is described to simulate photophobic reversal of blue-green algae. The model is based on electrical potential changes within the cells, which are treated as separate compartments. The updating of potentials is accomplished through iterative calculation of recurrence equations, permitting easy programming for computer calculation. The influence of a number of conditions on photophobic reversal has been studied, and the predictions of the model have been verified by experiments with the living organisms.

  11. Physiology and cryosensitivity of coral endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodinium).

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, M; Carter, V L; Leong, J C; Kleinhans, F W

    2010-04-01

    Coral throughout the world are under threat. To save coral via cryopreservation methods, the Symbiodinium algae that live within many coral cells must also be considered. Coral juvenile must often take up these important cells from their surrounding water and when adult coral bleach, they lose their endosymbiotic algae and will die if they are not regained. The focus of this paper was to understand some of the cryo-physiology of the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, living within three species of Hawaiian coral, Fungia scutaria, Porites compressa and Pocillopora damicornis in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Although cryopreservation of algae is common, the successful cryopreservation of these important coral endosymbionts is not common, and these species are often maintained in live serial cultures within stock centers worldwide. Freshly-extracted Symbiodinium were exposed to cryobiologically appropriate physiological stresses and their viability assessed with a Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer. Stresses included sensitivity to chilling temperatures, osmotic stress, and toxic effects of various concentrations and types of cryoprotectants (i.e., dimethyl sulfoxide, propylene glycol, glycerol and methanol). To determine the water and cryoprotectant permeabilities of Symbiodinium, uptake of radio-labeled glycerol and heavy water (D(2)O) were measured. The three different Symbiodinium subtypes studied demonstrated remarkable similarities in their morphology, sensitivity to cryoprotectants and permeability characteristics; however, they differed greatly in their sensitivity to hypo- and hyposmotic challenges and sensitivity to chilling, suggesting that standard slow freezing cryopreservation may not work well for all Symbiodinium. An appendix describes our H(2)O:D(2)O water exchange experiments and compares the diffusionally determined permeability with the two parameter model osmotic permeability. PMID:19857482

  12. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  13. Algae (Microcystis and Scenedesmus) absorption spectra and its application on Chlorophyll a retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Chen, Maosi; Wang, Qiao; Gao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Blue algae and green algae are the dominant phytoplankton groups that contribute to the eutrophication and the water bloom in inland water of China. The absorption coefficients (spectra) of the algae, which do not change with its intrinsic optical characteristics and the observation geometry, are strictly additive quantities. The characteristics of the absorption spectra of the two algae are presented. The pure blue algae and the pure green algae cultured in the laboratory environment are diluted and mixed at ten volume ratios. The Quantitative Filter Technique was applied to measure their absorption spectra. The "hot-ethanol extraction" method was chosen to calculate their concentration of Chlorophyll a. The retrieval algorithm developed in this study extracts the mapping information between each individual alga and their Chlorophyll a concentration via Continuous Wavelet Transform, and retrieves the Chlorophyll a concentration of each alga in their mixture using a trust region optimizer. The results show that the retrieved and the measured Chlorophyll a concentrations of the blue algae and the green algae components in the ten mixture match well with the average relative error of 5.55%.

  14. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  15. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to HVCV-1 antiserum, and DNA restriction fragments) whereas algae from the other three hydra contained another similar, but distinct, virus (designated HVCV-2). The virus from the paramecium algae (designated PBCV-1) was distinct from both HVCV-1 and HVCV-2. The symbiotic algae in the hydra could also be distinguished ultrastructurally. Chloroplasts of both algae that produced HVCV-1 lacked a pyrenoid whereas chloroplasts of the other three symbiotic algae contained pyrenoids. Since all symbiotic eukaryotic algae we have examined have had virus, a potential viral role in symbiosis is suggested. Images PMID:16593198

  16. The effects of graphene oxide on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P F M; Nakabayashi, D; Zucolotto, V

    2015-09-01

    Graphene represents a new class of nanomaterials that has attracted great interest due to its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Once disposed in the environment, graphene can interact with biological systems and is expected to exhibit toxicological effects. The ecotoxicity of graphene and its derivatives, viz.: graphene oxide (GO) depends on their physicochemical properties, including purity, diameter, length, surface charge, functionalization and aggregation state. In this study we evaluated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. The algae were exposed to different concentrations of GO pre-equilibrated for 24h with oligotrophic freshwater medium (20ml) during incubation in a growth chamber under controlled conditions: 120μEm(-2)s(-1) illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 22±2°C. Algal growth was monitored daily for 96h by direct cell counting. Reactive oxygen species level (ROS), membrane damage (cell viability) and autofluorescence (chl-a fluorescence) were evaluated using fluorescent staining and further analyzed by flow cytometry. The toxic effects from GO, as observed in algal density and autofluorescence, started at concentrations from 20 and 10μgmL(-1), respectively. Such toxicity is probably the result of ROS generation and membrane damage (cell viability). The shading effect caused by GO agglomeration in culture medium may also contribute to reduce algal density. The results reported here provide knowledge regarding the GO toxicity on green algae, contributing to a better understanding of its environmental behavior and impacts. PMID:26204245

  17. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time. PMID:27128164

  18. Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Compensation Points of Freshwater Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Birmingham, Brendan C.; Colman, Brian

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described for the measurement of total dissolved inorganic carbon by acid release as CO2 followed by its conversion to methane and detection by flame ionization in a modified gas chromatograph. This method was used to determine the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration reached at compensation point when algae were allowed to photosynthesize in a closed system in a buffer at known pH, and the CO2 compensation point was calculated from this concentration. The CO2 compensation points of 16 freshwater algae were measured at acid and alkaline pH in air-saturated medium: at acid pH the CO2 compensation points ranged from 4.8 to 41.5 microliters per liter while at alkaline pH they ranged from 0.2 to 7.2 microliters per liter. Removal of O2 from the medium caused a slight lowering of compensation point at acid pH but had little effect at alkaline pH. These low, O2-insensitive compensation points are characteristic of C4 plants. It is suggested that these low CO2 compensation points are maintained by an active bicarbonate uptake by algae especially at alkaline pH. PMID:16661077

  19. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering. PMID:25636485

  20. Unveiling privacy: advances in microtomography of coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N; Ferreira, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Mariana C

    2015-05-01

    Marine calcareous algae are widespread in oceans of the world and known for their calcified cell walls and the generation of rhodolith beds that turn sandy bottoms into a complex structured ecosystem with high biodiversity. Rhodoliths are unattached, branching, crustose benthic marine red algae; they provide habitat for a rich variety of marine invertebrates. The resultant excavation is relevant to sediment production, while is common that the fragments or the whole specimens result in vast fossil deposits formed by rich material that can be "mined" for biological and geological data. Accordingly, microtomography (μCT) may enable a detailed investigation of biological and geological signatures preserved within the rhodolith structure in a non-destructive approach that is especially relevant when analyzing herbaria collections or rare samples. Therefore, we prepared coralline algae samples and submitted them to a range of capabilities provided by the SkyScan1176 micro-CT scanner, including reconstruction, virtual slicing, and pinpointing biological and geological signatures. To this end, polychaetes and mollusk shells, or their excavations, coral nucleation, sediment deposits and conceptacles were all observed. Although a similar technique has been applied previously to samples of living rhodoliths in Brazil, we show, for the first time, its successful application to fossil rhodoliths. We also provide a detailed working protocol and discuss the advantages and limitations of the microtomography within the rhodoliths. PMID:25777060

  1. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae. PMID:26108508

  2. Uptake and distribution of technetium in several marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Myttenaere, C.; Van Baelen, J.; Cogneau, M.; van der Ben, D.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake or chemical form of technetium in different marine algae (Acetabularia, Cystoseira, Fucus) has been examined and a simple model to explain the uptake of technetium in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia, has been conceptualized. At low concentrations in the external medium, Acetabularia can rapidly concentrate technetium. Concentration factors in excess of 400 can be attained after a time of about 3 weeks. At higher mass concentrations in the medium, uptake of technetium by Acetabularia becomes saturated resulting in a decreased concentration factor (approximately 10 after 4 weeks). Approximately 69% of the total radioactivity present in /sup 95m/Tc labelled Acetabularia is found in the cell cytosol. In Fucus vesiculosus, labelled with /sup 95m/Tc, a high percentage of technetium is present in soluble ionic forms while approximately 40% is bound, in this brown alga, in proteins and polysaccharides associated with cell walls. In the algal cytosol of Fucus vesiculosus, about 45% of the /sup 95m/Tc appears to be present as anionic TcO/sup -//sub 4/ and the remainder is bound to small molecules. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  3. Phycobilisome Heterogeneity in the Red Alga Porphyra umbilicalis1

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, Patricia; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Mousseau, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Phycobilisomes were isolated from Rhodophyceae brought from the field (Porphyra umbilicalis) or grown in culture under laboratory conditions (Antithamnion glanduliferum). In P. umbilicalis two kinds of well-coupled (ellipsoidal and hemidiscoidal) phycobilisomes were detected, in contrast to A. glanduliferum cultured algae in which only one kind of well-coupled, ellipsoidaltype phycobilisome appeared. The new phycobilisome-type particle detected in P. umbilicalis is characterized by an impoverishment in R-phycoerythrin and by sedimentation at lower density. The comparison between both phycobilisomes of P. umbilicalis allows determination of the presence of one colorless linker polypeptide (30 kilodaltons) associated with R-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin and two (40 and 38 kilodaltons) associated to R-phycoerythrin. The percentage of linker polypeptides associated with this pigment is low in the new phycobilisome-like particle detected. This suggests that part of the R-phycoerythrin is less strongly bound to the phycobilisome than the other pigments. This feature could probably explain the existence of two kinds of phycobilisomes as intermediary steps of phycobilisome organization in algae exposed to rapid changes in environmental factors. In contrast, algae growing in culture and adapted to specific conditions do not present intermediary organization steps. Polypeptide composition and identification are given for this phycobilisome-like particle. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667317

  4. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Domozych, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In “ulvophytes,” uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell’s signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity. PMID:25477895

  5. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

  6. Presence of state transitions in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta

    PubMed Central

    Cheregi, Otilia; Kotabová, Eva; Prášil, Ondřej; Schröder, Wolfgang P.; Kaňa, Radek; Funk, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Plants and algae have developed various regulatory mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems even during fluctuating light conditions; these include state transitions as well as non-photochemical quenching. The former process maintains the balance by redistributing antennae excitation between the photosystems, meanwhile the latter by dissipating excessive excitation inside the antennae. In the present study, these mechanisms have been analysed in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching was observed in cultures only after they had entered the stationary growth phase. These cells displayed a diminished overall photosynthetic efficiency, measured as CO2 assimilation rate and electron transport rate. However, in the logarithmic growth phase G. theta cells redistributed excitation energy via a mechanism similar to state transitions. These state transitions were triggered by blue light absorbed by the membrane integrated chlorophyll a/c antennae, and green light absorbed by the lumenal biliproteins was ineffective. It is proposed that state transitions in G. theta are induced by small re-arrangements of the intrinsic antennae proteins, resulting in their coupling/uncoupling to the photosystems in state 1 or state 2, respectively. G. theta therefore represents a chromalveolate algae able to perform state transitions. PMID:26254328

  7. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates. PMID:23404546

  8. Presence of state transitions in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Otilia; Kotabová, Eva; Prášil, Ondřej; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Kaňa, Radek; Funk, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Plants and algae have developed various regulatory mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems even during fluctuating light conditions; these include state transitions as well as non-photochemical quenching. The former process maintains the balance by redistributing antennae excitation between the photosystems, meanwhile the latter by dissipating excessive excitation inside the antennae. In the present study, these mechanisms have been analysed in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching was observed in cultures only after they had entered the stationary growth phase. These cells displayed a diminished overall photosynthetic efficiency, measured as CO2 assimilation rate and electron transport rate. However, in the logarithmic growth phase G. theta cells redistributed excitation energy via a mechanism similar to state transitions. These state transitions were triggered by blue light absorbed by the membrane integrated chlorophyll a/c antennae, and green light absorbed by the lumenal biliproteins was ineffective. It is proposed that state transitions in G. theta are induced by small re-arrangements of the intrinsic antennae proteins, resulting in their coupling/uncoupling to the photosystems in state 1 or state 2, respectively. G. theta therefore represents a chromalveolate algae able to perform state transitions. PMID:26254328

  9. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome. PMID:26426800

  10. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  11. Sulfated phenolic acids from Dasycladales siphonous green algae.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Welling, Matthew; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Sulfated aromatic acids play a central role as mediators of chemical interactions and physiological processes in marine algae and seagrass. Among others, Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Krasser 1898 uses a sulfated hydroxylated coumarin derivative as storage metabolite for a protein cross linker that can be activated upon mechanical disruption of the alga. We introduce a comprehensive monitoring technique for sulfated metabolites based on fragmentation patterns in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and applied it to Dasycladales. This allowed the identification of two new aromatic sulfate esters 4-(sulfooxy)phenylacetic acid and 4-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid. The two metabolites were synthesized to prove the mass spectrometry-based structure elucidation in co-injections. We show that both metabolites are transformed to the corresponding desulfated phenols by sulfatases of bacteria. In biofouling experiments with Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens the desulfated forms were more active than the sulfated ones. Sulfatation might thus represent a measure of detoxification that enables the algae to store inactive forms of metabolites that are activated by settling organisms and then act as defense. PMID:26188914

  12. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex.

    PubMed

    Domozych, David S; Domozych, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In "ulvophytes," uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell's signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity. PMID:25477895

  13. Origins of multicellular complexity: Volvox and the volvocine algae.

    PubMed

    Herron, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    The collection of evolutionary transformations known as the 'major transitions' or 'transitions in individuality' resulted in changes in the units of evolution and in the hierarchical structure of cellular life. Volvox and related algae have become an important model system for the major transition from unicellular to multicellular life, which touches on several fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. The Third International Volvox Conference was held at the University of Cambridge in August 2015 to discuss recent advances in the biology and evolution of this group of algae. Here, I highlight the benefits of integrating phylogenetic comparative methods and experimental evolution with detailed studies of developmental genetics in a model system with substantial genetic and genomic resources. I summarize recent research on Volvox and its relatives and comment on its implications for the genomic changes underlying major evolutionary transitions, evolution and development of complex traits, evolution of sex and sexes, evolution of cellular differentiation and the biophysics of motility. Finally, I outline challenges and suggest future directions for research into the biology and evolution of the volvocine algae. PMID:26822195

  14. Photosynthetic responses and accumulation of mesotrione in two freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Lai, Jinhu; Wan, Jinbao; Chen, Lianshui

    2014-01-01

    Mesotrione is a herbicide used for killing annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds in maize. A recent investigation has shown that mesotrione has been detected as an organic contaminant in aquatic environments and may have a negative impact on aquatic organisms. To evaluate the eco-toxicity of mesotrione to algae, experiments focusing on photosynthetic responses and mesotrione accumulation in Microcystis sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda were carried out. Both algae treated with mesotrione at 0.05-10 mg L(-1) for 7 days reduced the photosynthetic capacity. The fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the maximal PSII activity (Fv/Fm), and the parameters (Ik, α and ETRmax) of rapid light curves (RLCs) in both algae were decreased under mesotrione exposure. The 96 h EC50 values for mesotrione on S. quadricauda and Microcystis sp. were 4.41 and 6.19 mg L(-1), respectively. The latter shows more tolerance to mesotrione. Mesotrione was shown to be readily accumulated by both species. Such uptake of mesotrione led to the rapid removal of mesotrione from the medium. Overall, this study represents the initial comprehensive analyses of Microcystis sp. and S. quadricauda in adaptation to the mesotrione contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25059419

  15. Towards tradable permits for filamentous green algae pollution.

    PubMed

    de Lange, W J; Botha, A M; Oberholster, P J

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution permit systems are challenging to design and implement. Operational systems that has maintained functionality remains few and far between, particularly in developing countries. We present current progress towards developing such a system for nutrient enrichment based water pollution, mainly from commercial agriculture. We applied a production function approach to first estimate the monetary value of the impact of the pollution, which is then used as reference point for establishing a reserve price for pollution permits. The subsequent market making process is explained according to five steps including permit design, terms, conditions and transactional protocol, the monitoring system, piloting and implementation. The monetary value of the impact of pollution was estimated at R1887 per hectare per year, which not only provide a "management budget" for filamentous green algae mitigation strategies in the study area, but also enabled the calculation of a reserve price for filamentous green algae pollution permits, which was estimated between R2.25 and R111 per gram filamentous algae and R8.99 per gram at the preferred state. PMID:27155255

  16. Multi-centennial reconstruction of Aleutian climate from coralline algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Smith, E.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.; Jacob, D. E.; Fietzke, J.; Moore, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived encrusting coralline algae yield robust reconstructions of mid-to-high latitude environmental change from their annually-banded high-magnesium calcite skeleton. The magnesium to calcium ratio measured in their skeleton reflects ambient seawater temperature at the time of formation. Thus, reconstructions from these algae are important to understanding the role of natural modes of climate variability versus that of external carbon dioxide in controlling climate in data sparse regions such as the northern North Pacific Ocean/southern Bering Sea. Here, we reconstruct regional seawater temperature from the skeletons of nine algae specimens from two islands in the Aleutian Archipelago. We find that seawater temperature increased ~1.4°C degrees over the past 350 years. The detrended seawater reconstruction correlates with storminess because storms moving across the North Pacific Ocean bring warmer water to the archipelago. Comparison of the algal seawater temperature reconstruction with instrumental and terrestrial proxy reconstructions reveals that atmospheric teleconnections to North America via the North Pacific storm tracks are not robust before the 20th century. This indicates that North Pacific climate processes inferred from the instrumental records should be cautiously extrapolated when describing earlier non-analogous climates or future climate change.

  17. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. PMID:26763322

  18. Effect of Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa Extract on Uterine Fibroids in Comparison with Tibolone among Patients of a Recent Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-Controlled Study in Chinese Women with Menopausal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Xi, Sisi; Liske, Eckehard; Wang, Shuyu; Liu, Jianli; Zhang, Zhonglan; Geng, Li; Hu, Lina; Jiao, Chunfeng; Zheng, Shurong; Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich Henneicke-von; Bai, Wenpei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40-60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as -30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone. PMID:24719645

  19. Effect of Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa Extract on Uterine Fibroids in Comparison with Tibolone among Patients of a Recent Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-Controlled Study in Chinese Women with Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Liske, Eckehard; Wang, Shuyu; Liu, Jianli; Zhang, Zhonglan; Geng, Li; Hu, Lina; Zheng, Shurong; Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich Henneicke-von; Bai, Wenpei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40–60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as −30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone. PMID:24719645

  20. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of Algae Biomass to Produce Energy during Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanshan; Colosi, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are asked to improve both energy efficiency and nutrient removal efficacy. Integration of algaculture offers several potential synergies that could address these goals, including an opportunity to leverage anaerobic digestion at WRRFs. In this study, bench-scale experiments are used to measure methane yield during co-digestion of Scenedesmus dimorphus or mixed WRRF-grown algae with WRRF biosolids. The results indicate that normalized methane yield decreases with increasing algae content in a manner than can be reasonably well fit using linear regression (R(2) = 67%). It is thus possible to predict methane yield for any mixture of algae and biosolids based on the methane yield of the biosolids alone. Using revised methane yields, the energy return on investment of a typical WRRF increases from 0.53 (without algae) to 0.66 (with algae). Thus, algae-based wastewater treatment may hold promise for improving WRRF energy efficiency without compromising effluent quality. PMID:26803024

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  3. Endozoic algae in shelled gastropods — a new symbiotic association in coral reefs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, T.; Wishkovsky, A.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Live algae were found in the hepatopancreas and gonads of the Red Sea snail Strombus tricornis. These organs are constantly concealed within the upper whorls of the snail's shell. Light penetration was 5 15% of the incident light reaching the shell. Pigment analysis indicated the presence of chlorophyll a, c and peridinin, a composition resembling the Dinoflagellata. Chlorophyll a concentration in the algae was 1.18±0.36 pg chl/cell. 14C assimilation of isolated algae incubated in the light exceeded that of dark controls, demonstrating the photosynthetic activity of the endozoic algae.

  4. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  5. How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

  6. Biosorption of heavy metal ions to brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-10-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to carboxylic groups on alginic acid in brown algae.

  7. RESPONSES OF MARINE UNICELLULAR ALGAE TO BROMINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SIX GROWTH MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine unicellular algae, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Chlorella sp., were exposed to the industrial brominated compounds, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP), decabromobiphenyloxide (DBBO), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromomethylbenzene (PBMB), pentabromo...

  8. Multispectral sorter for rapid, nondestructive optical bioprospecting for algae biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Wu, Hauwen; Singh, Seema

    2014-03-01

    Microalgal biotechnology is a nascent yet burgeoning field for developing the next generation of sustainable feeds, fuels, and specialty chemicals. Among the issues facing the algae bioproducts industry, the lack of efficient means of cultivar screening and phenotype selection represents a critical hurdle for rapid development and diversification. To address this challenge, we have developed a multi-modal and label-free optical tool which simultaneously assesses the photosynthetic productivity and biochemical composition of single microalgal cells, and provides a means for actively sorting attractive specimen (bioprospecting) based on the spectral readout. The device integrates laser-trapping micro-Raman spectroscopy and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry of microalgal cells in a flow cell. Specifically, the instrument employs a dual-purpose epi-configured IR laser for single-cell trapping and Raman spectroscopy, and a high-intensity VISNIR trans-illumination LED bank for detection of variable photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. Micro-Raman scatter of single algae cells revealed vibrational modes corresponding to the speciation and total lipid content, as well as other major biochemical pools, including total protein, carbohydrates, and carotenoids. PSII fluorescence dynamics provide a quantitative estimate of maximum photosynthetic efficiency and regulated and non-regulated non-photochemical quenching processes. The combined spectroscopic readouts provide a set of metrics for subsequent optical sorting of the cells by the laser trap for desirable biomass properties, e.g. the combination of high lipid productivity and high photosynthetic yield. Thus the device provides means for rapid evaluation and sorting of algae cultures and environmental samples for biofuels development.

  9. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Thomas A; Collins, Aaron M; McBride, Robert C; Behnke, Craig A; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multichannel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a 4-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, which is dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximated as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water-surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a nonsampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared with auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The model-derived magnitudes of sunlight and skylight water-surface reflections compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the model-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. Finally, the water temperatures derived from the reflectance model exhibit excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours but correspond to significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours. PMID:25321139

  10. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Collins, Aaron M.; McBride, Robert C.; Behnke, Craig A.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for the outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multi-channel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a four-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximated as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For both the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a non-sampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared to auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The magnitudes of the sunlight and skylight water-surface contributions derived from the reflectance model compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the reflectance-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. To conlclude, the water temperature derived from the reflectance model exhibits excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours and highlights significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours.

  11. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Collins, Aaron M.; McBride, Robert C.; Behnke, Craig A.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for the outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multi-channel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a four-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximatedmore » as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For both the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a non-sampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared to auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The magnitudes of the sunlight and skylight water-surface contributions derived from the reflectance model compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the reflectance-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. To conlclude, the water temperature derived from the reflectance model exhibits excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours and highlights significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours.« less

  12. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Fucoidan from Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is a technique that can be applied to extract compounds from different natural resources. In this chapter, the use of this technique to extract fucoidan from marine algae is described. The method involves a closed MAE system, ultrapure water as extraction solvent, and suitable conditions of time, pressure, and algal biomass/water ratio. By using this procedure under the specified conditions, the penetration of the electromagnetic waves into the material structure occurs in an efficient manner, generating a distributed heat source that promotes the fucoidan extraction from the algal biomass. PMID:26108504

  13. Multi-scale Characterization of Improved Algae Strains

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Taraka T.

    2015-04-01

    This report relays the important role biofuels such as algae could have in the energy market. The report cites that problem of crude oil becoming less abundant while the demand for energy continues to rise. There are many benefits of producing energy with biofuels such as fewer carbon emissions as well as less land area to produce the same amount of energy compared to other sources of renewable fuels. One challenge that faces biofuels right now is the cost to produce it is high.

  14. Receptor mediated mineralocorticoid action in alga cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Mirshahi, M; Mirshahi, A; Nato, A; Agarwal, M K

    1992-12-21

    The multiplication of Chlamydomonas cells can be arrested by the spirolactone derivative RU 26752 and this is fully reversible by the natural hormone aldosterone. Continuous growth in the presence of RU 26752 led to the isolation of a population subsequently resistant to the action of mineralocortoid analogues, due possibly to the selection of mutant cells. Immunophotochemical evidence is provided for a 52 kDa protein that possesses functional steroid and DNA binding domains. Alga cells therefore appear to respond to steroid hormones in a manner similar to the mammalian systems, possibly via a receptor that may represent a pygmy ancestor of the latter day steroid receptor superfamily. PMID:1334844

  15. The value of post-extracted algae residue

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bryant, Henry; Gogichaishvili, Ilia; Anderson, David; Richardson, James; Sawyer, Jason; Wickersham, Tryon; Drewery, Merritt

    2012-07-26

    This paper develops a hedonic pricing model for post-extracted algae residue (PEAR), which can be used for assessing the economic feasibility of an algal production enterprise. Prices and nutritional characteristics of commonly employed livestock feed ingredients are used to estimate the value of PEAR based on its composition. We find that PEAR would have a value lower than that of soybean meal in recent years. The value of PEAR will vary substantially based on its characteristics. PEAR could have generated algal fuel co-product credits that in recent years would have ranged between $0.95 and $2.43 per gallon of fuel produced.

  16. The auxin concentration in sixteen Chinese marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lijun

    2006-09-01

    The author determined the occurrence of indole-3-acetic acid in sixteen Chinese marine algae collected from the east coast of China with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) and wheat coleoptile bioanalysis methods (WCB). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) presented was from 1.1 46.9 ng/g Fw (fresh weight) with FS and 5.3 110.2 ng/g Fw with WCB. The results by the two methods were in the orders of 10-3 103 ng/g Fw reported previously from multiple references.

  17. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy of phycobiliproteins from cryptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    We describe new spectroscopic measurements which reveal additional information regarding the observed quantum coherences in proteins extracted from photosynthetic algae. The proteins we investigate are the phycobiliproteins phycoerythrin 545 and phycocyanin 645. Two new avenues have been explored. We describe how changes to the chemical and biological environment impact the quantum coherence present in the 2D electronic correlation spectrum. We also use new multidimensional spectroscopic techniques to reveal insights into the nature of the quantum coherence and the nature of the participating states.

  18. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  19. Waltzing Volvox/: Orbiting Bound States of Flagellated Multicellular Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, K.; Leptos, K.; Pedley, T. J.; Goldstein, R. E.; Ishikawa, T.

    2008-11-01

    The spherical colonial alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size makes it a model organism for the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby colonies swim close to a solid surface, they are attracted together and can form a stable bound state in which they continuously waltz around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction between colonies combined with the rotational motion of bottom-heavy Volvox are shown to explain the stability and dynamics of the bound state. This phenomenon is suggested to underlie observed clustering of colonies at surfaces.

  20. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2009-04-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces.

  1. Interaction of organic solvents with the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, G.W.; Smith, T.M. )

    1988-06-01

    Solvents are often a component of bioassay systems when water-insoluble toxicants are being tested. These solvents must also be considered as xenobiotics and therefore, as potential toxicants in the bioassay. However, the effects of solvents on the organisms being tested and their possible interaction with the test compound are often overlooked by researchers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the inhibitory effects of six solvents commonly used in pesticide bioassays towards growth of the common green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and to examine the occurrence of solvent-pesticide interactions with this organism.

  2. The role of algae in mine drainage bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The effect of mine drainage effluent on aquatic ecosystems has been abundantly documented and remediation efforts to data have always been costly and temporary at best. Bioremediation, using natural environmental microbes, to treat acid mine drainage has shown great promise as an affordable, permanent treatment. At Lambda, we used mixatrophic cultures of bacteria, algae, protozoans and fungal groups on four different jobs and it has proven effective. The role of two particular algal groups, the Euglena mutabilis and the Ochramonas sp. are particularly of phycological interest.

  3. Balamuthia mandrillaris: in vitro interactions with selected protozoa and algae.

    PubMed

    Tapia, José L; Torres, Benjamin Nogueda; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2013-01-01

    Although Balamuthia mandrillaris was identified more than two decades ago as an agent of fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other animals, little is known about its ecological niche, biological behavior in the environment, food preferences and predators, if any. When infecting humans or other animals, Balamuthia feeds on tissues; and in vitro culture, it feeds on mammalian cells (monkey kidney cells, human lung fibroblasts, and human microvascular endothelial cells). According to recent reports, it is believed that Balamuthia feeds on small amebae, for example, Acanthamoeba that are present in its ecological niche. To test this hypothesis, we associated Balamuthia on a one-on-one basis with selected protozoa and algae. We videotaped the behavior of Balamuthia in the presence of a potential prey, its ability to hunt and attack its food, and the time required to eat and cause damage to the target cell by direct contact. We found that B. mandrillaris ingested trophozoites of Naegleria fowleri, Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba spp., Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, and Giardia. However, it did not feed on Acanthamoeba cysts or algae. Balamuthia caused cytolysis of T. cruzi epimastigotes and T. gondii tachyzoites by direct contact. Balamuthia trophozoites and cysts were, however, eaten by Paramecium sp. PMID:23790262

  4. Drift algae reduce foraging efficiency of juvenile flatfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, Marie; Booth, Dale M.

    2007-11-01

    Although flatfish species utilise a wide range of habitats as adults, several species are confined to a very limited habitat as juveniles. Recruitment levels are dependent on the quality and quantity of these nursery areas and changes therein. In the Baltic Sea, these shallow environments are often subject to influxes of drifting macroalgae, which add structure to otherwise bare sandy substrate. Structure, such as vegetation, alters predator-prey interactions of a wide range of fauna and in an array of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. The aim of our study was to assess the inhibition potential of drifting macroalgae on the foraging efficiency of juvenile flatfish (young of the year Scophthalmus maximus L., young of the year- and group 1 + Platichthys flesus L.) through a series of microcosm experiments. Our results show that foraging success is restricted by drift algae as predation efficiency of all predator species and size classes was negatively affected by the presence of macroalgae. Overall, there was a reduction in predation success by 80 ± 12% due to structural effects and/or the induced changes in water chemistry associated with the algae. Flatfish depend on shallow sandy areas as feeding and nursery grounds during their juvenile stage and frequently occurring macroalgal assemblages drastically change the features of the otherwise bare substrate, setting the stage for small-scale, localised processes potentially affecting population dynamics.

  5. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants. PMID:21776669

  6. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

  7. Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1999-08-22

    Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

  8. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  9. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; et al

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence ofmore » phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.« less

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed to Fucoidan Preparations from Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Torode, Thomas A.; Marcus, Susan E.; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S.; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance. PMID:25692870

  11. Biotransformation of arsenic by a Yellowstone thermoacidophilic eukaryotic alga

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jie; Lehr, Corinne R.; Yuan, Chungang; Le, X. Chris; McDermott, Timothy R.; Rosen, Barry P.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is the most common toxic substance in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund list of hazardous substances. It is introduced primarily from geochemical sources and is acted on biologically, creating an arsenic biogeocycle. Geothermal environments are known for their elevated arsenic content and thus provide an excellent setting in which to study microbial redox transformations of arsenic. To date, most studies of microbial communities in geothermal environments have focused on Bacteria and Archaea, with little attention to eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we show the potential of an extremophilic eukaryotic alga of the order Cyanidiales to influence arsenic cycling at elevated temperatures. Cyanidioschyzon sp. isolate 5508 oxidized arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)], reduced As(V) to As(III), and methylated As(III) to form trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)]. Two arsenic methyltransferase genes, CmarsM7 and CmarsM8, were cloned from this organism and demonstrated to confer resistance to As(III) in an arsenite hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli. The 2 recombinant CmArsMs were purified and shown to transform As(III) into monomethylarsenite, DMAs(V), TMAO, and trimethylarsine gas, with a Topt of 60–70 °C. These studies illustrate the importance of eukaryotic microorganisms to the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in geothermal systems, offer a molecular explanation for how these algae tolerate arsenic in their environment, and provide the characterization of algal methyltransferases. PMID:19276121

  12. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, J.; Motti, C. A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D. M.; Negri, A. P.; Schupp, P. J.; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P. D.; Harder, T.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds – glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides – as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples. PMID:26042834

  13. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development. PMID:26108496

  14. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blättler, C. L.; Stanley, S. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater, resulting in experimental samples with somewhat malformed skeletons. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite (-0.6‰) appears to be much smaller than that for the algal aragonite (-1.4‰), similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda has higher Ca-isotope ratios than inorganic forms by approximately 0.25‰, likely because of Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the marine Ca-isotope cycle.

  15. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blättler, C. L.; Stanley, S. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.

    2014-03-01

    Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite is much smaller than that for the algal aragonite, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda is isotopically heavier than inorganic forms, likely due to Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the Ca-isotope budget of the carbonate sink and the Ca-isotope composition of seawater.

  16. Interest of dynamic tests in acute ecotoxicity assessment in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Jouany, J.M.; Ferard, J.F.; Vasseur, P.; Gea, J.; Truhaut, R.; Rast, C.

    1983-04-01

    Sorption of toxics by algae may be important and occurs very early. Thus, a decrease of the experimental toxic concentrations in the medium results in understating toxicity when tests are conducted under static conditions. In this work, two different methods of exposure of algae (Chlorella vulgaris) are studied, the static test and the pseudodynamic test. Acute effects (biological and analytical effects) of inorganic compounds (Cu/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 6 +/) have been evaluated for 96 hr of exposure; in each case, IC50 is much lower in the dynamic condition than in the static one. The percentage of reduction varies from 55 to 75% after 96 hr. Accumulation of metal by chlorellae is greater when testing by the pseudodynamic way, with Cu/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/. But in the case of Cd/sup 2 +/ and Cr/sup 6 +/, the concentration factors are similar in the two kinds of exposure. These results point out the advantage of the pseudodynamic test, of which the methodology is very easy, for a more realistic assessment of acute ecotoxicity in these organisms.

  17. Unlocking nature's treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, Stephen P; Zhang, QianYi; Ross, Michael; Anderson, Avril; Thomas, Naomi J; Lapresa, Ángela; Rad-Menéndez, Cecilia; Campbell, Christine N; Black, Kenneth D; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae synthesize high levels of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins photoautotrophically, thus attracting considerable interest for the biotechnological production of fuels, environmental remediation, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, only a few micro-algae species are grown commercially at large-scale, primarily for "health-foods" and pigments. For a range of potential products (fuel to pharma), high lipid productivity strains are required to mitigate the economic costs of mass culture. Here we present a screen concentrating on marine micro-algal strains, which if suitable for scale-up would minimise competition with agriculture for water. Mass-Spectrophotometric analysis (MS) of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) was subsequently validated by measurement of total fatty acids (TFA) by Gas-Chromatography (GC). This identified a rapid and accurate screening strategy based on elemental analysis. The screen identified Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 and a marine isolate of Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211/21A as the best lipid producers. Analysis of C, N, protein, carbohydrate and Fatty Acid (FA) composition identified a suite of strains for further biotechnological applications e.g. Dunaliella polymorpha CCAP 19/14, significantly the most productive for carbohydrates, and Cyclotella cryptica CCAP 1070/2, with utility for EPA production and N-assimilation. PMID:26202369

  18. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia -Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  19. Spectrin-like proteins in green algae (Desmidiaceae).

    PubMed

    Holzinger, A; De Ruijter, N; Emons, A M; Lütz-Meindl, U

    1999-01-01

    Immunochemical detection of actin as well as spectrin-like proteins have been carried out in the green algae Micrasterias denticulata, Closterium lunula, and Euastrum oblongum. In these algae, actin is detected on Western blots at 43 kDa with antibodies to actin from higher plant and animal origin. By use of antibodies to human and chicken erythrocyte spectrin a cross-reactivity with desmid proteins is found at about the molecular mass of 220 kDa, where also human erythrocyte spectrin is detected. Additional bands are present at 120 kDa and 70 kDa, which are probably breakdown products. An antibody against chicken alpha-actinin, a small protein of the spectrin superfamily, recognizes bands at 90 kDa, where it is expected, and 70 kDa, probably the same breakdown product as mentioned for spectrin. Isoelectric focusing provides staining at pI 4.6 with antibodies against spectrin. Immunogold labelling of spectrin and alpha-actinin antigens on high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted Micrasterias denticulata cells with the same antibodies exhibits staining, especially at membranes of different populations of secretory vesicles, at dictyosomes, and the plasma membrane. However, no clear correlation to the growth pattern of the cell could be observed. Taken together, our results demonstrate the presence of spectrin-like proteins in desmid cells which are probably functional in exocytosis. PMID:10579899

  20. Molecular Characterization of Epiphytic Bacterial Communities on Charophycean Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Madeline M.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Graham, Linda E.

    1998-01-01

    Epiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, Desmidium grevillii, Hyalotheca dissiliens, and Spondylosium pulchrum (class Charophyceae, order Zygnematales), collected from a Sphagnum bog were characterized by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. A total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. By phylogenetic analysis, the cloned sequences were placed into several major lineages of the Bacteria domain: the Flexibacter/Cytophaga/Bacteroides phylum and the α, β, and γ subdivisions of the phylum Proteobacteria. Analysis at the subphylum level revealed that the majority of our sequences were not closely affiliated with those of known, cultured taxa, although the estimated evolutionary distances between our sequences and their nearest neighbors were always less than 0.1 (i.e., greater than 90% similar). This result suggests that the majority of sequences obtained in this study represent as yet phenotypically undescribed bacterial species and that the range of bacterial-algal interactions that occur in nature has not yet been fully described. PMID:9797295