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Sample records for alga saccharina japonica

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of the alga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Ly, Hoang Vu; Choi, Gyeong-Ho; Kim, Jinsoo; Woo, Hee Chul

    2012-11-01

    Saccharina japonica can be converted to bio-oil, gas, and char through pyrolysis. In this study, the pyrolysis characteristics of S. japonica were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Most of the materials decomposed between 200°C and 350°C at heating rates of 10-20°C/min. The apparent activation energy increased from 102.5kJmol(-1) to 269.7kJmol(-1) with increasing pyrolysis conversion. The kinetic parameters of S. japonica pyrolysis were determined using nonlinear least-squares regression of the experimental data assuming first-order kinetics. The kinetic rate constants indicated that the predominant reaction pathway was B (bio-oil) to C (gas; C(1)-C(4)), rather than A (S. japonica) to B (bio-oil) and/or to C (gas; C(1)-C(4)). The proposed lumped kinetics of S. japonica pyrolysis offers a guide for the scale-up of the process at the research and industrial level.

  2. Symbiotic associations in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Krupnova, Tatiana N; Ayala, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    The brown alga Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is a highly polymorphic representative of the family Laminariaceae, inhabiting the northwest Pacific region. We have obtained 16S rRNA sequence data in symbiont microorganisms of the typical form (TYP) of S. japonica and its common morphological varieties, known as "longipes" (LON) and "shallow-water" (SHA), which show contrasting bathymetric distribution and sharp morphological, life history traits, and ecological differences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences shows that the microbial communities are significantly different in the three forms studied and consist of mosaic sets of common and form-specific bacterial lineages. The divergence in bacterial composition is substantial between the TYP and LON forms in spite of their high genetic similarity. The symbiont distribution in the S. japonica forms and in three other laminarialean species is not related to the depth or locality of the algae settlements. Combined with our previous results on symbiont associations in sea urchins and taking into account the highly specific character of bacteria-algae associations, we propose that the TYP and LON forms may represent incipient species passing through initial steps of reproductive isolation. We suggest that phenotype differences between genetically similar forms may be caused by host-symbiont interactions that may be a general feature of evolution in algae and other eukaryote organisms. Bacterial symbionts could serve as sensitive markers to distinguish genetically similar algae forms and also as possible growth-promoting inductors to increase algae productivity.

  3. Chemotactic movement in sperm of the oogamous brown algae, Saccharina japonica and Fucus distichus.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Nana; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2017-01-01

    In oogamous species of brown algae such as Saccharina japonica and Fucus distichus, the sperm possess an unusual long posterior flagellum, which oscillates actively and produces a propulsive force during swimming. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the effect of chemotactic responses on sperm swimming and flagellar waveforms by high-speed video recordings. We found that the thigmotactic response to the chemo-attractant was not enhanced during chemotactic swimming and that the swimming velocity of sperm did not decrease. As concentration of the chemo-attractant decreased, the sperm performed drastic U-turn movements, which was caused by a rapid and large bend of the posterior flagellum. Unilateral bending of the posterior flagellum when sensing a decrease in the concentration of the chemo-attractant may be a common response in male gametes during fertilization of brown algae both oogamous and isogamous species.

  4. Structural characteristics and biological activity of Fucoidans from the brown algae Alaria sp. and Saccharina japonica of different reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Tarbeeva, Dariya V; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2012-04-01

    Structural characteristics and the antitumor activity of fucoidans isolated from vegetative and reproductive tissue of the brown algae Alaria sp. and Saccharina japonica were studied. The reproductive status of the brown algae affected the yield of fucoidans and their structural characteristics. The fucoidan yield was 5.7% (w/w on the basis of the dried algae weight) for fertile and 3.8% for sterile Alaria sp. and 1.42 and 0.71% for fertile and sterile S. japonica, respectively. The fucoidans from fertile Alaria sp. and S. japonica had a slightly higher degree of sulfation and a somewhat more homogeneous monosaccharide composition, with predominate amounts of fucose and galactose, than those isolated from sterile algae tissue. The fucoidans from both the sterile and fertile brown algae tissue tested possessed selective cytotoxicity towards human breast cancer (T-47D) and melanoma (RPMI-7951) cell lines, but not to normal mouse epidermal cells (JB6 Cl41), and effectively inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of the breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. The fucoidans from reproductive tissue of brown algae possessed higher antitumor activity than those from vegetative plants.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of edible brown alga Saccharina japonica and its constituents pheophorbide a and pheophytin a in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nurul; Ishita, Ishrat Jahan; Jin, Seong Eun; Choi, Ran Joo; Lee, Chan Mee; Kim, Yeong Shik; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2013-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of Saccharina japonica and its active components was evaluated via in vitro inhibitory activities against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Since the methanolic extract of S. japonica showed strong anti-inflammatory activity, it was fractionated with several solvents. Among the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the highest inhibition of LPS-induced NO production (IC50=25.32μg/mL), followed by the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50=75.86μg/mL). Considering the yield and anti-inflammatory potential together, the CH2Cl2 fraction was selected for chromatographic separation to yield two active porphyrin derivatives, pheophorbide a and pheophytin a, together with an inactive fucoxanthin. In contrast to fucoxanthin, pheophorbide a and pheophytin a showed dose-dependent inhibition against LPS-induced NO production at nontoxic concentrations in RAW 264.7 cells. Both compounds also suppressed the expression of iNOS proteins, while they did not inhibit the COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These results indicate that pheophorbide a and pheophytin a are two important candidates of S. japonica as anti-inflammatory agents which can inhibit the production of NO via inhibition of iNOS protein expression. Thus, these compounds hold great promise for use in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  6. A bacterial pathogen infecting gametophytes of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yanting; Li, Wei

    2013-03-01

    A newly identified bacterial disease of kelp ( Saccharina japonica) gametophytes was found in clone cultures. It is characterized by swollen gametophyte cells in the early period of infection followed by filamentous fading. An alginolytic marine bacterium referred to as A-1 was isolated from the diseased gametophytes. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing and morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterium was identified as a strain of the genus Alteromonas. By testing Koch's postulates, Alteromonas sp. A-1 was further confirmed as the pathogen. The infection process was also investigated using both scanning electron and light microscopy.

  7. Comparison of transcriptome under red and blue light culture of Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Wang, Fei-Jiu; Sun, Xiu-Tao; Liu, Fu-Li; Liang, Zhou-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Saccharina japonica is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Several aspects such as photosynthesis in Saccharina lives are affected by blue light, the predominant light spectrum in the habitat. In this study, transcriptome profiling of S. japonica by next generation sequencing technology generated 55,102 qualified transcripts and 40.5 % transcripts were assigned to functional annotation. Expression of a large proportion of genes has been previously reported to be regulated by blue light, taking dark as control. However, by comparison among white, blue and red light, the significantly differentially expressed gene tags (DEGs) accounted for only 6.75 % of the identified sequences. It indicated that light-regulated gene expression in kelps is not a specific blue-light response. Unexpectedly, red light had more extensive effects on the transcriptomic activity than blue light did, since the most (68.4 %) DEGs were red light-regulated and only 17.5 % were specifically regulated by blue light. Some of the DEGs with the highest mRNA levels under blue light are not blue light-upregulated but red light-downregulated. The extensive regulation on gene expression under red light together with the abundant presence of phytochrome-like protein gene tags in S. japonica indicated their significant roles in the lives of brown algae. By highlighting the photosynthetic metabolism, blue light is more efficient than red light in triggering the pigment biosynthesis, light reaction and carbon fixation, revealing a molecular basis for rapid growth of kelps, since most of the time blue light is predominant in their habitat.

  8. A trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunyan; Wang, Xiuliang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2014-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjaTPS) (Accession: KC578568) was isolated based on homologous cloning and RACE-PCR. It was 4,127 bp, with 320 bp 5'-UTR, 21 bp 3'-UTR, and open reading frame (ORF) of 3,786 bp. The deduced 1,261 amino acids characterized with predicted molecular weight of 137.84 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.12. The SjaTPS had one N-terminal CBM20 (family 20 carbohydrate-binding module) domain, one TPS domain (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) in the middle region and a single TPP (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase) domain near the C-terminus. Structural analysis suggested that the SjaTPS putatively functioned as trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, and might be related to laminaran metabolism in S. japonica. Homology analysis indicated that the SjaTPS shared 49-70 % similarities with the 13 known TPS sequences of other algae; only 55 % amino acid similarities were detected between SjaTPS and the previously reported TPS sequence of S. japonica (Accession: DQ666325). Phylogenetic analysis revealed close affinity between SjaTPS and TPS of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Accession: CBJ29609). Transcriptional analysis showed that desiccation greatly enhanced SjaTPS expression and the maximum appeared at 3 h, which was about 300-fold compared to that of the start, implied that SjaTPS was involved with drought adaption in kelp. In vitro expression of SjaTPS showed that one distinct band existed at ~115 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was positive to the anti-His antibody with high specificity. Our results increased the knowledge of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase properties in S. japonica and also important for better understanding the role trehalose plays in kelp abiotic tolerance for adaption to the sublittoral habitats.

  9. The neuroprotective activities of heteropolysaccharides extracted from Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hong; Song, Ning; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-08-14

    Crude fucoidan extracted from Saccharina japonica was separated by anion-exchange chromatography. Then, the neuroprotective activities of the crude fucoidan (J) and its fractions (J0.4, J0.5, J1 and J2) were tested. J, J0.4 and J0.5 were shown to have neuroprotective effects. To simplify the structural features of the compounds, crude fucoidan was degraded to obtain low molecular weight fucoidan (DJ). DJ was further fractionated into DJ0.5, DJ1 and DJ2, and the neuroprotective activities of these fractions were determined. This analysis revealed that DJ and DJ0.5 retained the neuroprotective activity. However, the DJ0.5 fraction remained very complex. Thus, DJ0.5 was further separated into six fractions (F0.1, F0.2, F0.3, F0.4, F0.5 and F1). Finally, it was concluded that the anion-exchange fractions F0.1, F0.2 and F0.3 exhibited neuroprotective activities. These results suggest that heteropolysaccharides might contribute to the neuroprotective activity. Moreover, the neuroprotective heteropolysaccharide fractions contained relatively low fucose (less than 20%) and sulfate (25%), high UA content (more than 10%) and a high molar ratio of all other monosaccharides.

  10. Protective function of silicon deposition in Saccharina japonica sporophytes (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    We investigated biogenic silica deposition in sporophytes of kelp, Saccharina japonica (Laminariaceae). Silicon content was measured in different sporophyte regions and there was a trend for the silicon content to increase longitudinally from the stipe-blade transition to apical regions. The transverse trend was for the content to be higher in the marginal region than in the medial region. The silicon content was also higher in the scar and sorus regions compared with the adjacent vegetative regions. High silicon content was detected in the margin of the disc and in the sorus region of cultured sporophyte discs. Moreover, rhodamine 123 staining suggested that silicon was deposited in the mouth of the marginal wound of the disc. Rhodamine 123 fluorescence was also detected in the paraphyses and mucilaginous caps of sori. These results suggest that silicon plays important roles in tissue protection and vegetative tissue wound healing. It is also suggested that silicon is required for the protection of reproductive tissues. We also discuss the physiological and ecological roles of biogenic silica deposition in kelp and its management in cultivated fields.

  11. Effects of CO2 and seawater acidification on the early stages of Saccharina japonica development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Bin; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao W; Ye, Nai H; Wang, Yitao; Mou, Shanli; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, we demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) had significant negative effects on the microscopic development of Saccharina japonica in a short-term exposure experiment under a range of light conditions. Under elevated CO2, the alga showed a significant reduction in meiospore germination, fecundity, and reproductive success. Larger female and male gametophytes were noted to occur under high CO2 conditions and high light magnified these positive effects. Under conditions of low light combined with high PCO2, the differentiation of gametophytes was delayed until the end of the experiment. In contrast, gametophytes were able to survive after having been subjected to a long-term acclimation period, of 105 days. Although the elevated PCO2 resulted in a significant increase in sporophyte length, the biomass abundance (expressed as individual density attached to the seed fiber) was reduced significantly. Further stress resistance experiments showed that, although the acidified samples had lower resistance to high light and high temperature conditions, they displayed higher acclimation to CO2-saturated seawater conditions compared with the control groups. These combined results indicate that OA has a severe negative effect on S. japonica, which may result in future shifts in species dominance and community structure.

  12. Application of restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) to genetic diversity in Saccharina japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui; Liu, Cui; Li, Wei; Chi, Shan; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Restriction site amplified polymorphism (RSAP) was used, for the first time, to analyze the genetic structure and diversity of four, mainly cultivated, varieties of the brown alga, Saccharina japonica. Eighty-eight samples from varieties " Rongfu ", " Fujian ", " Ailunwan " and " Shengchanzhong " were used for the genetic analyses. One hundred and ninety-eight bands were obtained using eight combinations of primers. One hundred and ninety-one (96.46%) were polymorphic bands. Nei's genetic diversity was 0.360, and the coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.357. No inbreeding-type recession was found in the four brown alga varieties and the results of the " Ailunwan " variety using samples from 2 years showed that the variety was becoming less diverse during the selection inherent in the breeding program. Genetic diversity and cluster analyses results were consistent with these genetic relationships. The results show the RSAP method is suitable for genetic analysis. Continuous inbreeding and selection could reduce the genetic diversity effectively; therefore periodical supervision is required.

  13. The anticancer effects of Saccharina japonica on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hyung Rak; Kim, Gun Do

    2012-11-01

    Saccharina japonica (S. japonica), a brown macro-alga, has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea for thousands of years. In this study, the potential anticancer effects of S. japonica were evaluated on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells. The exposure of cells to the extract induced inhibition of cell growth by increasing the number of apoptotic cells with cell shrinkage and inhibition of cell cycle progression. The effects of the extract on the cells were assessed by studying the cleavage of caspases and the target proteins of caspases. The increased expression of various cleaved caspases and changed expression of other proteins related in the apoptosis pathway were observed. 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and immunofluorescence staining showed the cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis induced changes in the expression of proteins involved in a variety of signaling pathways such as endocellular reticulum (ER) stress, death receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-FoxO-mediated pathways. The data suggest that the extract (n-hexane sub-fraction) of S. japonica, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells, and has potential as a complementary agent for cancer prevention.

  14. Structural analysis of sulfated fucan from Saccharina japonica by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-03-22

    Desulfation of a fucoidan from Saccharina japonica by treatment with DMSO-MeOH resulted in partial degradation of polymeric molecules by methanolysis giving rise to a mixture of neutral, monosulfated, and disulfated fucooligosaccharides in the form of methyl glycosides. These oligomeric fragments were characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-CID-MS/MS. It was found that oligosaccharide structures coincided with the polysaccharide backbone built up mainly of (1→3)-linked fucose residues sulfated at positions 4 and 2.

  15. F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica is a novel inducer of galectin-9 and exhibits anti-allergic activity.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Yuka; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ojima, Takao; Mizuno, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide from brown sea algae. In the present study, it was demonstrated that oral administration of F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica possessed anti-allergic effects using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, but not by intraperitoneal administration. The inhibitory mechanism was dependent on galectin-9, which belongs to a soluble lectin family that recognizes β-galactoside and prevents IgE binding to mast cells. The anti-allergy properties of F-fucoidan were cancelled by an intravenous dose of anti-galectin-9 antibody or lactose, which bind competitively with galectin-9 before the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. F-fucoidan increased the expression level of galectin-9 mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells and serum galectin-9 levels. Oral treatment with F-fucoidan suppressed allergic symptoms through the induction of galectin-9. This is the first report that F-fucoidan can induce the secretion of galectin-9.

  16. F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica is a novel inducer of galectin-9 and exhibits anti-allergic activity

    PubMed Central

    Tanino, Yuka; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ojima, Takao; Mizuno, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide from brown sea algae. In the present study, it was demonstrated that oral administration of F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica possessed anti-allergic effects using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, but not by intraperitoneal administration. The inhibitory mechanism was dependent on galectin-9, which belongs to a soluble lectin family that recognizes β-galactoside and prevents IgE binding to mast cells. The anti-allergy properties of F-fucoidan were cancelled by an intravenous dose of anti-galectin-9 antibody or lactose, which bind competitively with galectin-9 before the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. F-fucoidan increased the expression level of galectin-9 mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells and serum galectin-9 levels. Oral treatment with F-fucoidan suppressed allergic symptoms through the induction of galectin-9. This is the first report that F-fucoidan can induce the secretion of galectin-9. PMID:27499575

  17. Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Six Economic Traits Using an F2 Population of the Hybrid from Saccharina longissima and Saccharina japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Tao; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Cui; Chi, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Saccharina (Laminaria) is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Previously, four genetic linkage maps of Saccharina have been constructed and five QTLs have been identified. However, they were not enough for its breeding. In this work, Saccharina longissima (♀) and Saccharina japonica (♂), which showed obvious differences in morphology and genetics, were applied in hybridization to yield the F2 mapping population with 102 individuals. Using these 102 F2 hybrids, the genetic linkage map of Saccharina was constructed by MapMaker software based on 37 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 22 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) and 139 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for six economic traits. The linkage map constructed in this research consisted of 422 marker loci (137 AFLPs, 57 SRAPs and 228 SSRs), which formed 45 linkage groups (LGs) with an average marker space of 7.92 cM; they spanned a total length of 2233.1 cM, covering the whole estimated genome size. A total of 29 QTLs were identified for six economic traits, which explained 1.06 to 64.00% of phenotypic variation, including three QTLs for frond length (FL) and raw weight (RW), five QTLs for frond width (FW), two QTLs for frond fascia width (FFW) and frond thickness (FT), and fourteen QTLs for base shape (BS). The results of this research will improve the breeding efficiency and be beneficial for marker-assisted selection (MAS) schemes in Saccharina breeding. PMID:26010152

  18. Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Six Economic Traits Using an F2 Population of the Hybrid from Saccharina longissima and Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Tao; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Cui; Chi, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Saccharina (Laminaria) is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Previously, four genetic linkage maps of Saccharina have been constructed and five QTLs have been identified. However, they were not enough for its breeding. In this work, Saccharina longissima (♀) and Saccharina japonica (♂), which showed obvious differences in morphology and genetics, were applied in hybridization to yield the F2 mapping population with 102 individuals. Using these 102 F2 hybrids, the genetic linkage map of Saccharina was constructed by MapMaker software based on 37 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 22 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) and 139 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for six economic traits. The linkage map constructed in this research consisted of 422 marker loci (137 AFLPs, 57 SRAPs and 228 SSRs), which formed 45 linkage groups (LGs) with an average marker space of 7.92 cM; they spanned a total length of 2233.1 cM, covering the whole estimated genome size. A total of 29 QTLs were identified for six economic traits, which explained 1.06 to 64.00% of phenotypic variation, including three QTLs for frond length (FL) and raw weight (RW), five QTLs for frond width (FW), two QTLs for frond fascia width (FFW) and frond thickness (FT), and fourteen QTLs for base shape (BS). The results of this research will improve the breeding efficiency and be beneficial for marker-assisted selection (MAS) schemes in Saccharina breeding.

  19. Telomeric localization of the Arabidopsis-type heptamer repeat, (TTTAGGG)n , at the chromosome ends in Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyta).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Fan; Liu, Li; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2017-02-01

    Telomeres generally consist of short repeats of minisatellite DNA sequences and are useful in chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. To date, telomeres have not been characterized in the economically important brown seaweed Saccharina japonica, thus its full cytogenetic research and genetic breeding potential has not been realized. Herein, the tentative sequence of telomeres in S. japonica was identified by PCR amplification with primers designed based on the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence (TTTAGGG)n , which was chosen out of three possible telomeric repeat DNA sequences typically present in plants and algae. After PCR optimization and cloning, sequence analysis of the amplified products from S. japonica genomic DNA showed that they were composed of repeat units, (TTTAGGG)n , in which the repeat number ranged from 15 to 63 (n = 46). This type of repeat sequence was verified by a Southern blot assay with the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence as a probe. The digestion of S. japonica genomic DNA with the exonuclease Bal31 illustrated that the target sequence corresponding to the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was susceptible to Bal31 digestion, suggesting that the repeat sequence was likely located at the outermost ends of the kelp chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations with the aforementioned probe provided the initial cytogenetic evidence that the hybridization signals were principally localized at both ends of S. japonica chromosomes. This study indicates that the telomeric repeat of the kelp chromosomes is (TTTAGGG)n which differs from the previously reported (TTAGGG)n sequence in Ectocarpus siliculosus through genome sequencing, thereby suggesting distinct telomeres in brown seaweeds.

  20. Isolation, expression, and characterization of blue light receptor AUREOCHROME gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunyan; Yao, Jianting; Fu, Gang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2014-04-01

    Photosynthetic stramenopile have chloroplasts of secondary endosymbiotic origin and are significant as aquatic primary productivity and biomass production. In marine environments, many photosynthetic stramenopiles utilize blue light to regulate growth, development, and organelle movement. Aureochrome (AUREO) is a new type blue light photoreceptor specific in photosynthetic stramenopiles. Previously, several AUREO orthologs were reported in genomes of stramenopile members, but the full-length cDNA sequences were completed only in Vaucheria frigida (Xanthophyceae), Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae), and Ochromonas danica (Chrysophyceae). In this study, the full-length cDNA of AUREO from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjAUREO) was isolated based on homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It characterized by the full length of 1,013 bp with an open reading frame of 612 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 203 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 23.08 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.63. The deduced amino acid sequence of SjAUREO contained one N-terminal basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription regulation domain and a single light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain near the C-terminus. Homologous analysis showed that SjAUREO shared 40-92 % similarities with those of other photosynthetic stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close phylogenetic affinity between SjAUREO and AUREO4 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Real-time PCR detection revealed that the SjAUREO transcription was markedly increased under BL exposure and dramatically upregulated in the 1-month juvenile sporophyte than those in the 2 and 3-month materials, which indirectly reflected the SjAUREO associated with the BL-mediated photomorphogenesis during the growth and early development of juvenile sporophytes. In vitro expression showed one distinct band existed at ∼27 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was

  1. Effect of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of Saccharina japonica populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiuliang; Yao, Jianting; Li, Qiuying; Liu, Fuli; Yotsukura, Norishige; Krupnova, Tatiana N.; Duan, Delin

    2017-01-01

    Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S. japonica populations could be divided into two groups (a cultivated/introduced group and a wild indigenous group) with significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.0001). Divergent selection, continuous inbreeding and inter-specific hybridization have caused the divergence of these two genetically separate gene pools. The significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern cultivated populations appears to be due to inter-specific hybridization and wild germplasm introduction during the domestication process. In addition, the cultivation of S. japonica has not resulted in any serious genetic disturbance of wild introduced S. japonica populations. An understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of domesticated S. japonica will be necessary for further genetic improvement and effective use of germplasm. PMID:28176848

  2. Effect of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of Saccharina japonica populations in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiuliang; Yao, Jianting; Li, Qiuying; Liu, Fuli; Yotsukura, Norishige; Krupnova, Tatiana N; Duan, Delin

    2017-02-08

    Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S. japonica populations could be divided into two groups (a cultivated/introduced group and a wild indigenous group) with significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.0001). Divergent selection, continuous inbreeding and inter-specific hybridization have caused the divergence of these two genetically separate gene pools. The significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern cultivated populations appears to be due to inter-specific hybridization and wild germplasm introduction during the domestication process. In addition, the cultivation of S. japonica has not resulted in any serious genetic disturbance of wild introduced S. japonica populations. An understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of domesticated S. japonica will be necessary for further genetic improvement and effective use of germplasm.

  3. Combined De-Algination Process as a Fractionation Strategy for Valorization of Brown Macroalga Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-11-17

    A combined process, de-algination followed by enzymatic saccharification, was designed to produce alginate and glucose from Saccharina japonica consecutively. The process conditions of de-algination were optimized separately for each stage of acidification and alkaline extraction. Collectively, the de-algination yield was 70.1% under the following optimized conditions: 2.4 wt% of Na2CO3, 70 °C, and 100 min with the acidified S. japonica immersed in a 0.5 wt% H2SO4 solution for 2 h at room temperature. The glucan content in the de-alginated S. japonica increased to 38.0%, which was approximately fivefold higher than that of the raw S. japonica. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the de-alginated S. japonica almost completed in 9 h, affording 5.2 g (96.8% of glucan digestibility) of glucose at a de-alginated S. japonica loading of 14.2 g.

  4. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  5. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-02-18

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication.

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida: isolation, structural characteristics, and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2011-12-13

    During the last decade brown seaweeds attracted much attention as a source of polysaccharides, namely laminarans, alginic acids, and sulfated polysaccharides-fucoidans, with various structures and biological activities. In this study, sulfated polysaccharides were isolated from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica (formerly named Laminaria) and Undaria pinnatifida and their antitumor activity was tested against human breast cancer T-47D and melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The sulfated polysaccharide form S. japonica was highly branched partially acetylated sulfated galactofucan, built up of (1→3)-α-L-fucose residues. The sulfated polysaccharide from U. pinnatifida was partially acetylated highly sulfated galactofucan consisting of (1→3)- or (1→3);(1→4)-α-L-fucose residues. Fucoidans from S. japonica and U. pinnatifida distinctly inhibited proliferation and colony formation in both breast cancer and melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the use of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds S. japonica and U. pinnatifida might be a potential approach for cancer treatment.

  7. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-F.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Le; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-F was determined using Illumina sequencing data (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-F and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  8. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-W.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Yu; Xu, Le; Ye, Naihao

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-W was determined using Illumina sequencing data. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-W and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  9. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-G.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Fan, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Dongsheng; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence (37,673 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-G was determined using Illumina sequencing data. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-G and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  10. A SCAR MOLECULAR MARKER SPECIFICALLY RELATED TO THE FEMALE GAMETOPHYTES OF SACCHARINA (LAMINARIA) JAPONICA (PHAEOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-S; Li, L-H; Wu, W-K; Zhou, Z-G

    2009-08-01

    PCR amplification was employed to identify female or male gametophyte associated markers in Saccharina japonica (Aresch.) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders (=Laminaria japonica Aresch.). One pair of the primers, P5, was screened from five pairs designed based on a specific sequence (GenBank accession no. AB069714) of Marchantia polymorpha Y chromosome, resulting in a differential band ∼500 bp in size between female and male gametophytes of Rongfu strain of S. japonica. According to the SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified regions) strategies, one pair of primers, P51, was designed on the basis of the sequence of this band that was only present in female gametophytes. A SCAR marker, designated FRML-494 (494-bp Female-Related Marker of S. japonica, GenBank accession no. EU931619), was developed successfully by PCR amplification using the designed P51 primer pair. The SCAR marker was verified to be present only in female gametophytes of another variety 901 of this kelp that was a hybrid between S. japonica as paternal and S. longissima (Miyabe) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl et G. W. Saunders (=Laminaria longissima Miyabe) as maternal, suggesting that the FRML-494 marker was specifically related to female gametophytes of the genus. This marker is the first molecular tool reported for sex identification in kelps. This study was beneficial for identifying gametophyte gender during vegetative growth and for judging whether the monogenetic sporophytes came from exclusive male or female gametophytes, as well as for further research on sex determination at the molecular level in kelps.

  11. The neuroprotective activities and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-07-01

    The crude polysaccharide (W) was extracted by water from Saccharina japonica and five fractions were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. And their chemical constituents, neuroprotective activities and antioxidant activities were studied. It showed that W had the neuroprotective activity while its fractions did not. In addition, the fractions displayed higher activities on hydroxyl-radical scavenging effects and reducing power than these of W. Moreover, it was speculated that the neuroprotective activities of samples were related to the hydroxyl-radical scavenging effect and reducing power while did not relate to superoxide-radical scavenging effect. Finally, it was concluded that some fractions could be good candidate antioxidants in food chemistry owing to the high antioxidant activities and their non-toxic characteristics.

  12. Optimization of saccharification and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from seaweed, Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Suk; Cho, YuKyeong; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol was produced using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) method with macroalgae polysaccharide from the seaweed Saccharina japonica (Sea tangle, Dasima) as biomass. The seaweed was dried by hot air, ground with a hammer mill and filtered with a 200-mesh sieve prior to pretreatment. Saccharification was carried out by thermal acid hydrolysis with H(2)SO(4) and the industrial enzyme, Termamyl 120 L. To increase the yield of saccharification, isolated marine bacteria were used; the optimal saccharification conditions were 10% (w/v) seaweed slurry, 40 mM H(2)SO(4) and 1 g dcw/L isolated Bacillus sp. JS-1. Using this saccharification procedure, the reducing sugar concentration and viscosity were 45.6 ± 5.0 g/L and 24.9 cp, respectively, and the total yield of the saccharification with optimal conditions and S. japonica was 69.1%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was carried out for ethanol production. The highest ethanol concentration, 7.7 g/L (9.8 ml/L) with a theoretical yield of 33.3%, was obtained by SSF with 0.39 g dcw/L Bacillus sp. JS-1 and 0.45 g dcw/L of the yeast, Pichia angophorae KCTC 17574.

  13. Structural, antioxidant, and emulsifying activities of fucoidan from Saccharina japonica using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Saravana, Periaswamy Sivagnanam; Cho, Yeon-Jin; Park, Yong-Beom; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2016-11-20

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was utilized to extract sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Saccharina japonica. Various conditions of temperature (80-200°C), pressure (5-100bar), and solvents (water, 0.1% sodium hydroxide, 0.1% formic acid, 70% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and 25% ethanol) were assessed; the best crude fucoidan (CF) yield was 8.23%, obtained from 140°C and 50bar (sodium hydroxide). Compositional analysis, FT-IR, molecular weight, monosaccharides, TGA, UV-vis, XRD, and elemental analysis confirm that extracted polysaccharides revealed the features of fucoidan. Fucose was the main monosaccharide present in CF obtained by various solvent systems. All CF showed antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH radical and ABTS(+) radical scavenging. CF demonstrates good emulsion-stabilizing capacities, especially with vegetable oils. This study demonstrates that PLE is an efficacious method for enhancing the yield of polysaccharides from S. japonica and that it could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

  14. Differential neuritogenic activities of two edible brown macroalgae, Undaria pinnatifida and Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hwang, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Kyungyong; Kim, Yang-Chun; Hong, Yong-Ki; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Saccharina japonica Areschoug are two common seaweeds, and both are known to have numerous pharmacological properties that include neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, we found that the ethanol extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE) and S. japonica (SJE) had neurite promoting activities on developing hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we studied and compared the effects of UPE and SJE on neuronal maturation. Both UPE and SJE promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations of 5 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. Initial neuronal differentiation was significantly promoted by UPE and SJE. Subsequently, treatment with both increased indices of axonal and dendritic cytoarchitecture, such as, the numbers and lengths of primary processes, although only UPE had a significant effect on branching frequencies. In addition, UPE and SJE showed no evidence of cytotoxicity, rather they protected neurons from naturally occurring death in vitro. These results indicate that UPE and SJE promote axodendritic maturation and neuronal survival and suggest that these algal extracts, especially UPE, have beneficial effects on the nervous system.

  15. Extract of Saccharina japonica induces apoptosis companied by cell cycle arrest and endoplasmic reticulum stress in SK-Hep1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Il Jung, Hyun; Jo, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Rak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gun-Do

    2014-01-01

    Saccharina japonica is a family member of Phaeophyceae (brown macro-alga) and extensively cultivated in China, Japan and Korea. Here, the potential anti-cancer effect of n-hexane fraction of S. japonica was evaluated in SK-Hep1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The N-hexane fraction reduced cell viability and increased the numbers of apoptotic cells in a both dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was activated by both caspase-dependent and independent pathways. The caspase-dependent cell death pathway is mediated by cell surface death receptors and activated caspase-8 amplified the apoptotic signal either through direct activation of downstream caspase-3 or pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bax and Bak) subsequently leading to the release of cytochrome c. On the other hand, caspase-independent apoptosis appeared mediated by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of AIF to the nucleus where they induced chromatin condensation and/or large-scale DNA fragmentation. In addition, the n-hexane fraction induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and cell cycle arrest. The results suggested that potential anti-cancer effects of n-hexane extract from S. japonica on SK-Hep1 cells.

  16. Conserved and novel heat stress-responsive microRNAs were identified by deep sequencing in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuli; Wang, Wenjun; Sun, Xiutao; Liang, Zhourui; Wang, Feijiu

    2015-07-01

    As a temperate-cold species, Saccharina japonica often suffers heat stress when it is transplanted to temperate and subtropical zones. Study the heat stress response and resistance mechanism of Saccharina is of great significance for understanding the acclimation to heat stress under domestication as well as for breeding new cultivars with heat stress resistance. In this study, we identified a set of heat stress-responsive miRNAs and analysed their regulation during the heat stress response. CO (control) and heat stress (HS) sRNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. Forty-nine known miRNAs and 75 novel miRNAs were identified, of which seven known and 25 novel miRNAs were expressed differentially under heat stress. Quantitative PCR of six selected miRNAs confirmed that these loci were responsive to heat stress. Thirty-nine and 712 genes were predicted to be targeted by the seven known miRNAs and 25 novel miRNAs, respectively. Gene function and pathway analyses showed that these genes probably play important roles in S. japonica heat stress tolerance. The miRNAs identified represent the first set of heat-responsive miRNAs identified from S. japonica, and their identification can help elucidate the heat stress response and resistance mechanisms in S. japonica.

  17. Hypoglycemic property of acidic polysaccharide extracted from Saccharina japonica and its potential mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-06-05

    In the present study, a sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan extracted from Saccharina japonica was administered to normal and alloxan-diabetic rats/mice, and its effects on glycemia, insulin and serum lipid levels were evaluated. Fucoidan administered at 200 or 1200 mg/kg body weight/day could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 22% and 34%, respectively, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Serum insulin levels in diabetic mice were increased by the administration of fucoidan (P<0.05). The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that fucoidan treatment had some effect on glucose disposal after 15 days of treatment. Furthermore, fucoidan altered plasma lipid levels by lowering cholesterol, triglyceride and plasma low-density lipoprotein concentrations, while elevating plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 100 or 300 mg/kg body weight/day. The results suggested that fucoidan exhibited a considerable hypoglycemic effect, possibly by stimulating pancreatic release of insulin and/or by reducing insulin metabolism. Our results indicated that fucoidan could be developed as a potential oral hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of diabetes.

  18. Sensitivity of spore germination and germ tube elongation of Saccharina japonica to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Han, Taejun; Kong, Jeong-Ae; Kang, Hee-Gyu; Kim, Seon-Jin; Jin, Gyo-Sun; Choi, Hoon; Brown, Murray T

    2011-11-01

    The sensitivity of early life stages of the brown seaweed Saccharina japonica to six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and two waste-water samples were investigated and a new toxicity bioassay developed. The two endpoints used were spore germination and germ tube elongation with an exposure time of 24 h. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, pH, salinity and temperature were darkness, pH 8, 35‰ and 15°C, respectively. The toxicity ranking of five metals was: Hg (EC(50) of 41 and 42 μg l(-1)) > Cu (120 and 81 μg l(-1)) > Ni (2,009 and 1,360 μg l(-1)) > Zn (3,024 and 3,897 μg l(-1)) > Pb (4,760 and 4,429 μg l(-1)) > Cd (15,052 and 7,541 μg l(-1)) for germination and germ tube elongation, respectively. The sensitivities to Cd, Cu and Ni were greater in germ tube elongation than in germination process. When tested against two different waste-water samples (processed animal and printed circuit board waste-water) values of EC(50) were between 21.29 and 32.02% for germination and between 5.33 and 8.98% for germ tube elongation. Despite differences in their chemical composition, the toxic effects of waste-water samples, as indicated by EC(50) values, did not differ significantly for the same endpoints. The CV range for both germination and germ tube elongation was between 4.61 and 37.69%, indicating high levels of precision of the tests. The results compare favourably with those from more established test procedures employing micro- and macroalgae. The advantages and potential limitations of the bioassay for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts on coastal ecosystems and commercial cultivation areas in near-shore environments are discussed.

  19. Characterization of genome-wide microsatellites of Saccharina japonica based on a preliminary assembly of Illumina sequencing reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Cui, Cuiju; Sun, Juan; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) function widely and locate dependently in genome. However, their characteristics are often ignored due to the lack of genomic sequences of most species. Kelp ( Saccharina japonica), a brown macroalga, is extensively cultured in China. In this study, the genome of S. japonica was surveyed using an Illumina sequencing platform, and its microsatellites were characterized. The preliminarily assembled genome was 469.4 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 20529 bp. Among the 128370 identified microsatellites, 90671, 25726 and 11973 were found in intergenic regions, introns and exons, averaging 339.3, 178.8 and 205.4 microsatellites per Mb, respectively. These microsatellites distributed unevenly in S. japonica genome. Mononucleotide motifs were the most abundant in the genome, while trinucleotide ones were the most prevalent in exons. The microsatellite abundance decreased significantly with the increase of motif repeat numbers, and the microsatellites with a small number of repeats accounted for a higher proportion of the exons than those of the intergenic regions and introns. C/G-rich motifs were more common in exons than in intergenic regions and introns. These characteristics of microsatellites in S. japonica genome may associate with their functions, and ultimately their adaptation and evolution. Among the 120140 pairs of designed microsatellite primers, approximately 75% were predicted to be able to amplify S. japonica DNA. These microsatellite markers will be extremely useful for the genetic breeding and population evolution studies of kelp.

  20. Chloroplast genome of one brown seaweed, Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta): its structural features and phylogenetic analyses with other photosynthetic plastids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuliang; Shao, Zhanru; Fu, Wandong; Yao, Jianting; Hu, Qiuping; Duan, Delin

    2013-06-01

    The chloroplast genome sequence of one brown seaweed, Saccharina japonica, was fully determined. It is characterized by 130,584 base pairs (bp) with a large and a small single-copy region (LSC and SSC), separated by two copies of inverted repeats (IR1 and IR2). The inverted repeat is 5015 bp long, and the sizes of SSC and LSC are 43,174 bp and 77,378 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome of S. japonica consists of 139 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. One intron was found in one tRNA-Leu gene in the chloroplast genome of S. japonica. Four types of overlapping genes were identified, ycf24 overlapped with ycf16 by 4 nucleotides (nt), ftrB overlapped with ycf12 by 6 nt, rpl4 and rpl23 overlapped by 8 nt, finally, psbC overlapped with psbD by 53 nt. With two sets of concatenated plastid protein data, 40-protein dataset and 26-protein dataset, the chloroplast phylogenetic relationship among S. japonica and the other photosynthetic species was evaluated. We found that the chloroplast genomes of haptophyte, cryptophyte and heterokont were not resolved into one cluster by the 40-protein dataset with amino acid composition bias, although it was recovered with strong support by the 26-protein dataset.

  1. Ethanol production from Saccharina japonica using an optimized extremely low acid pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji ye; Li, Pan; Lee, Jieun; Ryu, Hyun Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2013-01-01

    An extremely low acid (ELA) pretreatment using 0.06% (w/w) sulfuric acid at 170 °C for 15 min was employed to extract non-glucan components from Saccharina japonica, a brown macroalgae. Subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted using Saccharomyces cerevisiae DK 410362 and cellulase (15 FPU/g-glucan) and ß-glucosidase (70 pNPGU/g-glucan). Deionized water was used for making fermentation suspension. After the ELA pretreatment, a glucan content of 29.10% and an enzymatic digestibility of 83.96% was obtained for pretreated S. japonica. These values are 4.2- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, than those of obtained with untreated S. japonica. In SSF, a bioethanol concentration of 6.65 g/L was obtained, corresponding to a glucose equivalent concentration of 13.01 g/L, which indicated an SSF yield of 67.41% based on the total available glucan of the pretreated S. japonica. The remaining separated liquid hydrolysate, which contains mannitol and alginate-derived oligosaccharides can be applied to other fermentations.

  2. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  3. Optimization of volatile fatty acids and hydrogen production from Saccharina japonica: acidogenesis and molecular analysis of the resulting microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonsu; Kim, Woong; Park, Gwon Woo; Seo, Charles; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen from mixed anaerobic cultures of Saccharina japonica with respect to two independent variables: methanogenic inhibitor concentration and temperature. The effects of four methanogenic inhibitors on acidogenic processes were tested, and qualitative microbial analyses were carried out. Escherichia, Acinetobacter, and Clostridium were the most predominant genera in samples treated with chloroform (CHCl3), iodoform (CHI3), 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), or β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), respectively. RSM showed that the production of VFAs reached a peak of 12.5 g/L at 38.6 °C in the presence of 7.4 g/L β-CD; these were the conditions under which hydrogen production was also nearly maximal. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that shifts in the bacterial community population correlated with the concentrations of β-CD indicating that this compound effectively inhibited methanogens.

  4. Characterization of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase in Saccharina japonica: evidence for a new polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhanru; Zhang, Pengyan; Li, Qiuying; Wang, Xiuliang; Duan, Delin

    2014-01-01

    Mannitol plays a crucial role in brown algae, acting as carbon storage, organic osmolytes and antioxidant. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharina japonica revealed that the relative genes involved in the mannitol cycle are existent. Full-length sequence of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (M2DH) gene was obtained, with one open reading frame of 2,007 bp which encodes 668 amino acids. Cis-regulatory elements for response to methyl jasmonic acid, light and drought existed in the 5'-upstream region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SjM2DH has an ancient prokaryotic origin, and is probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer event. Multiple alignment and spatial structure prediction displayed a series of conserved functional residues, motifs and domains, which favored that SjM2DH belongs to the polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase (PSLDR) family. Expressional profiles of SjM2DH in the juvenile sporophytes showed that it was influenced by saline, oxidative and desiccative factors. SjM2DH was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the cell-free extracts with recombinant SjM2DH displayed high activity on D-fructose reduction reaction. The analysis on SjM2DH gene structure and biochemical parameters reached a consensus that activity of SjM2DH is NADH-dependent and metal ion-independent. The characterization of SjM2DH showed that M2DH is a new member of PSLDR family and play an important role in mannitol metabolism in S. japonica.

  5. Brown seaweed (Saccharina japonica) as an edible natural delivery matrix for allyl isothiocyanate inhibiting food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Siahaan, Evi Amelia; Pendleton, Phillip; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The edible, brown seaweed Saccharina japonica was prepared as powder in the size range 500-900 μm for the desorption release of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Powders were used as raw (containing lipids) and as de-oiled, where the lipid was removed. In general, de-oiled powders adsorbed larger masses of AITC after vapour or solution contact. Mass adsorbed due to solution contact exceeded vapour contact. Larger particles adsorbed more than smaller particles. No chemical bonding between AITC and the powder surface occurred. Release from vapour deposited particles reached 70-85% available within 72 h; solution deposited reached 70-90% available at 192 h. The larger amounts of AITC adsorbed via solution deposition resulted in greater vapour-phase concentrations at 72 h for antimicrobial activity studies. No loss of activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium or Bacillus cereus. Only a nominal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated. S. japonica powder could be used as an edible, natural vehicle for AITC delivery.

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of the brown macro-alga Laminaria saccharina: effect of reaction conditions on product distribution and composition.

    PubMed

    Anastasakis, K; Ross, A B

    2011-04-01

    The brown macro-alga Laminaria saccharina was converted into bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction in a batch reactor. The influence of reactor loading, residence time, temperature and catalyst (KOH) loading was assessed. A maximum bio-crude yield of 19.3 wt% was obtained with a 1:10 biomass:water ratio at 350 °C and a residence time of 15 min without the presence of the catalyst. The bio-crude had an HHV of 36.5 MJ/kg and is similar in nature to a heavy crude oil or bitumen. The solid residue has high ash content and contains a large proportion of calcium and magnesium. The aqueous phase is rich in sugars and ammonium and contains a large proportion of potassium and sodium.

  7. Structural analysis of heteropolysaccharide from Saccharina japonica and its derived oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ren, Sumei; Song, Ni; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-11-01

    Degraded fucoidan (F1) was desulfated by DMSO-MeOH. And anion exchange chromatography was performed to fractionate desulfated F1 (ds-F1) into five fractions. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that each fraction contained at least one set of neutral and/or sulfated fucooligosaccharides in the form of methyl glycosides. And the structures of oligomeric fragments were characterized by ESI-CID-MS/MS and ESI-CID-MS/MS/MS. In addition, more structural features were shown by NMR. Therefore, it was concluded that LF1 contained a backbone of (1→3)-linked fucopyranose residues sulfated at C-4 and branched at C-2 by fucopyranose residues and fucoglucuronomannan, fucoglucuronan, galactan and xylan were found in LF-5. Finally, it was concluded that F1 was the middle component, which contained the information of both F0.5 and F2, indicating that the differences between F1 and F0.5, F2 might be derived primarily from the different needs of algae itself.

  8. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-C6.

    PubMed

    Xu, Le; Wang, Shuai; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence (37 657 bp) of the Saccharina sp. ye-C6 was obtained from the assembled and annotated genome data sequenced by Illumina sequencing technology (KT271760). The circular genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Base composition of genome is A (28.41%), T (36.29%), C (14.72%), and G (20.58%). Through a phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae, we found that Saccharina sp. ye-C6 and Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species and strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity.

  9. Characterization of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and transcriptional analysis of its related genes in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2014-03-01

    Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.

  10. Structural analysis of a heteropolysaccharide from Saccharina japonica by electrospray mass spectrometry in tandem with collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Ren, Sumei; Song, Ni; Zhang, Quanbin

    2012-10-01

    A fucoidan extracted from Saccharina japonica was fractionated by anion exchange chromatography. The most complex fraction F0.5 was degraded by dilute sulphuric acid and then separated by use of an activated carbon column. Fraction Y1 was fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography while Fraction Y2 was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography. The fractions were determined by ESI-MS and analyzed by ESI-CID-MS/MS. It was concluded that F0.5 had a backbone of alternating 4-linked GlcA and 2-linked Man with the first Man residue from the nonreducing end accidentally sulfated at C6. In addition, F0.5 had a 3-linked glucuronan, in accordance with a previous report by NMR. Some other structural characteristics included GlcA 1→3 Man 1→4 GlcA, Man 1→3 GlcA 1→4 GlcA, Fuc 1→4 GlcA and Fuc 1→3 Fuc. Finally, it was shown that fucose was sulfated at C2 or C4 while galactose was sulfated at C2, C4 or C6.

  11. Optimization of the microwave-assisted extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch and evaluation of the inhibitory effects of phlorotannin-containing extracts on HepG2 cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhizhou; Chen, Yongshun; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Haohuai; Yuan, Guanfu; Fan, Yaming; Chen, Kun

    2013-09-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch ( S. japonica) has been evaluated with particular emphasis on the influential parameters, including the ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature, and microwave power. The MAE procedure was optimized using single-factor design and orthogonal array design (OAD). The content of total phlorotannins in S. japonica was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. A maximum total phlorotannin content of 0.644 mg of phloroglucinol equivalent per gram of dry weight plant (mg PGE/g DW) was obtained using the optimized model, which included an ethanol concentration of 55%, solid/liquid ratio of 1:8, extraction time of 25 min, irradiation power of 400 W, and temperature of 60°C. Under similar conditions, the application of a conventional extraction method led to a lower phlorotannin yield of 0.585 mg PGE/g WD. These results demonstrated that the MAE approach provided better results for the extraction of phlorotannins from S. japonica and was a promising technique for the extraction of phenolic compounds from S. japonica and other materials. In addition, screening tests for the inhibitory activity showed that the phlorotannin-containing extracts significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by inducing their apoptosis. The morphological changes that occurred during cell apoptosis were characterized using Hoechst33258 staining.

  12. [Morphofunctional changes of dendritic cells induced by sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae].

    PubMed

    Makarenkova, I D; Akhmatova, N K; Ermakova, S P; Besednova, N N

    2017-01-01

    The effects of various sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae Fucus evanescens, Saccharina cichorioides and Saccharina japonica on the morphofunctional changes of dendritic cells have been investigated using flow cytometry and phase-contrast microscopy. The dendritic cells are characterized by larger sizes, vacuolated cytoplasm, eccentrically located nucleus, and also by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic pseudopodia of various shapes. They express surface markers, indicating their maturation (CD83, CD11c, HLA-DR, CD86). Increased production of immunoregulatory (IL-12) and proinflammatory TNF-a, IL-6) cytokines (by dendritic cells polarizes the development of the Th-1 type immune response.

  13. A new approach for rhenium(VII) recovery by using modified brown algae Laminaria japonica adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Xu, Jia; Shan, Weijun; Lou, Zhenning; Fang, Dawei; Zang, Shuliang; Han, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Brown algae Laminaria japonica was chemically modified with sulfuric acid to obtain a crosslinked brown algae gel (CAS). The CAS gel showed a high affinity for Re(VII) comparing with other biomass gels, and the maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated as 37.20 mg g(-1) in case of pH 6, which could be explained by their different adsorption mechanisms. The adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic study for Re(VII) on the CAS gel was discussed in detail by the several models, such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich model for kinetics analysis, the pseudo first, the second-order, the Elovich and intraparticle diffusion equation for equilibrium analysis. Reutilization of the CAS gel was confirmed up to three adsorption-elution cycles in column-mode operation with no damage of gel, packed in the column. The result also provides a new approach for the recovery of Re(VII) from Re-containing wastewater by using the modified brown algae gel.

  14. Protective effect of edible marine algae, Laminaria japonica and Porphyra haitanensis, on subchronic toxicity in rats induced by inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanhua; Wang, Lianzhu; Yao, Lin; Liu, Zhantao; Gao, Hua

    2013-09-01

    Arsenic, a potent environmental toxic agent, causes various hazardous effects on human health. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of edible marine algae, Laminaria japonica and Porphyra haitanensis, on subchronic stress of rats induced by arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The co-treatment of marine algae could slightly increase the growth rates of body weights compared to the As2O3-treated group. The marine algae application restored liver and renal function by preventing the increment in the activities of alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, and the levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. The increase in the contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease in the contents of high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in algae co-treated groups which indicated that marine algae could reverse the abnormal lipid metabolisms induced by arsenic. Moreover, these algae could protect the rats from lipid peroxidation by restoring the depletion of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and sulfhydryl group contents, and lowering the enhanced malondialdehyde contents. Therefore, evidences indicate that L. japonica and P. haitanensis can serve as an effective regimen for treating arsenic poisoning.

  15. Anti-proliferative activity of phlorotannin extracts from brown algae Laminaria japonica Aresch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huicheng; Zeng, Mingyong; Dong, Shiyuan; Liu, Zunying; Li, Ruixue

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of phlorotannins derived from brown algae Laminaria japonica Aresch extracts on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell (BEL-7402) and on murine leukemic cells (P388) by MTT assay. Cells were incubated with 100 μg/mL of the phlorotannin extract (PE) for 48 h. The inhibitory rate of PE on BEL-7402 and P388 cells was 30.20±1.16% and 43.44±1.86%, respectively, and the half-inhibitory concentration of PE (IC50) on P388 and BEL-7402 cells was 120 μg/mL and >200 μg/mL, respectively. Microscopic observation shows that the morphologic features of tumor cells treated with PE and 5-fluorouracil are markedly different from the normal control group. The inhibitory rate of fraction A2 isolated from PE by sephadex LH-20 for BEL-7402 and P388 cells at the sample concentration of 70.42 μg/mL was 61.96±7.02% and 40.47±8.70%, respectively. The apoptosis peak for fraction A2 was the most profound of all fractions used in the flow cytometry assay. The results indicate that the anti-proliferative of this algal extract is associated with the total phlorotannin content.

  16. Saccharina genomes provide novel insight into kelp biology

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Naihao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Miao; Fan, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Dong; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Wenyu; Ji, Peifeng; Li, Demao; Guan, Zheng; Shao, Changwei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Gao, Zhengquan; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds are essential for marine ecosystems and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of Saccharina japonica, one of the most economically important seaweeds. The 537-Mb assembled genomic sequence covered 98.5% of the estimated genome, and 18,733 protein-coding genes are predicted and annotated. Gene families related to cell wall synthesis, halogen concentration, development and defence systems were expanded. Functional diversification of the mannuronan C-5-epimerase and haloperoxidase gene families provides insight into the evolutionary adaptation of polysaccharide biosynthesis and iodine antioxidation. Additional sequencing of seven cultivars and nine wild individuals reveal that the genetic diversity within wild populations is greater than among cultivars. All of the cultivars are descendants of a wild S. japonica accession showing limited admixture with S. longissima. This study represents an important advance toward improving yields and economic traits in Saccharina and provides an invaluable resource for plant genome studies. PMID:25908475

  17. Saccharina genomes provide novel insight into kelp biology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Naihao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Miao; Fan, Xiao; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Dong; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Wenyu; Ji, Peifeng; Li, Demao; Guan, Zheng; Shao, Changwei; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Gao, Zhengquan; Qi, Ji; Zhao, Fangqing

    2015-04-24

    Seaweeds are essential for marine ecosystems and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of Saccharina japonica, one of the most economically important seaweeds. The 537-Mb assembled genomic sequence covered 98.5% of the estimated genome, and 18,733 protein-coding genes are predicted and annotated. Gene families related to cell wall synthesis, halogen concentration, development and defence systems were expanded. Functional diversification of the mannuronan C-5-epimerase and haloperoxidase gene families provides insight into the evolutionary adaptation of polysaccharide biosynthesis and iodine antioxidation. Additional sequencing of seven cultivars and nine wild individuals reveal that the genetic diversity within wild populations is greater than among cultivars. All of the cultivars are descendants of a wild S. japonica accession showing limited admixture with S. longissima. This study represents an important advance toward improving yields and economic traits in Saccharina and provides an invaluable resource for plant genome studies.

  18. Rapid Evolution of microRNA Loci in the Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Cock, J Mark; Liu, Fuli; Duan, Delin; Bourdareau, Simon; Lipinska, Agnieszka P; Coelho, Susana M; Tarver, James E

    2017-03-01

    Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families. Surprisingly, none of the S. japonica miRNAs share significant sequence similarity with the Ectocarpus sp. miRNAs. However, the miRNA repertoires of the two species share a number of structural and genomic features indicating that they were generated by similar evolutionary processes and therefore probably evolved within the context of a common, ancestral miRNA system. This lack of sequence similarity suggests that miRNAs evolve rapidly in the brown algae (the two species are separated by ∼95 Myr of evolution). The sets of predicted targets of miRNAs in the two species were also very different suggesting that the divergence of the miRNAs may have had significant consequences for miRNA function.

  19. Rapid Evolution of microRNA Loci in the Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuli; Duan, Delin; Bourdareau, Simon; Lipinska, Agnieszka P.; Coelho, Susana M.; Tarver, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families. Surprisingly, none of the S. japonica miRNAs share significant sequence similarity with the Ectocarpus sp. miRNAs. However, the miRNA repertoires of the two species share a number of structural and genomic features indicating that they were generated by similar evolutionary processes and therefore probably evolved within the context of a common, ancestral miRNA system. This lack of sequence similarity suggests that miRNAs evolve rapidly in the brown algae (the two species are separated by ∼95 Myr of evolution). The sets of predicted targets of miRNAs in the two species were also very different suggesting that the divergence of the miRNAs may have had significant consequences for miRNA function. PMID:28338896

  20. Chemical composition and moisture-absorption/retention ability of polysaccharides extracted from five algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Hou, Yun; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we prepared seven polysaccharides extracted from five algae including one brown alga Saccharina japonica, one red alga Porphyra haitanensis and three green algae Codium fragile, Enteromorpha linza and Bryopsis plumose. The chemical composition and capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention were investigated in comparison with those of hyaluronic acid (HA). The low molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed exhibited the highest moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities of all of the polysaccharides studied and performed better than HA. The relationships between chemical composition (including sulfated groups, monosaccharide, and molecular weight) and the functions of polysaccharides were also studied. We found the sulfated group was a main active site for moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities. These abilities were also related to molecular weight; with the exception of the low molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed, lower molecular weight improved moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities.

  1. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae.

  2. Antioxidant capacities of fucoxanthin-producing algae as influenced by their carotenoid and phenolic contents.

    PubMed

    Foo, Su Chern; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Ismail, Maznah; Basri, Mahiran; Yau, Sook Kun; Khong, Nicholas M H; Chan, Kim Wei; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-01-10

    Natural antioxidants from sustainable sources are favoured to accommodate worldwide antioxidant demand. In addition to bioprospecting for natural and sustainable antioxidant sources, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the bioactives (i.e. carotenoid and phenolic acids) and the antioxidant capacities in fucoxanthin-producing algae. Total carotenoid, phenolic acid, fucoxanthin contents and fatty acid profile of six species of algae (five microalgae and one macroalga) were quantified followed by bioactivity evaluation using four antioxidant assays. Chaetoceros calcitrans and Isochrysis galbana displayed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by Odontella sinensis and Skeletonema costatum which showed moderate bioactivities. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Saccharina japonica exhibited the least antioxidant activities amongst the algae species examined. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression showed that both carotenoids and phenolic acids were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the antioxidant activities, indicating the influence of these bioactives on the algal antioxidant capacities.

  3. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  4. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome. PMID:26426800

  5. Evaluation of marine sediments as microbial sources for methane production from brown algae under high salinity.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    Various marine sediments were evaluated as promising microbial sources for methane fermentation of Saccharina japonica, a brown alga, at seawater salinity. All marine sediments tested produced mainly acetate among volatile fatty acids. One marine sediment completely converted the produced volatile fatty acids to methane in a short period. Archaeal community analysis revealed that acetoclastic methanogens belonging to the Methanosarcina genus dominated after cultivation. Measurement of the specific conversion rate at each step of methane production under saline conditions demonstrated that the marine sediments had higher conversion rates of butyrate and acetate than mesophilic methanogenic granules. These results clearly show that marine sediments can be used as microbial sources for methane production from algae under high-salt conditions without dilution.

  6. Production of biodiesel from carbon sources of macroalgae, Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Yu Ri; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-10-01

    As aquatic biomass which is called "the third generation biomass", Laminaria japonica (also known as Saccharina japonica) consists of mannitol and alginate which are the main polysaccharides of algal carbohydrates. In this study, oleaginous yeast (Cryptococcus curvatus) was used to produce lipid from carbon sources derived from Laminaria japonica. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced by fermentation of alginate extracted from L. japonica. Thereafter, mannitol was mixed with VFAs to culture the oleaginous yeast. The highest lipid content was 48.30%. The composition of the fatty acids was similar to vegetable oils. This is the first confirmation of the feasibility of using macroalgae as a carbon source for biodiesel production.

  7. Phylogeny of Saccharina and Laminaria (Laminariaceae, Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in sequence-tagged-site markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xumin; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Liu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Laminaria and Saccharina have recently been recognized as two independent clades from the former genus Laminaria. Traditional morphological taxonomy is being challenged by molecular evidence from both nucleus and plastid. Intensive work is in great demand from the perspective of genome colinearity. In this study, 118 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were screened for phylogenetic analyses, 29 based on genome sequences, while 89 were based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. EST-based STS marker development (29.37%) had an effi ciency twice as high as genome-sequence-based development (9.48%) as a result of high conservation of gene transcripts among the relative species. S. ochotensis, S. religiosa, S. japonica, and L. hyperborea showed great homogeneity in all 118 STS markers. Our result supports the view that the diversifi cation between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria was a more recent event and that Saccharina and Laminaria shared high phylogenetic affi nity. However, when it came to the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level among the 41 SNPs, L. hyperborea owned 29 unique SNPs against 12 within the left three Saccharina species and 12 of the 13 indels were supposedly unique for L. hyperborea, indicated by its high variability. Originating from homologous ancestors, species between the recently diverged genera Laminaria and Saccharina may have taken in enough mutations at the SNP level only, in spite of different evolutionary strategies for better adaptation to the environment. Our study lays a solid foundation from a new perspective, although more accurate phylogenetic analysis is still needed to clarify the evolutionary traces between the genera Saccharina and Laminaria.

  8. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-07

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs.

  9. Comparison of Saccharina japonica–Undaria pinnatifida Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Algae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture) on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture. Methods To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining. Results On day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05) stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments. PMID:27896178

  10. Inclusion of Saccharina latissima in conventional anaerobic digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Ometto, F; Berg, A; Björn, A; Safaric, L; Svensson, B H; Karlsson, A; Ejlertsson, J

    2017-04-04

    Loading macroalgae into existing anaerobic digestion (AD) plants allows us to overcome challenges such as low digestion efficiencies, trace elements limitation, excessive salinity levels and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), observed while digesting algae as a single substrate. In this work, the co-digestion of the brown macroalgae Saccharina latissima with mixed municipal wastewater sludge (WWS) was investigated in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the organic loading rate (OLR) were fixed at 19 days and 2.1 g l(-1) d(-1) of volatile solids (VS), respectively. Initially, WWS was digested alone. Subsequently, a percentage of the total OLR (20%, 50% and finally 80%) was replaced by S. latissima biomass. Optimal digestion conditions were observed at medium-low algae loading (≤50% of total OLR) with an average methane yield close to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The conductivity values increased with the algae loading without inhibiting the digestion process. The viscosities of the reactor sludges revealed decreasing values with reduced WWS loading at both temperatures, enhancing mixing properties.

  11. Genome-wide computational analysis of the secretome of brown algae (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Makoto; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Brown algae have evolved complex multicellularity in the heterokont lineage. They are phylogenetically distant to land plants, fungi and animals. Especially, the members of Laminariales (so-called kelps) have developed highly differentiated tissues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in a number of essential processes in multicellular organisms, such as cell adhesion, cell and tissue differentiations, cell-to-cell communication, and responses to environmental stimuli. In these processes, a set of extracellular secreted proteins called the secretome operates remodeling of the physicochemical nature of ECM and signal transduction by interacting with cell surface proteins and signaling molecules. Characterization of the secretome is a critical step to clarify the contributions of ECM to the multicellularity of brown algae. However, the identity of the brown algal secretome has been poorly understood. In order to reveal the repertory of the brown algal secretome and its involvement in the evolution of Laminariales, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the brown algal secretome utilizing the published complete genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica as well as newly obtained RNA-seq data of seven laminarialean species (Agarum clathratum, Alaria crassifolia, Aureophycus aleuticus, Costaria costata, Pseudochorda nagaii, Saccharina angustata and Undaria pinnatifida) largely covering the laminarialean families. We established the in silico pipeline to systematically and accurately detect the secretome by combining multiple prediction algorithms for the N-terminal signal peptide and transmembrane domain within the protein sequence. From 16,189 proteins of E. siliculosus and 18,733 proteins of S. japonica, 552 and 964 proteins respectively were predicted to be classified as the secretome. Conserved domain analysis showed that the domain repertory were very similar to each other, and that of the brown algal secretome was partially common

  12. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

  13. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Haiyang; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes. PMID:26444909

  14. A draft genome of the brown alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus, S-strain: a platform for future studies of 'mozuku' biology.

    PubMed

    Nishitsuji, Koki; Arimoto, Asuka; Iwai, Kenji; Sudo, Yusuke; Hisata, Kanako; Fujie, Manabu; Arakaki, Nana; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Konishi, Teruko; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2016-12-01

    The brown alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus (Okinawa mozuku), is economically one of the most important edible seaweeds, and is cultivated for market primarily in Okinawa, Japan. C. okamuranus constitutes a significant source of fucoidan, which has various physiological and biological activities. To facilitate studies of seaweed biology, we decoded the draft genome of C. okamuranus S-strain. The genome size of C. okamuranus was estimated as ∼140 Mbp, smaller than genomes of two other brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica Sequencing with ∼100× coverage yielded an assembly of 541 scaffolds with N50 = 416 kbp. Together with transcriptomic data, we estimated that the C. okamuranus genome contains 13,640 protein-coding genes, approximately 94% of which have been confirmed with corresponding mRNAs. Comparisons with the E. siliculosus genome identified a set of C. okamuranus genes that encode enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways for sulfated fucans and alginate biosynthesis. In addition, we identified C. okamuranus genes for enzymes involved in phlorotannin biosynthesis. The present decoding of the Cladosiphon okamuranus genome provides a platform for future studies of mozuku biology.

  15. Selective bactericidal potential of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) hull extract on Microcystis strains in comparison with green algae and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Baik-Ho; Chung, Ill-Min; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2009-07-01

    We examined the selective inhibitory potential of rice hull extract on the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, in comparison with inhibitory effects on two green algae (Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Scenedesmus quadricauda) and a zooplankton (Daphnia magna) species. The inhibitory effect of rice hull extract, measured by algal growth or zooplankton survival using four different concentrations of extract (1, 10, 100 and 1000 microg L(-1)), was highest on Microcystis strains (average: 98%, range: 95%-99%), followed by D. magna (average: 22%, range: 10%-47%), A. convolutus (average: 20%, range: 16%-24%), and S. quadricauda (average: 8%, range: 0%-15%). Rice hull extract had only a small effect on the growth of the green algae and Daphnia, particularly in the range 1-100 microg L(-1), and the inhibitory effect was somewhat diminished even at the 1,000 microg L(-1) level, at the end of the experimental period, especially for Daphnia. Our study indicates that rice hull extract has a strong specific algicide potential when used to combat M. aeruginosa.

  16. A draft genome of the brown alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus, S-strain: a platform for future studies of ‘mozuku’ biology

    PubMed Central

    Nishitsuji, Koki; Arimoto, Asuka; Iwai, Kenji; Sudo, Yusuke; Hisata, Kanako; Fujie, Manabu; Arakaki, Nana; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Konishi, Teruko; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    The brown alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus (Okinawa mozuku), is economically one of the most important edible seaweeds, and is cultivated for market primarily in Okinawa, Japan. C. okamuranus constitutes a significant source of fucoidan, which has various physiological and biological activities. To facilitate studies of seaweed biology, we decoded the draft genome of C. okamuranus S-strain. The genome size of C. okamuranus was estimated as ∼140 Mbp, smaller than genomes of two other brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica. Sequencing with ∼100× coverage yielded an assembly of 541 scaffolds with N50 = 416 kbp. Together with transcriptomic data, we estimated that the C. okamuranus genome contains 13,640 protein-coding genes, approximately 94% of which have been confirmed with corresponding mRNAs. Comparisons with the E. siliculosus genome identified a set of C. okamuranus genes that encode enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathways for sulfated fucans and alginate biosynthesis. In addition, we identified C. okamuranus genes for enzymes involved in phlorotannin biosynthesis. The present decoding of the Cladosiphon okamuranus genome provides a platform for future studies of mozuku biology. PMID:27501718

  17. Re-annotation, improved large-scale assembly and establishment of a catalogue of noncoding loci for the genome of the model brown alga Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Alexandre; Avia, Komlan; Sterck, Lieven; Derrien, Thomas; Wucher, Valentin; Andres, Gwendoline; Monsoor, Misharl; Godfroy, Olivier; Lipinska, Agnieszka; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Van De Peer, Yves; Hitte, Christophe; Corre, Erwan; Coelho, Susana M; Cock, J Mark

    2017-04-01

    The genome of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus was the first to be completely sequenced from within the brown algal group and has served as a key reference genome both for this lineage and for the stramenopiles. We present a complete structural and functional reannotation of the Ectocarpus genome. The large-scale assembly of the Ectocarpus genome was significantly improved and genome-wide gene re-annotation using extensive RNA-seq data improved the structure of 11 108 existing protein-coding genes and added 2030 new loci. A genome-wide analysis of splicing isoforms identified an average of 1.6 transcripts per locus. A large number of previously undescribed noncoding genes were identified and annotated, including 717 loci that produce long noncoding RNAs. Conservation of lncRNAs between Ectocarpus and another brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica, suggests that at least a proportion of these loci serve a function. Finally, a large collection of single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers was developed for genetic analyses. These resources are available through an updated and improved genome database. This study significantly improves the utility of the Ectocarpus genome as a high-quality reference for the study of many important aspects of brown algal biology and as a reference for genomic analyses across the stramenopiles.

  18. CSGRqtl: A Comparative Quantitative Trait Locus Database for Saccharinae Grasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Conventional biparental quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has led to some successes in the identification of causal genes in many organisms. QTL likelihood intervals not only provide "prior information" for finer-resolution approaches such as GWAS but also provide better statistical power than GWAS to detect variants with low/rare frequency in a natural population. Here, we describe a new element of an ongoing effort to provide online resources to facilitate study and improvement of the important Saccharinae clade. The primary goal of this new resource is the anchoring of published QTLs for this clade to the Sorghum genome. Genetic map alignments translate a wealth of genomic information from sorghum to Saccharum spp., Miscanthus spp., and other taxa. In addition, genome alignments facilitate comparison of the Saccharinae QTL sets to those of other taxa that enjoy comparable resources, exemplified herein by rice.

  19. Elemental analyses of Cd-treated Laminaria saccharina

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, I.K.; Brinkhuis, B.H.; Schdlovsky, G. )

    1987-06-01

    Elemental analyses were applied to Cd-treated Laminaria saccharina with various sample preparation methods and different detection systems on bulk and thin section specimens. Air-drying, critical-point drying and freeze-fracturing were used in sample preparation and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS) and synchrotron radiation induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) methods were used for detection. The concentration level of Cd seemed too low to be detected under the EDS system with air-dried, critical-point dried and freeze-fractured bulk samples, despite tissue incubations in 10{sup {minus}4} M for 48 hr. There were no indications of tightly bound subcellular Cd localization in thin sections of plastic embedded tissues with the EDS method. However, Cd could be identified with the SRIXE technique in air-dried bulk samples. The present study determined that sample preparation methods are very important in determining the presence of elements.

  20. Larvicidal algae.

    PubMed

    Marten, Gerald G

    2007-01-01

    Although most algae are nutritious food for mosquito larvae, some species kill the larvae when ingested in large quantities. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that kill larvae do so by virtue of toxicity. While blue-green algae toxins may offer possibilities for delivery as larvicides, the toxicity of live blue-green algae does not seem consistent enough for live algae to be useful for mosquito control. Certain species of green algae in the order Chlorococcales kill larvae primarily because they are indigestible. Where these algae are abundant in nature, larvae consume them to the exclusion of other food and then starve. Under the right circumstances, it is possible to introduce indigestible algae into a breeding habitat so they become abundant enough to render it unsuitable for mosquito production. The algae can persist for years, even if the habitat dries periodically. The main limitation of indigestible algae lies in the fact that, under certain conditions, they may not replace all the nutritious algae in the habitat. More research on techniques to ensure complete replacement will be necessary before indigestible algae can go into operational use for mosquito control.

  1. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of algae for hydrogen production: composition of reaction products and potential for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Onwudili, Jude A; Lea-Langton, Amanda R; Ross, Andrew B; Williams, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Saccharina latissima were processed under supercritical water gasification conditions at 500 °C, 36 MPa in an Inconel batch reactor for 30 min in the presence/absence of NaOH and/or Ni-Al(2)O(3). Hydrogen gas yields were more than two times higher in the presence of NaOH than in its absence and tar yields were reduced by up to 71%. Saccharina, a carbohydrate-rich macro-alga, gave the highest hydrogen gas yields of 15.1 mol/kg. The tars from all three algae contained aromatic compounds, including phenols, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Tars from Chlorella and Spirulina contained high yields of pyridines, pyrroles, indoles and pyrimidines. Up to 97% TOC removal were achieved in the process waters from the gasification of the algae. Analyses for specific nutrients in the process waters indicated that the process waters from Saccharina could potentially be used for microalgae cultivation.

  2. pH-driven solubilization and isoelectric precipitation of proteins from the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima-effects of osmotic shock, water volume and temperature.

    PubMed

    Vilg, Jenny Veide; Undeland, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the global search for novel and sustainable protein sources, macroalgal proteins are becoming an attractive target. To date, mainly red and green macroalgae have been investigated in this respect, whereas the brown species are less studied, possibly because of the lower content of protein. In a biorefinery context, however, the protein content of brown macroalgae can still be economically interesting due to fast growth and the possibility to co-extract other compounds, such as alginates. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, scalable pH shift-based protein isolation technique applicable on wet Saccharina latissima biomass. Factors investigated were extraction volume, temperature, protein solubilization pH, osmoshock pretreatment and protein precipitation pH. Maximum protein solubility was obtained at pH 12, where 34 % of the total protein content could be extracted with 5.56 volumes of extraction solution (20 volumes on dry weight (dw) basis). Osmoshocking significantly increased the yield, and 20, 40 and 60 volumes of water (dw basis) gave 45.1, 46.8 and 59.5 % yield, respectively. The temperature during osmoshocking did not significantly affect the extraction yield, and extended time (16 vs. 1 or 2 h) reduced protein yield. Precipitation of solubilized proteins was possible below pH 4; the highest precipitation yield, 34.5 %, was obtained at pH 2. After combined alkaline extraction and acid precipitation, 16.01 % of the Saccharina proteins were recovered, which can be considered acceptable in comparison to other studies on algae but leaves some room for improvement when compared to protein extraction from, for instance, soy.

  3. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  4. Shewanella japonica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E P; Sawabe, T; Gorshkova, N M; Svetashev, V I; Mikhailov, V V; Nicolau, D V; Christen, R

    2001-05-01

    Two strains of agar-digesting bacteria, KMM 3299T and KMM 3300, respectively isolated from sea water and the mussel Protothaca jedoensis, have been characterized. Based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, KMM 3299T showed the highest similarity (93-95%) to members of the genus Shewanella. The G+C contents of the DNAs of these strains were 43-44 mol%. The level of DNA homology between the two strains was conspecific (95%), indicating that they represent a distinct genospecies. These organisms were non-pigmented, Gram-negative, polarly flagellated, facultatively anaerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic and able to degrade a wide range of high molecular mass polymers, including alginate, carrageenan, laminaran and agar. The novel organisms were susceptible to gentamycin, carbenicillin, lincomycin and oleandomycin. The predominant cellular fatty acids were i-15:0, 16:0, 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7). Eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5(n-3), was detected in the two isolates at levels of 1-8%, depending on the temperature of cultivation. Phylogenetic evidence, together with phenotypic characteristics, showed that the two isolates studied constitute a novel species of the genus Shewanella. The name Shewanella japonica is proposed; the type strain is KMM 3299T(= LMG 19691T = CIP 106860T).

  5. Algae Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  6. Investigations on ultrastructure, Cd uptake and elementary analyses in Laminaria saccharina (L. ) Lamour

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, I.K.

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined the metabolic characteristics of CD uptake and structural and elemental analyses in the kelp Laminaria saccharina. The fine structure of L. saccharina showed typical phaeophycean characteristics. The composition of the outermost cell wall and vesicle activities near the plasmalemma faced to the outside were peculiar. They seemed to be involved in transport processes. The presence of plasmodesmata and sieve plates at end walls in the inner-cortical layer and trumpet hyphae in the medulla shows that the cytoplasm is continuous from cell to cell. This could form a structural basis for considering the possibility of symplasmic transport. Uptake and efflux patterns indicated the accumulation of CD in the tissue increased with incubation time.

  7. Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Croci, Diego O; Cumashi, Albana; Ushakova, Natalia A; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Usov, Anatolii I; Grachev, Alexey A; Morozevich, Galina E; Berman, Albert E; Sanderson, Craig J; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2011-02-28

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L

  8. Biofuel and energy crops: high-yield Saccharinae take center stage in the post-genomics era

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Saccharinae, especially sugarcane, Miscanthus and sorghum, present remarkable characteristics for bioenergy production. Biotechnology of these plants will be important for a sustainable feedstock supply. Herein, we review knowledge useful for their improvement and synergies gained by their parallel study. PMID:23805917

  9. Optimization of renewable pinene production from the conversion of macroalgae Saccharina latissima.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Chessa; Stavila, Vitalie; Skarstad, Anita; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of Saccharina latissima with laminarinase was compared to hydrolysis with different combinations of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme mixtures. The hemicellulase mixture resulted in similar release of glucose, while the cellulase mixture released 40% more glucose than laminarinase alone. The combination of a laminarinase augmented with a cellulase mixture resulted in a 53% increase of glucose release from S. latissima than laminarinase. Increasing biomass loading above 4% (w/v) reduced the sugar yield. Resulting macroalgae hydrolysates were used as a carbon source for the production of pinene, making use of a novel two plasmid Escherichia coli system. The macroalgal hydrolysates were suitable for the novel microbial production of pinene with no further treatment and/or purification.

  10. Magnetic separation of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  11. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  12. In vitro fermentation of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu

    2016-10-01

    In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects.

  13. [HPLC-FPS establishment of Iris japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-zhuan; Luo, Ai-qin; Liu, Li-wen; Fang, Min; Deng, Yu-lin

    2006-09-01

    Samples extracted from the root of Iris japonica Thunb were analyzed and the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions was confirmed. Through analyzing the chromatography, the HPLC-FPS of Iris japonica Thunb was established.

  14. [EST-SSR identification of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Gui-Ming; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Xu-Min; Yu, Jun; Chen, Min

    2012-06-01

    Simple and effective methods are needed for the identification of Chinese medicinal material species and their variety. Lonicera japonica Thunb. is one of Chinese herbal medicines widely demanded. A total of 3 705 EST-SSRs of L. japonica and 2 818 EST-SSRs of L. japonica var. chinensis Thunb. were identified from EST database in our lab. In average, there was one EST-SSR per 4.05 kb in L. japonica ESTs and per 7.49 kb in L. japonica var. chinensis ESTs, separately. The identified SSRs in L. japonica were consisted of 51.98% dinucleotide and 34.61% trinucleotide repeats, while SSRs in L. japonica var. chinensis had 57.45% dinucleotide and 30.09% trinucleotide. The results reviewed that the classes AG/TC and GAG/TCT were predominant in the dinucleotide motifs and the trinucleotide motifs, respectively. Total 87 EST-SSRs were identified of significant difference between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. PCR products were obtained from 52 L. japonica samples in 13 out of 15 SSR markers tested. The polymorphism in L. japonica, L. japonica var. chinensis and other honeysuckles could be distinguished by three markers (jp.ssr4, jp.ssr64 and jp.ssr65) tested.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing of an 88-Year-Old Specimen of the Poorly Known Species Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) Supports the Recognition of Otohimella gen. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ootsuki, Ryo; Kurihara, Akira; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kitayama, Taiju; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Liagora japonica is a red algal species distributed in temperate regions of Japan. This species has not been collected from its type locality on the Pacific coast of Japan since 1927 and seems to have become extinct in this area. For molecular characterization of L. japonica, we extracted DNA from the topotype material of L. japonica collected in 1927, analyzed seven genes using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared these data with sequences from modern samples of similar red algae collected from the Japan Sea coast of Japan. Both morphological and molecular data from modern samples and historical specimens (including the lectotype and topotype) suggest that the specimens from the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts of Japan should be treated as a single species, and that L. japonica is phylogenetically separated from the genus Liagora. Based on the phylogenetic results and examination of reproductive structures, we propose Otohimella japonica gen. et comb. nov., characterized morphologically by diffuse carposporophytes, undivided carposporangia, and involucral filaments initiated only from the cortical cell on the supporting cell. PMID:27388436

  16. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  17. Structural characterization of laminaran and galactofucan extracted from the brown seaweed Saccharina longicruris.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Beaulieu, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Brown seaweed contains several polysaccharides like laminaran, fucoidan and alginate. Laminaran is a beta-glucan that has shown anti-apoptotic and anti-tumoral activities, while galactofucan (fucoidan) is a sulfated polysaccharide that has displayed anticoagulant, anti-tumor, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. In this study, crude laminaran and galactofucan (fucoidan) were extracted from the brown seaweed Saccharina longicruris at four harvest periods (M05, A05, N05 and J06). The galactofucan M05 and N05 fractions were depolymerized (RDP) over 2 or 4h to give 4 RDP fractions (M05 RDP 2H, M05 RDP 4H, N05 RDP 2H and N05 RDP 4H) whose molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions and glycosidic linkages were determined by GC-MS. The laminaran fraction gave a molecular weight range from 2900 to 3300 Da and contained between 50.6% and 68.6% d-glucose and an average of 1.3% D-mannitol. The presence of a beta-(1,3) linkage between D-glucose in the main chain was observed, with branching at positions 6 and 2. The M05 fraction contained less branching than other laminaran fractions, which might have influenced its conformation in solution and thus its activity. The crude galactofucan fractions displayed a molecular weight range from 638 to 1529 kDa, whereas the RDP fractions had molecular weights <30 kDa. The structure of the galactofucan fractions remained complex after depolymerization, with these also being more sulfated (30-39%) than the crude fractions (13-20%). The crude and RDP fractions contained 3-linked fucopyranose 4-sulfate and 6-linked galactopyranose 3-sulfate moieties, although the galactofucans isolated from M05 and J06 contained less 6-linked galactopyranose 3-sulfate than the A05 and N05 fractions.

  18. Mitochondrial genome of Japanese angel shark Squatina japonica (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae).

    PubMed

    Chai, Aihong; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Squatina japonica belonging to the monogenetic family Squatinidae is endemic to the Northwest Pacific. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. japonica is 16,689 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The base composition of the genome is 31.10% A, 31.04% T, 24.42% C, and 13.43% G. The geographic clade and phylogenetic relationship of S. japonica are ambiguous. Therefore, studying the complete mitochondrial genome of S. japonica is highly important to understand the aforementioned aspect and to analyze the conservation genetics in the genus Squatina.

  19. Brown algae hydrolysis in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with mineral acid catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Malihan, Lenny B; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2012-08-01

    The amenability of three brown algal species, Sargassum fulvellum, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, to hydrolysis were investigated using the ionic liquid (IL), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). Compositional analyses of the brown algae reveal that sufficient amounts of sugars (15.5-29.4 wt.%) can be recovered. Results from hydrolysis experiments show that careful selection of the type of mineral acid as catalyst and control of acid loading could maximize the recovery of sugars. Optimal reaction time and temperature were determined from the kinetic studies on the sequential reducing sugar (TRS) formation and degradation. Optimal reaction times were determined based on the extent of furfurals formation as TRS degradation products. X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning electron microscopy confirmed the suitability of [BMIM]Cl as solvent for the hydrolysis of the three brown algae. Overall results show the potential of brown algae as renewable energy resources for the production of valuable chemicals and biofuels.

  20. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Cai, Weiyan; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Wang, Yajie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qing; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. PMID:26257818

  1. [Bioinformatics analysis of DNA demethylase genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Chong; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-03-01

    The DNA demethylase genes are widespread in plants. Four DNA demethylase genes (LJDME1, LJDME2, LJDME3 and LJDME4) were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb by using bioinformatics methods and the proteins' physicochemical properties they encoded were predicted. The phylogenetic tree showed that the four DNA demethylase genes and Arabidopsis thaliana DME had a close relationship. The result of gene expression model showed that four DNA demethylase genes were different between species. The expression levels of LJDME1 and LJDME2 were even more higher in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis than those in L. japonica. LJDME] and LJDME2 maybe regulate the active compounds of L. japonica. This study aims to lay a foundation for further understanding of the function of DNA demethylase genes in L. japonica.

  2. HPLC fucoxanthin profiles of a microalga, a macroalga and a pure fucoxanthin standard.

    PubMed

    Foo, Su Chern; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Ismail, Maznah; Basri, Mahiran; Yau, Sook Kun; Khong, Nicholas M H; Chan, Kim Wei; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Data in this article illustrate representative fucoxanthin chromatograms of a microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans; a macroalga, Saccharina japonica and; a pure fucoxanthin standard. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) eluted fucoxanthin at the 7.008±0.024th min. This data article refers to the research article ''Antioxidant capacities of fucoxanthin-producing algae as influenced by their carotenoid and phenolic contents'' Foo et al. [1]; where a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  3. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  4. An improved method for karyotype analyses of marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Dai, Jixun

    2008-05-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, including Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60°C for 7-8 min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnatifida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  5. [Selection behavior of Cuscuta japonica on their hosts].

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Kong, Chuihua; Zhang, Chaoxian; Liang, Wenju; Wang, Peng

    2005-02-01

    A field investigation on the selection behavior of Cuscuta japonica on their hosts showed that among the test plant communities, the number of coiling, the time of haustorium occurring, and the rate of coiling of C. japonica on hosts followed the order of B. papyrifera, W. chinensis, I. cairica, and L. camara; but the length of the elongation of C. japonica growing tips from coiling to haustorium occurring was with the order of L. camara, I. cairica, W. chinensis, and B. papyrifera. Furthermore, the growing tips of C. japonica coiled 3 circles in left direction on all selected hosts in 12 hrs, but grew away after contacting PVC rods within 24 hrs. The host diversity of C. japonic was beneficial to the survival of both C. japonica and its hosts. The selection behavior of C. japonica on their hosts had no correlation with the total N contents of different hosts. It could be postulated that the secondary metabolites of hosts made a contribution to the selection behavior of C. japonica on their hosts.

  6. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of Acclimation to Temperature and Light Stress in Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Sandra; Valentin, Klaus; Frickenhaus, Stephan; John, Uwe; Wiencke, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Kelps, brown algae of the order Laminariales, dominate rocky shores and form huge kelp beds which provide habitat and nurseries for various marine organisms. Whereas the basic physiological and ecophysiological characteristics of kelps are well studied, the molecular processes underlying acclimation to different light and temperature conditions are still poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological acclimation to light and temperature stress. Sporophytes of S. latissima were exposed to combinations of light intensities and temperatures, and microarray hybridizations were performed to determine changes in gene expression patterns. This first large-scale transcriptomic study of a kelp species shows that S. latissima responds to temperature and light stress with a multitude of transcriptional changes: up to 32% of genes showed an altered expression after the exposure experiments. High temperature had stronger effects on gene expression in S. latissima than low temperature, reflected by the higher number of temperature-responsive genes. We gained insights into underlying molecular processes of acclimation, which includes adjustment of the primary metabolism as well as induction of several ROS scavengers and a sophisticated regulation of Hsps. We show that S. latissima, as a cold adapted species, must make stronger efforts for acclimating to high than to low temperatures. The strongest response was caused by the combination of high temperatures with high light intensities, which proved most harmful for the alga. PMID:22937172

  8. [Effect of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica on the morfology of lymfoid organs and functional characteristics of immunocompetent cells].

    PubMed

    lebedynskaya, E A; Makarenkova, I D; Lebedynskaya, O V; Akhmatova, N K; Zvyagintseva, T N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan from the brown alga Laminaria japonica on morphological characteristics of mouse lymphoid organs, subpopulations of spleen mononuclear leukocytes, cytokine production and cytotoxic activity of splenocytes has been investigated. Fucoidan promoted activation and proliferation of lymphoid hematopoietic cells in primary and secondary immunogenesis bodies, increased expression of markers CD19, NK, NKT, CD25, MHC II, TCR, TLR2 and TLR4, the cytotoxic activity of splenocytes and production of immunoregulatory and proinflammatory cytokines (IL- 2, IL-12, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-6). This suggests activation of effector mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immune responses via the Th-1 type.

  9. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingna; Jiang, Qiu; Hu, Jinghong; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years with confirmed curative effects. Except for medicine, it is also used in healthy food, cosmetics, and soft beverages for its specific activities. Therefore, the chemical constituents, mainly including organic acids, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids, and volatile oils, have been well studied by many scholars in recent years and a comprehensive and systematic review on chemical constituents of Lonicerae japonicae flos is indispensable. This paper aims at reviewing the chemical components of LJF in recent years through searching for the literatures both at home and abroad. Our results show that 212 components have been isolated from Lonicerae japonicae flos, including 27 flavonoids, 40 organic acids, 83 iridoids, 17 triterpenoids, and 45 other compounds, which could lay a foundation for the further application of Lonicerae japonicae flos. PMID:27403439

  10. Immunosuppressive activities of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanbin; Li, Zhien; Zhou, Gefei; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong

    2003-12-01

    Effects of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and the serum levels of IgG, IgM, complement C3 and C4 were investigated in the present study. Results showed that oral administration of fucoidan at dose of 150 and 300 mg/(kg· d) for 9 days before the hapten challenge significantly inhibited 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; and also inhibited the humoral immunity. Serum C3 and C4 levels were markedly reduced by fucoidan at dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg; and serum IgG and IgM levels were reduced by fucoidan at dose of 300mg/kg. The inhibitory effects of fucoidan on delayed-type hypersensitivity suggested that it may be potential medication for chronic inflammatory diseases in the future.

  11. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  12. Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds.

  13. Effects of DCMU on chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in marine red, brown and green algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-Gan; Zuo, Dong-Mei; Zang, Ru-Bo

    1996-03-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in vivo can be a useful indicator for stress detection in higher plants and seaweeds. DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea] treatment influences this ratio. The effets of DCMU on F685/F735 of marine red, brown and green algae under excitation light of different wavelengths were investigated. In the brown algae, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, DCMU did not increase this ratio under blue light excitation but increased the ratio slightly under excitation by green light. For the red algae, Halymenia sinensis, DCMU increased the ratio markedly under both blue and green light excitation. The percentage increase could reach 50% (under green light excitation) and was due to unequal enhancement at the two emission maxima by DCMU. A fraction of chlorophyll which contributed to fluorescence in the 735 nm region was less sensitive to DCMU and was likely from photosystem I of red algae. In the green alga, Ulva pertusa, DCMU caused a slight increase in F685/F735 value under blue, green and red light. Green light excitation during DCMU treatment increased the ratio most (16%) but induced the lowest ratio in the control (without DCMU). It is proposed that a considerable fraction of fluorescence from the 735 nm region at room temperature may be emitted by the chlorophyll of photosystem I in red algae.

  14. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  15. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  16. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  17. Rapid quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicera species in preparations of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Qing; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is often adulterated with Lonicerae Flos, which is derived from the other four Lonicera species, in both the crude drug and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. We proposed a methodology for the quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. Taking macranthoidins A, B, dipsacoside B (saponins), sweroside (iridoids), and luteolin-7-O-d-glucoside (flavonoids) as markers, a method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was employed to determine their amounts in Lonicerae Flos, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. The proportion of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations was estimated based on the saponin contents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. All analytes separated under isocratic elution in 12 min with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was easily distinguished from Lonicerae Flos by the total amount of saponins (0.067 and > 45.8 mg/g for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, respectively). Eighteen of twenty one Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparation samples were adulterated with Lonicerae Flos in proportions of 11.3-100%. The developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method could be used for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the four species of Lonicerae Flos and for the analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations adulterated with Lonicerae Flos.

  18. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Gonçalo S; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-15

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013-2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%-0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%-3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%-33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%-29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%-16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%-54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA's, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA's in general compared to traditional vegetables.

  19. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Gonçalo S.; Holdt, Susan L.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013–2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%–0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%–3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%–33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%–29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%–16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%–54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA’s, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA’s in general compared to traditional vegetables. PMID:26184241

  20. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  1. Translocation of (133)Cs administered to Cryptomeria japonica wood.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Dan; Asai, Ryutaro; Tomioka, Rie; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Tabuchi, Masao; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-15

    To reveal the in planta behaviour of caesium (Cs), the stable isotope (133)Cs was administered into 3-year-old Cryptomeria japonica seedlings by the application of (133)CsCl aqueous solution to the bark surface. The administered (133)Cs was quantified by ICP-MS measurements, which showed transportation of (133)Cs in an ascending direction in the stem. Distribution of (133)Cs was visualized using freeze-fixed C. japonica woody stem samples and cryo-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry/scanning electron microscopy (cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM) analysis. Cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM visualization suggested that (133)Cs was rapidly transported radially by ray parenchyma cells followed by axial transportation by pith and axial parenchyma cells. Adsorption experiments using powdered C. japonica wood samples and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis suggested that (133)Cs was in the hydrated state following its deposition into tracheid cell walls.

  2. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  3. Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-01-01

    New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties. PMID:25054108

  4. Identification of carotenoids from the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yatsunami, Rie; Ando, Ai; Yang, Ying; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kohno, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fukui, Toshiaki; Nakasone, Kaoru; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Sekine, Mitsuo; Takashina, Tomonori; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The carotenoids produced by extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica were extracted and identified by their chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic characteristics (UV-Vis and mass spectrometry). The composition (mol%) was 68.1% bacterioruberin, 22.5% monoanhydrobacterioruberin, 9.3% bisanhydrobacterioruberin, <0.1% isopentenyldehydrorhodopin, and trace amounts of lycopene and phytoene. The in vitro scavenging capacity of a carotenoid, bacterioruberin, extracted from Haloarcula japonica cells against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of bacterioruberin was much higher than that of β -carotene. PMID:24672517

  5. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  6. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory components from Cayratia japonica.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang Hua; Hong, Seong Su; Hwang, Ji Sang; Lee, Myung Koo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Ro, Jai Seup

    2007-01-01

    Seven flavonoids were isolated from the whole plants and fruits of Cayratia japonica through the activity-guided isolation of a methanol extract using a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition assay as a monitor. The chemical structures of the isolates were assigned as apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1), apigenin (2), luteolin (3), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), (+)-dihydroquercetin (taxifolin) (5), (+)-dihydrokaempferol (aromadendrin) (6) and quercetin (7). Among the isolated compounds, flavones such as apigenin (2) and luteolin (3), as well as the flavonol, quercetin (7) showed potent inhibitory effects against the MAO activity with IC50 values of 6.5, 22.6, and 31.6 microM, respectively. However, the flavone glycosides, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (1) and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), showed mild MAO inhibition (IC50 values: 81.7 and 118.6 microM, respectively). The flavanonol derivatives, taxifolin (5) and aromadendrin (6), also showed weak inhibition (IC50 values: 154.7 and 153.1 microM, respectively). Furthermore, quercetin (7) had a more potent inhibitory effect on MAO-A (IC50 value: 2.8 microM) than MAO-B (IC50 value: 90.0 microM). Apigenin (2) and luteolin (3) also preferentially inhibited MAO-A (IC50 values: 1.7 and 4.9 microM, respectively) compared with MAO-B (IC50 values: 12.8 and 59.7 microM, respectively).

  7. Biological importance of marine algae.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  8. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  9. Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

    2015-03-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation.

  10. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E S; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  11. Invasion of the Red Seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica Spans Biogeographic Provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Christine; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; McConville, Megan; Rodrigue, Katherine; Thornber, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic. PMID:23638018

  12. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  13. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  14. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388

  15. Anti-inflammatory terpenes from flowers of Inula japonica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng-An; Zhu, Hong; Qin, Nan; Zhou, Jing-Ya; Lee, Eunkyung; Kong, De-Xin; Jin, Mei-Hua; Duan, Hong-Quan

    2014-05-01

    Five new terpenes (1-5) and ten known compounds (6-15) were isolated from Inula japonica, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 3 and 14 showed positive inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production. Furthermore, compound 14 suppressed both leukotriene C4 synthesis and degranulation in c-kit ligand-induced bone marrow-derived mast cells.

  16. Sheath-blight resistance QTLs and in japonica rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and genetic resistance is in demand by rice breeders. With the goal of resistance-QTL discovery in U. S. japonica breeding material, a set of 197 F1 doubled-haploid lines (DHLs)...

  17. Study on sori formation in Laminaria japonica aresch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuankui; Jiang, Shumei; Chen, Benzhou; Li, He

    1989-06-01

    Sori formation in Laminaria japonica was studied from the ecological and physiological point of view. Cutting through the medulla of Laminaria japonica improved the formation of sori. Sori formation under different water temperature, photoperiod, and light intensity was investigated and total nitrogen and reducible sugar content determined. The result showed that sori of L. japonica can be formed in 1 22°C water in Dalian. No sori were found in water over 23°C. High temperature inhibits the formation of sori, but low temperature has no effect. Apparently, light intensity affects the formation of sori, but photoperiod does not. In shallow water L. japonica grows slower but stores dry material faster and forms sori rapidly. In deeper water it grows faster in length but stores dry material slower and the sori formation is slow. Analysis of dry material shows that during sori formation the water content decreases but total nitrogen and total reducible sugar increase. Only when the storage of sugar reaches a certain level can sori begin to form. Cutting through the medulla interrupts the passage of nutrients to the growth area. Storage of carbohydrates and nitrogen is the main factor affecting sori formation.

  18. Comparison of bioactive components and pharmacological activities of ophiopogon japonicas extracts from different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Xu, Wan-Feng; Shen, Han-Yuan; Shen, Pei-Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Dan-Dan; Xu, Han; Wang, Hong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Lin; Hao, Hai-Ping; Wang, Guang-Ji; Cao, Li-Juan

    2017-02-07

    Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl (O. japonicas), mainly cultivated in Sichuan and Zhejiang province in China, has different bioactive components and therefore their pharmacological activities. To explain the different clinical efficacy of O. japonicas derived preparations, herein we report differences of pharmacological activities between Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas and behind them the exact differences of bioactive components. Based on a LC/MS-IT-TOF method, the differences of bioactive components between Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas extracts were analyzed and respective characteristic components were picked out. We determined 39 ophiopogonones and 71 ophiopogonins compounds in Sichuan and Zhejiang O. japonicas extracts and found the contents of these compositions have several times difference. Evidenced by experimental data of pharmacological activities in inhibiting cardiomyocyte damage induced by H2O2, mouse macrophage cell inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide and cytotoxicity in vitro, Zhejiang O. japonicas extract had a stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity than Sichuan O. japonicas extract, and the two O. japonicas extracts exhibited selective cytotoxicity on different cancer cell lines in vitro. These data shed light on the links between bioactive components and pharmacological activities of O. japonicas derived preparations. Thus, geographical origin of O. japonicas should be considered to be a key factor in efficacy studies and further clinical application.

  19. Effects of Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Type 2 Diabetes via PPAR-γ Activation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Min; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Haesu; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2015-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetic symptoms. Notwithstanding its use, the scientific basis on anti-diabetic properties of L. japonica is not yet established. This study is designed to investigate anti-diabetic effects of L. japonica in type 2 diabetic rats. L. japonica was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced rats. After the treatment of 4 weeks, L. japonica reduced high blood glucose level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic rats. In addition, body weight and food intake were restored by the L. japonica treatment. In the histopathologic examination, the amelioration of damaged β-islet in pancreas was observed in L. japonica-treated diabetic rats. The administration of L. japonica elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor subunit-1 protein expressions. The results demonstrated that L. japonica had anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetic rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulatory action of L. japonica as a potential mechanism.

  20. Screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from the surface of brown algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Zhaojie; Wang, Xuejiang; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2017-12-01

    Alginate lyase is a biocatalyst that degrades alginate to produce oligosaccharides, which have many bioactive functions and could be used as renewable biofuels. Here we report a simple and sensitive plate assay for screening alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms from brown algae. Brown algae Laminaria japonica, Sargassum horneri and Sargassum siliquatrum were cultured in sterile water. Bacteria growing on the surface of seaweeds were identified and their capacity of excreting alginate lyase was analyzed. A total of 196 strains were recovered from the three different algae samples and 12 different bacterial strains were identified capable of excreting alginate lyases. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that these alginate lyase-excreting strains belong to eight genera: Paenibacillus (4/12), Bacillus (2/12), Leclercia (1/12), Isoptericola (1/12), Planomicrobium (1/12), Pseudomonas (1/12), Lysinibacillus (1/12) and Sphingomonas (1/12). Further analysis showed that the LJ-3 strain (Bacillus halosaccharovorans) had the highest enzyme activity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report regarding alginate lyase-excreting strains in Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium and Leclercia. We believe that our method used in this study is relatively easy and reliable for large-scale screening of alginate lyase-excreting microorganisms.

  1. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  3. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs.

  4. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  5. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  6. [Bioinformatics analysis and expressed level of histone methyltransferase genes in Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Long, Ping; Zha, Liang-ping; Wang, Yao-long

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three histone methyltransferase genes were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica. The nucleotide and proteins characteristics, subcellular localization, senior structural domains and conservative forecasting were analyzed. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that 23 histone methyltransferases were mainly divided into two groups: lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferases. The result of gene expression showed that 23 histone methyltransferases showed preference in terms of interspecies and organs. They were more expressed in buds of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis and lower in leaves of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis. Eight genes were specific expressed in flower. These results provided basis for further understanding the function of histone methyltransferase and epigenetic regulation of active ingredients of L. japonica.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    PubMed

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  18. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  19. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  20. Schistosomiasis japonica: modelling as a tool to explore transmission patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Lv, Shan; Wang, Qing-Yun; Qian, Men-Bao; Liu, Qin; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Modelling is an important tool for the exploration of Schistosoma japonicum transmission patterns. It provides a general theoretical framework for decision-makers and lends itself specifically to assessing the progress of the national control programme by following the outcome of surveys. The challenge of keeping up with the many changes of social, ecological and environmental factors involved in control activities is greatly facilitated by modelling that can also indicate which activities are critical and which are less important. This review examines the application of modelling tools in the epidemiological study of schistosomiasis japonica during the last 20 years and explores the application of enhanced models for surveillance and response. Updated and timely information for decision-makers in the national elimination programme is provided but, in spite of the new modelling techniques introduced, many questions remain. Issues on application of modelling are discussed with the view to improve the current situation with respect to schistosomiasis japonica.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes; order Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masato; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    We used two sequencing methods, namely long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer walking, to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Dugesia japonica and most of the mtDNA sequence of Dugesia ryukyuensis. The genome of D. japonica contained 36 genes including 12 of the 13 protein-coding genes characteristic of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The genome of D. ryukyuensis contained 33 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 19 transfer RNA genes. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome from the Dugesia species showed no clear homology with either the Neodermata or other free-living Rhabditophora. This indicates that the platyhelminths exhibit great variability in mitochondrial gene order. This is the first complete sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome of a free-living member of Rhabditophora, which will facilitate further studies on the population genetics and genomic evolution of the Platyhelminthes.

  2. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hee Ju; Nho, Chu Won; Bae, Gwi- Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively). In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97%) than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß)-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a bioaerosol control

  3. Extremely low genomic diversity of Rickettsia japonica distributed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-04

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers." The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of R. japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles.

  4. Extremely Low Genomic Diversity of Rickettsia japonica Distributed in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P.; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as “spotted fevers”. The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles. PMID:28057731

  5. Application of praziquantel in schistosomiasis japonica control strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Huang, Yixin

    2013-03-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in the world, and in China, schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in the south part of the country. In 1960s, before praziquantel was developed, there were about seven million patients. Praziquantel has a high efficacy against Schistosoma, few and transient side effects, simple administration and competitive cost, and is equally suited for both individual and large-scale treatment. Praziquantel has been widely used in the morbidity control, transmission control, and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica in China since 1980s. The schemes of praziquantel chemotherapy include the diagnostic selective chemotherapy, extensive chemotherapy, mass chemotherapy, stratified chemotherapy, phased chemotherapy, etc. Chemotherapy alone or combined with other control measure, such as Oncomelania snail control, health education, safety water supply, and so on, has achieved a great success, and there are only 0.33 million infected people now. This paper reviews the application of praziquantel in the schistosomiasis japonica control strategies in China so as to provide the rich experiences for reference of health workers of other countries where schistosomiasis is endemic.

  6. [Numerical taxonomy of agronomic trait in cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Sixty-three morphological traits from 743 specimens of the 41 taxa within the cultivated Lonicera japonica were observed and measured, such as the height of plants, the length of leaf, the width of leaf, the length of anther, the alabastrum's number of one branch, the color of alabastrum and so on. A numerical taxonomy is presented by using the cluster analysis, principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis. Sixteen of 63 characters were screened by means of PCA and used for cluster analysis of 41 taxa with the method of Ward linkage and average euclidean distance. The cluster analysis showed that the 41 taxa could be divided into 5 groups when the Euclidean distance coefficient was 11.84. The factor analysis indicated that the shape of leaf, color of alabastrum, the pilosity and color of twiggery were of significance for the cultivated L. japonica classification. The results of this study will be a base for the core collection and breeding of L. japonica.

  7. Glycolate Pathway in Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J. L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    No glycolate oxidase activity could be detected by manometric, isotopic, or spectrophotometric techniques in cell extracts from 5 strains of algae grown in the light with CO2. However, NADH:glyoxylate reductase, phosphoglycolate phosphatase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were detected in the cell extracts. The serine formed by Chlorella or Chlamydomonas after 12 seconds of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation contained 70 to 80% of its 14C in the carboxyl carbon. This distribution of label in serine was similar to that in phosphoglycerate from the same experiment. Thus, in algae serine is probably formed directly from phosphoglycerate. These results differ from those of higher plants which form uniformly labeled serine from glycolate in short time periods when phosphoglycerate is still carboxyl labeled. In glycolate formed by algae in 5 and 10 seconds of 14CO2 fixation, C2 was at least twice as radioactive as C1. A similar skewed labeling in C2 and C3 of 3-phosphoglycerate and serine suggests a common precursor for glycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate. Glycine formed by the algae, however, from the same experiments was uniformly labeled. Manganese deficient Chlorella incorporated only 2% of the total 14CO2 fixed in 10 minutes into glycolate, while in normal Chlorella 30% of the total 14C was found in glycolate. Manganese deficient Chlorella also accumulated more 14C in glycine and serine. Glycolate excretion by Chlorella was maximal in 10 mm bicarbonate and occurred only in the light, and was not influenced by the addition of glycolate. No time dependent uptake of significant amounts of either glycolate or phosphoglycolate was observed. When small amounts of glycolate-2-14C were fed to Chlorella or Scenedesmus, only 2 to 3% was metabolized after 30 to 60 minutes. The algae were not capable of significant glycolate metabolism as is the higher plant. The failure to detect glycolate oxidase, the low level glycolate-14C metabolism, and the formation of serine from phosphoglycerate

  8. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  9. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

  10. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  11. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature.

  12. Halogenated compounds from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-08-09

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  13. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  14. Vanadium haloperoxidases from brown algae of the Laminariaceae family.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M; Filipe, S; Humanes, M; Maia, M F; Melo, R; Severino, N; da Silva, J A; Fraústo da Silva, J J; Wever, R

    2001-07-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases were extracted, purified and characterized from three different species of Laminariaceae--Laminaria saccharina (Linné) Lamouroux, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunner) Foslie and Laminaria ochroleuca de la Pylaie. Two different forms of the vanadium haloperoxidases were purified from L. saccharina and L. hyperborea and one form from L. ochroleuca species. Reconstitution experiments in the presence of several metal ions showed that only vanadium(V) completely restored the enzymes activity. The stability of some enzymes in mixtures of buffer solution and several organic solvents such as acetone, ethanol, methanol and 1-propanol was noteworthy; for instance, after 30 days at least 40% of the initial activity for some isoforms remained in mixtures of 3:1 buffer solution/organic solvent. The enzymes were also moderately thermostable, keeping full activity up to 40 degrees C. Some preliminary steady-state kinetic studies were performed and apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters were determined for the substrates iodide and hydrogen peroxide. Histochemical studies were also performed in fresh tissue sections from stipe and blade of L. hyperborea and L. saccharina, showing that haloperoxidase activity was concentrated in the external cortex near the cuticle, although some activity was also observed in the inner cortical region.

  15. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  16. Duration of Temperature exposure controls growth of Zostera japonica: implications for zonation and colonization

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass congeners in the genus Zostera are found along the Pacific Coast of North America: native Z. marina L. and the non-native Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn. Efforts to understand the drivers behind the expanding colonization of Z. japonica have led to interest ...

  17. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  18. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  19. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  20. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  1. Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, C U; Aoyagi, H; Uchiyama, H

    2008-07-01

    Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the major factors that limits their practical application in algal mass cultures is mass transfer. Thus, a thorough understanding of mass transfer rates in photobioreactors is necessary for efficient operation of mass algal cultures. In this review article, various photobioreactors that are very promising for mass production of algae are discussed.

  2. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  3. Variation along ITS markers across strains of Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) suggests hybridisation events and recent range expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Wiebe H. C. F.; de Boer, M. Karin; Vrieling, Engel G.; Connell, Laurie B.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2001-12-01

    The flagellate micro-alga Fibrocapsa japonica can form harmful algal blooms along all temperate coastal regions of the world. The species was first observed in coastal waters of Japan and the western US in the 1970s; it has been reported regularly worldwide since. To unravel whether this apparent range expansion can be tracked, we assessed genetic variation among nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences, obtained from sixteen global strains collected over the course of three decades. Ten sequence positions showed polymorphism across the strains. Nine out of these revealed ambiguities in several or most sequences sampled. The oldest strain collected (LB-2161) was the only one without such intra-individual polymorphism. In the others, the proportion of ambiguities at variable sites increased with more recent collection date. The pattern does not result from loss of variation due to sexual reproduction and random drift in culture because sister cultures CS-332 and NIES-136 showed virtually the same ITS-pattern after seven years of separation. Neither are the patterns explained by recent range expansion of a single genotype, because in that case one would expect lowest genetic diversity in the recently invaded North Sea; instead, polymorphism is highest there. Recent ballast-water-mediated mixing of formerly isolated populations and subsequent ongoing sexual reproduction among them can explain the increase in ambiguities. The species' capacity to form harmful blooms may well have been enhanced through increased genetic diversity of regional populations.

  4. ["Depilation" by micro-algae?].

    PubMed

    Ditrich, H

    1996-01-01

    Itching, reddening and depilation of body hairs was reported by swimmers in the Attersee-lake in Austria. Initially, an environmental crime was suspected. However, further investigations showed that a biological cause was probably responsible for these symptoms. The accrustations found on body hairs turned out in the scanning electron microscope to be dried mucus containing numerous diatoms. The prevailing micro-algae were identified as Cyclotella comensis. Thus, although the phenomenon had a natural, harmless cause, it may happen again given the appropriate environmental conditions.

  5. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females. PMID:26492411

  6. Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2017-04-01

    Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

  7. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  8. Concentrating phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cunyu; Ma, Yun; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Response surface analysis methodology was used to optimize the concentrate process of phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technique. On the basis of the influences of pressure, temperature and circulating volume, the retention rate of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were selected as index, molecular weight cut-off of nanofiltration membrane, concentration and pH were selected as influencing factors during concentrate process. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The optimal concentrate conditions were as following: nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off, 150 Da; solutes concentration, 18.34 µg/mL; pH, 4.26. The predicted value of retention rate was 97.99% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 98.03±0.24%, which was in accordance with the predicted value. These results demonstrate that the combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process of Lonicera japonica water-extraction by nanofiltration, and the results provide the basis for nanofiltration concentrate for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Hirata, Makiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  10. [Study on antioxidant chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica leaves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Zhang, Qi-wei; Li, Chun; Liu, Su

    2015-06-01

    Guided by the antioxidant activity, the EtOAc-soluble and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the 50% methanol extract of Lonicera japonica leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatorgraphic methods, and the structures were identified by spectral analysis and comparison to the data reported in literature. As a result, nine compounds were obtained and identified as 5-O-caffeoylquinicacid (1), chlorogenicacid (2), 4-O-caffeoylquinicacid (3), luteolin-7-O-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)] -β-D-glucopyranoside (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8) and luteolin (9). The antioxidant activity of the nine compounds were determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging method, and ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Their antioxidant activities from high to low were 5 > 9 > 2 > 8 > 7 > 6 > 1 > 3 > 4. Among them, luteoloside (5) had the strongest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 0.018 18 g x L(-1), and luteolin (IC50 0.023 6 g x L(-1)) and chlorogenicacid (IC50 0.035 17 g x L(-1)) ranks No. 2 and 3. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of luteoloside and luteolin were stronger than that of ascorbic acid (IC50 0.027 54 g x L(-1)). These results gave a basis for the further study and utilization of L. japonica leaves.

  11. Complete plastid genome of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl and comparative analysis in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liqun; Guan, Qijie; Amin, Awais; Zhu, Wei; Li, Mengzhu; Li, Ximin; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-01-01

    Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl (loquat) is an evergreen Rosaceae fruit tree widely distributed in subtropical regions. Its leaves are considered as traditional Chinese medicine and are of high medical value especially for cough and emesis. Thus, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of E. japonica to better utilize this important species. The complete plastid genome of E. japonica is 159,137 bp in length, which contains a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IR, 26,326 bp) separated by large (LSC, 89,202 bp) and small (SSC, 19,283 bp) single-copy regions. The E. japonica plastid genome encodes 112 unique genes which consist of 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Gene structure and content of E. japonica plastid genome are quite conserved and show similarity among Rosaceous species. Five large indels are unique to E. japonica in comparison with Pyrus pyrifolia and Prunus persica, which could be utilized as molecular markers. A total of 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected and most of them are mononucleotide repeats composed of A or T, indicating a strong A or T bias for base composition. The Ka and Ks ratios of most genes are lower than 1, which suggests that most genes are under purifying selection. The phylogenetic analysis described the evolutionary relationship within Rosaceae and fully supported a close relationship between E. japonica and P. pyrifolia.

  12. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  13. Utilization of weedy rice for development of japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Ma, Dian Rong; Xu, Zheng Jin; Deng, Hua Feng; Chen, Wen Fu; Yuan, Long Ping

    2011-05-01

    Two representative weedy rice lines, three typical japonica varieties and three typical indica varieties were used for 6 pairs of reciprocal crosses. The morphological traits of twelve F(1) hybrid lines, their parents and four elite cultivars were investigated for heterosis over mid-parent (HM), over parent (HP) and competitive heterosis (CH) analysis. Traits detected in weedy rice lines seemed larger than those in cultivars and excellent heterosis was produced in weedy rice crossing with japonica rice. Although weedy rice kept closer relationships with japonica rice compared to indica rice. But the heterosis of reciprocal crosses between weedy rice and japonica was closed to those of crosses between indica rice and japonica rice. In six of one hundred and eighteen weedy rice lines, the fertility restore gene for BT type cytoplasmic male sterility (BT-CMS) were detected. Weedy rice was very valuable germplasm resources with the abundant polymorphism. Meanwhile, the disadvantage, lodging, shattering and incompact plant type, should be modified by hybridization, backcross and multiple cross with japonica rice. Although it is difficult to use weedy rice directly, weedy rice may be available to breed both male sterile line and restorer line through improvement, developing japonica hybrid rice.

  14. Science and management of the introduced seagrass Zostera japonica in North America.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Deborah J; Kaldy, James E; Gaeckle, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Zostera japonica. Z. japonica is considered "invasive" and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. Oregon and British Columbia, Canada appear to have no specific policies with regard to Z. japonica. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develop better informed management decisions and aid in defining a uniform management strategy for Z. japonica.

  15. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Deborah J.; Kaldy, James E.; Gaeckle, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Zostera japonica. Z. japonica is considered "invasive" and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps beneficial. Z. japonica does not appear on the Federal or the Oregon invasive species or noxious weed lists. However, the State of California lists it as both an invasive and noxious weed; Washington State recently listed it as a noxious weed. We describe the management dynamics in North America with respect to these congener species and highlight the science and policies behind these decisions. In recent years, management strategies at the state level have ranged from historical protection of Z. japonica as a priority habitat in Washington to eradication in California. Oregon and British Columbia, Canada appear to have no specific policies with regard to Z. japonica. This fractured management approach contradicts efforts to conserve and protect seagrass in other regions of the US and around the world. Science must play a critical role in the assessment of Z. japonica ecology and the immediate and long-term effects of management actions. The information and recommendations provided here can serve as a basis for providing scientific data in order to develop better informed management decisions and aid in defining a uniform management strategy for Z. japonica.

  16. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  17. [Ecological characteristics of Zostera japonica population in Swan Lake of Rongcheng, Shandong Province of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Feng; Liu, Peng; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Xu-Jia; Yang, Hong-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a large area of well preserved Zostera japonica dominated meadow was found in a coastal lagoon, Swan Lake, in Rongcheng of Shandong Province. Due to its unique geographical position and high biomass, this meadow may act as a typical Z. japonica bed in the coastal area of Shandong. From September, 2011 to October, 2012, an annual investigation was conducted on the Z. japonica and its habitats in east coast of Swan Lake, and the distribution of the Z. japonica and its habitats ecological characteristics were preliminarily understood. The major ingredients of sediments particles in the Z. japonica bed was sand (81%) and silt (14%). The C and N contents in the sediments were the highest in winter, and the C/N ratio was the highest in autumn. The shoot density, shoot height, and biomass of the Z. japonica were all significantly correlated with water temperature (P < 0.05). There was an obvious change in the Z. japonica growth among seasons, with the peak biomass obtained in August-September. The C and N contents and C/N in Z. japonica leaves also varied with seasons. The leaf C content was significantly higher in autumn than in spring and summer (P < 0.05), the leaf N content was significantly lower in summer than in spring and autumn (P < 0.01), whereas the leaf C/N ratio was significantly higher in summer than in spring (P < 0.05). The annual carbon sequestration by the Z. japonica in the Swan Lake was estimated to be 111.4 g C x m(-2).

  18. Genetic relationships in a germplasm collection of Camellia japonica and Camellia oleifera using SSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Ruan, C J; Ding, G J; Mopper, S

    2017-02-16

    Camellia japonica produces different color and bigger flowers, widely being used for gardening green in southern China. However, cultivars were introduced from different regions, but their origin and pedigree information is either not available poorly documented, causing problems in authentication. Many low-yield trees in Camellia oleifera forests have been used as stocks for grafting C. japonica. However, the survival rate of grafts between these two species is related to genetic relationship between stock of C. oleifera and scion of C. japonica. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to genotype 41 C. japonica cultivars from different regions, as well as nine genotypes of C. oleifera in China. Twenty-one SSR markers generated 438 alleles, with an average of 20.85 alleles per locus. All alleles were used to generate Dice coefficients between two genotypes of all genotypes of these two species. Cluster analysis based on SSR data clustered genotypes showed clustering of genotypes into groups that agreed well with their taxonomic classification and geographic origin. Cultivar 'Damaonao' was a large tree with flowers of composite color, and showed the most genetic distance from other C. japonica cultivars and C. oleifera genotypes in the cluster analysis. The cultivars of C. japonica are distinct from genotypes of C. oleifera. The results for cultivars of C. japonica also revealed the presence of different cultivars with the same name, and identical cultivars but with a different name. SSR profiles can improve C. japonica germplasm management, and provide potential determine correlations between genetic relationship and graft compatibility among scions of C. japonica and genotypes of C. oleifera.

  19. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  20. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  1. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  2. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  3. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  4. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  5. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    PubMed

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined.

  6. Flocculation of model algae under shear.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

  7. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  8. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited.

  9. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  10. Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

    2010-05-01

    Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

  11. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  12. Salinity tolerance of eggs of Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura) inhabiting coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Buergeria japonica is one of a few frogs that breed in coastal areas. To understand why this species can breed in coastal areas, I tested the salinity tolerance of eggs of B. japonica collected from a coastal area of Okinawa Island, Japan. All eggs hatched within four days after oviposition. At 0%. salinity (control), over 94% of eggs hatched normally, and even at 1 per thousand salinity over 85% of eggs hatched. Survival rate of eggs was low at 2, 3, and 4 per thousand, and no eggs hatched at 5 per thousand salinity. These results indicate that low salinity, close to pure water, is necessary for successful egg development, even for populations of B. japonica that breed in coastal areas. Future studies are necessary to examine whether females of B. japonica breeding in coastal areas select appropriate oviposition sites where the environmental salinity level is sufficiently low for eggs.

  13. Dissolution of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Zoysia japonica in AMIMCl with ultrasonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Hou, Qidong

    2013-10-15

    In this study, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), an ionic liquid, was synthesized and characterized by a series of test methods. Pretreatment of Zoysia japonica by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) was shown to reduce significantly the mass of hemicellulose and lignin in biomass, thereby breaking the lignocellulosic structure. Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX showed reasonable solubility in AMIMCl upon ultrasonic treatment. The rate of cellulose regeneration from Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX increased with increase in applied power of ultrasonication within a certain power range from 0 to 110 W. The regeneration rate of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Z. japonica reached a maximum of 97% when the ultrasonic power was 110 W. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that the regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose.

  14. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  15. Antigenic analysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa using anti-Cry j 1 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Ito, M; Ito, H; Baba, S; Takagi, I; Yasueda, H; Ohta, N

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, pollen of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa are a yearly source of distress for many people suffering seasonally from allergic rhinitis. To study common epitopes shared by the two species, two monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) were raised against Cry j 1, which is the most predominant allergen in C. japonica. One of the moAbs was found to be reactive even to the major allergen of C. obtusa, demonstrating that the moAb (J1B01) can detect an epitope shared by both species J1B01 strongly inhibited the binding of the major allergens of C. japonica and C. obtusa to IgE of patients who are sensitive to C. japonica and C. obtusa. This finding signifies the importance of the epitope recognized by J1B01.

  16. Development of microsatellite markers for the clonal shrub Orixa japonica (Rutaceae) using 454 sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Setsuko, Suzuki; Sugai, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0.140 to 0.875, respectively. Five of the 16 loci showed a low null allele frequency. Because Orixa is a monotypic genus, cross-amplification in a consubfamilial species, Skimmia japonica, was tested, and only one locus showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers developed for O. japonica contribute to clone identification for studies examining the clonal structure and true sex ratio in the wild. Moreover, five markers that have a low null allele frequency can also be used for estimating mating systems or performing parentage analysis. PMID:27785383

  17. Aromatic glycosides from the whole plants of Iris japonica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guo-Ru; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan; Li, Li; Ni, Gang; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the whole plants of Iris japonica led to the isolation of four new aromatic glycosides. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (2), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7R,8R)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (3), (-)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy acetophenone 4-O-β-d-{6-O-[4-O-(7S,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol-8-yl)-3-methoxybenzoyl]}-glucopyranoside (4), respectively.

  18. Quality comparision of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae by several dissimilarity methods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjing; Deng, Xiangyu; Liu, Zhongbo

    2013-01-01

    Computing similarity is extremely important in modern scientific research such as computational biology and data mining. In this paper, we put forward the concept of quantitative dissimilarity (QDS) and define a series of formulations to measure how similar or dissimilar between two objects are in quality and content for their n-dimentional properties, which is based on a simple mathematical model. Through establishing the HPLC fingerprints (HPLC-FPs) of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) to obtain n-dimentional vectors, in which each peak area serves as an element, the authentical quality control of FLJ were successfully implemented by several QDSs. The presented dissimilarity methods can accurately and quantitativey assess all objects differences in n-dimentional properties. PMID:25332952

  19. Distribution and metabolism of galactitol in Euonymus japonica L

    SciTech Connect

    Boersig, M.R.; Negm, F.B.

    1987-04-01

    Metabolism of (/sup 14/C)-galactitol was studied in immature and mature leaves of Euonymus japonica L. The highest rates of galactitol metabolism occurred in young expanding leaves. After a 12 h incubation in (/sup 14/C)-galactitol, the proportions of label remaining in galactitol were 82 and 96% in immature and mature tissues, respectively. A NAD dependent galactitol dehydrogenase reaction was demonstrated in extracts from immature leaves. The product of this reaction was the aldose sugar, galactose. Label from (/sup 14/C)-galactitol was detected in two unidentified carbohydrates as well as in sucrose, glucose, fructose and galactose. When incubated with (/sup 14/C)-galactose, immature and mature leaf strips, respectively, accumulated 1 and 22% of the label in the form of galactitol.

  20. The biogeography of the North Pacific right whale ( Eubalaena japonica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Coyle, Kenneth O.

    2009-03-01

    The eastern North Pacific population of right whales ( Eubalaena japonica) is among the most endangered whale populations, with an estimated size of only 10s of individuals. The effectiveness of measures (e.g., protected areas, abundance surveys) intended to promote recovery of this population will be enhanced by understanding its distribution, habitat use, and habitat characteristics. In order to facilitate such understanding, we summarized relevant right whale biology, reviewed the life history of their zooplankton prey species, and related North Pacific oceanography to the production, distribution, and concentration of these prey at three scales of variability. We discuss how ocean processes may drive zooplankton distribution and concentration, and present hypotheses about how prey patches suitable for right whale foraging might be formed. Such hypotheses, combined with available distributional data and descriptions of the ocean environment, would be suitable for predicting potential right whale foraging habitat.

  1. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  2. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  3. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  4. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs and Target Genes in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Fu, Chunhua; Long, Yan; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and play very important roles in plant development. Lonicera japonica is one of the important medicinal plants in China. However, few studies on the discovery of conserved and novel miRNAs from L. japonica were reported. In this study, we employed deep sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in leaf and flower tissues of L. japonica. A total of 22.97 million clean reads from flower and leaf tissues were obtained, which generated 146 conserved miRNAs distributed in 20 families and 110 novel miRNAs. Accordingly, 72 differentially expressed miRNAs (P≤0.001) between leaves and flowers and their potential target genes were identified and validated. The qRT-PCR validation showed that majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed significant tissue-specific expression in L. japonica. Furthermore, the miRNA-mRNA and mRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, this study identified a large number of miRNAs and target genes in L. japonica, which not only provides the first global miRNA expression profiles, but also sheds light on functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future. PMID:27711182

  6. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  7. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  8. Biochemical composition of temperate and Arctic populations of Saccharina latissima after exposure to increased pCO2 and temperature reveals ecotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Olischläger, Mark; Iñiguez, Concepción; Gordillo, Francisco Javier López; Wiencke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Previous research suggested that the polar and temperate populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima represent different ecotypes. The ecotypic differentiation might also be reflected in their biochemical composition (BC) under changing temperatures and pCO2. Accordingly, it was tested if the BC of Arctic (Spitsbergen) and temperate S. latissima (Helgoland) is different and if they are differently affected by changes in temperature and pCO2. Thalli from Helgoland grown at 17 °C and 10 °C and from Spitsbergen at 10 °C and 4 °C were all tested at either 380, 800, or 1,500 µatm pCO2, and total C-, total N-, protein, soluble carbohydrate, and lipid content, as well as C/N-ratio were measured. At 10 °C, the Arctic population had a higher content of total C, soluble carbohydrates, and lipids, whereas the N- and protein content was lower. At the lower tested temperature, the Arctic ecotype had particularly higher contents of lipids, while content of soluble carbohydrates increased in the Helgoland population only. In Helgoland-thalli, elevated pCO2 caused a higher content of soluble carbohydrates at 17 °C but lowered the content of N and lipids and increased the C/N-ratio at 10 °C. Elevated pCO2 alone did not affect the BC of the Spitsbergen population. Conclusively, the Arctic ecotype was more resilient to increased pCO2 than the temperate one, and both ecotypes differed in their response pattern to temperature. This differential pattern is discussed in the context of the adaptation of the Arctic ecotype to low temperature and the polar night.

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  10. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  11. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately.

  12. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  13. Effect of Interactions Among Algae on Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) in Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; Greene, Sarah; Alexander, Martin

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by algae in flooded soil was limited by interactions within the algal community. Nitrogen fixation by either indigenous algae or Tolypothrix tenuis was reduced severalfold by a dense suspension of the green alga Nephrocytium sp. Similarly, interactions between the nitrogen-fixing alga (cyanobacterium) Aulosira 68 and natural densities of indigenous algae limited nitrogen-fixing activity in one of two soils examined. This was demonstrated by developing a variant of Aulosira 68 that was resistant to the herbicide simetryne at concentrations that prevented development of indigenous algae. More nitrogen was fixed by the resistant variant in flooded soil containing herbicide than was fixed in herbicide-free soil by either the indigenous algae or indigenous algae plus the parent strain of Aulosira. Interference from indigenous algae may hamper the development of nitrogen-fixing algae introduced into rice fields in attempts to increase biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:16345463

  14. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  16. Different Gene Expression Patterns between Leaves and Flowers in Lonicera japonica Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Libin; Long, Yan; Fu, Chunhua; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Jia, Haibo; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), GO (Gene Ontology), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P ≤ 0.05) between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including “Metabolic process,” “Response to stimulus,” “Cellular process,” and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future. PMID:27242839

  17. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-01-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal obbjects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charopyhte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorbance spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900 nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance in the wave band of 400-550 nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did not change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400 – 500 nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  19. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  20. Mapping invasive Fallopia japonica by combined spectral, spatial, and temporal analysis of digital orthophotos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Lucieer, Arko; Podobnikar, Tomaž; Čarni, Andraž

    2012-10-01

    Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is listed among 100 of the World's worst invasive alien species and poses an increasing threat to ecosystems and agriculture in Northern America, Europe, and Oceania. This study proposes a remote sensing method to detect local occurrences of F. japonica from low-cost digital orthophotos taken in early spring and summer by concurrently exploring its temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics. Temporal characteristics of the species are quantified by a band ratio calculated from the green and red spectral channels of both images. The normalized difference vegetation index was used to capture the high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of F. japonica in summer while the characteristic texture of F. japonica is quantified by calculating gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) measures. After establishing the optimum kernel size to quantify texture, the different input features (spectral, spatial, and texture) were stacked and used as input to the random forest (RF) classifier. The proposed method was tested for a built-up and semi-natural area in Slovenia. The spectral, spatial, and temporal provided an equally important contribution for differentiating F. japonica from other land cover types. The combination of all signatures resulted in a producer accuracy of 90.3% and a user accuracy of 98.1% for F. japonica when validation was based on independent regions of interest. A producer accuracy of 61.4% was obtained for F. japonica when comparing the classification result with all occurrences of F. japonica identified during a field validation campaign. This is an encouraging result given the very small patches in which the species usually occur and the high degree of intermingling with other plants. All hot spots were identified and even likely infestations of F. japonica that had remained undiscovered during the field campaign were detected. The probability images resulting from the RF classifier can be used to reduce the

  1. Calystegine B4, a novel trehalase inhibitor from Scopolia japonica.

    PubMed

    Asano, N; Kato, A; Kizu, H; Matsui, K; Watson, A A; Nash, R J

    1996-10-31

    GLC-MS analysis has been developed for screening plants of the family Solanaceae for new calystegines. GLC-MS analyses of the extract of Scopolia japonica showed the presence of a new tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid in addition to the known calystegines A3, A5, B1, B2, B3, and C1. We gave this new alkaloid the trivial name calystegine B4. The structure of calystegine B4 was determined as 1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 alpha, 4 alpha-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane from a variety of NMR spectral data. Calystegines B1, B2, and C1 are potent competitive inhibitors with Ki values ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-7) M for almond beta-glucosidase, while calystegine B4 inhibited this enzyme in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 7.3 microM. Calystegine B2 is also a potent inhibitor of green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase, whereas calystegine B4 exhibited no significant activity for this enzyme. Among rat intestinal glycosidases, only trehalase was potently inhibited by calystegine B4, with an IC50 value of 9.8 microM. Furthermore, calystegine B4 potently inhibited pig kidney trehalase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 1.2 microM, but it was almost inactive against yeast and fungal trehalases.

  2. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections.

  3. Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in loquat fruits (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Ríos, José Julián; Roca, María; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and nonfluorescent dioxobilane chlorophyll catabolites (NDCCs) are the terminal compounds of the chlorophyll degradation pathway that may display beneficial properties to human health related to their antioxidant properties, which were recently shown. A profile of NCCs/NDCC of the loquat fruit Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. is described. From the 13 known different NCC structures described to date, three have been identified in loquats. Two new structures not defined so far were characterized in loquat fruits: Ej-NCC2, which corresponds to the methyl ester at C13(2) of Bn-NCC1 and in very low amount Ej-NDCC1, the only NDCC found in loquats. Keto-enol tautomerism at the C13(1) position in NCCs is described for the first time as a regular process in chlorophyll catabolism, probably through a nonspecific mechanism since almost all the chlorophyll catabolites structures detected in fruits of loquat present keto and enol tautomers. The results obtained have been possible through a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry fitted with a powerful postprocessing software.

  4. Expression of Nephrin Homologue in the Freshwater Planarian, Dugesia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomomi; Takagi, Sota; Matsumoto, Midori; Tashiro, Fumio; Sakai, Tatsuo; Ichimura, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells. PMID:25859064

  5. Terpenoids from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica inhibiting nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-03-01

    A new sesquiterpenoid, 1, and three new diterpenoids, 3-5, along with five known compounds, 2 and 6-9, were isolated from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined as (1R,4R,6S,7S,9S)-4α-hydroxy-1,9-peroxybisabola-2,10-diene (1), methyl (12E)-16-oxolabda-8(17),12-dien-15-oate (3), (12R)-15-ethoxy-12-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4), and methyl (11E)-14,15,16-trinorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-oate (5) by means of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations at C(4) in 1 and C(12) in 4 were deduced from the circular dichroism (CD) data of the in situ-formed [Rh2 (CF3 COO)4 ] complexes. Inhibitory effects of the isolates on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 2-4, 6, and 7 were found to exhibit inhibitory activities with IC50 values between 14.6 and 34.3 μM.

  6. Withanolides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea japonica and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Choi, Sang Zin; Son, Mi Won; Lee, Kang Ro

    2011-07-13

    Edible yams are tropical crops that serve as important staple foods in many parts of the world. The rhizome of Dioscorea japonica , well-known as "Japanese yam", is a food and medicinal source known as "San Yak" in Korea. Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the extract of this yam resulted in the identification of two new withanolides, named dioscorolide A (1) and dioscorolide B (2). The structures of these new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and chemical methods. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1 and 2) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) and a human normal cell line (HUVEC) using a sulforhodamine B (SRB) bioassay. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15) with IC(50) values ranging from 6.3 to 26.9 μM and exhibited lower activity against the normal cell line (HUVEC) with IC(50) values ranging from 27.1 to 28.8 μM, suggesting selective toxicity among tumor and normal cells.

  7. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Sophora japonica Transcriptome Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Wenna; Xu, Xin-Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Sophora japonica Linn (Chinese Scholar Tree) is a shrub species belonging to the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. In this study, RNA sequencing of S. japonica transcriptome was performed to produce large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis. Approximate 86.1 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 143010 unique transcripts and 57614 unigenes. The average length of unigenes was 901 bps with an N50 of 545 bps. Four public databases, including the NCBI nonredundant protein (NR), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG), were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST procedure. A total of 27541 of 57614 unigenes (47.8%) were annotated for gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology. Moreover, an interaction network of unigenes in S. japonica was predicted based on known protein-protein interactions of putative orthologs of well-studied plant genomes. The transcriptome data of S. japonica reported here represents first genome-scale investigation of gene expressions in Faboideae plants. We expect that our study will provide a useful resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics, functional genomics, and protein-protein interaction in S. japonica. PMID:24516854

  8. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Gene Expression of MicroRNAs in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaolong; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Junhui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Tiying; Jiang, Chao; Zha, Liangping; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which play crucial regulatory roles in plant secondary metabolism and responses to the environment, could be developed as promising biomarkers for different varieties and production areas of herbal medicines. However, limited information is available for miRNAs from Lonicera japonica, which is widely used in East Asian countries owing to various pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target miRNA expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of secondary metabolic regulation in different tissues and varieties of L. japonica. For precise normalization of gene expression data in L. japonica, 16 candidate miRNAs were examined in three tissues, as well as 21 cultivated varieties collected from 16 production areas, using GeNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed combination of u534122 and u3868172 as the best reference genes across all samples. Their specificity was confirmed by detecting the cycling threshold (Ct) value ranges in different varieties of L. japonica collected from diverse production areas, suggesting the use of these two reference miRNAs is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization with different tissues, varieties, and production areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on validation of reference miRNAs in honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.). Restuls from this study can further facilitate discovery of functional regulatory miRNAs in different varieties of L. japonica. PMID:27507983

  9. The anti-allergic activity of polyphenol extracted from five marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Mou, Quangui

    2015-08-01

    Natural polyphenol has been widely believed to be effective in allergy remission. Currently, most of the natural polyphenol products come from terrestrial sources such as tea, grape seeds among others, and few polyphenols have been developed from algae for their anti-allergic activity. The aim of the study was to screen some commercial seaweed for natural extracts with anti-allergic activity. Five algae including Laminaria japonica, Porphyra sp., Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scytosiphon sp. were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were evaluated for total polyphenol contents and anti-allergic activity with the hyaluronidase inhibition assay. Results showed that the total polyphenol contents in the ethanol extracts ranged from 1.67% to 8.47%, while the highest was found in the extract from Scytosiphon sp. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that the extracts from Scytosiphon sp. had the lowest IC50, 0.67 mg mL-1, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract had the highest IC50, 15.07 mg mL-1. The anti-allergic activity of Scytosiphon sp. extract was even higher than the typical anti-allergic drug Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) (IC50 = 1.13 mg mL-1), and was similar with natural polyphenol from Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 0.56 mg mL-1). These results indicated that the ethanol extract of Scytosiphon sp. contains a high concentration of polyphenol with high anti-allergic activity. Potentially Scytosiphon sp. can be developed to a natural anti-allergic compound for allergy remission.

  10. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  11. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications.

  12. [Functional components in fish and algae oils].

    PubMed

    Conchillo, A; Valencia, I; Puente, A; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I

    2006-01-01

    An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio was lower than 0.4 in both oils. In the unsaponificable fraction, algae oil had a Mold lower cholesterol content and a higher proportion of squalene than fish oil. The phytosterol content was significantly higher in the algae oil.

  13. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  14. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements.

  15. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  16. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  17. INTERTIDAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURE VARIANCE AS A POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND ZOSTERA JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...

  18. Effects of salinity on survival of the exotic seagrass Zostera japonica subjected to extreme high temperature stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-indigenous seagrass that is expanding along the Pacific Coast of North America. The ecophysiology of this seagrass is poorly studied and management of the species is fragmented. We collected Z. japonica plants from Padilla Bay, WA., Yaquina Bay and Coo...

  19. Study on creep properties of Japonica cooked rice and its relationship with rice chemical compositions and sensory evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creep properties of four varieties japonica cooked rice were tested using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA Q800). The creep curve was described by Burgers model. The creep process of japonica cooked rice mainly consisted of retarded elastic deformation, epsilonR and viscous flow deformation, epsil...

  20. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  1. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  2. Lipids and lipid metabolism in eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Guschina, Irina A; Harwood, John L

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic algae are a very diverse group of organisms which inhabit a huge range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to deserts. They account for over half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain. In recent years studies on the lipid biochemistry of algae has shifted from experiments with a few model organisms to encompass a much larger number of, often unusual, algae. This has led to the discovery of new compounds, including major membrane components, as well as the elucidation of lipid signalling pathways. A major drive in recent research have been attempts to discover genes that code for expression of the various proteins involved in the production of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Such work is described here together with information about how environmental factors, such as light, temperature or minerals, can change algal lipid metabolism and how adaptation may take place.

  3. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  4. Microsatellite markers for Nuphar japonica (Nymphaeaceae), an aquatic plant in the agricultural ecosystem of Japan1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Shiga, Takashi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. Methods and Results: Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N. japonica. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.47 (range = 2−9; n = 32), and the average expected heterozygosity per locus was 0.84 (range = 0.5–1.0); 11 loci were amplified in N. oguraensis var. akiensis and 15 in N. ×saijoensis. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for investigating the levels of genetic diversity within remnant populations of Nuphar taxa and could provide a valuable tool for conservation genetics of these taxa. PMID:28101435

  5. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  6. Pharmacological assessment of methamphetamine-induced behavioral hyperactivity mediated by dopaminergic transmission in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Natsuka; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Daido, Kanako; Oka, Tomoe; Todo, Mio; Toshikawa, Asami; Tsushima, Jun; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2014-07-11

    The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion.

  7. Cellulose extraction from Zoysia japonica pretreated by alumina-doped MgO in AMIMCl.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-26

    In this study, alumina-doped MgO was produced as a solid alkali for lignocellulose pretreatment. Pretreatment with alumina-doped MgO disrupted the lignocellulose structure and significantly reduced the lignin content of the Z. japonica. After pretreatment, Z. japonica showed significant solubility in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The similar high solubility of pretreated Z. japonica samples by original alumina-doped MgO and used alumina-doped MgO also proved that alumina-doped MgO had strong stability, which can be recycled and used repeatedly. The regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose according to FTIR and NMR analyses. Compared to microcrystalline cellulose, only the crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose decreased.

  8. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  9. Terminal N-Acetylgalactosamine-Specific Leguminous Lectin from Wisteria japonica as a Probe for Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Keisuke; Teruya, Futaba; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Millettia japonica was recently reclassified into the genus Wisteria japonica based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Because the seed of Wisteria floribunda expresses leguminous lectins with unique N-acetylgalactosamine-binding specificity, we purified lectin from Wisteria japonica seeds using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Glycan microarray analysis demonstrated that unlike Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria brachybotrys lectins, which bind to both terminal N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues, Wisteria japonica lectin (WJA) specifically bound to both α- and β-linked terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose residues on oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. Further, frontal affinity chromatography using more than 100 2-aminopyridine-labeled and p-nitrophenyl-derivatized oligosaccharides demonstrated that the ligands with the highest affinity for Wisteria japonica lectin were GalNAcβ1-3GlcNAc and GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, with Ka values of 9.5 × 104 and 1.4 × 105 M-1, respectively. In addition, when binding was assessed in a variety of cell lines, Wisteria japonica lectin bound specifically to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells while other Wisteria lectins bound equally to all of the cell lines tested. Wisteria japonica lectin binding to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells was dramatically decreased in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose, mannose, or N-acetylglucosamine, and was completely abrogated by β-hexosaminidase-digestion of these cells. These results clearly demonstrate that Wisteria japonica lectin binds to terminal N-acetylgalactosamine but not galactose. In addition, histochemical analysis of human squamous cell carcinoma tissue sections demonstrated that Wisteria japonica lectin specifically bound to differentiated cancer tissues but not normal tissue. This novel binding characteristic of Wisteria japonica lectin has the potential to become a powerful tool for clinical applications. PMID:24349556

  10. Characterization of Venom and Oviduct Components of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica

    PubMed Central

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Matsumura, Takashi; Hirata, Makiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagata, Noriyo; Kataoka, Michiyo; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    During natural parasitization, Asobara japonica wasps introduce lateral oviduct (LO) components into their Drosophila hosts soon after the venom injection to neutralize its strong toxicity; otherwise, the host will die. Although the orchestrated relationship between the venom and LO components necessary for successful parasitism has attracted the attention of many researchers in this field, the molecular natures of both factors remain ambiguous. We here showed that precipitation of the venom components by ultracentrifugation yielded a toxic fraction that was inactivated by ultraviolet light irradiation, boiling, and sonication, suggesting that it is a virus-like entity. Morphological observation of the precipitate after ultracentrifugation showed small spherical heterogeneous virus-like particles 20–40 nm in diameter. The venom’s detrimental effect on D. melanogaster larvae was not directly neutralized by the LO components but blocked by a hemolymphal neutralizing factor activated by the LO factor. Furthermore, we found that A. japonica venom and LO components acted similarly on the larvae of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura: the venom injection caused mortality but coinjection of the LO factor protected S. litura larvae from the venom’s toxicity. In contrast, D. ficusphila and D. bipectinata, which are closely related to D. melanogaster but non-habitual host species of A. japonica, were not negatively affected by A. japonica venom due to an intrinsic neutralizing activity in their hemolymph, indicating that these species must have acquired a neutralizer of A. japonica venom during evolution. These results give new insights into the characteristics of both the venom and LO components: A. japonica females have utilized the virus-like toxic venom factor to exploit a wider range of host species after the evolutionary process enabled them to use the LO factor for activation of the host hemolymph neutralizer precursor, although the non-habitual host Drosophila

  11. First occurrence of the non-native bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ryland, John S; Holt, Rohan; Loxton, Jennifer

    2014-03-24

    Schizoporella japonica Ortmann was described from Japan but was subsequently introduced on Pacific oysters to the Pacific coast of North America, where it is now well established. In this paper we record it for the first time in European waters. The initial discovery was in a marina at Holyhead, North Wales, in July 2010 but S. japonica has since been observed abundantly in the Orkney Islands (from May 2011) and, subsequently, at other localities in northern Scotland. Introduction seems most likely to have been on an ocean-going vessel. The British material is here fully described and illustrated with SEMs and colour photographs; some unusual characters are discussed. Unlike other recently introduced bryozoans, S. japonica is a cold-water species and its breeding season in Britain extends through the winter. Extensive confusion between this and other species of Schizoporella on the west coast of Canada and the USA led us to make thorough morphometric comparisons between the species concerned (Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood), Schizoporella errata (Waters) and Schizoporella pseudoerrata Soule, Soule and Chaney). Zooid size in cheilostomate bryozoans is variable and often an unreliable character for species separation but shape (and therefore ratios between variables, which are independent of size) are often valuable: S. japonica zooids have a much greater length:width ratio than the other species. Density of frontal pseudopores provides a useful discriminatory character. Schizoporella unicornis, repeatedly reported in error from the Pacific coast of North America, does not occur there; it is a European species. Full comparisons are made between S. japonica and S. unicornis for European identification and between S. japonica, S. errata and S. pseudoerrata (which are also illustrated) for North American localities.

  12. Allelopathy is involved in the formation of pure colonies of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-04-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica is one of the most widely distributed fern and occurs throughout East to South Asia. The species often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific colonies. However, the potential mechanism for this domination has not yet been described. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that allelochemicals are involved in the formation of G. japonica colonies. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica inhibited the growth of seedlings of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and timothy (Phleum pratense). Increasing extract concentration increased the inhibition. These results suggest that G. japonica contain allelopathic substances. The extract was then purified by several chromatographies with monitoring the inhibitory activity and two growth inhibitory substances causing the allelopathic effect were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to be a novel compound 3-O-β-allopyranosyl-13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool (1) and 18-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13-epitorreferol (2). These compounds inhibited the shoot and root growth of garden cress, lettuce, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy, ryegrass and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) at concentrations greater than 0.1-1.0mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of root and shoot growth of these test plants ranged from 0.72 to 3.49mM and 0.79 to 3.51mM for compounds 1 and 2, respectively. Concentration of compounds 1 and 2 in soil under the pure colony of G. japonica was 4.9 and 5.7mM, respectively, indicating concentrations over those required for 50% growth inhibition are potentially available under monocultural stands of these ferns. Therefore, these compounds may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by presence of G. japonica and may thus contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this

  13. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  14. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  15. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  16. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  17. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  18. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  19. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  20. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  1. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Wu, Jilong

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W, lambda(max) = 365 nm) was investigated. Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algae-water systems. The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration, and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution. Meanwhile, the cooperation action of algae and Fe(III), and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxacin. The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae. In addition, we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae. This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae, for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI) and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity. PMID:21851599

  3. Estrogenic activity of a naringinase-treated extract of Sophora japonica cultivated in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Ali M; Chung, Mi Hwa; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nishihara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Masao

    2010-02-01

    The naringinase-treated methanol extract of Sophora japonica L. (Fabaceae) seeds showed potent estrogen agonist activity. Through bioassay-guided isolation of the main active constituents from the naringinase-treated methanol extract of S. japonica, the aglycones genistein and kaempferol were found to be the main phytoestrogens in the naringinase-treated extract. In addition, kaempferol was nearly equipotent to genistein as an estrogen agonist. Concerning the compounds isolated from the untreated methanol extract, sophoricoside showed weak estrogenic activity on ERbeta only.

  4. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  5. Neonatal sepsis caused by Shewanella algae: A case report.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marie Victor Pravin; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Kali, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality among neonates, especially in developing countries. Most cases of neonatal sepsis are attributed to Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Shewanella algae (S. algae) is a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, commonly associated with the marine environment, which has been isolated from humans. Early onset neonatal sepsis caused by S. algae is uncommon. We report a case of S. algae blood stream infection in a newborn with early onset neonatal sepsis.

  6. Biocontrol of the Sugarcane Borer Eldana saccharina by Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac7 and Serratia marcescens chiA Genes in Sugarcane-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Katrina J.; Leslie, Graeme; Thomson, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host-range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from the phylloplane of sugarcane and the endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae found in sugarcane. The ptac-cry1Ac7 construct was introduced into the chromosome of P. fluorescens using the integration vector pJFF350 carrying the artificial interposon Omegon-Km. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of the integrated cry1Ac7 gene were much higher under the control of the tac promoter than under the control of its endogenous promoter. It was also determined that multicopy expression in P. fluorescens and H. seropedicae of ptac-cry1Ac7 carried on pKT240 caused plasmid instability with no detectable protein expression. In H. seropedicae, more Cry1Ac7 toxin was produced when the gene was cloned under the control of the Nmr promoter on pML122 than in the opposite orientation and bioassays showed that the former resulted in higher mortality of E. saccharina larvae than the latter. P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox resulted in higher mortality of larvae than did P. fluorescens 14::tox. An increased toxic effect was observed when P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox was combined with P. fluorescens carrying the Serratia marcescens chitinase gene chiA, under the control of the tac promoter, integrated into the chromosome. PMID:10877771

  7. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  8. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  11. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  13. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  14. Sterol chemotaxonomy of marine pelagophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Zhao, Hui; Boyer, Gregory L; Satchwell, Michael F; Andersen, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    Several marine algae of the class Pelagophyceae produce the unusual marine sterol 24-propylidenecholesterol, mainly as the (24E)-isomer. The (24Z)-isomer had previously been considered as a specific biomarker for Aureococcus anophagefferens, the 'brown tide' alga of the Northeast coast of the USA. To test this hypothesis and to generate chemotaxonomic information, the sterol compositions of 42 strains of pelagophyte algae including 17 strains of Aureococcus anophagefferens were determined by GC analysis. A more comprehensive sterol analysis by HPLC and (1)H-NMR was obtained for 17 selected pelagophyte strains. All strains analyzed contained 24-propylidenecholesterol. In all strains belonging to the order Sarcinochrysidales, this sterol was found only as the (E)-isomer, while all strains in the order Pelagomonadales contained the (Z)-isomer, either alone or together with the (E)-isomer. The occurrence of Delta(22) and 24alpha-sterols was limited to the Sarcinochrysidales. The first occurrence of Delta(22)-24-propylcholesterol in an alga, CCMP 1410, was reported. Traces of the rare sterol 26,26-dimethyl-24-methylenecholesterol were detected in Aureococcus anophagefferens, and the (25R)-configuration was proposed, based on biosynthetic considerations. Traces of a novel sterol, 24-propylidenecholesta-5,25-dien-3beta-ol, were detected in several species.

  15. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  16. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Paul N.

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  17. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice.

  18. Polyamine biosynthetic diversity in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Fuell, Christine; Elliott, Katherine A; Hanfrey, Colin C; Franceschetti, Marina; Michael, Anthony J

    2010-07-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis in plants differs from other eukaryotes because of the contribution of genes from the cyanobacterial ancestor of the chloroplast. Plants possess an additional biosynthetic route for putrescine formation from arginine, consisting of the enzymes arginine decarboxylase, agmatine iminohydrolase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase, derived from the cyanobacterial ancestor. They also synthesize an unusual tetraamine, thermospermine, that has important developmental roles and which is evolutionarily more ancient than spermine in plants and algae. Single-celled green algae have lost the arginine route and are dependent, like other eukaryotes, on putrescine biosynthesis from the ornithine. Some plants like Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens have lost ornithine decarboxylase and are thus dependent on the arginine route. With its dependence on the arginine route, and the pivotal role of thermospermine in growth and development, Arabidopsis represents the most specifically plant mode of polyamine biosynthesis amongst eukaryotes. A number of plants and algae are also able to synthesize unusual polyamines such as norspermidine, norspermine and longer polyamines, and biosynthesis of these amines likely depends on novel aminopropyltransferases similar to thermospermine synthase, with relaxed substrate specificity. Plants have a rich repertoire of polyamine-based secondary metabolites, including alkaloids and hydroxycinnamic amides, and a number of polyamine-acylating enzymes have been recently characterised. With the genetic tools available for Arabidopsis and other model plants and algae, and the increasing capabilities of comparative genomics, the biological roles of polyamines can now be addressed across the plant evolutionary lineage.

  19. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals. PMID:21822416

  20. [Allelopathic effect of artemisinin on green algae].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Long-Yun

    2013-05-01

    To study the growth effects of differing concentrations of artemisinin on green algae and to evaluate the ecological risk. The effects of artemisinin on the growth and the content change of chlorophyll, protein, oxygen, conductivity, SOD, CAT, MDA in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus oblique were studied through 96 h toxicity tests. Artemisinin accelerated the growth of algae at a lower concentration ( <40 microg . L-1) with content increase of chlorophyll or protein and so on, and it inhibited the growth of algae at higher concentration ( >80 microg . L-1). The content of chlorophyll or protein in algae cells reduced with the increasing concentration of artemisinin, exhibiting the good concentration-effect relationship. SOD and CAT activity was stimulated at low concentrations ( <40 microg . L-1 ) and inhibited at high concentrations ( >80 microg . L- 1). However, MDA content increased significantly with the increase of concentration. According to the seven kinds of indicators changes, the time-response and dose-response suggested that the surfactant first hurt in Ch. pyrenoidosa was damaging membrane by changing membrane lipid molecules soluble. And primary mechanism on Chlorophyta cells might be related to the oxidation damage of lipid and other biological large molecules caused by artemisinin. The large-scale intensive planting of Artemisia annua may reduce the surrounding water productivity.

  1. Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

  2. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  3. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  4. Exploiting genes and functional diversity of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera japonica and their substitutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-25

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species.

  5. Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially amplified tandem repeats as a major genome component of Northern Europe's oldest Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Heitkam, Tony; Petrasch, Stefan; Zakrzewski, Falk; Kögler, Anja; Wenke, Torsten; Wanke, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Northern Europe's oldest and largest Camellia japonica growing at the Pillnitz Castle (Germany) for over 200 years is of botanical and cultural importance and is a reference for C. japonica molecular scale analysis. In order to provide a fundament for genome analysis of the genus Camellia, we characterize the C. japonica tandem repeat fraction, constituting 12.5 % of the Pillnitz camellia's genome. A genomic library of the Pillnitz C. japonica was produced and Illumina sequenced to generate 36 Gb of paired-end reads. We performed graph-based read clustering implemented in the RepeatExplorer pipeline to estimate the C. japonica repeat fraction of 73 %. This enabled us to identify and characterize the most prominent satellite DNAs, Camellia japonica satellite 1-4 (CajaSat1-CajaSat4), and the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by bioinformatics, fluorescent in situ and Southern hybridization. Within the Camellia genus, satellite spreading, array expansion and formation of higher-order structures highlight different modes of repeat evolution. The CajaSat satellites localize at prominent chromosomal sites, including (peri)centromeres and subtelomeres of all chromosomes, thus serving as chromosomal landmarks for their identification. This work provides an insight into the C. japonica chromosome organization and significantly expands the Camellia genomic knowledge, also with respect to the tea plant Camellia sinensis.

  6. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and antioxidative activities of fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  7. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  8. Polyculture of scallop Chlamys farreri and kelp Laminaria japonica in Sungo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jian-Guang; Sun, Hui-Ling; Yan, Jing-Ping; Kuang, Shi-Huan; Li, Feng; Newkirk, Gary F.; Grant, Jon

    1996-12-01

    Several polyculture models of scallop Chlamys farreri and kelp Laminaria japonica currently employed in Sungo Bay and other parts of northern China are described in this paper. Economic benefits of different polyculture models are analysed based on the growth rate, culture density and market price. In addition, site selection, critical environmental conditions and polyculture problems are discussed in detail.

  9. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (p<0.01). All above results indicated that rLj-NIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (p<0.05). These data suggest that Lampetra japonica-NIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  10. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  11. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  12. [Study on standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on GAP of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-nan; Li, Yong; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-liang; Wang, Pin-shu; Ding, Wan-long

    2015-09-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a method of residue analysis for thiamethoxam and to study its degradation dynamic and final residue and its standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on Lonicera japonica. Samples extracted with methanol by ultrasonication were purified with dichloromethane by liquid-liquid extraction and SPE column and analysed by HPLC-UV. The results showed that average rate was 84.91%-94.44% and RSD 1.74%-4.96% with addition of thiamethoxam in respectively diverse concentration, which meets inspection requirement of pesticide residue. Two kinds of dosages of thiamethoxam were treated- varying from recommended dosage (90 g x hm(-2)) to high dosage (135 g x hm(-2)), Results of two years test showed that thiamethoxam was degraded more than 90% seven days after application and the half - life period of thiamethoxam was 1.54-1.66 d. The digestion rate of thiamethoxam was fast in the L. japonica. The recommended MRL of thiamethoxam in the L. japonica is 0.1 mg x kg(-1), the dosage of 25% thiamethoxam WDG from 90-135 g x hm(-2) is sprayed less than three times a year on L. japonica and 14 days is proposed for the safety interval of the last pesticide application's and harvest's date.

  13. Comparison of photosynthetic characteristics of the seagrasscongeners Zostera marina L. and Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb.

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America two seagrass species in the genus Zostera co-exist; the native species Zostera marina, and an introduced species, Z. japonica. These two species typically occupy separate habitat niches, with Z. marina occupying the lower intertidal and shal...

  14. Temperature trumps light: Teasing apart interactive factors controlling non-indigenous Zostera japonica growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...

  15. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  16. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity.

  17. Preliminary analysis of population genetic diversity of cultivated Laminaria japonica sporophyte via AFLP technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Heng; Sui, Zhenghong; Bao, Zhenmin

    2010-03-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphic DNA (AFLP) technique was adopted to estimate the population genetic polymorphism among 30 sporophytes of Laminaria japonica collected from a cultivating farm in Rongcheng, China. Three methods were used for genomic DNA extraction from Laminaria japonica sporophyte and only the products obtained using the improved genomic DNA extraction kit method proved qualified for AFLP analysis. The parameters of the method were optimized. Samples of forty milligrams and the cell lysis time of 120 min were suggested to replace the parameters recommended by the manufacturer. Thirty individuals of Laminaria japonica from the same cultivating site were investigated using one pair of selective primers. A total of 21 loci were obtained and 17 of them were polymorphic. The mean percent age of polymorphic loci of this population was 80.95%. The Nei’s gene diversity (H) within this population was 0.3028 and the average Shannon’s Information index (I) was 0.4498. A genetic distance matrix among different individuals was constructed as well. Through this study, an applicable AFLP genetic analysis working system for Laminaria japonica sporophyte was established. The results of this research also revealed a high level of genetic diversity within the studied population.

  18. First report of Pilidium concavum causing leaf necrosis on Fallopia japonica in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. (= Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.; Japanese knotweed) is an invasive perennial forb in the Polygonaceae. It has been identified as a target for biological control in many parts of the world, including the USA. Plants with an unknown disease were collect...

  19. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-03

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  20. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  1. Development of Japonica mapping populations to validate GWAS in the rice diversity panel 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to validate associations identified in the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) between SNP markers and 34 phenotypic traits, four bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica accessions that were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. ...

  2. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  3. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  4. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

  5. Structure and heterologous expression of the gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein from Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    PubMed

    Wakai, H; Takada, K; Nakamura, S; Horikoshi, K

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein (CSG) of Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 was cloned and sequenced. The structural gene consisted from an open reading frame of 2,586 bp. A potential promoter sequence was found about 150 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Ha. japonica CSG revealed that the mature CSG consisted of 828 amino acids. Five potential N-glycosylation sites were found in the mature sequence. The cloned CSG gene of Ha. japonica was expressed in closely-related halophilic archaea.

  6. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2016-06-11

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers.

  7. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality.

  8. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms are capable of absorbing light and storing up to 10-13% of its energy into the H-H bond of hydrogen gas. This process, which takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms to convert sunlight into chemical energy, could conceivably be harnessed for production of significant amounts of energy from a renewable resource, water. The harnessed energy could then be coupled to a fuel cell for electricity generation and recycling of water molecules. In this review, current biochemical understanding of this reaction in green algae, and some of the major challenges facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production have been discussed.

  9. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Beer, Laura L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2009-06-01

    There is currently substantial interest in utilizing eukaryotic algae for the renewable production of several bioenergy carriers, including starches for alcohols, lipids for diesel fuel surrogates, and H2 for fuel cells. Relative to terrestrial biofuel feedstocks, algae can convert solar energy into fuels at higher photosynthetic efficiencies, and can thrive in salt water systems. Recently, there has been considerable progress in identifying relevant bioenergy genes and pathways in microalgae, and powerful genetic techniques have been developed to engineer some strains via the targeted disruption of endogenous genes and/or transgene expression. Collectively, the progress that has been realized in these areas is rapidly advancing our ability to genetically optimize the production of targeted biofuels.

  10. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  11. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  12. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  13. Algae: America’s Pathway to Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    Bioenergy, Biofuel, Energy Policy CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The United States is dependent on foreign oil to meet 63% of its petroleum demand...source of bioenergy. ALGAE: AMERICA’S PATHWAY TO INDEPENDENCE Ensuring a secure supply of energy is a strategic challenge for...150 years,6 the U.S. will be competing with other nations to procure the 2 finite commodity. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that by the

  14. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  15. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

  16. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  17. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    PubMed

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  18. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  19. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops.

  20. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  1. Evolutionary meaning of non-synchronous medusa release and spawning in the most advanced bivalve-inhabiting hydrozoan, Eugymnanthea japonica.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shin

    2012-08-01

    Circadial spawning times of medusa of the bivalve-inhabiting hydrozoans Eugymnanthea japonica Kubota and Eutima japonica Uchida are confirmed to be morning (possibly sunrise) for the former species and night for the latter. Eugymnanthea, with small, short-lived, univoltine medusae, seems to have evolved from a form similar to Eutima japonica, with larger, longer-lived, multivoltine medusae; the morning spawning of medusae in Eugymnanthea may therefore be a newly evolved trait. Medusa release from polyps and spawning of medusae are not synchronous in Eugymnanthea japonica. This non-synchrony may represent an evolutionarily transitional state leading to the most advanced state, synchrony of these two reproductive events, as in certain other ephemeral hydrozoan medusae.

  2. The High-throughput sequencing of Sillago japonica mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic position within the genus Sillago.

    PubMed

    Niu, Sufang; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Sillago japonica was determined through high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The circular mtDNA molecule was 16 645 bp in size and encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions, with the gene arrangement and content identical to other typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The identity analysis revealed that the mitogenome sequence of S. japonica shared a relatively high sequence identity to S. asiatica (81.5%) compared with S. aeolus (77.5%), S. indica (77.1%), and S. sihama (76.3%). The neighbor-joining tree of complete mitogenome sequence showed that S. japonica firstly clustered together with S. asiatica, then grouped with S. indica and S. sihama, and finally gathered with S. aeolus. Taken together, the results absolutely supported the evolutionary position of S. japonica and provided new insights into phylogenetic relationships of Sillago.

  3. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  4. Effects of elevated pCO2 on reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Jun; Kikkawa, Takashi; Asai, Takamasa; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2013-08-30

    We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 in seawater both on the acute mortality and the reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica with the purpose of accumulating basic data for assessing potential environmental impacts of sub-sea geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 in Japan. Acute tests showed that nauplii of T. japonicus have a high tolerance to elevated pCO2 environments. Full life cycle tests on T. japonicus indicated NOEC=5800μatm and LOEC=37,000μatm. Adult B. japonica showed remarkable resistance to elevated pCO2 in the acute tests. Embryonic development of B. japonica showed a NOEC=1500μatm and LOEC=5400μatm. T. japonicus showed high resistance to elevated pCO2 throughout the life cycle and B. japonica are rather sensitive during the veliger stage when they started to form their shells.

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein of Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    PubMed

    Wakai, H; Nakamura, S; Kawasaki, H; Takada, K; Mizutani, S; Aono, R; Horikoshi, K

    1997-02-01

    The triangular disk-shaped halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 has a glycoprotein on its cell surface. The complete gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein (CSG) was cloned and sequenced. The gene has an open reading frame of 2586 bp, and a potential archaeal promoter sequence approximately 150 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. The mature CSG is composed of 828 amino acids and is preceded by a signal sequence of 34 amino acid residues. A hydropathy analysis showed a hydrophobic stretch at the C-terminus, that probably serves as a transmembrane domain. The amino acid sequence of the Ha. japonica CSG showed 52.1% and 43.2% identities to those from the Halobacterium halobium and Haloferax volcanii CSGs, respectively. Five potential N-glycosylation sites were found in the mature Ha. japonica CSG, sites that were distinctly different from those in Hb. halobium and Hf. volcanii. The Ha. japonica CSG gene was expressed in Escherichia coli.

  6. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  7. Growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-06-01

    The seagrass Zostera japonica occurs mainly in the intertidal zone and is thus exposed to widely varying environmental conditions affecting its growth and distribution compared to subtidal seagrasses. The growth dynamics of Z. japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone were investigated in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea to examine the environmental stresses and limiting factors on the growth of intertidal seagrasses. The shoot density and morphology, biomass, and leaf productivity of Z. japonica were measured in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors at its upper and lower distributional limits and in an intermediate zone of the intertidal area. The mean exposure time to the atmosphere during low tide in the upper intertidal zone was approximately 1.5- and 1.9-fold longer than that in the intermediate and lower intertidal zones, respectively. Shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in the intermediate zone than at the upper and lower distributional limits. Longer emersion leading to a various of environmental stresses appeared to reduce Z. japonica growth in the upper intertidal zone, whereas interspecific competitive interactions related to irradiance seemed to affect Z. japonica growth in the lower intertidal zone. Shoot size, density, biomass, and leaf productivity were lower in the upper than in the lower zone, implying that emersion-associated stresses in the upper zone had a greater detrimental effect on Z. japonica growth than did stresses occurring in the lower zone. The productivity of Z. japonica showed strong positive correlations with air and water temperature, suggesting enhancement of Z. japonica production at higher temperatures. Thus, the predicted increases in air and water temperature associated with global climate change might have positive effects on the growth and extension in distributional range of this species.

  8. Development of RAPD-SCAR markers for Lonicera japonica (Caprifolicaceae) variety authentication by improved RAPD and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luquan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Mei, Zhiqiang; Yang, Manman; Zhang, Tiandan; Wei, Chunli; Yang, Weichan; Zhu, Li; Long, Yan; Fu, Junjiang

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diversity within a species is a common feature, which plays a vital role in its survival and adaptability, and is important for the identification and authentication of a species. Lonicera japonica is a traditionally used medicinal plant, which have been recently genetically characterized by an improved ran- dom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In this study, the molecular markers on the basis of these RAPD fragments have been developed to identify specific L. japonica variety. The DNAs were extracted from fresh young leaves of different samples of L. japonica collected from Shenzhen, Yichang, Leshan, Emei and Loudi, China. The DNA materials were amplified using improved RAPD PCR. Different RAPD bands were excised, cloned and developed for stable sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with differ- ent species. Two SCAR markers, JYH3-3 and JYH4-3, have been successfully cloned from improved.RAPD fragments. The SCAR marker JYH3-3 was found specific for all of the L. japonica samples collected from the different regions, and another marker JYH 4-3 was strictly specific to the Shenzhen sample from Guangdong province, which is geographically distant from Hubei, Sichuan and Hunan Provinces (source of other L. japonica samples). The marker JYH3-3 was found as specific molecular marker for the identification of L. japonica, while JYH4-3 was found as molecular marker strictly specific for the Shenzhen sample. The developed SCAR markers might serve as more specific molecular markers for L. japonica variety authentication. The combination of improved RAPD analysis and SCAR marker development have resulted useful tools to study the genetic variety of any organism, which we have successfully applied here in L. japonica.

  9. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:28300767

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-04

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds.

  11. [Clonal plasticity of Iris japonica under different soil and canopy conditions in subtropocal evergreen broad-leaved forest].

    PubMed

    He, Yue-Jun; Han, Wen-Ping; Zhong, Zhang-Cheng

    2011-02-01

    An investigation was made on the growth indices of Iris japonica growing on the yellow soil and Karst soil within a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and in the forest gaps, aimed to approach the clonal plasticity of I. japonica in heterogeneous habitats. The results showed that the ramet height and diameter and the rhizome diameter of I. japonica were significantly higher in yellow soil habitat than in Karst soil habitat, while the individual density was in adverse. Light had significant effects on rhizome diameter, but soil condition had lesser effects under the same light environment. Within the forest of Karst soil habitat, the bud number and flower number of I. japonica were zero, possibly due to the double pressure from soil quality and light environment for the balance between resources uptake and energy assignment and for the sustaining of growth. In a certain extent, I. japonica in yellow soil habitat tended to K strategy via decreasing the individual number for improving competition to adapt environment, while I. japonica in Karst soil habitat tended to r strategy via increasing individual number for sustaining competition capability.

  12. Transcriptome-wide analysis of SAMe superfamily to novelty phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase copy in Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Qi, Linjie; Yu, Jun; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-12-29

    The S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase superfamily plays important roles in plant development. The buds of Lonicera japonica are used as Chinese medical material and foods; chinese people began domesticating L. japonica thousands of years ago. Compared to the wild species, L. japonica var. chinensis, L. japonica gives a higher yield of buds, a fact closely related to positive selection over the long cultivation period of the species. Genome duplications, which are always detected in the domestic species, are the source of the multifaceted roles of the functional gene. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the SAMe genes in L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis and further analyzed the roles of the duplicated genes among special groups. The SAMe protein sequences were subdivided into three clusters and several subgroups. The difference in transcriptional levels of the duplicated genes showed that seven SAMe genes could be related to the differences between the wild and the domesticated varieties. The sequence diversity of seven SAMe genes was also analyzed, and the results showed that different gene expression levels between the varieties could not be related to amino acid variation. The transcriptional level of duplicated PEAMT could be regulated through the SAM-SAH cycle.

  13. Detection system of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by brackish water benthic shellfish (Corbicula japonica) as a biological indicator in river water.

    PubMed

    Izumi, T; Yagita, K; Endo, T; Ohyama, T

    2006-11-01

    The brackish water benthic shellfish, Corbicula japonica, was experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts at 1.51x10(4)oocysts/clam/day for 7 or 14 days. Oocysts were predominantly eliminated through the feces of Corbicula japonica in both cases by microscopic and PCR methods. The fecal excretion rates of oocysts within 4 days after the last exposure to Corbicula japonica were 87.6% for the 7-day exposure group and 86.0% for the 14-day exposure group. The tissue residue level of oocysts in the gastrointestinal tract 3 days after the last exposure was 2.7% of total exposed oocysts and that of 7 days was 1.1% for the 7-day exposure case and 1.6 and 0.5% for the 14-day exposure case, respectively, maintaining infectivity to cultured cells (HCT-8) in vitro. At the same time, field tests of Corbicula japonica for collecting oocysts showed that this clam could certainly collect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in the natural river and, furthermore, the gene type of C. parvum could be also identified proving its effectiveness as a biological indicator. The present study showed that the brackish water benthic shellfish Corbicula japonica may be capable of gathering and preserving Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts to a considerable extent under the natural ecological conditions, and further suggests the effectiveness of Corbicula japonica as a practical and general bioindicator for estimates of river water contamination by oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  14. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, where heterotrophic bacteria grow on organics produced by algae and recycle nutrients. Ecological studies have identified the co-occurrence of particular species of algae and bacteria, suggesting the presence of their specific interactions. Algae/bacteria interactions are categorized into nutrient exchange, signal transduction and gene transfer. Studies have examined how these interactions shape aquatic communities and influence geochemical cycles in the natural environment. In parallel, efforts have been made to exploit algae for biotechnology processes, such as water treatment and bioenergy production, where bacteria influence algal activities in various ways. We suggest that better understanding of mechanisms underlying algae/bacteria interactions will facilitate the development of more efficient and/or as-yet-unexploited biotechnology processes.

  15. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2016-07-12

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  16. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  17. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  18. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae cr cyanobacteria . Although cyanobacteria are found in almost any environment ranging from hot...p ecst Available Copy ~’ COPy Ni AD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS:’ I ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION < DTIC ANNUAL/FINAL...AA I 78 11. TITLE (In•.ju . ’,curry Ci.si fication) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolatior and CharacteriZation 12. PERSONAL

  19. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  20. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  1. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  2. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  3. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in

  4. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO(2) and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  5. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  6. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  7. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  8. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  9. Antiviral activities of purified compounds from Youngia japonica (L.) DC (Asteraceae, Compositae).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; He, Zhendan; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-06-30

    The ethanol extract of a biannual medicinal herb, Youngia japonica (commonly known as Oriental hawk's beard) was reported previously to have potent antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cultured in HEp-2 cells. Three anti-microbial agents, namely 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were subsequently purified and chemically characterized from the ethanol extract of Youngia japonica. The two dicaffeoylquinic acids exhibited prominent anti-RSV with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.5 microg/ml in vitro. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside together with the two dicaffeoylquinic acids were also manifested to have some antibacterial activity towards the causal agents of food-borne disease, namely Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at the concentration of 2mg/ml. Bacillus cereus was sensitive to 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid only, but not to luteolin-7-O-glucoside.

  10. Self and nonself recognition in a marine sponge, Halichondria japonica (Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    The function of allogeneic recognition in a marine sponge, Halichondria japonica, was examined by use of cut pieces contact assay. Individuals of this species were able to distinguish an allogeneic individual from an autogeneic one, and showed rejection reactions against allogeneic individuals. There were two types of allogeneic rejection reaction: barrier formation at the contact area to separate from allogeneic individuals and necrosis with cytotoxic reactions at the contact area. In both types of rejection reactions, mesohyl cells accumulate at the contact area at the early stages of the rejection reaction. Fusion between two pieces of allogeneic individuals was very rare, and in most of combinations of allogeneic individuals rejection reactions appeared at the contact area. Xenogeneic rejections were also observed. Halichondria japonica showed rejection reaction against individuals of Halichondria okadai, but the intensity of rejection was less than that of allogeneic rejection.

  11. The isolation and characterization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation microorganisms for Laminaria japonica utilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jae-Hwa

    2011-05-01

    Brown seaweed contains various carbohydrates, such as alginate, laminaran, and mannitol, therefore ethanol fermentation was attempted with Nuruk and a mixed culture that included Laminaria japonica. Nuruk is used to make Korean traditional alcohol. In the research, four microorganisms that produced ethanol and had the ability to achieve alginate degradation were obtained on the L. japonica medium. Nuruk 4 was found to produce a better result than the other tested microorganisms, and the optimal substrate for ethanol production was found to be mannitol (2.59 g/L at 96 h). Nuruk 4 was more than three times better compared with Candida tropicalis in regards to ethanol production. When alginate lyase activity occurred, it appeared as a clear zone around Nuruk 3. The maximal ethanol production yield conditions were comprised of Nuruk 3 and 4 on the anaerobic culture. In this case, 2.0 g/L of ethanol were efficiently produced under the same conditions.

  12. Metabolic variation between japonica and indica rice cultivars as revealed by non-targeted metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chaoyang; Shi, Jianxin; Quan, Sheng; Cui, Bo; Kleessen, Sabrina; Nikoloski, Zoran; Tohge, Takayuki; Alexander, Danny; Guo, Lining; Lin, Hong; Wang, Jing; Cui, Xiao; Rao, Jun; Luo, Qian; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-01-01

    Seed metabolites are critically important both for plant development and human nutrition; however, the natural variation in their levels remains poorly characterized. Here we profiled 121 metabolites in mature seeds of a wide panel Oryza sativa japonica and indica cultivars, revealing correlations between the metabolic phenotype and geographic origin of the rice seeds. Moreover, japonica and indica subspecies differed significantly not only in the relative abundances of metabolites but also in their corresponding metabolic association networks. These findings provide important insights into metabolic adaptation in rice subgroups, bridging the gap between genome and phenome, and facilitating the identification of genetic control of metabolic properties that can serve as a basis for the future improvement of rice quality via metabolic engineering. PMID:24861081

  13. Detection of Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus in Anguilla japonica elvers.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sachiko; Yasumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Satoshi; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Naoi, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-05-03

    Japanese eel endothelial cells-infecting virus (JEECV) has spread in eel farms and caused serious economic loss. In this study, we examined the prevalence of JEECV infection in 100 wild Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) elvers caught from Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan, using quantitative PCR and conventional PCR. Total genomic DNA was obtained from the cranial quarter of the body in 70 of 100 eels and from the gill in the remaining. Of 30 gill samples, 20 were analyzed after pooling with other samples, and the remaining 10 were analyzed separately. A single positive result for JEECV was detected following analysis of the 10 separately analyzed samples. This result constitutes the first report of JEECV infection in wild A. japonica elvers.

  14. Soluble starch synthase I effects differences in amylopectin structure between indica and japonica rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Suzuki, Keitaro; Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Keníchi

    2006-11-29

    The effect of soluble starch synthase I (SSI) on differences of amylopectin structure between the indica and japonica rice varieties was investigated. Native-PAGE/active staining analysis showed that the SSI activity of an indica rice variety, "Kasalath", was significantly lower than that of a japonica rice variety, "Nipponbare", and that the low activity in "Kasalath" was maintained during seed development. The result of northern blot analyses suggests that the low expression of SSI in "Kasalath" is controlled at the transcription levels of SSI mRNA. Chain length distribution of amylopectin in F3 endosperms derived from a cross between two varieties showed that not only SSIIa but also SSI regulated the population of short chains. These results indicate that the low activity of SSI gives rise to the decrease of short chains in amylopectin of indica rice varieties, suggesting that SSI effects the differences in physicochemical properties between two varieties.

  15. QTL analysis of percentage of grains with chalkiness in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, Y; Wang, S W

    2012-03-22

    Appearance quality of rice grains is a major problem for rice production in many areas of the world. We conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGWC), which is a determining factor for appearance quality; it strongly affects milling, eating and cooking quality. An F(8) recombinant inbred line population, which consists of 261 lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari (Japonica) and C602 (Japonica), was used for QTL mapping. Three QTLs related to PGWC were detected on chromosomes 5, 8 and 10, together explaining 50.8% of the genetic variation. The 'Koshihikari' alleles qJPGC-5, qJPGC-8 and the 'C602' alleles at qJPGC-10 were associated with reduced PGWC. The QTL contributions to phenotypic variance were 18.2, 9.6 and 25%, respectively. These QTL markers for PGWC could be used for developing improved varieties.

  16. Chemical Constituents and LC-profile of Fresh Formosan Lonicera japonica Flower Buds.

    PubMed

    Lo, I-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Yi-Jin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shieh, Deng-En; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    One new secoiridoid glucoside, ethylsecologanin dimethyl acetal (1), along with 15 known compounds, comprising six iridoid glucosides (2-7), six flavonoids (8-13), two sterol glucosides (14 and 15), and chlorogenic acid (16) were isolated from the flower buds of Formosan Lonicera japonica. The structures of these isolates were determined on the basis of mass and spectroscopic analyzes. In addition, the chemical profiles of fresh Formosan honeysuckle buds and the dried Chinese one were compared by HPLC with a PDA detector. The calibration curve of the active component, chlorogenic acid, was also provided. As a result of the constituent similarity, Formosan L.japonica can be an alternative to the Chinese honeysuckles.

  17. [Study on characteristics of non-glandular hairs of cultivated Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-shan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-02-01

    We collected 22 cultivated population of Lonicera japonica from 17 areas. The characteristics of non-glandular hairs were observed and measured by the scanning electron microscopy. The principal components analysis and correlation analysis were conduct based on length and density of L. japonica. The results showed a significant negative correlation between length and density of non-glandular hairs, and the characteristics of non-glandular was not corrrelated significantly with latitude. The correlation results indicated that the density was a key to separate "Damaohua" and "Jizhuahua". The contribution of climate and soil was important to the cultivated population. This reminded that the characteristics of non-glandular hairs were affected by environmental and genetic interaction.

  18. Biodiesel and poly-unsaturated fatty acids production from algae and crop plants - a rapid and comprehensive workflow for lipid analysis.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Fragner, Lena; Roustan, Valentin; Schön, Verena; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-10-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a widely used technique in biodiesel/bioproduct (e.g. poly-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) research but typically does not allow distinguishing between bound and free fatty acids. To understand and optimize biosynthetic pathways, however, the origin of the fatty acid is an important information. Furthermore the annotation of PUFAs is compromised in classical GC-EI-MS because the precursor molecular ion is missing. In the present protocol an alkaline methyl esterification step with TMS derivatization enabling the simultaneous analysis of bound and free fatty acids but also further lipids such as sterols in one GC-MS chromatogram is combined. This protocol is applied to different lipid extracts from single cell algae to higher plants: Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Coffea arabica, Pisum sativum and Cuscuta japonica. Further, field ionization (GC-FI-MS) is introduced for a better annotation of fatty acids and exact determination of the number of double bonds in PUFAs. The proposed workflow provides a convenient strategy to analyze algae and other plant crop systems with respect to their capacity for third generation biodiesel and high-quality bioproducts for nutrition such as PUFAs.

  19. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  20. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Profile of Estrogen Receptor in Common Chinese Cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Li-Qin; Wang, Tian-Ming; Shi, Hui-Lai; Ping, Hong-Ling; Chi, Chang-Feng; Yang, Jing-Wen; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroid hormones are widely detected in molluscs and play important roles in sex determination, gonadal tissue maturation, and gametogenesis. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways of sex steroids in cephalopod have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) was isolated from common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella japonica. The sjER cDNA clone was found to contain 1,788 nucleotides including a 1,470 bp open reading frame encoding 489 amino acid (aa) residues. The deduced ER protein consisted of six nuclear receptor characteristic domains. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the ER DNA-binding domain and ligand-binding domain are highly conserved compared to other mollusc ERs. Highest aa identities were found for sjER with common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ER (89%) and pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ER (61%). Tissue expression analysis confirmed that sjER was widely distributed among tissues and predominantly expressed in the brain, liver, gonad (testis and ovary), and other accessory sexual gland (nidamental gland). The ER expression was temporally upregulated in the brain, liver, and ovary during the early sexual maturation period in S. japonica, which is coincident with the fluctuation of ovary estradiol content. These suggest that sjER may be involved in regulating the reproductive cycle of S. japonica. A fusion protein transient transfections assay showed that sjER was mainly located in the nucleus, suggesting a possible orthodox working mechanism of S. japonica ER in the nucleus through a ligand-dependent activation of specific gene transcription.

  1. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, T.

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  2. (2-Nitroethyl)benzene: a major flower scent from the Japanese loquat Eriobotrya japonica [Rosales: Rosaceae].

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Ichiki, Yayoi; Morita, Masashi; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    (2-Nitroethyl)benzene was identified as a major component of the flower scent of the Japanese loquat Eriobotrya japonica [Rosales: Rosaceae], together with p-methoxybenzaldehyde and methyl p-methoxybenzoate. The corresponding volatiles from chopped leaves did not contain these three compounds. This is the first time that 1-nitro-2-phenyl-ethane has been demonstrated to be a natural product among Japanese plants, although two Japanese millipedes are known to possess the same aromatics.

  3. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  4. Quality control of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Cheng, Zhiwei; Wang, Yuefei; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    A set of qualitative and quantitative methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was established for the geographical origin identification, quantitative determination of active compounds, and fingerprint analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The spectra of 140 samples from different origins were collected with two NIR instruments from different manufacturers (Thermo Scientific and Buchi). A Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model was established for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from the genuine producing area. Using the established discriminant analysis model, 22 samples from Henan province were predicted with 100% rate of accuracy, while the 68 samples from other producing areas were predicted with 9 samples incorrectly judged. Futhermore, partial least square regression method was used for developing the quantitative calibration models with the reference values determined with a validated HPLC-UV method. The RMSEP values of external validation are 0.169%, 0.048%, 0.172%, 0.007%, 0.203%, and 0.066% for NCA, CA, CfA, 3,4-DCA, 3,5-DCA, and 4,5-DCA, respectively, which indicated that the established models possess satisfactory predictive abilities. In addition, the models established on the primary instrument can also be transferred to the secondary instrument using direct standardization algorithm, which enlarged the application scope of the established models. Since the NIR spectra can reflect the comprehensive quality information of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, a fingerprint analysis method was finally proposed for the quality consistency check of raw materials. The proposed methods are rapid and effective, and possess good portability, which is helpful to the quality control of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

  5. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs.

    PubMed

    Shirane, T

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  6. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  7. Genetic population structure of Osmunda japonica, rheophilous Osmunda lancea and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Yoko; Tsutsumi, Chie; Hirayama, Yumiko; Mori, Keigo; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    Rheophilous Osmunda lancea often hybridizes with a dryland ally, Osmunda japonica, to produce O. x intermedia, forming zonation in riverbanks and the adjacent dryland along flooding frequency clines. This study examined the genetic structure of populations consisting of O. x intermedia and the two parental species by analyzing ten nuclear DNA markers [six cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers and three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from an expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and the sequence of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene GapCp] and chloroplast DNA sequences. The results suggest that the nuclear genes of O. japonica and O. lancea are genetically differentiated despite shared polymorphism in their chloroplast DNA sequences. This discrepancy may be attributable to natural selection and recent introgression, although it is not evident if introgression occurs between O. japonica and O. lancea in the examined populations. Our findings of putative F2 hybrids in O. x intermedia support its partial reproducibility, and also suggest that formation of later-generation hybrids generates morphological variation in O. x intermedia. O. lancea plants collected from geographically distant localities were genetically very similar, and it is suggested that O. lancea originated monotopically.

  8. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies.

    PubMed

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-03-14

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells.

  9. Effects of N,N-dimethylformamide on behaviour and regeneration of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyong; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zheng, Mingyue; Sun, Yuqian; Wang, Youjun; Yang, Shudong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the toxicity, behavioural and regeneration effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. One control and six different concentrations of DMF (10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm) were used in triplicate. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMF concentration and planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) was significantly reduced by increasing the exposure time and DMF concentration. pLMV of D. japonica was significantly reduced at a lower concentration of 10 ppm after 7 days of continuous exposure to DMF. The recovery of the motility of planarians pretreated with DMF was found to be time- and dose dependent, all planarians had complete recovery in their motility after 48 h. The appearance of auricles in regenerating animals was easily affected by DMF exposure in comparison with the appearance of eyespot. The present results suggest that the intact adult mobility in the aquatic planarian D. japonica is a more sensitive biomarker than mortality, and the appearance of auricles in regenerating animals is a more sensitive biomarker than eyespot.

  10. Effects of several immunostimulants on phenoloxidase and hemocytes of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tingjun; Yu, Miaomiao; Yang, Lingling; Shi, Zhenping; Sun, Wenjie; Cong, Rishan; Yang, Xiuxia; Jiang, Guojian

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the stimulating effects of immunostimulants on the autogenous immunocompetence of crabs and the possible mechanisms involved, the immunostimulating effects of β-1,3-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inactivated Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum on phenoloxidase (PO) and hemocytes of Charybdis japonica were investigated in this study. It was found that the yields and the enzymatic activities of purified PO in C. japonica increased significantly after the crabs were treated with immunostimulants, while the unit enzymatic activities remained almost the same. After treatment with β-1,3-glucan and LPS, the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the number of mitochondria in both semigranular cells and granular cells increased greatly, and the number of cytoplasmic granules decreased but with enlarged volume. However, the corresponding characteristics of hyaline cells remained almost the same. On the other hand, the number of granules in semigranular cells decreased greatly, and the number of mitochondria of hyaline cells increased greatly, after treatment with inactivated vibrios. It may be concluded that the effect of polysaccharide immunostimulants on the innate immune system of C. japonica is different from that of inactivated vibrio immunostimulants. The immunity-enhancing mechanism of polysaccharides in crab autogenous immunocompetence is probably accomplished by the increased yields of PO and total PO activities, while that of inactivated vibrios is probably accomplished by the partially increased yields of PO and total PO activities as well as the significantly improved phagocytotic abilities of semigranular cells and hyaline cells.

  11. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  12. Decoding regulatory landscape of somatic embryogenesis reveals differential regulatory networks between japonica and indica rice subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Poonam; Chauhan, Abhisekh Singh; Goel, Ridhi; Shri, Manju; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a unique process in plants and has considerable interest for biotechnological application. Compare to japonica, indica rice has been less responsive to in vitro culture. We used Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing platform for comparative transcriptome analysis between two rice subspecies at six different developmental stages combined with a tag-based digital gene expression profiling. Global gene expression among different samples showed greater complexity in japonica rice compared to indica which may be due to polyphyletic origin of two rice subspecies. Expression pattern in initial stage indicate major differences in proembryogenic callus induction phase that may serve as key regulator to observe differences between both subspecies. Our data suggests that phytohormone signaling pathways consist of elaborate networks with frequent crosstalk, thereby allowing plants to regulate somatic embryogenesis pathway. However, this crosstalk varies between the two rice subspecies. Down regulation of positive regulators of meristem development (i.e. KNOX, OsARF5) and up regulation of its counterparts (OsRRs, MYB, GA20ox1/GA3ox2) in japonica may be responsible for its better regeneration and differentiation of somatic embryos. Comprehensive gene expression information in the present experiment may also facilitate to understand the monocot specific meristem regulation for dedifferentiation of somatic cell to embryogenic cells. PMID:26973288

  13. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  14. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  15. Proteomics analysis of UV-irradiated Lonicera japonica Thunb. with bioactive metabolites enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Zheng, Wen; Fu, Zhirong; Li, Wenting; Ma, Luyu; Li, Ke; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui

    2013-12-01

    A previous study showed that the contents of caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids, the major bioactive components in the postharvest Lonicera japonica Thunb., were induced by enhanced ultraviolet (UV)-A or UV-B irradiation. To clarify the UV-responsive key enzymes in the bioactive metabolites biosynthetic pathway and the related plant defense mechanism in L. japonica, 2DE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was employed. Seventy-five out of 196 differential proteins were positively identified. Based on the functions, these proteins were grouped into nine categories, covering a wide range of molecular processes including the secondary metabolites (caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids) biosynthetic-related proteins, photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress, DNA, transport-related proteins, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, cell wall. Of note is the increasing expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase, which was crucial to supply more precursor for the secondary metabolites including caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids. Thus, this study provides both the clues at the protein level for the increase of the two bioactive components upon UV irradiation and the profile of UV-responsive proteins in L. japonica.

  16. Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lian; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhouli; Huang, Yanqing; Yu, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate possible hormetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced a significant increase in plant growth, leaf water content and content of photosynthetic pigments in L. japonica, but decreased them at high concentrations, displayed inverted U-shaped dose response curves, confirming a typical biphasic hormetic response. The U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in leaves at low doses of Cd, indicating reduce oxidative stress and toxic effect. The increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, indicative of increase in anti-oxidative capacity that ensures redox homeostasis is maintained. After 28 days exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and leaf Cd concentrations reached 502.96 ± 28.90 and 103.22 ± 5.62 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had high bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF'). Moreover, the maximum TF value was found at 2.5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment, implying that low Cd treatment improved the ability to transfer Cd from medium via roots to aerial structures. Taking together, L. japonica could be considered as a new plant to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormesis and Cd tolerance. Our results suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil.

  17. [Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of FatB genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb and its substitutes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou-yong; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Min; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Shu-fang; Wu, Zhi-gang

    2012-10-01

    A FatB unigene was obtained from the transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Full-length FatB cDNA was cloned from buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Wats.) Bak., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. and Lonicera dasystyla Rehd. using RT-PCR technology, and named as LJFatB, LHFatB, LJCFatB and LDFatB. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB and Arabidopsis thaliana AtFatB had a closely relationship. Nucleotide sequences and protein secondary structure of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB are different and their proteins had conserved FatB substrate binding sites and catalytic activity sites. Transcriptive level of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB in bud was not significantly different. Therefore, LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB could have the same biological function as AtFatB.

  18. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  19. Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stuart A; Davey, Matthew P; Dennis, John S; Horst, Irmtraud; Howe, Christopher J; Lea-Smith, David J; Smith, Alison G

    2010-06-01

    Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel, but the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding of algae to identify potential paradigm shifts. In doing this, integration of biology and engineering will be essential. In this review we present an overview of a potential algal biofuel pipeline, and focus on recent work that tackles optimization of algal biomass production and the content of fuel molecules within the algal cell.

  20. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated.

  1. [Anti-radical activity of products of processing of holothurian Cucumaria japonica and their practical application for lipid stabilization].

    PubMed

    Tabakaeva, O V; Kalenik, T K; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Products of technological and biotechnological modification (acid and enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts) of the holothurian Cucumariajaponica from the Far East region are the complex multicomponent systems containing biologically active agents of a sea origin that has to provide them biological activity. The research objective consisted in quantitative studying of anti-radical properties of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from soft fabrics of a holothurian from the Far East region (Cucumaria japonica) and their influence on oxidation of lipids in fat emulsion products. The reaction with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used as a model system. Radical relating activity of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica varied over a wide range from 48 to 78%. The maximum radical binding activity was noted for acid hydrolyzates. The activity of the hydrolyzate from a nimbus and feelers of Cucumaria japonica was comparable with activity of ionol. It has been defined that levels of manifestation of anti-radical activity depended on a way of technological and biotechnological processing of raw materials. Studying of fractional composition of melanoidins of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica established that they can be divided into fractions--with molecular masses about 10,000 and 1000 Da. The maximum content of melanoidins has been defined in fraction weighing about 1000 Da. Introduction of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in the composition of oil-fat emulsion systems allowed to slow down processes of lipid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in mayonnaise. Introduction of hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in an oil-fat emulsion product allowed to reduce peroxide value by 22-45%, acid value by 12-35% on the 90th days of storage. Acid hydrolysates of Cucumaria Japonica most significantly reduce the rate of

  2. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from a full-length enriched cDNA library of Cryptomeria japonica male strobili

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Norihiro; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Igasaki, Tomohiro; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Seki, Motoaki; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Mari, Adriano; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinohara, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Background Cryptomeria japonica D. Don is one of the most commercially important conifers in Japan. However, the allergic disease caused by its pollen is a severe public health problem in Japan. Since large-scale analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the male strobili of C. japonica should help us to clarify the overall expression of genes during the process of pollen development, we constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library that was derived from male strobili at various developmental stages. Results We obtained 36,011 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from either one or both ends of 19,437 clones derived from the cDNA library of C. japonica male strobili at various developmental stages. The 19,437 cDNA clones corresponded to 10,463 transcripts. Approximately 80% of the transcripts resembled ESTs from Pinus and Picea, while approximately 75% had homologs in Arabidopsis. An analysis of homologies between ESTs from C. japonica male strobili and known pollen allergens in the Allergome Database revealed that products of 180 transcripts exhibited significant homology. Approximately 2% of the transcripts appeared to encode transcription factors. We identified twelve genes for MADS-box proteins among these transcription factors. The twelve MADS-box genes were classified as DEF/GLO/GGM13-, AG-, AGL6-, TM3- and TM8-like MIKCC genes and type I MADS-box genes. Conclusion Our full-length enriched cDNA library derived from C. japonica male strobili provides information on expression of genes during the development of male reproductive organs. We provided potential allergens in C. japonica. We also provided new information about transcription factors including MADS-box genes expressed in male strobili of C. japonica. Large-scale gene discovery using full-length cDNAs is a valuable tool for studies of gymnosperm species. PMID:18691438

  3. Use of a pollen-based diet to expose the ladybird beetle Propylea japonica to insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F.

  4. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  5. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  6. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  7. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Curtis, Tom P; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production from a phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73 +/- 1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m(2) (277 W/m(3)) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m(2) (215 W/m(3)) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs.

  8. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  9. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  10. Algae Farming in Low Earth Orbit: Past Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, N.

    Algal strains used as a production engine represent a novel example of living mechanical systems with tremendous potential for applications in space. Algae use photosynthesis to create lipids, glycerin, and biomass, with different strains of algae producing different oils. Algae can be grown to produce many types of oils, with low, medium or long hydrocarbon chain lengths. This article examines the history of algae research, as well as its value to astronauts as both a food supplement and as an oxygen production and carbon sequester engine. Consideration is given to ways algae is currently being used and tested in space, followed by a look forward envisioning dynamic living technological systems that can help to sustain our race as we travel the void between stars.

  11. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  12. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    SciTech Connect

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  13. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  14. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter.

  15. COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF NATIVE EELGRASS ZOSTERA MARINA AND THE NON-NATIVE DWARF EELGRASS Z. JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    When non-native plant species invade a system they often change patterns of primary production. I evaluate the contribution of the seagrass Zostera marina and it's non-native congener Z. japonica to primary production in Yaquina Bay. Few measurements of Z. japonica production e...

  16. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  17. EFFECTS OF THE INVASIVE, NONINDIGENOUS SEAGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA ON NUTRIENT FLUXES BETWEEN THE WATER COLUMN AND BENTHOS IN A NE PACIFIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its introduction in the early to mid-20th century, the Asian seagrass Zostera japonica has become established in marine and mesohaline portions of many estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. Z. japonica forms dense patches from 0.3-2.4m above mean lower low water, a zone that...

  18. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  19. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  20. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins.

  1. Random flow induced by swimming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Rushkin, Ilia; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    In this work we studied the random flow induced in a fluid by the motion of a dilute suspension of the swimming algae Volvox carteri. The fluid velocity in the suspension is a superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions that decay as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocity fluctuations are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet. Deviations from Gaussianity are shown to arise from near-field effects. Comparison is made with the statistical properties of abiotic sedimenting suspensions. The experimental results are supplemented by extensive numerical studies.

  2. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-01-06

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia.

  3. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  4. Interactions of metals and protons with algae

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Oberholser, K.; Schwartz, D.; Marzoff, J.; Ryder, D.; Crist, D.R.

    1988-07-01

    Proton uptake by intact algal cells was found to consist of two processes: (1) a fast (<4 s) surface reaction and (2) a slow (2h) diffusion of protons into cells. A pH titration technique measured only the rapid surface reaction that forms negative sites at higher pH. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions on algae was quantitatively represented by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with its two parameters y/sub m/, the maximum amount of metal adsorbed, and K, the equilibrium constant taken as a measure of bond strength. Variations of these parameters with pH and type of metal indicate that metals adsorb to algal surfaces by electrostatic attraction to negative sites, such as carboxylate anions of poly(galaturonic acid) (pectin), as previously suggested.

  5. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  6. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.

  7. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-02-05

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences.

  8. Gas Exchange with Mass Cultures of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, P. J.; Patouillet, Constance

    1963-01-01

    Comparisons of oxygen production and carbon dioxide absorption by an algal gas exchanger were made over a 3-month period. The data do not represent a continuous test, but they do represent results obtained when identical light intensities, CO2 supply rates, and dilution rates with fresh culture medium had been used for more than 1 day. Steady-state conditions were thus assured, and the agreement in the data was excellent. Under the same experimental conditions, the unit was operated continuously for a 5-day period, and the daily variability in this test was less than in the results obtained from month to month. The variation between the average O2 production during the 5-day test and the average of the tests over a several-month period was less than 3%. It is concluded, therefore, that the reliability of the algae in producing oxygen is sufficient to warrant their use in either submarine or space ship use. PMID:14063790

  9. Antioxidant activity and protective effects of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in Chang cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Kwon, Hyuck-Ju; Hong, Heeok; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the antioxidant properties of Trapa japonica pericarp extracts were evaluated through several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ABTS radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The antioxidant activities were compared with other natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results showed that higher radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity in FRAP than those of vitamin C as a positive control. T. japonica pericarp extracts have antioxidant properties through its ability to prevent tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced toxicity which enhance the cell viability, reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inhibits of oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in Chang liver cells. Therefore, based on these finding, it seems reasonable to suggest that T. japonica pericarp extracts has the potential to protect liver against t-BHP-induced cell damage and should be considered as a potential functional food.

  10. Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular characterisation of Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae) from Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell) (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Hasegawa, Hideo; Roca, Vicente; Xu, Zhen; Guo, Yan-Ning; Sato, Akiko; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Gnathostomatid nematodes identified morphologically as Spiroxys japonica Morishita, 1926 were collected from the dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell) (Amphibia: Ranidae) in China. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology of this species in detail. Previously unreported morphological features are revealed and others corrected. In addition, adult nematodes of S. japonica collected from P. nigromaculatus and Spiroxys hanzaki Hasegawa, Miyata & Doi, 1998 collected from Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in China and Japan, respectively, and the third-stage larva of S. japonica collected from Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw) (Anura: Ranidae) in Japan, were characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [large ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed space] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1] target regions, respectively. The new morphological and genetic data contributes to a more accurate diagnosis of this hitherto little known nematode genus.

  11. Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Diaz, J G; Odlare, M; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-01-01

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mälaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mälaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8±2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4±41.4% of PO4-P.

  12. Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium.

    PubMed

    Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Tsai, David Dah-Wei; Chen, Paris Honglay

    2015-01-01

    Algae are the dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Since algae are highly varied group organisms, which have important functions in ecosystem, and their biomass is an essential biological resource. Currently, algae have been applied increasingly to diverse range of biomass applications. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the ecological algae features of microalgal production by natural medium, ecological function by lab scale of the symbiotic reactor which is imitated nature ecosystem, and atmospheric CO2 absorption that was related the algal growth of biomass to understand algae in natural water body better. Consequently, this study took advantages of using the unsupplemented freshwater natural medium to produce microalgae. Algal biomass by direct measurement of total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) resulted as 0.14g/L and 0.08g/L respectively. The biomass measurements of TSS and VSS are the sensible biomass index for algae production. The laboratory results obtained in the present study proved the production of algae by the natural water medium is potentially feasible.

  13. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  14. [Numerical simulation on hydrodynamic character for algae growth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Pang, Yong

    2008-04-01

    In order to quantificationally study the direct effects of hydrodynamic condition on the growth of algae, the Microcystis aeruginosa was chosen to carry through the disturbance-experiment. By keeping the same value of illumination, temperature and nutrition and changing the rotate speed of oscillator, the growing processes of algae under different disturbance intensities were researched. The hydraulic parameter was presented to amend the formula for the growth of algae. Take Neijiang as an example. A 2-D unsteady model for algae growth was established to forecast the scope of water blooms in Neijiang. It is found that the growth of algae is obviously influenced by hydrodynamic condition, and a condign low velocity is beneficial for its growth while both the quiescence condition and high velocity will restrain its growth rate. After the close of the water gate in Leading Channel, the velocity in Neijiang will be decreased, which accelerated the growth rate of algae, and the area of water blooms will be increased to 2.5 km2 which is about 36.8 percent of the total water surface area of Neijiang. Under the quiescent condition and the improved hydrodynamic condition, the growth rate of algae will be effectively controlled and the area of water blooms will be reduced to 0.78 km2 and 0.18 km2 respectively.

  15. [Seasonal variation characteristics of algae biomass in Chaohu Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Wang, Shu-Hang; Zhong, Li-Xiang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Shi-Qun

    2010-09-01

    The biomass and distribution of algae community in Chaohu Lake were investigated in 2008. At the same time, the seasonal variations of algae translocation between the sediment and overlying water were also quantitative studied by self-made "algae up/down trap". Chaohu Lake was dominated by Cyanobacteria all the year, and dominant Cyanobacteria species changed in different seasons. In spring, Anabaena was the dominant species, and Microcystis was the subdominant species; In the whole summer and autumn, the dominant species is Microcystis. Algae biomass increased significantly from May and the maximum appeared in August, was 146.37 mg x m(-3) with Chl-a. The value of algae biomass were 9.75-16.24 mg x kg(-1) in the surface sediments, and the minimum appeared in Summer, then the algae biomass increased gradually with the maximum value in winter. Translocation process between the sediment and the overlying water occurred throughout the study period. The recruitment rates increased at first with the maximum rates in early August, was 0.036 8 mg x (m2 x d) (-1), and then had a downward tendency. However the sedimentation rates increased slowly firstly with the maximum rate in early September, then it decreased sharply, was 0.032 1 mg x (m2 x d)(-1). Multiple stepwise regression showed that temperature was the most significant factor for the algae biomass in Chaohu Lake, Total nitrogen (TN) and Total phosphorus(TP) are sub-important factors.

  16. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution.

  17. The ecological importance of the dwarf seagrass Zostera japonica in intertidal areas on the southern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Kun-Seop; Li, Wen-Tao; Park, Sang Rul

    2016-03-01

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica, which is distributed in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, is exposed to nutrients from over-enriched land-based discharge and storm water runoff before they can be washed out to sea. Despite its ecological importance, only a few studies have examined the ecology and physiology of Z. japonica in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the productivity and tissue nutrient contents of above- and below-ground tissues to evaluate the potential role of Z. japonica in carbon capture and as a nutrient sink. The average total, above-, and below-ground productivity per shoot was 0.56, 0.34, and 0.21 mg DW shoot-1 day-1, respectively. Annual leaf production was 1.5 times higher than annual below-ground production. Estimated annual whole-plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus incorporation based on shoot production and tissue nutrient contents was 312.8 g C m-2 y-1, 25.7 g N m-2 y-1, and 1.6 g P m-2 y-1, respectively. These values were equivalent to 7.8 × 103 kg C y-1, 6.4 × 102 kg N y-1, and 40 kg P y-1 for all Z. japonica beds in Geoje Bay. This suggests that Z. japonica meadows can incorporate a considerable amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the intertidal zone. High N:P ratios of above- and below-ground tissues suggest that Z. japonica growth is probably limited by phosphorus availability in the study area.

  18. Evaluation of Rickettsia japonica Pathogenesis and Reservoir Potential in Dogs by Experimental Inoculation and Epidemiologic Survey ▿

    PubMed Central

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Matsuda, Hironori; Sakamoto, Leo; Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia japonica pathogenesis and reservoir potential in dogs were evaluated by both experimental inoculation and epidemiologic survey. In the experimental inoculation study, dogs 1 and 2 were pretreated with an immunosuppressive dose of cyclosporine 14 days before inoculation and became ill after exposure to R. japonica. Dogs exhibited clinical signs, including fever, anorexia, depression, and decreased water consumption, between 36 and 96 h after inoculation, but these signs disappeared spontaneously by 5 days after inoculation. Dogs 3 and 4 were not pretreated with cyclosporine, and no clinical signs were detected in them throughout the 14-day observation period. The control dog was clinically normal and had a normal rectal temperature throughout the study period. We attempted to detect rickettsial DNA from peripheral blood and aspiration samples from kidney and spleen by nested PCR, but all samples examined were negative. The control dog lacked detectable titers to R. japonica antigen on day 14, while positive antibodies to R. japonica were detected in all four experimentally infected dogs, with titers of 1:160 to 1:80. In the epidemiologic survey, 24 (1.8%) of the 1,363 dogs examined throughout Japan had antibodies against R. japonica, with titers of 1:40 or more. However, we observed neither clinical signs at the time of sample collection nor nested PCR results indicative of rickettsial infection in these dogs. In conclusion, dogs in Japan can be exposed to R. japonica, and infected dogs with immunosuppressive conditions can temporarily develop clinical symptoms, including fever, anorexia, depression, and decreased water consumption. PMID:20980481

  19. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.

  20. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  1. Complete Biosynthetic Pathway of the C50 Carotenoid Bacterioruberin from Lycopene in the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Ando, Ai; Miyoko, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Toshiaki; Takaichi, Shinichi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon that requires high concentrations of NaCl for growth, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). By homology analysis, a gene cluster, including c0507, c0506, and c0505, was found and predicted to be involved in the synthesis of bacterioruberin. To elucidate the function of the encoded enzymes, we constructed Ha. japonica mutants of these genes and analyzed carotenoids produced by the mutants. Our research showed that c0507, c0506, and c0505 encoded a carotenoid 3,4-desaturase (CrtD), a bifunctional lycopene elongase and 1,2-hydratase (LyeJ), and a C50 carotenoid 2″,3″-hydratase (CruF), respectively. The above three carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes catalyze the reactions that convert lycopene to bacterioruberin in Ha. japonica. This is the first identification of functional CrtD and CruF in archaea and elucidation of the complete biosynthetic pathway of bacterioruberin from lycopene. IMPORTANCE Haloarcula japonica, an extremely halophilic archaeon, accumulates the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin (BR). In this study, we have identified three BR biosynthetic enzymes and have elucidated their functions. Among them, two enzymes were found in an archaeon for the first time. Our results revealed the biosynthetic pathway responsible for production of BR in Ha. japonica and provide a basis for investigating carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in other extremely halophilic archaea. Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in Ha. japonica may also prove useful for producing the C50 carotenoid BR efficiently by employing genetically modified haloarchaeal strains. PMID:25712483

  2. Evidence for cryptic northern refugia in the last glacial period in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Megumi K.; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Nakao, Katsuhiro; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; San Jose-Maldia, Lerma; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Distribution shifts and natural selection during past climatic changes are important factors in determining the genetic structure of forest species. In particular, climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary appear to have caused changes in the distribution ranges of plants, and thus strongly affected their genetic structure. This study was undertaken to identify the responses of the conifer Cryptomeria japonica, endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, to past climatic changes using a combination of phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) methods. Specifically, this study focused on the locations of refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Methods Genetic diversity and structure were examined using 20 microsatellite markers in 37 populations of C. japonica. The locations of glacial refugia were assessed using STRUCTURE analysis, and potential habitats under current and past climate conditions were predicted using SDM. The process of genetic divergence was also examined using the approximate Bayesian computation procedure (ABC) in DIY ABC to test the divergence time between the gene pools detected by the STRUCTURE analysis. Key Results STRUCTURE analysis identified four gene pools: northern Tohoku district; from Chubu to Chugoku district; from Tohoku to Shikoku district on the Pacific Ocean side of the Archipelago; and Yakushima Island. DIY ABC analysis indicated that the four gene pools diverged at the same time before the LGM. SDM also indicated potential northern cryptic refugia. Conclusions The combined evidence from microsatellites and SDM clearly indicates that climatic changes have shaped the genetic structure of C. japonica. The gene pool detected in northern Tohoku district is likely to have been established by cryptic northern refugia on the coast of the Japan Sea to the west of the Archipelago. The gene pool in Yakushima Island can probably be explained simply by long-term isolation from the other gene pools since

  3. Anticancer and antiviral activities of Youngia japonica (L.) DC (Asteraceae, Compositae).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; Luk, Choi-Wan; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Youngia japonica (also known as Oriental hawksbeard) were tested in vitro for anti-tumor activity against three cell lines, human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human myelogenous leukaemia (chronic K-562) and mouse Sarcoma 180 (S-180), and for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (Flu A) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Hot water extract of Youngia japonica inhibited cell proliferation and growth of all cancer cell lines to various extent. K-562 cells were the most sensitive to the extract whereas S-180 cells were the least. It did not show any significant cytotoxic effects on normal mammalian Vero cells up to the concentration of 450 microg/mL. The ethanol extract of whole plant of Youngia japonica exhibited antiviral activity against RSV cultured in HEp-2 cells, but did not have any activity against Flu A and HSV-1. Two partially purified fractions (Fr.10 and Fr.11) from the 95% ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-RSV with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the range of 3.0-6.0 microg/mL. The ratio of the viral titer reduction in the absence (viral control) and presence of the maximal non-cytotoxic concentration (MNCC) of the Fr.10 and Fr.11 was both estimated to be 1 x 10(4) (RF, viral titer reduction factors), indicating that their anti-RSV activity was high enough to justify for further analysis. Our preliminary analysis showed that the antiviral ingredients were likely to contain phenolic compounds including tannins by chemical tests.

  4. [Morphological and quality difference of adult Anguilla japonica under three aquaculture models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Zheng; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wei-Dong

    2012-05-01

    Anguilla japonica adults with a snout-vent length of (25.91 +/- 3.26) cm were randomly sampled from the ponds of monoculture A. japonica (M1) and polyculture A. japonica and Macrobrachium nipponense (M2) and the proliferation site in reservoir (M3) to compare the morphological and quality indices of the adults under the three aquaculture models. Discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and factor analysis were applied to reveal the differences among the individuals of these three cultured populations. Among the test 21 biological traits and 23 morphological and quality indices, there were significant differences in 15 biological traits and 14 morphological and quality indices between M1 and M2, 19 and 18 between M1 and M3, and 11 and 8 between M2 and M3, respectively. The Euclidean distance between M1 and M2, M1 and M3, and M2 and M3 was 1.433, 3. 516, and 2. 167, respectively, and the differences were significant. The accumulative variance percentage of the first five principal components was 82.1%, and the eigenvalues of these components were all larger than 1. The principal components 1 and 2 could be regarded as fatness factor and movement factor, the other three principal components could be regarded as well-being factor, and the three populations could be clearly separated each other by principal component 1. In discriminant analysis, the five principal components, i. e., body width / anal length, body length / anal length, net volume coefficient, swim bladder coefficient, and liver coefficient, were served as independent variables to establish discriminant functions of the populations, which could clearly distinguish the populations, with the discriminant accuracy and synthetic discriminant accuracy being 100%.

  5. Responses of Crepis japonica induced by supplemental blue light and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Constantino, L F da S; Nascimento, L B Dos S; Casanova, L M; Moreira, N Dos S; Menezes, E A; Esteves, R L; Costa, S S; Tavares, E S

    2017-02-15

    Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation). We recorded the length, width, and weight of fresh and dry leaves, the thickness of the epidermis and mesophyll, and stomata density. The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts of the aerial parts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. There was an increase in the leaf size, stomatal density, and phenolic production, and a thickening of the mesophyll and epidermis. UV-A radiation increased the phenolic production more than blue light. Blue light and UV-A radiation both improved the production of caffeic acid by about 6 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to control. This compound was first reported as a constituent of the extract from the aerial parts together with caftaric acid. UV-A also promoted the production of chlorogenic acid (about 1.5 times in comparison to the control). We observed that the morphological and chemical parameters of C. japonica are modified in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, which can be used as tools in the cultivation of this species in order to improve its medicinal properties and nutritional value.

  6. Two distinct roles of the yorkie/yap gene during homeostasis in the planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byulnim; An, Yang; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Adult planarians possess somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts that give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration and homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator family plays an important role in the regulation of tissue growth during development and regeneration, and therefore we investigated the role of a planarian yki-related gene (termed Djyki) during regeneration and homeostasis of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica. We found that knockdown of the function of Djyki by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated neoblast proliferation and caused regeneration defects after amputation. In addition, Djyki RNAi caused edema during homeostasis. These seemingly distinct defects induced by Djyki RNAi were rescued by simultaneous RNAi of a planarian mats-related gene (termed Djmats), suggesting an important role of Djmats in the negative regulation of Djyki, in accordance with the conservation of the functional relationship of these two genes during the course of evolution. Interestingly, Djyki RNAi did not prevent normal protonephridial structure, suggesting that Djyki RNAi induced the edema phenotype without affecting the excretory system. Further analyses revealed that increased expression of the D. japonica gene DjaquaporinA (DjaqpA), which belongs to a large gene family that encodes a water channel protein for the regulation of transcellular water flow, promoted the induction of edema, but not defects in neoblast dynamics, in Djyki(RNAi) animals. Thus, we conclude that Djyki plays two distinct roles in the regulation of active proliferation of stem cells and in osmotic water transport across the body surface in D. japonica.

  7. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Safaa Yehia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Ashour, Mohamed Lotfy; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR). Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plants (N = 16) for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ) (Polygonaceae) shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81%) compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy. PMID:26346937

  8. Anti-photoaging capability of antioxidant extract from Camellia japonica leaf.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Taeko; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the Camellia japonica leaf exhibits antioxidant activity because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds. Thus, the extract prepared from mature leaves of C. japonica (CJML) has been widely used as an anti-ageing material in foods and cosmetics. Concerning the process of growing C. japonica, it is expected that the extract from green leaves (CJGL) has superior effects compared with that from mature leaves. However, there are few reports that discuss the difference between green and mature leaves. In this study, both CJML and CJGL were extracted with 50% 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG) and used for investigations. In a chemical examination, we compared both extracts in terms of scavenging activities against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and hydroxyl radicals. CJGL exhibited higher scavenging activities against both types of ROSs compared with CJML. In addition, CJGL reduced the carbonylation of tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC) after UVB irradiation. In a biological study, the intra-cellular ROS level of HaCaT keratinocytes precultured with CJGL for 24 h was significantly lower than that of the control cells. Furthermore, cell damage induced by H2 O2 exposure was attenuated by 24 h precultivation with CJGL but not by 2 h precultivation. The results of examinations indicate that CJGL possess properties that reduce oxidative stress. In addition, the result of 2 h precultivation with CJGL suggests that CJGL might affect the status of intra-cellular antioxidants.

  9. Characterization of the Promoter Region of Biosynthetic Enzyme Genes Involved in Berberine Biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshimoto, Tadashi; Yoshida, Sayumi T.; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs), a plant-specific WRKY-type TF, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix TF, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4′OMT and CYP719A1) were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC) reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4′OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed. PMID:27642289

  10. Impact of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin on Ivory Shell (Babylonia japonica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241

  11. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  12. Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae.

    PubMed

    WELCH, A M

    1962-01-01

    Welch, Ann Marie (U. S. Veterans Administration Hospital, Durham, N. C.). Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae. J. Bacteriol. 83:97-99. 1962-Homogenized preparations of 35 marine algae were tested for inhibitory activity against 6 pathogenic or opportunistically pathogenic fungi with saturated filter-paper discs on seeded Sabouraud agar plates; 11 of these preparations produced wide zones of inhibition against 1 or more test organisms, and at least 4 of the 11 are considered to be worthy of further study. The results indicated that further search should be made for antifungal substances from marine algae.

  13. Polarization Analysis of Light Scattered by Pollen Grains of Cryptomeria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Pollinosis to airborne pollen grains is a severe problem that concerns the whole world. Almost spring allergies in Japan are caused by pollen grains of Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) during the period of pollination from February to May. One of the key technologies in a pollen monitoring and forecast system is a pollen sensor. The pollen grain of Japan cedar is identified by introducing the degree of polarization to the optical sensor based on the scattered intensity. The detectability and discriminability in identifying the pollen grains of Japan cedar from the polystyrene spherical particles and the Kanto loam grains are achieved up to 95 and 86%, respectively.

  14. Cryopreservation of somatic embryos and embryonic axes of Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Janeiro, L V; Vieitez, A M; Ballester, A

    1996-05-01

    Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen was attempted with both somatic embryos and zygotic embryonic axes of the ornamental Camellia japonica L. Several protective measures were applied to somatic embryos (desiccation, chemical protectors, hardening by culture at low temperatures, encapsulation in alginate beads), but none allowed somatic embryos cultures to survive after 24 h in liquid nitrogen. Embryonic axes, however, were easily cryopreserved by means of the simplest technique: desiccation in a laminar flow hood and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Although the causes of the difference in cryopreservability between the two types of material are not known, one might be the difference between their degrees of differentiation and water content.

  15. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies.

  16. [Parameter determination of algae growth based on ecological tank experiment].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Ding, Ling; Gao, Guang

    2005-05-01

    A dynamic simulation experiment of algae in an ecological tank was performed at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. During the experiment, water from Taihu Lake was infused into the ecological tank and samples were taken continually to observe algae growth under varying conditions, such as temperature, sunlight and nutrients. Based on the experiment, an algae growth model, considering nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, was developed by using the advanced PHREEQC model. After that, a detailed calibration and validation of parameters in the model were done on the basis of experimental results. The least square method was used to determine the optimal set of parameters. The calculated values of algae and nutrient concentrations show fairly satisfying fittness with measured data.

  17. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed. PMID:23049529

  18. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  19. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  20. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM GROUNDWATER IMMOBILIZED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to adsorb mercury from contamina...

  1. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  2. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application.

  3. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  4. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  5. Development and characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Komaki, Shohei; Igawa, Takeshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Lin, Si-Min; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Buergeria japonica is a common frog species distributed throughout almost all islands in Ryukyu Archipelago. Because of their exceptionally wide distribution and higher physiological tolerance comparing to the other anurans, their demographic history and formation of distribution are intrinsic topics in the herpetological fauna of Ryukyu. Microsatellite marker is ideal genetic marker for such studies at inter- and intra-population level. We therefore developed microsatellite markers of B. japonica utilizing Ion PGM™ sequencing. As a result of the screening, we developed a total of 14 polymorphic markers. To test availabilities of these markers, we genotyped four island populations. The total number of alleles and expected hetelozygosities per locus ranged from 4 to 21 and 0.00 to 0.864, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the four populations based on the genetic distances of these markers was congruent with general divergence pattern of amphibians and reptiles in Ryukyu area. These markers developed in this study are considered to be useful for future studies about phylogeography and demography of this species.

  6. Isolation and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Evaluation of Bio-Active Compounds from Eriobotrya Japonica Stems

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Khaled Nabih; Butnariu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Eriobotrya japonica stems as well investigation of its chemical composition. Methods: Methanol 80% extract of Eriobotrya japonica stems was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays and also total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. Results: The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited significantly the growth of Candida albicans suggesting that it can be used in the treatment of fungal infections, and it showed no effect on the other bacterial and fungal strains, the extract has a good antioxidant activity, it has shown high values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, while it showed a low value of polyphenol content. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenes, tannins and flavonoids, further phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation and identification of three triterpenic acids, oleanolic, ursolic and corosolic acids and four flavonoids, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside. Conclusion: These results may help to discover new chemical classes of natural antimicrobial antioxidant substances. PMID:24409413

  7. Molecular cloning of glycoside hydrolase family 45 cellulase genes from brackish water clam Corbicula japonica.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kentaro; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported endogenous Glycoside Hydrolase Family (GHF) 9 beta-1,4-glucanase gene, CjCel9A, from common Japanese freshwater clam Corbicula japonica. Here we identified another endogenous beta-1,4-glucanase genes which belong to GHF45 (CjCel45A, CjCel45B). Both genes encode ORF of 627 bp corresponding to 208 amino acids. CjCel45A and CjCel45B are different in 5' and 3'-untranslated regions and six nucleotides in the ORF. CjCEL45 has only one GHF45 catalytic domain without any carbohydrate binding modules as is the case with other molluskan GHF45 enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic structure of CjCel45 gene implies that this gene is likely to be acquired from fungi by common ancestor of mollusks. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that CjCel45A is likely to be expressed in the secretory cells in the digestive gland, suggesting that this cellulase is produced in the same site as CjCEL9A. CjCEL45A was successfully expressed in E. coli cells and zymographic analysis of the recombinant CjCEL45A showed that CjCEL45A is a functional beta-1,4-glucanase. The finding of multiple cellulase genes in C. japonica strongly supports our hypothesis that this species function as a cellulose decomposer in estuarine environments.

  8. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and cellular localization of an LFRFamide gene in the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zi-Hao; Sun, Lian-Lian; Chi, Chang-Feng; Liu, Hui-Hui; Zhou, Li-Qing; Lv, Zhen-Ming; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes in metazoans, such as feeding, reproduction, and heart activities. In this study, an LFRFamide gene was identified from the cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (designated as SjLFRFamide). The full-length sequence of SjLFRFamide cDNA has 841bp, and the open reading frame contains 567bp encoding 188 amino acids, which shared high similarity with precursor SOFaRP2 from Sepia officinalis. The deduced SjLFRFamdie precursor protein contains a signal peptide and four different FLPs (FMRFamide-like peptides): one pentapeptide (TIFRFamide), two hexapeptides (NSLFRFamide and GNLFRFamide) and one heptapeptide (PHTPFRFamide). Multiple sequence alignment showed that SjLFRFamide contains rather conserved mature peptides, which all ended in FRF. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that SjLFRFamide belongs to the LFRFamide subfamily. The tissue distribution analysis through quantitative real-time PCR method showed that SjLFRFamide mRNA is significantly expressed in the brain, and slight trace are detected in female nidamental gland and accessory nidamental gland. In situ hybridization assay of the brain indicated that SjLFRFamide is transcribed in several different functional lobes, suggesting SjLFRFamide might associate with multiple physiological regulations, such as feeding, chromatophore regulation and reproduction. This is the first study describing LFRFamide in S. japonica, which might have great importance for cuttlefish artificial breeding.

  9. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  10. Background matching by means of dorsal color change in treefrog populations (Hyla japonica).

    PubMed

    Choi, Noori; Jang, Yikweon

    2014-02-01

    Treefrogs change dorsal coloration to match background colors, presumably for predator avoidance. Dorsal coloration in treefrogs results from rearrangement of pigment granules in dermal chromatophores. This physiological basis for color change suggests that brightness and chroma are the color components that may change in response to background color. However, results of experiments are conflicting in that there is no consensus as to which color component is critical for color change in treefrogs. We tested predictions of the physiological model for color change in treefrogs by investigating dorsal color change under five background colors in three different populations of the treefrog Hyla japonica. Differences in color components between background colors and frogs were used as a measure of background matching. Throughout a 1-week experimental period, brightness and chroma differences decreased monotonically, while hue difference remained constant for all background colors. Chroma differences were smaller with the natural colors such as green and brown than with achromatic colors. Moreover, variation in color change among frogs from three localities that differed in land cover suggested that chroma change capacity may be sensitive to environmental conditions. Under the white background color, however, decreasing brightness difference seemed to be crucial to background matching. Furthermore, chroma difference and brightness difference did not decrease indefinitely, suggesting a trade-off between chroma difference and brightness difference under the white background. Thus, background matching may generally occur by decreasing chroma difference under most background colors in H. japonica, but brightness matching may be important under the white color.

  11. Bioactive triterpenoids from the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica as the natural PDE4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing-Xin; Yang, Lu; Huang, Yi-You; Chen, Yun-Yun; Peng, Guang-Tian; Yu, Si; Wu, Yi-Nuo; Luo, Hai-Bin; He, Xi-Xin

    2017-03-10

    The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica exhibited inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D), which is a therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a new triterpene (1), together with seven known triterpenoids, methyl corosolate (2), ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), methyl maslinate (5), α-amyin (6), 3β,19α,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-ene (7) and uvaol (8). The structure of compound 1 was established as 3β-hydroxyl-21β-acetoxyl-urs-12-en-28-carboxylate on the basis of interpretation of its 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic data. The bioassay results verified compounds 2, 3 and 8 inhibited PDE4D2 effectively with the IC50 values of 3.06, 2.18 and 5.17 μM, respectively, which may provide a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of E. japonica.

  12. Identification and characterization of a phospholipid scramblase encoded by planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Li, Ao; Gao, Lili; Wu, Weiwei; Deng, Hongkuan; Hu, Wenjing; Li, Na; Sun, Shimin; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Bosheng; Liu, Baohua; Pang, Qiuxiang

    2017-02-20

    Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) are the conserved calcium-binding, type II transmembrane proteins synthesized in all eukaryotic organisms. In mammals, these proteins play essential roles in various physiological processes, especially in the immune responses. However, the existence of PLSCRs and their biological functions in planarian are still unknown at present. In this study, a new member of PLSCRs was identified in planarian Dugesia japonica (D. japonica), named DjPLSCR. The sequence analysis revealed that it contains an opening reading frame consisting of 726bp encoding a putative protein of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~28.7kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.21. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that mRNAs of DjPLSCR are predominantly expressed in adult and regenerative pharynx which is an important organ of immune system in planarians. Importantly, we found that the transcription level of DjPLSCR was significantly upregulated when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and β-glucan], suggesting that DjPLSCR is involved in the immune response upon pathogen invasion. Our findings provide the first experimental insights into the characteristics and potential functions of PLSCR in planarians.

  13. Responses of Soil Fungal Populations and Communities to the Thinning of Cryptomeria Japonica Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Rou; Wang, Pi-Han; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Winder, Richard Scott

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities, such as tree thinning, alter forest ecology, including key components of forest ecosystems, including fungal communities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of forest thinning intensity on the populations and structures of fungal soil communities in the Cryptomeria japonica forests of central Taiwan as well as the dynamics of soil fungi communities in these forests after a thinning disturbance. Although the populations of soil fungi significantly increased in the first 6 months after thinning, these increases had subsided by 9 months. This pulse was attributed to a transient increase in the populations of rapid colonizers. A multiple regression analysis positively correlated fungal populations with organic matter content and cellulase activity. Thinning initially provided large amounts of fresh leaves and roots as nutrient-rich substrates for soil fungi. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles indicated that soil fungal communities significantly differed among plots with 0% (control), 25%, and 50% tree thinning in the first 21 months post-thinning, with no significant differences being observed after 21 months. The fungal communities of these forest soils also changed with the seasons, and an interactive relationship was detected between seasons and treatments. Seasonal variations in fungal communities were the most pronounced after 50% tree thinning. The results of the present study demonstrate that the soil fungi of Taiwanese C. japonica forests are very sensitive to thinning disturbances, but recover stability after a relatively short period of time. PMID:26903369

  14. Short-Term Efficacy of Laparoscopic Treatment for Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Hong-Gang, Jiang; Zhi-Heng, Chen; Bo-Hao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Schistosomiasis is associated with numerous complications such as thrombocytopenia, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and colitis. To the best of our knowledge, the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with schistosomiasis have not yet been studied. Methods. In this study, the data of 280 patients with colorectal carcinoma along with schistosomiasis japonica infection who underwent laparoscopic or open colorectal surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative data, operative data, pathological outcomes, postoperative complications, and recovery were compared between patients in the laparoscopic (LAC) and open (OC) groups. Results. There were no significant differences in the preoperative data between the groups. However, fewer postoperative complications, especially severe hypoproteinemia, early postoperative feeding, and shorter postoperative hospital stay, were observed in patients in the LAC group (P < 0.001). The mean operative time was higher in the LAC group (180 min versus 158 min; P < 0.001), while the mean blood loss was similar (95 mL versus 108 mL; P = 0.196) between groups. The mean number of lymph nodes harvested was also similar in both groups (15 versus 16; P = 0.133). Conclusion. Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe in patients with schistosomiasis japonica and has better short-term outcomes than open surgery. PMID:27843449

  15. Purification and partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na-na; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dai-jie; Zhou, Yi-bin; Lin, Xiao-jing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Sheng-bo

    2013-05-01

    The purification and partial enzymology characteristics of polyphenol oxidase from Lonicera japonica (LjPPO) were studied in this paper. The crude enzyme solution was purified in turn by ammonium sulfate, dialysis, and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography after preliminary treatments. Purification resulted in 31-fold enrichment and its molecular weight was estimated to be ~49 kDa exhibited on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The pH for optimal conditions of LjPPO was 7.5, and the temperature was 25 °C, in addition, the inhibitive effects of inhibitors were enhanced positively with increasing of the concentration. Moreover, crude enzyme solution showed diphenolase activity toward catechol, l-dopa and chlorogenic acid rather than monophenolase and triphenolase activity, and the best substrate was catechol because of the highest V(max)/K(m) value. However, the oxidation of diphenol related to browning significantly, so the data obtained in this research provided theoretical basis for the prevention of enzymatic browning of L. japonica during processing.

  16. Genetic Structure and Potential Environmental Determinants of Local Genetic Diversity in Japanese Honeybees (Apis cerana japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Mika; Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Inoue, Maki N.; Nishiyama, Mio; Goka, Koichi; Sugiura, Shinji; Maeto, Kaoru; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity. PMID:27898704

  17. Eriobotrya japonica seed biocomposite efficiency for copper adsorption: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mehwish; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove pollutants from wastewater; however, composites are gaining more importance due to their excellent adsorption properties. Bentonite composite with Eriobotrya japonica seed was prepared and used for the adsorption of copper (Cu) metal from aqueous media. The process variables such as pH, Cu(II) ions initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were optimized for maximum Cu(II) adsorption. At pH 5, adsorbent dose 0.1 g, contact time 45 min, Cu(II) ions initial concentration 75 mg/L and temperature 45 °C, maximum Cu(II) adsorption was achieved. Desorption studies revealed that biocomposite is recyclable. Langmuir, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura isotherms as well as pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) suggest that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the adsorption data. Results showed that biocomposite was more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption in comparison to individuals native Eriobotrya japonica seed biomass and Na-bentonite.

  18. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  19. Effects of mercuric chloride on antioxidant system and DNA integrity of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Xu, Chaoqun

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the commonly encountered heavy metals, which is widespread in inshore sediments of China. In order to investigate the toxicity of Hg on marine invertebrates, we studied the effects of the divalent mercuricion (Hg2+) (at two final concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.0050 mg L-1, prepared with HgCl2) on metallothionein (MT) content, DNA integrity (DNA strand breaks) and catalase (CAT) in the gills and hepatopancreas, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the hemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas of the portunid crab Charybdis japonica for an experiment period up to 15 d. The results indicated that MT was significantly induced after 3 d, with a positive correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the hepatopancreas and a negative correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the gills. While CAT in the hemolymph was not detected, it increased in the hepatopancreas during the entire experiment; SOD and GPx in the three tissues were stimulated after 12 h, both attained peak value and then reduced during the experimental period. Meanwhile, DNA strand breaks were all induced significantly after 12 h. These results suggested the detoxification strategies against Hg2+ in three tissues of C. japonica.

  20. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in cordate gametophytes of two ferns, Angiopteris lygodiifolia and Osmunda japonica.

    PubMed

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Sakoda, Aki; Ebihara, Atsushi; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is common among land plants including pteridophytes (monilophytes and lycophytes). In pteridophytes with diplohaplontic life cycle, mycorrhizal formations were mostly reported for sporophytes, but very few for gametophytes. To clarify the mycorrhizal association of photosynthetic gametophytes, field-collected gametophytes of Angiopteris lygodiifolia (Marattiaceae, n = 52) and Osmunda japonica (Osmundaceae, n = 45) were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Collected gametophytes were mostly cut into two pieces. One piece was used for light and scanning microscopic observations, and the other for molecular identification of plant species (chloroplast rbcL sequences) and mycorrhizal fungi (small subunit rDNA sequences). Microscopic observations showed that 96 % (50/52) of Angiopteris and 95 % (41/43) of Osmunda gametophytes contained intracellular hyphae with arbuscules and/or vesicles and fungal colonization was limited to the inner tissue of the thick midribs (cushion). Fungal DNA analyses showed that 92 % (48/52) of Angiopteris and 92 % (35/38) of Osmunda have sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which were highly divergent but all belonged to Glomus group A. These results suggest that A. lygodiifolia and O. japonica gametophytes consistently form arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal formation in wild fern gametophytes, based on large-scale sampling with molecular identification of host plant species, was demonstrated for the first time.

  2. Toxic effects in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka) exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Jiang, Senhao; Xia, Bin; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    To understand the physiological response of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas, were exposed to different concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the growth, survival, antioxidant enzyme (SOD and T-AOC) activities were tested. Meanwhile, the quantitative real-time PCR technology was utilized to quantize the expression of immune related genes (i.e. innate immune genes, HSP genes and anti-oxidative genes). In our result, the SOD activity and T-AOC activity were induced at lower level of B[a]P (0.03 μg/L), however, a reduction of SOD activity and T-AOC activity were observed at relatively high B[a]P concentration (3 and 9 μg/L) for A. japonicas. Furthermore, the distinct expression patterns of selected immune-related genes were detected among different concentrations, and a general trend of down-regulation was observed at higher concentration. Especially, lysozyme almost showed the highest down-regulation at all concentrations, followed by NOS. Collectively, the growth, survival and expression signatures of immune related genes reflected an overall suppression of innate immunity in sea cucumber following exposure. Future functional studies should be carried out to characterize the detailed roles of immune genes and their related responses under B[a]P toxicity. Additionally, better understanding of the molecular indicators governing the healthy status under environmental toxicity would facilitate a healthy and sustainable culture program.

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Bo; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    An eco-friendly approach for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract was investigated. The reduction of silver ions in solution was monitored using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 435 nm was observed. The proper condition to biosynthesize AgNPs using E. japonica leaf extract was optimized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurement (DLS). The biosynthesised nanoparticles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), DLS, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the crystalline character of AgNPs and the presence of elemental silver. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, and their average particle size determined by TEM was about 20 nm. Furthermore the AgNPs were found to exhibit effective antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  4. Chronic effect of ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves on enhancing exercise activity in mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Lee, Jeongmin; Chun, Jiyeon; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Park, Jeongjin; Jun, Woojin

    2010-10-01

    Ferulic acid derived from Pseudosasa japonica leaves, which possessed antioxidative potentials with DPPH- (54%) and ABTs- (65%) radical scavenging activities, and lipid-peroxidation inhibitory activity (71%), was orally administered to mice for 12 days in order to investigate its effects on exercise endurance capacity and alterations of antioxidant defense systems. Exhaustive swimming time was increased in the ferulic acid-supplemented group compared with the control group on days 6 and 12 (1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively). When the mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, a high decrease (53%) was shown in the control group, but no change was found in the ferulic acid-treated group. The administration of ferulic acid significantly protected the depletion of enzymatic- and non enzymatic-antioxidants due to exhaustive exercise. Also, lipid-peroxidation levels decreased in the ferulic acid-treated group compared with the non exercised- and control-groups. These results suggest that ferulic acid from Pseudosasa japonica leaves has a chronic effect on endurance exercise capacity, which is attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress by improving antioxidant potentials.

  5. Cytological features of oogenesis and their evolutionary significance in the fern Osmunda japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian-Guo; Dai, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Quan-Xi

    2012-03-01

    The development of the egg and canal cells in the fern Osmunda japonica Thunb. was studied during oogenesis by transmission electron microscopy. The mature egg possesses no fertilization pore and no typical egg envelope. In addition, an extra wall formed around the canal cells during oogenesis and apparently blocked protoplasmic connections between the egg and the canal cells. The periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction revealed that the extra wall was most likely composed of polysaccharides. Maturation of the egg was accompanied by the formation of a separation cavity above the egg and by some changes in the morphology of the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles. The chromatin of the nucleus becomes condensed and the upper surface of the nucleus becomes closely associated with the plasmalemma. Amyloplasts in the egg cytoplasm were numerous and conspicuous, with most in close proximity to the nucleus. Finally, the cytoplasm on one side of the egg became vesiculated and the overlying plasmalemma was easily disrupted. These cytological features of the egg and the canal cells during oogenesis in O. japonica are markedly different from those of the leptosporangiate ferns and suggest a significant evolutionary divergence in reproductive cellular features between Osmundaceae and leptosporangiate ferns.

  6. High efficiency induction of callus and regeneration of sporophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Hua; Qin, Song; Li, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Peng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui; Qin, Mei

    1998-03-01

    Four media (PESI solid, MS liquid, MS solid and ASP-C-I solid medium) were used to induce callus from excised tissues of the kelp Laminaria japonica. Only PESI solid medium and MS solid medium produced calli. Modified MS solid medium supplemented with mannitol (3%,W/V), yeast extract (0.1%, W/V), VB2 (0.5 mg/ml), VB12 (0.5 mg/ml), kinetin (0.108 μg/ml) and NAA (1.860μg/ml) showed much better effect on callus induction than non-modified MS solid medium. After 24 days of induction 75.5% of tissues in PESI solid medium showed callus formation. For modified MS solid medium, after three months of induction 67.3% of tissues dedifferentiated into calli. No callus could be found after five months of induction in either MS liquid or ASP-C-I solid medium. When calli were squashed and cultured in N-P enriched autoclaved seawater, MS liquid medium and ASP12-NTA liquid medium (both modified with kelp extract), differentiation of cells and regeneration of sporophytes were only observed in ASP12-NTA medium supplemented with kelp extract. Gametophyte-like filaments formed first, then eggs were released. It was suggested that sporophyte formation could be a process of parthenogenesis. Sterilization techniques in tissue culture of L. japonica were also tested in this study.

  7. Structural elucidation of a pectin from flowers of Lonicera japonica and its antipancreatic cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyan; Wang, Peipei; Du, Zhenyun; Wang, Wucheng; Cong, Qifei; Zheng, Changping; Jin, Can; Ding, Kan; Shao, Chenghao

    2016-07-01

    To investigate polysaccharide structure from Lonicera japonica, and study its effects on behavior of pancreatic cells, a homogenous polysaccharide, LJ-02-1, was extracted and purified from flowers of L. japonica by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200HR column. The molecular weight was estimated to be 54kDa. Monosaccharide composition was determined to be rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in the molar ratio of 10.77:7.88:15.45:65.89 by analyzing the PMP derivatives of the monosaccharides from 2M trifluoracetic acid hydrolysis via HPLC. Based on methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, and NMR spectra, the polysaccharide was elucidated to be a rhamnogalacturonan backbone and substituted partly at C-4 of rhamnose. The branches were determined to be T- and 1,4,6-linked β-d-Galp, T- and 1,5-linked α-l-Araf. The polysaccharide might inhibit BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth at the concentration of 1mg/mL with inhibitory ratio of 66.7% and 52.1%, respectively.

  8. Modulation effects of sweroside isolated from the Lonicera japonica on melanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Tae; Jeong, Sang Chul; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-08-05

    In the course of screening for the melanogenesis inhibitors, sweroside was isolated from Lonicera japonica. Its chemical structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Sweroside inhibited potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300μM without cytotoxicity. Also, sweroside decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells. To identify the signaling pathway of sweroside, the ability of sweroside to influence Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation was investigated. Sweroside induced Akt and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the specific inhibition of the Akt and ERK signaling pathways were studied by specific inhibitor LY294002 and U0126, respectively and it was causing the increased melanin synthesis. Furthermore, sweroside presented inhibition of the body pigmentation and tyrosinase activity in zebrafish in vivo model. These results suggest that sweroside isolated from L. japonica may be an effective skin-whitening agent through the regulates the expression of MAP kinase and melanogenic enzymes.

  9. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Lonicera japonica Thumb. using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    He, H Y; Zhang, D; Qing, H; Yang, Y

    2017-01-23

    Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 21 accessions obtained from four provinces in China, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, and Sichuan. A total of 272 scored bands were generated using the eight primers previously screened across 21 accessions, of which 267 were polymorphic (98.16%). Genetic similarity coefficients varied from 0.4816 to 0.9118, with an average of 0.6337. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped 21 accessions into two main clusters. Cluster A comprised four Lonicera macranthoides Hand. Mazz. accessions, of which J10 was found to be from Sichuan, and J17, J18, and J19 were found to be from Shandong. Cluster B comprised 17 Lonicera japonica Thumb. accessions, divided into the wild accession J16 and the other 16 cultivars. The results of the principal component analysis were comparable to the cluster analysis. Therefore, the ISSR markers could be effectively used to distinguish interspecific and intraspecific variations, which may facilitate identification of Lonicera japonica cultivars for planting, medicinal use, and germplasm conservation.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of seven compounds in Lonicera japonica by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoxue; Cui, Xusheng; Su, He; Guo, Yuhai; Dong, Xuehui

    2012-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of seven compounds in Lonicera japonica and Folium Lonicerae with maximum wavelength conversion program, and analyze the content differences between them. The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) operated at normal temperature with the gradient elution by two mobile phases of water (including 0.3% (v/v) formic acid) (A) and acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The maximum detection wavelength was set at 330 nm and 350 nm by conversion. The contents of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Lonicera new leaves were 2.572% and 1.498 per thousand respectively, both higher than those cited in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, indicating that Lonicera new leaves have the necessity to be further studied and developed. This method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the seven compounds and the quality control of Lonicera japonica.

  11. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  12. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    SciTech Connect

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  13. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using algae to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial and small-scale utility power boilers. The operations are being studied for the use of CO2 from flue gas for algae growth along with the production of biofuels and other useful products to prepare a comprehensive characterization of the economic feasibility of using algae to capture CO2. Information is being generated for analyses of the potential for these technologies to advance in the market and assist in meeting environmental goals, as well as to examine their associated environmental implications. Three electric power generation plants (coal and fuel oil fired) equipped to send flue-gas emissions to algae culture at demonstration facilities are being studied. Data and process information are being collected and developed to facilitate feasibility and modeling evaluations of the CO2 to algae technology. An understanding of process requirements to apply this technology to existing industries would go far in advancing carbon capture opportunities. Documenting the successful use of this technology could help bring “low-tech”, low-cost, CO2 to algae, carbon capture to multiple size industries and

  14. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-03

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential.

  15. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  16. [Study on the sorption of 4-octylphenol by freshwater algae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang-e; Yang, Hai-zhen; Wang, Bei-bei; Deng, Nan-sheng

    2009-12-01

    The sorption of 4-octylphenol (4-OP) by two freshwater algae was investigated. Results showed that the sorption of 4-octylphenol by algae was obvious and quick, where 20% of initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and 46% initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Anabaena cylindrical (AC) after 5 min incubation. The sorption got equilibrium at 1 h after incubation. Langmuir sorption model was good appropriate type for this sorption. The effect of pH value on CV sorption was obvious than that on AC sorption. The sorption capacity of the biomass of two algae increased with the decrease of pH value. The analyzing of interaction between algae and 4-octylphenol was performed by fluorescence spectrum. Results showed that the algae could weaker the fluorescence spectrum intensity of 4-octylphenol and result in red shift of the maximum absorbance wavelength of mixture solution. Based on the results, it was speculated that algae bound with the contamination could use the near UV region of solar radiation and induced the contamination degradation.

  17. Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers.

  18. Phosphorus-Limited Growth of a Green Alga and a Blue-Green Alga

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Douglas S.; Brown, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nägeli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nägeli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nägeli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). PMID:16345896

  19. Phosphorus-limited growth of a green alga and a blue-green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.S.; Brown, E.J.

    1981-12-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nageli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nageli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nageli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). (Refs. 44).

  20. Application of proteomics to identify the target molecules involved in Lonicera japonica-induced photokilling in human lung cancer CH27 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lonicera japonica has been used as natural and healthy drink for its anti-inflammatory effect and pleasant odor in China and Taiwan. Methods 2D electrophoresis was used to analyze the proteins involved in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. The fluorescent dyes MitoTracker Red CMXRos, calcein AM and JC-1 were used to elucidate mitochondrial function. The protein expression was performed by Western blotting. Fluorescent image of endoplasmic reticulum was accomplished by using ER-Tracker Green. This study used fluorescent dye CM-H2DCFDA to detect intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Results The identified proteins can be classified into three major groups, which include proteins involved in mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton-related proteins and proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Photoactivated Lonicera japonica caused a significant effect on the mitochondrial function and ER stress in CH27 cells. The reactive oxygen species producing was found to be involved in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. Conclusion Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are the integral targets in photoactivated Lonicera japonica-induced CH27 cell apoptosis. We also demonstrated that ethyl acetate fraction of Lonicera japonica extracts caused photocytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in CH27 cells. This could explain the fact that the ethyl acetate fraction of Lonicera japonica extracts may contain compounds which exhibit the photosensitizing activity in CH27 cells. PMID:24083475