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Sample records for algae higher plants

  1. Higher plant origins and the phylogeny of green algae.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R; Loeblich, A R; Fox, G E

    1990-07-01

    5S rRNA sequences from six additional green algae lend strong molecular support for the major outlines of higher plant and green algae phylogeny that have been proposed under varying naming conventions by several authors. In particular, the molecular evidence now available unequivocally supports the existence of at least two well-separated divisions of the Chlorobionta: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta (i.e., charophytes) (according to the nomenclature of Bremer). The chlamydomonad 5S rRNAs are, however, sufficiently distinct from both clusters that it may ultimately prove preferable to establish a third taxon for them. In support of these conclusions 5S rRNA sequence data now exist for members of four diverse classes of chlorophytes. These sequences all exhibit considerably more phylogenetic affinity to one another than any of them show toward members of the other cluster, the Streptophyta, or the two Chlamydomonas strains. Among the Charophyceae, new 5S rRNA sequences are provided herein for three genera, Spirogyra, Klebsormidium, and Coleochaete. All of these sequences and the previously published Nitella sequence show greater resemblance among themselves and to the higher plants than they do to any of the other green algae examined to date. These results demonstrate that an appropriately named taxon that includes these green algae and the higher plants is strongly justified. The 5S rRNA data lack the resolution needed, however, to unequivocally determine which of several subdivisions of the charophytes is the sister group of the land plants. The evolutionary diversity of Chlamydomonas relative to the other green algae was recognized in earlier 5S rRNA studies but was unanticipated by ultrastructural work.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  3. Phragmoplast of the green alga Spirogyra is functionally distinct from the higher plant phragmoplast.

    PubMed

    Sawitzky, H; Grolig, F

    1995-09-01

    Cytokinesis in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae) is characterized by centripetal growth of a septum, which impinges on a persistent, centrifugally expanding telophase spindle, leading to a phragmoplast-like structure of potential phylogenetic significance (Fowke, L. C., and J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969. J. Phycol. 5:273-281). Combining fluorescent tagging of the cytoskeleton in situ and video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy of live cells, the process of cytokinesis was investigated with emphasis on cytoskeletal reorganization and concomitant redistribution of organelles. Based on a sequence of cytoskeletal arrangements and the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors thereon, cytokinetic progression could be divided into three functional stages with respect to the contribution of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs): (1) Initiation: in early prophase, a cross wall initial was formed independently of MFs and MTs at the presumptive site of wall growth. (2) Septum ingrowth: numerous organelles accumulated at the cross wall initial concomitant with reorganization of the extensive peripheral interphase MF array into a distinct circumferential MF array. This array guided the ingrowing septum until it contacted the expanding interzonal MT array. (3) Cross wall closure: MFs at the growing edge of the septum coaligned with and extended along the interzonal MTs toward the daughter nuclei. Thus, actin-based transportation of small organelles during this third stage occurred, in part, along a scaffold previously deployed in space by MTs. Displacement of the nuclei-associated interzonal MT array by centrifugation and depolymerization of the phragmoplast-like structure showed that the success of cytokinesis at the third stage depends on the interaction of both MF and MT cytoskeletons. Important features of the phragmoplast-like structure in Spirogyra were different from the higher plant phragmoplast: in particular, MFs were responsible for the

  4. Energetic metabolism response in algae and higher plant species from simulation experiments with the clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, A.; Popova, A. F.

    Adenylate state is acknowledged to be among the most convenient approaches in the study of physiological changes in plant cells under simulation of altered gravity condition with the clinostat. Adenylate levels and the ATP/ADP ratio in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial extracts of cultivated cells of Haplopappus gracilis and algae cells of Chlorella vulgaris under initial stages of the fast-rotating and slow-rotating clinorotation, as well as the long-term clinorotation, have been investigated. For analysis of ATP and ADP levels in the plant cells under the clinorotation, we applied a high-sensitive bioluminescence method using the luciferase and piruvate kinase enzyme systems. It has been shown that the adenylate ratio is already increased during at the start of clinorotation with the different speed of rotation in the biological material tested. The considerable changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure of Chlorella cells, as well as the rising ATP level and dropping of the ATP/ADP ratio appear after long-duration clinorotation if compared to control material. It is probably connected with the distinctions in ATP-synthetase functioning in mitochondria of the cells under the clinorotation conditions.

  5. Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and rubisco oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Badger, M R; von Caemmerer, S; Ruuska, S; Nakano, H

    2000-10-29

    Linear electron transport in chloroplasts produces a number of reduced components associated with photosystem I (PS I) that may subsequently participate in reactions that reduce O2. The two primary reactions that have been extensively studied are: first, the direct reduction of O2 to superoxide by reduced donors associated with PS I (the Mehler reaction), and second, the rubisco oxygenase (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase EC 4.1.1.39) reaction and associated peroxisomal and mitochondrial reactions of the photorespiratory pathway. This paper reviews a number of recent and past studies with higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria that have attempted to quantify O2 fluxes under various conditions and their contributions to a number of roles, including photon energy dissipation. In C3 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, a Mehler O2 uptake reaction is unlikely to support a significant flow of electron transport (probably less than 10%). In addition, if it were present it would appear to scale with photosynthetic carbon oxidation cycle (PCO) and photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) activity This is supported by studies with antisense tobacco plants with reduced rubisco at low and high temperatures and high light, as well as studies with potatoes, grapes and madrone during water stress. The lack of significant Mehler in these plants directly argues for a strong control of Mehler reaction in the absence of ATP consumption by the PCR and PCO cycles. The difference between C3 and C4 plants is primarily that the level of light-dependent O2 uptake is generally much lower in C4 plants and is relatively insensitive to the external CO2 concentration. Such a major difference is readily attributed to the operation of the C4 CO2 concentrating mechanism. Algae show a range of light-dependent O2 uptake rates, similar to C4 plants. As in C4 plants, the O2 uptake appears to be largely insensitive to CO2, even in species that lack a CO2 concentrating

  6. The roles of c-type cytochromes in algal photosynthesis. Extraction from algae of a cytochrome similar to higher plant cytochrome f.

    PubMed

    Wood, P M

    1977-02-01

    A membrane-bound cytochrome resembling higher plant cytochrome f in many respects has been extracted from the algae Chlamydomonas. Euglena and Anacystis, and partially purified. The spectra of the cytochromes from Chlamydomonas and Euglena are virtually identical to that of parsley cytochrome f, with alpha-band maxima near 554 nm, very asymmetrical beta-bands, and gamma-band maxima at 421 nm. The cytochrome from Anacystis had alpha and gamma-bands both shifted to slightly longer wavelengths. The redox potential of the cytochrome from Chlamydomonas was determined as +350 mV, and its minimum molecular weight in sodium dodecyl sulphate as 31 000. The cytochrome from Euglena showed a rate of reaction with higher plant plastocyanin at least 100 times that of the soluble Euglena cytochrome c-552, and was unaffected by Euglena cytochrome c-552 antiserum. A very fast rate of electron transfer occurred between this cytochrome purified from Euglena and cytochrome c-552. The roles of the membrane-bound and soluble c-type cytochromes in algal photosynthesis are discussed, and it is recommended that the name cytochrome f should be reserved for the membrane-bound cytochrome (to emphasize its affinity with higher plant cytochrome f), while the soluble one should be named by its alpha-band (c-552, c-553, etc.) to make clear its distinctness from higher plant cytochrome f and homology with mitochondrial cytochrome c.

  7. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  8. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA). PMID:27023231

  9. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  10. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  11. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  12. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs.

  13. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  14. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G.; Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R.; Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  15. A Receptor-Like Kinase, Related to Cell Wall Sensor of Higher Plants, is Required for Sexual Reproduction in the Unicellular Charophycean Alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale Complex.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Naoko; Marukawa, Yuka; Abe, Jun; Hashiba, Sayuri; Ichikawa, Machiko; Tanabe, Yoichi; Ito, Motomi; Nishii, Ichiro; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Here, we cloned the CpRLK1 gene, which encodes a receptor-like protein kinase expressed during sexual reproduction, from the heterothallic Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, one of the closest unicellular alga to land plants. Mating-type plus (mt(+)) cells with knockdown of CpRLK1 showed reduced competence for sexual reproduction and formed an abnormally enlarged conjugation papilla after pairing with mt(-) cells. The knockdown cells were unable to release a naked gamete, which is indispensable for zygote formation. We suggest that the CpRLK1 protein is an ancient cell wall sensor that now functions to regulate osmotic pressure in the cell to allow proper gamete release. PMID:25941232

  16. A Receptor-Like Kinase, Related to Cell Wall Sensor of Higher Plants, is Required for Sexual Reproduction in the Unicellular Charophycean Alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale Complex.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Naoko; Marukawa, Yuka; Abe, Jun; Hashiba, Sayuri; Ichikawa, Machiko; Tanabe, Yoichi; Ito, Motomi; Nishii, Ichiro; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Here, we cloned the CpRLK1 gene, which encodes a receptor-like protein kinase expressed during sexual reproduction, from the heterothallic Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, one of the closest unicellular alga to land plants. Mating-type plus (mt(+)) cells with knockdown of CpRLK1 showed reduced competence for sexual reproduction and formed an abnormally enlarged conjugation papilla after pairing with mt(-) cells. The knockdown cells were unable to release a naked gamete, which is indispensable for zygote formation. We suggest that the CpRLK1 protein is an ancient cell wall sensor that now functions to regulate osmotic pressure in the cell to allow proper gamete release.

  17. Evolution and diversity of plant cell walls: from algae to flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Popper, Zoë A; Michel, Gurvan; Hervé, Cécile; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T; Tuohy, Maria G; Kloareg, Bernard; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-01-01

    All photosynthetic multicellular Eukaryotes, including land plants and algae, have cells that are surrounded by a dynamic, complex, carbohydrate-rich cell wall. The cell wall exerts considerable biological and biomechanical control over individual cells and organisms, thus playing a key role in their environmental interactions. This has resulted in compositional variation that is dependent on developmental stage, cell type, and season. Further variation is evident that has a phylogenetic basis. Plants and algae have a complex phylogenetic history, including acquisition of genes responsible for carbohydrate synthesis and modification through a series of primary (leading to red algae, green algae, and land plants) and secondary (generating brown algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) endosymbiotic events. Therefore, organisms that have the shared features of photosynthesis and possession of a cell wall do not form a monophyletic group. Yet they contain some common wall components that can be explained increasingly by genetic and biochemical evidence.

  18. [Environmental Effects of Algae Bloom Cluster: Impact on the Floating Plant Water Hyacinth Photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Xian-ming; Gu, Dong-xiang; Wu, Ting-ting; Shi, Zu-liang; Liu, Guo-feng; Han Shi-qun; Zhou, Shi-qun; Zhou, Qing

    2015-06-01

    It is an efficient and effective ecological restoration method by using the adaptability, large biomass of aquatic plants to purify the polluted water at present. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the impact on the physiological ecology of aquatic plants and its environmental effects of algae blooms cluster in summer. The aim of this paper is to reveal the mechanism of macrophytes demise in a shallow ecosystem by studying the influence on photosynthesis of water hyacinth caused by the cynaobacterial blooms gathered, and also to provide the theoretical basis for full effects of purification function of macrophytes to reduce the negative effects on the aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered during the higher temperature (not lower 25 degrees C) through simulating experiments. Results showed the dissolved oxygen quickly consumed in root zone of aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered and showed a lack of oxygen (DO < 0.2 mg x L(-1)); and the ORP was lower than -100 mV after 1 d, and it declined to -200 mV at the end of the experiment, and pH declined 0. 7unit compared with that of control group ( CK). There were lots of nutrients releasing to the water after the algae cell died and the NH4+ -N concentration was 102 times higher than that of the control group root zone. And the macrophytes photosynthesis reduced quickly and the plant body damaged with the intimidation of higher NH4+ -N concentration (average content was 45.6 mg x L(-1)) and hypoxia after algae cell decomposed. The average net photosynthesis rate, leaf transpiration rate were 0.6 times, 0.55 times of the control group, and they reduced to 3.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), 1.38 mmol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. At the end of the experiment, they were 22.0 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) and 7.61 mmol x (m2 x s)(-1) for the control group. Results also showed the algae bloom together had the irreversible damage to the aquatic plants. So in the practice of ecological restoration, it should

  19. [Environmental Effects of Algae Bloom Cluster: Impact on the Floating Plant Water Hyacinth Photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Xian-ming; Gu, Dong-xiang; Wu, Ting-ting; Shi, Zu-liang; Liu, Guo-feng; Han Shi-qun; Zhou, Shi-qun; Zhou, Qing

    2015-06-01

    It is an efficient and effective ecological restoration method by using the adaptability, large biomass of aquatic plants to purify the polluted water at present. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the impact on the physiological ecology of aquatic plants and its environmental effects of algae blooms cluster in summer. The aim of this paper is to reveal the mechanism of macrophytes demise in a shallow ecosystem by studying the influence on photosynthesis of water hyacinth caused by the cynaobacterial blooms gathered, and also to provide the theoretical basis for full effects of purification function of macrophytes to reduce the negative effects on the aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered during the higher temperature (not lower 25 degrees C) through simulating experiments. Results showed the dissolved oxygen quickly consumed in root zone of aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered and showed a lack of oxygen (DO < 0.2 mg x L(-1)); and the ORP was lower than -100 mV after 1 d, and it declined to -200 mV at the end of the experiment, and pH declined 0. 7unit compared with that of control group ( CK). There were lots of nutrients releasing to the water after the algae cell died and the NH4+ -N concentration was 102 times higher than that of the control group root zone. And the macrophytes photosynthesis reduced quickly and the plant body damaged with the intimidation of higher NH4+ -N concentration (average content was 45.6 mg x L(-1)) and hypoxia after algae cell decomposed. The average net photosynthesis rate, leaf transpiration rate were 0.6 times, 0.55 times of the control group, and they reduced to 3.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), 1.38 mmol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. At the end of the experiment, they were 22.0 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) and 7.61 mmol x (m2 x s)(-1) for the control group. Results also showed the algae bloom together had the irreversible damage to the aquatic plants. So in the practice of ecological restoration, it should

  20. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhixin; Guo, Cheng; Sutharzan, Sreeskandarajan; Li, Pei; Echt, Craig S; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among the 31 species, no significant correlation was detected between the TR density and genome size. Interestingly, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (42,059 bp/Mbp) and castor bean Ricinus communis (55,454 bp/Mbp) showed much higher TR densities than all other species (13,209 bp/Mbp on average). In the 29 land plants, including 22 dicots, 5 monocots, and 2 bryophytes, 5'-UTR and upstream intergenic 200-nt (UI200) regions had the first and second highest TR densities, whereas in the two green algae (C. reinhardtii and Volvox carteri) the first and second highest densities were found in intron and coding sequence (CDS) regions, respectively. In CDS regions, trinucleotide and hexanucleotide motifs were those most frequently represented in all species. In intron regions, especially in the two green algae, significantly more TRs were detected near the intron-exon junctions. Within intergenic regions in dicots and monocots, more TRs were found near both the 5' and 3' ends of genes. GO annotation in two green algae revealed that the genes with TRs in introns are significantly involved in transcriptional and translational processing. As the first systematic examination of TRs in plant and green algal genomes, our study showed that TRs displayed nonrandom distribution for both intragenic and intergenic regions, suggesting that they have potential roles in transcriptional or translational regulation in plants and green algae. PMID:24192840

  2. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae. PMID:25267653

  3. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    DOE PAGES

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; et al

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence ofmore » phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.« less

  4. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia -Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  5. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants.

  6. The cellulose synthase superfamily in fully sequenced plants and algae

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The cellulose synthase superfamily has been classified into nine cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families and one cellulose synthase (CesA) family. The Csl families have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of the backbones of hemicelluloses of plant cell walls. With 17 plant and algal genomes fully sequenced, we sought to conduct a genome-wide and systematic investigation of this superfamily through in-depth phylogenetic analyses. Results A single-copy gene is found in the six chlorophyte green algae, which is most closely related to the CslA and CslC families that are present in the seven land plants investigated in our analyses. Six proteins from poplar, grape and sorghum form a distinct family (CslJ), providing further support for the conclusions from two recent studies. CslB/E/G/H/J families have evolved significantly more rapidly than their widely distributed relatives, and tend to have intragenomic duplications, in particular in the grape genome. Conclusion Our data suggest that the CslA and CslC families originated through an ancient gene duplication event in land plants. We speculate that the single-copy Csl gene in green algae may encode a mannan synthase. We confirm that the rest of the Csl families have a different evolutionary origin than CslA and CslC, and have proposed a model for the divergence order among them. Our study provides new insights about the evolution of this important gene family in plants. PMID:19646250

  7. Photosynthetic gene expression in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Berry, James O; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Zielinski, Amy M; Mure, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide into biologically useful molecules. Two major steps, photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin-Benson cycle, require many gene products encoded from chloroplast as well as nuclear genomes. The expression of genes in both cellular compartments is highly dynamic and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Light is the primary environmental determinant of photosynthetic gene expression. Working through photoreceptors such as phytochrome, light regulates photosynthetic genes at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Other processes that affect photosynthetic gene expression include photosynthetic activity, development, and biotic and abiotic stress. Anterograde (from nucleus to chloroplast) and retrograde (from chloroplast to nucleus) signaling insures the highly coordinated expression of the many photosynthetic genes between these different compartments. Anterograde signaling incorporates nuclear-encoded transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators, such as sigma factors and RNA-binding proteins, respectively. Retrograde signaling utilizes photosynthetic processes such as photosynthetic electron transport and redox signaling to influence the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus. The basic C3 photosynthetic pathway serves as the default form used by most of the plant species on earth. High temperature and water stress associated with arid environments have led to the development of specialized C4 and CAM photosynthesis, which evolved as modifications of the basic default expression program. The goal of this article is to explain and summarize the many gene expression and regulatory processes that work together to support photosynthetic function in plants.

  8. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future.

  9. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future. PMID:22889679

  10. Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Photosynthetic Cells in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yan; Benning, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Plant and algal oils are some of the most energy-dense renewable compounds provided by nature. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major constituent of plant oils, which can be converted into fatty acid methyl esters commonly known as biodiesel. As one of the most efficient producers of TAGs, photosynthetic microalgae have attracted substantial interest for renewable fuel production. Currently, the big challenge of microalgae based TAGs for biofuels is their high cost compared to fossil fuels. A conundrum is that microalgae accumulate large amounts of TAGs only during stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation and temperature stress, which inevitably will inhibit growth. Thus, a better understanding of why and how microalgae induce TAG biosynthesis under stress conditions would allow the development of engineered microalgae with increased TAG production during conditions optimal for growth. Land plants also synthesize TAGs during stresses and we will compare new findings on environmental stress-induced TAG accumulation in plants and microalgae especially in the well-characterized model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a biotechnologically relevant genus Nannochloropsis. PMID:27023236

  11. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  12. Green algae and the origins of multicellularity in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Umen, James G

    2014-10-16

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity.

  13. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  14. Plastid transformation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Maliga, Pal

    2004-01-01

    Plastids of higher plants are semi-autonomous organelles with a small, highly polyploid genome and their own transcription-translation machinery. This review provides an overview of the technology for the genetic modification of the plastid genome including: vectors, marker genes and gene design, the use of gene knockouts and over-expression to probe plastid function and the application of site-specific recombinases for excision of target DNA. Examples for applications in basic science include the study of plastid gene transcription, mRNA editing, photosynthesis and evolution. Examples for biotechnological applications are incorporation of transgenes in the plastid genome for containment and high-level expression of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Plastid transformation is routine only in tobacco. Progress in implementing the technology in other crops is discussed.

  15. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. PMID:27135491

  16. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  17. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  18. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  19. Pantothenate biosynthesis in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Coxon, K M; Chakauya, E; Ottenhof, H H; Whitney, H M; Blundell, T L; Abell, C; Smith, A G

    2005-08-01

    Pantothenate (vitamin B5) is a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of CoA and ACP (acyl-carrier protein, cofactors in energy yielding reactions including carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Pantothenate is synthesized de novo by plants and micro-organisms; however, animals obtain the vitamin through their diet. Utilizing our knowledge of the pathway in Escherichia coli, we have discovered and cloned genes encoding the first and last enzymes of the pathway from Arabidopsis, panB1, panB2 and panC. It is unlikely that there is a homologue of the E. coli panD gene, therefore plants must make beta-alanine by an alternative route. Possible candidates for the remaining gene, panE, are being investigated. GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions of the three identified plant enzymes have been generated and the subcellular localization of the enzymes studied. Work is now being performed to elucidate expression patterns of the transcripts and characterize the proteins encoded by these genes.

  20. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    It has long been known that applied ethylene can redirect the gravitropic response, but only occasionally has it been suggested that ethylene normally plays a role in gravitropism. Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis [Co2+ and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)] and two inhibitors of ethylene action (Ag+ and CO2) were shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag+ further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG delays the response of defoliated and of decapitated plants. Plants laid on their side and restricted so that they cannot bend upward store both bending energy and gravitropic stimulus; they bend immediately when released from restriction (stored energy) and continue to bend for some hours after (stored stimulus). AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect. PMID:16661736

  1. Diversity of regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the regulatory mechanisms of the Calvin cycle in algae, we analyzed the molecular properties of the enzymes involved in this cycle. We demonstrated that these enzymes were not regulated by redox modulation through the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system under light/dark conditions and were not sensitive to treatments with hydrogen peroxide in vitro, unlike the chloroplastic thiol-modulated enzymes of plants. On the other hand, we found that cyanobacteria possessed a unique enzyme involved in the Calvin cycle. The CP12 protein played an important role in regulating carbon metabolism in the Calvin cycle in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. This review described the regulatory mechanisms of the Calvin cycle in algae and also the effects of alterations to photosynthetic carbon metabolism on plant productivity, carbon partitioning, and the carbon/nitrogen balance using transgenic plants expressing algal genes.

  2. Sucrose transporters of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Christina; Grof, Christopher P L

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances have provided new insights into how sucrose is moved from sites of synthesis to sites of utilisation or storage in sink organs. Sucrose transporters play a central role, as they orchestrate sucrose allocation both intracellularly and at the whole plant level. Sucrose produced in mesophyll cells of leaves may be effluxed into the apoplasm of mesophyll or phloem parenchyma cells by a mechanism that remains elusive, but experimentally consistent with facilitated transport or energy-dependent sucrose/H(+) antiport. From the apoplasm, sucrose/H(+) symporters transport sucrose across the plasma membrane of cells making up the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex, the long distance conduits of the phloem. Phloem unloading of sucrose in key sinks such as developing seeds involves two sequential transport steps, sucrose efflux followed by sucrose influx. Besides plasma membrane specific sucrose transporters, sucrose transporters on the tonoplast contribute to the capacity for elevated sucrose accumulation in storage organs such as sugar beet roots or sugarcane culms. Except for several sucrose facilitators from seed coats of some leguminous plants all sucrose transporters cloned to date, including recently identified vacuolar sucrose transporters, have been characterised as sucrose/H(+) symporters. Transporters functioning to efflux sucrose into source or sink apoplasms as well as those supporting sucrose/H(+) antiport on tonoplasts, remain to be identified. Sucrose transporter expression and activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional as well as post-translational levels. Light quality and phytohormones play essential regulatory roles and the sucrose molecule itself functions as a signal.

  3. Use of high gradient magnetic fields to evaluate gravity perception and response mechanisms in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Hasenstein, Karl H

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic gradients have the valuable property of exerting a repulsive ponderomotive force onto diamagnetic compounds. A carefully designed gradient and proper positioning of biological material can be used to manipulate gravisensing organelles such as amyloplasts of higher plants and other statoliths such as the BaSO4-filled vesicles of Characean algae. This chapter describes the main considerations of magnetic gradients and their application as a localized force field to manipulate (sort) cellular organelles based on their magnetic properties. Many of the inferences from such activities have yet to be investigated. PMID:25981779

  4. Use of high gradient magnetic fields to evaluate gravity perception and response mechanisms in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Hasenstein, Karl H

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic gradients have the valuable property of exerting a repulsive ponderomotive force onto diamagnetic compounds. A carefully designed gradient and proper positioning of biological material can be used to manipulate gravisensing organelles such as amyloplasts of higher plants and other statoliths such as the BaSO4-filled vesicles of Characean algae. This chapter describes the main considerations of magnetic gradients and their application as a localized force field to manipulate (sort) cellular organelles based on their magnetic properties. Many of the inferences from such activities have yet to be investigated.

  5. Two Categories of 13C/12C Ratios for Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bruce N.; Epstein, Samuel

    1971-01-01

    13C/12C ratios have been determined for plant tissue from 104 species representing 60 families. Higher plants fall into two categories, those with low δPDBI13C values (—24 to —34‰) and those with high δ 13C values (—6 to —19‰). Algae have δ 13C values of —12 to —23‰. Photosynthetic fractionation leading to such values is discussed. PMID:16657626

  6. Heterotrimeric G proteins in green algae: an early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophyaceaen green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  7. Heterotrimeric G proteins in green algae: an early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophyaceaen green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions.

  8. Xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Fanny; Sulmon, Cécile; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan

    2012-06-01

    Anthropogenic changes and chemical pollution confront plant communities with various xenobiotic compounds or combinations of xenobiotics, involving chemical structures that are at least partially novel for plant species. Plant responses to chemical challenges and stimuli are usually characterized by the approaches of toxicology, ecotoxicology, and stress physiology. Development of transcriptomics and proteomics analysis has demonstrated the importance of modifications to gene expression in plant responses to xenobiotics. It has emerged that xenobiotic effects could involve not only biochemical and physiological disruption, but also the disruption of signalling pathways. Moreover, mutations affecting sensing and signalling pathways result in modifications of responses to xenobiotics, thus confirming interference or crosstalk between xenobiotic effects and signalling pathways. Some of these changes at gene expression, regulation and signalling levels suggest various mechanisms of xenobiotic sensing in higher plants, in accordance with xenobiotic-sensing mechanisms that have been characterized in other phyla (yeast, invertebrates, vertebrates). In higher plants, such sensing systems are difficult to identify, even though different lines of evidence, involving mutant studies, transcription factor analysis, or comparative studies, point to their existence. It remains difficult to distinguish between the hypothesis of direct xenobiotic sensing and indirect sensing of xenobiotic-related modifications. However, future characterization of xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants is likely to be a key element for determining the tolerance and remediation capacities of plant species. This characterization will also be of interest for understanding evolutionary dynamics of stress adaptation and mechanisms of adaptation to novel stressors.

  9. Regulation of cell division in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant's essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  10. Conserved and Diversified Gene Families of Monovalent Cation/H+ Antiporters from Algae to Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chanroj, Salil; Wang, Guoying; Venema, Kees; Zhang, Muren Warren; Delwiche, Charles F.; Sze, Heven

    2012-01-01

    All organisms have evolved strategies to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental and environmental cues. One strategy is mediated by monovalent cation–proton antiporters (CPA) that are classified in two superfamilies. Many CPA1 genes from bacteria, fungi, metazoa, and plants have been functionally characterized; though roles of plant CPA2 genes encoding K+-efflux antiporter (KEA) and cation/H+ exchanger (CHX) families are largely unknown. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three clades of the CPA1 Na+–H+ exchanger (NHX) family have been conserved from single-celled algae to Arabidopsis. These are (i) plasma membrane-bound SOS1/AtNHX7 that share ancestry with prokaryote NhaP, (ii) endosomal AtNHX5/6 that is part of the eukaryote Intracellular-NHE clade, and (iii) a vacuolar NHX clade (AtNHX1–4) specific to plants. Early diversification of KEA genes possibly from an ancestral cyanobacterium gene is suggested by three types seen in all plants. Intriguingly, CHX genes diversified from three to four members in one subclade of early land plants to 28 genes in eight subclades of Arabidopsis. Homologs from Spirogyra or Physcomitrella share high similarity with AtCHX20, suggesting that guard cell-specific AtCHX20 and its closest relatives are founders of the family, and pollen-expressed CHX genes appeared later in monocots and early eudicots. AtCHX proteins mediate K+ transport and pH homeostasis, and have been localized to intracellular and plasma membrane. Thus KEA genes are conserved from green algae to angiosperms, and their presence in red algae and secondary endosymbionts suggest a role in plastids. In contrast, AtNHX1–4 subtype evolved in plant cells to handle ion homeostasis of vacuoles. The great diversity of CHX genes in land plants compared to metazoa, fungi, or algae would imply a significant role of ion and pH homeostasis at dynamic endomembranes in the vegetative and reproductive success of flowering plants. PMID:22639643

  11. Use of oxygen-18 isotopic labeling to assay photorespiration in terrestrial plants and algae

    SciTech Connect

    de Veau, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method was devised to quantify photorespiration. The assay utilized {sup 18}O{sub 2} to isotopically label intermediates of the glycolate pathway, specifically glycolate, glycine, and serine, for various time periods. The pathway intermediates were isolated and analyzed on a mass spectrometer to determine molecular percent {sup 18}O-enrichment. Rates of glycolate synthesis were determined from: {sup 18}O-labeling kinetics of the intermediates, derived rate equations, and non-linear regression techniques. The method was adapted to measure photorespiratory rates in both terrestrial plants and algae. Test plants are Triticum aestivum, Zea mays L., Pavlova lutheri and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

  12. Aquatic phytoremendiation: Algae and aquatic plants for removal of toxic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A study to test several species of plants for heavy metal bioremoval is very briefly described. Adsorption isotherms were determined for cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, and copper by measuring the amounts adsorbed by the biomass over a range of residual metal concentrations. Numerical results presented include adsorption characteristics of aquatic plants at pH 5 and specific adsorption of cadmium onto various biomass. The two best species were Phormidium, a blue-green alga, and Myriophyllum spicatum, water milfoil. The maximum metal ion absorbed the the minimal residual metal concentrations achieved allow estimation of the amount of biomass required to achieve a desired treatment level.

  13. Are red algae plants? A critical evaluation of three key molecular data sets.

    PubMed

    Stiller, J W; Riley, J; Hall, B D

    2001-06-01

    Whether red algae are related to green plants has been debated for over a century. Features present due to their shared photosynthetic habit have been interpreted as support for an evolutionary sisterhood of the two groups but, until very recently, characters endogenous to the host cell have provided no reliable indication of such a relationship. In this investigation, we examine three molecular data sets that have provided key evidence of a possible relationship between green plants and red algae. Analyses of an expanded alignment of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II largest subunit sequences indicate that their support for independent origins of rhodophytes and chlorophytes is not the result of long-branch attraction, as has been proposed elsewhere. Differences in the pol II C-terminal domain, an essential component of plant mRNA transcription, also suggest different host cell ancestors for the two groups. In contrast, concatenated sequences of two groups of mitochondrial genes, those encoding subunits of NADH-dehydrogenase as well as cytochrome c oxidase subunits plus apocytochrome B, appear to cluster red algal and green plant sequences together because both groups have evolved relatively slowly and share a super-abundance of ancestral positions. Finally, analyses of elongation factor 2 sequences demonstrate a strong phylogenetic signal favoring a rhodophyte/chlorophyte sister relationship, but that signal is restricted to a contiguous segment comprising approximately half of the EF2 gene. These results argue for great caution in the interpretation of phylogenetic analyses of ancient evolutionary events but, in combination, indicate that there is no emerging consensus from molecular data supporting a sister relationship between red algae and green plants.

  14. Plant architecture without multicellularity: quandaries over patterning and the soma-germline divide in siphonous algae

    PubMed Central

    Coneva, Viktoriya; Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellularity has independently evolved numerous times throughout the major lineages of life. Often, multicellularity can enable complex, macroscopic organismal architectures but it is not required for the elaboration of morphology. Several alternative cellular strategies have arisen as solutions permitting exquisite forms. The green algae class Ulvophyceae, for example, contains truly multicellular organisms, as well as macroscopic siphonous cells harboring one or multiple nuclei, and siphonocladous species, which are multinucleate and multicellular. These diverse cellular organizations raise a number of questions about the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying complex organismal morphology in the green plants. Importantly, how does morphological patterning arise in giant coenocytes, and do nuclei, analogous to cells in multicellular organisms, take on distinct somatic and germline identities? Here, we comparatively explore examples of patterning and differentiation in diverse coenocytic and single-cell organisms and discuss possible mechanisms of development and nuclear differentiation in the siphonous algae. PMID:25964794

  15. Nickel: a micronutrient essential for higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Welch, R.M.; Cary, E.E.

    1987-11-01

    Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. Grain from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Onda; containing 40 to 80 nanograms of Ni per gram dry weight) grown in solution culture with negligible Ni concentrations (<30 nanograms of Ni per liter) exhibited greatly reduced germination rates (i.e. 50% less than grain from Ni-adequate plants) and seeding vigor of the viable grain was greatly depressed. Grain containing less than 30 nanograms per gram dry weight was inviable. Under Ni-deficient conditions, barley plants fail to produce viable grain because of a disruption of the maternal plants normal grain-filling and maturation processes that occur following formation of the grain embryo. The observations that (a) barley plants fail to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni and (b) addition of Ni to the growth medium completely alleviates deficiency symptoms in the maternal plants satisfies the essentiality criteria; thus Ni should be considered a micronutrient for cereals. Because Ni is required by legumes, and is now established for cereals, the authors conclude that Ni should be added to the list of micronutrients essential for all higher plant growth.

  16. Excitation energy transfer in vitro between phycobiliproteins and thylakoid photosystem II of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Tseng, C. K.

    1992-12-01

    The excitation energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to thylakoid PSII of higher plants was investigated. When incubated with spinach thylakoids, phycobiliproteins isolated from red and blue-green algae transferred light energy absorbed to spinach PSII. The efficiency of energy transfer was dependent on the kind of phycobiliproteins used. If spinach thylakoids were replaced by the thylakoids of Brassica chinensis, R-phycoerythin or C-phycocyanin did not transfer their excitation energy to PSII of Brassica chinensis unless allophycocyanin was present.

  17. Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the excess sulfur taken up is, however, prevented by a series of metabolic processes. Storage of excess sulfur in a metabolically inactive compartment, i.e. the vacuole, appears to occur in most plants. The finding of a storage of glutathione is several investigations suggests that with increasing accumulation of sulfate its reduction also increases. Under these conditions the cysteine concentration in different compartments of the cell may still be maintained at a low level by the incorporation of the excess cysteine synthesized into glutathione. This peptide appears to be the storage form of reduced sulfur in higher plants. 167 references, 2 figures.

  18. Nickel: an essential element for higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The inability of cereal crops to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni demonstrates that Ni is an essential micronutrient for the growth of higher plants. The growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Onda), wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Era), and oats (Avena sativa L., cv. Astro) is depressed under Ni deficient conditions, and grain of severely Ni deficient barley was inviable. Evidence suggests that Ni is essential to the formation of the grain embryo and in the remobilization of N from the leaves to the grain during plant maturation. Nickel deficiency produces characteristic deficiency symptoms in cereals including, leaf chlorosis, premature senescence in oats, and the development of interveinal necrosis. Metabolic effects of Ni deficiency are extensive and cannot be alleviated by the addition of any other essential element.

  19. Streptophyte algae and the origin of land plants revisited using heterogeneous models with three new algal chloroplast genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bojian; Xi, Zhenxiang; Goremykin, Vadim V; Fong, Richard; McLenachan, Patricia A; Novis, Philip M; Davis, Charles C; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic branching order of the green algal groups that gave rise to land plants remains uncertain despite its fundamental importance to understanding plant evolution. Previous studies have demonstrated that land plants evolved from streptophyte algae, but different lineages of streptophytes have been suggested to be the sister group of land plants. To better understand the evolutionary history of land plants and to determine the potential effects of "long-branch attraction" in phylogenetic reconstruction, we analyzed a chloroplast genome data set including three new chloroplast genomes from streptophyte algae: Coleochaetae orbicularis (Coleochaetales), Nitella hookeri (Charales), and Spirogyra communis (Zygnematales). We further applied a site pattern sorting method together with site- and time-heterogeneous models to investigate the branching order among streptophytes and land plants. Our chloroplast phylogenomic analyses support previous hypotheses based on nuclear data in placing Zygnematales alone, or a clade consisting of Coleochaetales plus Zygnematales, as the closest living relatives of land plants.

  20. Multi-Level Light Capture Control in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Wobbe, Lutz; Bassi, Roberto; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth relies on photosynthesis, and the ongoing depletion of fossil carbon fuels has renewed interest in phototrophic light-energy conversion processes as a blueprint for the conversion of atmospheric CO2 into various organic compounds. Light-harvesting systems have evolved in plants and green algae, which are adapted to the light intensity and spectral composition encountered in their habitats. These organisms are constantly challenged by a fluctuating light supply and other environmental cues affecting photosynthetic performance. Excess light can be especially harmful, but plants and microalgae are equipped with different acclimation mechanisms to control the processing of sunlight absorbed at both photosystems. We summarize the current knowledge and discuss the potential for optimization of phototrophic light-energy conversion. PMID:26545578

  1. Multi-Level Light Capture Control in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Wobbe, Lutz; Bassi, Roberto; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth relies on photosynthesis, and the ongoing depletion of fossil carbon fuels has renewed interest in phototrophic light-energy conversion processes as a blueprint for the conversion of atmospheric CO2 into various organic compounds. Light-harvesting systems have evolved in plants and green algae, which are adapted to the light intensity and spectral composition encountered in their habitats. These organisms are constantly challenged by a fluctuating light supply and other environmental cues affecting photosynthetic performance. Excess light can be especially harmful, but plants and microalgae are equipped with different acclimation mechanisms to control the processing of sunlight absorbed at both photosystems. We summarize the current knowledge and discuss the potential for optimization of phototrophic light-energy conversion.

  2. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.

    2004-12-14

    Increasing the concentration of prolines, such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that over-express glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  3. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.

    2003-07-15

    Increasing the concentration of prolines, such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that over-express glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  4. Use of prolines for improving growth and other properties of plants and algae

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.

    2003-04-29

    Increasing the concentration of prolines such as 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline, in the foliar portions of plants has been shown to cause an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth rate, dry weight, nutritional value (amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation, photosynthetically derived chemical energy, and resistance to insect pests over the same properties for wild type plants. This can be accomplished in four ways: (1) the application of a solution of the proline directly to the foliar portions of the plant by spraying these portions; (2) applying a solution of the proline to the plant roots; (3) genetically engineering the plant and screening to produce lines that overexpress glutamine synthetase in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of the metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (this proline is also known as 2-oxoglutaramnate); and (4) impairing the glutamine synthetase activity in the plant roots which causes increased glutamine synthetase activity in the leaves which gives rise to increased concentration of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline. Prolines have also been found to induce similar effects in algae.

  5. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Johansen, Ida E.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony; Willats, William G. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The charophyte green algae (CGA) are thought to be the closest living relatives to the land plants, and ancestral CGA were unique in giving rise to the land plant lineage. The cell wall has been suggested to be a defining structure that enabled the green algal ancestor to colonize land. These cell walls provide support and protection, are a source of signalling molecules, and provide developmental cues for cell differentiation and elongation. The cell wall of land plants is a highly complex fibre composite, characterized by cellulose cross-linked by non-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs in CGA is currently unknown, as no genomes are available, so this study sought to give insight into the evolution of the biosynthetic machinery of CGA through an analysis of available transcriptomes. Methods Available CGA transcriptomes were mined for cell wall biosynthesis GTs and compared with GTs characterized in land plants. In addition, gene cloning was employed in two cases to answer important evolutionary questions. Key Results Genetic evidence was obtained indicating that many of the most important core cell wall polysaccharides have their evolutionary origins in the CGA, including cellulose, mannan, xyloglucan, xylan and pectin, as well as arabino-galactan protein. Moreover, two putative cellulose synthase-like D family genes (CSLDs) from the CGA species Coleochaete orbicularis and a fragment of a putative CSLA/K-like sequence from a CGA Spirogyra species were cloned, providing the first evidence that all the cellulose synthase/-like genes present in early-divergent land plants were already present in CGA. Conclusions The results provide new insights into the evolution of

  6. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  7. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.

  8. The liverwort Pellia endiviifolia shares microtranscriptomic traits that are common to green algae and land plants

    PubMed Central

    Alaba, Sylwia; Piszczalka, Pawel; Pietrykowska, Halina; Pacak, Andrzej M; Sierocka, Izabela; Nuc, Przemyslaw W; Singh, Kashmir; Plewka, Patrycja; Sulkowska, Aleksandra; Jarmolowski, Artur; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Liverworts are the most basal group of extant land plants. Nonetheless, the molecular biology of liverworts is poorly understood. Gene expression has been studied in only one species, Marchantia polymorpha. In particular, no microRNA (miRNA) sequences from liverworts have been reported. Here, Illumina-based next-generation sequencing was employed to identify small RNAs, and analyze the transcriptome and the degradome of Pellia endiviifolia. Three hundred and eleven conserved miRNA plant families were identified, and 42 new liverwort-specific miRNAs were discovered. The RNA degradome analysis revealed that target mRNAs of only three miRNAs (miR160, miR166, and miR408) have been conserved between liverworts and other land plants. New targets were identified for the remaining conserved miRNAs. Moreover, the analysis of the degradome permitted the identification of targets for 13 novel liverwort-specific miRNAs. Interestingly, three of the liverwort microRNAs show high similarity to previously reported miRNAs from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first observation of miRNAs that exist both in a representative alga and in the liverwort P. endiviifolia but are not present in land plants. The results of the analysis of the P. endivifolia microtranscriptome support the conclusions of previous studies that placed liverworts at the root of the land plant evolutionary tree of life. PMID:25530158

  9. The liverwort Pellia endiviifolia shares microtranscriptomic traits that are common to green algae and land plants.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Sylwia; Piszczalka, Pawel; Pietrykowska, Halina; Pacak, Andrzej M; Sierocka, Izabela; Nuc, Przemyslaw W; Singh, Kashmir; Plewka, Patrycja; Sulkowska, Aleksandra; Jarmolowski, Artur; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-04-01

    Liverworts are the most basal group of extant land plants. Nonetheless, the molecular biology of liverworts is poorly understood. Gene expression has been studied in only one species, Marchantia polymorpha. In particular, no microRNA (miRNA) sequences from liverworts have been reported. Here, Illumina-based next-generation sequencing was employed to identify small RNAs, and analyze the transcriptome and the degradome of Pellia endiviifolia. Three hundred and eleven conserved miRNA plant families were identified, and 42 new liverwort-specific miRNAs were discovered. The RNA degradome analysis revealed that target mRNAs of only three miRNAs (miR160, miR166, and miR408) have been conserved between liverworts and other land plants. New targets were identified for the remaining conserved miRNAs. Moreover, the analysis of the degradome permitted the identification of targets for 13 novel liverwort-specific miRNAs. Interestingly, three of the liverwort microRNAs show high similarity to previously reported miRNAs from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first observation of miRNAs that exist both in a representative alga and in the liverwort P. endiviifolia but are not present in land plants. The results of the analysis of the P. endivifolia microtranscriptome support the conclusions of previous studies that placed liverworts at the root of the land plant evolutionary tree of life. PMID:25530158

  10. The liverwort Pellia endiviifolia shares microtranscriptomic traits that are common to green algae and land plants.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Sylwia; Piszczalka, Pawel; Pietrykowska, Halina; Pacak, Andrzej M; Sierocka, Izabela; Nuc, Przemyslaw W; Singh, Kashmir; Plewka, Patrycja; Sulkowska, Aleksandra; Jarmolowski, Artur; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-04-01

    Liverworts are the most basal group of extant land plants. Nonetheless, the molecular biology of liverworts is poorly understood. Gene expression has been studied in only one species, Marchantia polymorpha. In particular, no microRNA (miRNA) sequences from liverworts have been reported. Here, Illumina-based next-generation sequencing was employed to identify small RNAs, and analyze the transcriptome and the degradome of Pellia endiviifolia. Three hundred and eleven conserved miRNA plant families were identified, and 42 new liverwort-specific miRNAs were discovered. The RNA degradome analysis revealed that target mRNAs of only three miRNAs (miR160, miR166, and miR408) have been conserved between liverworts and other land plants. New targets were identified for the remaining conserved miRNAs. Moreover, the analysis of the degradome permitted the identification of targets for 13 novel liverwort-specific miRNAs. Interestingly, three of the liverwort microRNAs show high similarity to previously reported miRNAs from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first observation of miRNAs that exist both in a representative alga and in the liverwort P. endiviifolia but are not present in land plants. The results of the analysis of the P. endivifolia microtranscriptome support the conclusions of previous studies that placed liverworts at the root of the land plant evolutionary tree of life.

  11. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes–whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace–twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  12. Cis-Golgi cisternal assembly and biosynthetic activation occur sequentially in plants and algae

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Bryon S.; Kang, Byung-Ho; Gerl, Mathias J.; Gergely, Zachary R.; McMichael, Colleen M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The cisternal progression/maturation model of Golgi trafficking predicts that cis-Golgi cisternae are formed de novo on the cis-side of the Golgi. Here we describe structural and functional intermediates of the cis cisterna assembly process in high-pressure frozen algae (Scherffelia dubia, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Dionaea muscipula; Venus Flytrap) as determined by electron microscopy, electron tomography and immuno-electron microscopy techniques. Our findings are as follows: (1) The cis-most (C1) Golgi cisternae are generated de novo from cisterna initiators produced by the fusion of 3–5 COPII vesicles in contact with a C2 cis cisterna. (2) COPII vesicles fuel the growth of the initiators, which then merge into a coherent C1 cisterna. (3) When a C1 cisterna nucleates its first cisterna initiator it becomes a C2 cisterna. (4) C2-Cn cis cisternae grow through COPII vesicle fusion. (5) ER-resident proteins are recycled from cis cisternae to the ER via COPIa-type vesicles. (6) In S. dubia the C2 cisternae are capable of mediating the self-assembly of scale protein complexes. (7) In plants, ~90% of native α-mannosidase I localizes to medial Golgi cisternae. (8) Biochemical activation of cis cisternae appears to coincide with their conversion to medial cisternae via recycling of medial cisterna enzymes. We propose how the different cis cisterna assembly intermediates of plants and algae may actually be related to those present in the ERGIC and in the pre-cis Golgi cisterna layer in mammalian cells. PMID:23369235

  13. Cis-Golgi cisternal assembly and biosynthetic activation occur sequentially in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Bryon S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Gerl, Mathias J; Gergely, Zachary R; McMichael, Colleen M; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Staehelin, L Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The cisternal progression/maturation model of Golgi trafficking predicts that cis-Golgi cisternae are formed de novo on the cis-side of the Golgi. Here we describe structural and functional intermediates of the cis cisterna assembly process in high-pressure frozen algae (Scherffelia dubia, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Dionaea muscipula; Venus flytrap) as determined by electron microscopy, electron tomography and immuno-electron microscopy techniques. Our findings are as follows: (i) The cis-most (C1) Golgi cisternae are generated de novo from cisterna initiators produced by the fusion of 3-5 COPII vesicles in contact with a C2 cis cisterna. (ii) COPII vesicles fuel the growth of the initiators, which then merge into a coherent C1 cisterna. (iii) When a C1 cisterna nucleates its first cisterna initiator it becomes a C2 cisterna. (iv) C2-Cn cis cisternae grow through COPII vesicle fusion. (v) ER-resident proteins are recycled from cis cisternae to the ER via COPIa-type vesicles. (vi) In S. dubia the C2 cisternae are capable of mediating the self-assembly of scale protein complexes. (vii) In plants, ∼90% of native α-mannosidase I localizes to medial Golgi cisternae. (viii) Biochemical activation of cis cisternae appears to coincide with their conversion to medial cisternae via recycling of medial cisterna enzymes. We propose how the different cis cisterna assembly intermediates of plants and algae may actually be related to those present in the ERGIC and in the pre-cis Golgi cisterna layer in mammalian cells.

  14. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes-whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace-twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  15. The charophycean green algae provide insights into the early origins of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A; Bacic, Antony; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Fei, Zhangzhun; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2011-10-01

    Numerous evolutionary innovations were required to enable freshwater green algae to colonize terrestrial habitats and thereby initiate the evolution of land plants (embryophytes). These adaptations probably included changes in cell-wall composition and architecture that were to become essential for embryophyte development and radiation. However, it is not known to what extent the polymers that are characteristic of embryophyte cell walls, including pectins, hemicelluloses, glycoproteins and lignin, evolved in response to the demands of the terrestrial environment or whether they pre-existed in their algal ancestors. Here we show that members of the advanced charophycean green algae (CGA), including the Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, but not basal CGA (Klebsormidiales and Chlorokybales), have cell walls that are comparable in several respects to the primary walls of embryophytes. Moreover, we provide both chemical and immunocytochemical evidence that selected Coleochaete species have cell walls that contain small amounts of lignin or lignin-like polymers derived from radical coupling of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. Thus, the ability to synthesize many of the components that characterize extant embryophyte walls evolved during divergence within CGA. Our study provides new insight into the evolutionary window during which the structurally complex walls of embryophytes originated, and the significance of the advanced CGA during these events. PMID:21707800

  16. The charophycean green algae provide insights into the early origins of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A; Bacic, Antony; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Fei, Zhangzhun; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2011-10-01

    Numerous evolutionary innovations were required to enable freshwater green algae to colonize terrestrial habitats and thereby initiate the evolution of land plants (embryophytes). These adaptations probably included changes in cell-wall composition and architecture that were to become essential for embryophyte development and radiation. However, it is not known to what extent the polymers that are characteristic of embryophyte cell walls, including pectins, hemicelluloses, glycoproteins and lignin, evolved in response to the demands of the terrestrial environment or whether they pre-existed in their algal ancestors. Here we show that members of the advanced charophycean green algae (CGA), including the Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, but not basal CGA (Klebsormidiales and Chlorokybales), have cell walls that are comparable in several respects to the primary walls of embryophytes. Moreover, we provide both chemical and immunocytochemical evidence that selected Coleochaete species have cell walls that contain small amounts of lignin or lignin-like polymers derived from radical coupling of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. Thus, the ability to synthesize many of the components that characterize extant embryophyte walls evolved during divergence within CGA. Our study provides new insight into the evolutionary window during which the structurally complex walls of embryophytes originated, and the significance of the advanced CGA during these events.

  17. Endogenous peptide elicitors in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses against invading organisms are initiated through the perception of molecules associated with attacking microbes and herbivores by pattern recognition receptors. In addition to elicitor molecules derived from attacking organisms, plants recognize host-derived molecules. Thes...

  18. Developing Higher Plant Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hypogravity and microgravity environments on plant cells are discussed. Experiments on embryos of carrots are discussed. Simulation and spacecraft environments were used in experiments.

  19. Rhizoids and protonemata of characean algae: model cells for research on polarized growth and plant gravity sensing.

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Limbach, C

    2006-12-01

    Gravitropically tip-growing rhizoids and protonemata of characean algae are well-established unicellular plant model systems for research on gravitropism. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and gravity-oriented growth. While in higher-plant statocytes the role of cytoskeletal elements, especially the actin cytoskeleton, in the mechanisms of gravity sensing is still enigmatic, there is clear evidence that in the characean cells actin is intimately involved in polarized growth, gravity sensing, and the gravitropic response mechanisms. The multiple functions of actin are orchestrated by a variety of actin-binding proteins which control actin polymerisation, regulate the dynamic remodelling of the actin filament architecture, and mediate the transport of vesicles and organelles. Actin and a steep gradient of cytoplasmic free calcium are crucial components of a feedback mechanism that controls polarized growth. Experiments performed in microgravity provided evidence that actomyosin is a key player for gravity sensing: it coordinates the position of statoliths and, upon a change in the cell's orientation, directs sedimenting statoliths to specific areas of the plasma membrane, where contact with membrane-bound gravisensor molecules elicits short gravitropic pathways. In rhizoids, gravitropic signalling leads to a local reduction of cytoplasmic free calcium and results in differential growth of the opposite subapical cell flanks. The negative gravitropic response of protonemata involves actin-dependent relocation of the calcium gradient and displacement of the centre of maximal growth towards the upper flank. On the basis of the results obtained from the gravitropic model cells, a similar fine-tuning function of the actomyosin system is discussed for the early steps of gravity sensing in higher-plant statocytes.

  20. Evolution of plant-like crystalline storage polysaccharide in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii argues for a red alga ancestry.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Alexandra; Varré, Jean-Stéphane; Lienard, Luc; Dauvillée, David; Guérardel, Yann; Soyer-Gobillard, Marie-Odile; Buléon, Alain; Ball, Steven; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2005-02-01

    Single-celled apicomplexan parasites are known to cause major diseases in humans and animals including malaria, toxoplasmosis, and coccidiosis. The presence of apicoplasts with the remnant of a plastid-like DNA argues that these parasites evolved from photosynthetic ancestors possibly related to the dinoflagellates. Toxoplasma gondii displays amylopectin-like polymers within the cytoplasm of the dormant brain cysts. Here we report a detailed structural and comparative analysis of the Toxoplasma gondii, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii storage polysaccharides. We show Toxoplasma gondii amylopectin to be similar to the semicrystalline floridean starch accumulated by red algae. Unlike green plants or algae, the nuclear DNA sequences as well as biochemical and phylogenetic analysis argue that the Toxoplasma gondii amylopectin pathway has evolved from a totally different UDP-glucose-based metabolism similar to that of the floridean starch accumulating red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and, to a lesser extent, to those of glycogen storing animals or fungi. In both red algae and apicomplexan parasites, isoamylase and glucan-water dikinase sequences are proposed to explain the appearance of semicrystalline starch-like polymers. Our results have built a case for the separate evolution of semicrystalline storage polysaccharides upon acquisition of photosynthesis in eukaryotes.

  1. Digitization workflows for flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Wallace, Lisa E; Rabeler, Richard K; Allard, Dorothy; Brown, Herrick; Carter, J Richard; Denslow, Michael W; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C; Gilbert, Ed; Gillespie, Emily; Goertzen, Leslie R; Legler, Ben; Marchant, D Blaine; Marsico, Travis D; Morris, Ashley B; Murrell, Zack; Nazaire, Mare; Neefus, Chris; Oberreiter, Shanna; Paul, Deborah; Ruhfel, Brad R; Sasek, Thomas; Shaw, Joey; Soltis, Pamela S; Watson, Kimberly; Weeks, Andrea; Mast, Austin R

    2015-09-01

    Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi, even though latest estimates suggest that only 33% of herbarium specimens have been digitally transcribed, 54% of herbaria use a specimen database, and 24% are imaging specimens. In 2012, iDigBio, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) coordinating center and national resource for the digitization of public, nonfederal U.S. collections, launched several working groups to address this deficiency. Here, we report the development of 14 workflow modules with 7-36 tasks each. These workflows represent the combined work of approximately 35 curators, directors, and collections managers representing more than 30 herbaria, including 15 NSF-supported plant-related Thematic Collections Networks and collaboratives. The workflows are provided for download as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word files. Customization of these workflows for specific institutional implementation is encouraged. PMID:26421256

  2. Biosynthesis of open-chain tetrapyrroles in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Beale, S I

    1994-01-01

    Phycobilins are open-chain tetrapyrroles of plants and algae which act as the chromophores of phycobiliproteins where they function as light energy-harvesting pigments. Phytochromobilin, another open-chain tetrapyrrole, is the chromophore of phytochrome, which functions as a light-sensing pigment in plant development. These open-chain tetrapyrroles are biosynthetically derived from protohaem. Enzyme reactions that convert protohaem to biliverdin IX alpha, and biliverdin IX alpha to phycocyanobilin, have been detected and characterized in extracts of the unicellular rhodophyte Cyanidium caldarium. Algal haem oxygenase and algal biliverdin-IX alpha reductase are both soluble enzymes that use electrons derived from reduced ferredoxin. Biochemical intermediates in the conversion of biliverdin IX alpha to (3E)-phycocyanobilin were identified as 15, 16-dihydrobiliverdin IX alpha, (3Z)-phycoerythrobilin and (3Z)-phycocyanobilin. Separate enzymes catalyse the two two-electron reduction steps in the conversion of biliverdin IX alpha to (3Z)-phycoerythrobilin. Z-to-E isomerization of the phycobilin ethylidine group is catalysed by an enzyme that requires glutathione for activity. Protein-bound phycoerythrobilin can be chemically converted to phytochromobilin which can then be released from the protein by methanolysis. This procedure was used to produce phytochromobilin in quantities sufficient to allow its chemical characterization and use in phytochrome reconstitution experiments. The results indicate that (2R,3E)-phytochromobilin spontaneously condenses with recombinant oat apophytochrome to form photoreversible holoprotein that is spectrally identical to native phytochrome.

  3. Digitization workflows for flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Wallace, Lisa E.; Rabeler, Richard K.; Allard, Dorothy; Brown, Herrick; Carter, J. Richard; Denslow, Michael W.; Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Gilbert, Ed; Gillespie, Emily; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Legler, Ben; Marchant, D. Blaine; Marsico, Travis D.; Morris, Ashley B.; Murrell, Zack; Nazaire, Mare; Neefus, Chris; Oberreiter, Shanna; Paul, Deborah; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Sasek, Thomas; Shaw, Joey; Soltis, Pamela S.; Watson, Kimberly; Weeks, Andrea; Mast, Austin R.

    2015-01-01

    Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi, even though latest estimates suggest that only 33% of herbarium specimens have been digitally transcribed, 54% of herbaria use a specimen database, and 24% are imaging specimens. In 2012, iDigBio, the U.S. National Science Foundation’s (NSF) coordinating center and national resource for the digitization of public, nonfederal U.S. collections, launched several working groups to address this deficiency. Here, we report the development of 14 workflow modules with 7–36 tasks each. These workflows represent the combined work of approximately 35 curators, directors, and collections managers representing more than 30 herbaria, including 15 NSF-supported plant-related Thematic Collections Networks and collaboratives. The workflows are provided for download as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word files. Customization of these workflows for specific institutional implementation is encouraged. PMID:26421256

  4. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Faral-Tello, Paula; Mirazo, Santiago; Dutra, Carmelo; Pérez, Andrés; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Frabasile, Sandra; Koncke, Elina; Davyt, Danilo; Cavallaro, Lucía; Heinzen, Horacio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI) obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1. PMID:22619617

  5. Digitization workflows for flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Wallace, Lisa E; Rabeler, Richard K; Allard, Dorothy; Brown, Herrick; Carter, J Richard; Denslow, Michael W; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C; Gilbert, Ed; Gillespie, Emily; Goertzen, Leslie R; Legler, Ben; Marchant, D Blaine; Marsico, Travis D; Morris, Ashley B; Murrell, Zack; Nazaire, Mare; Neefus, Chris; Oberreiter, Shanna; Paul, Deborah; Ruhfel, Brad R; Sasek, Thomas; Shaw, Joey; Soltis, Pamela S; Watson, Kimberly; Weeks, Andrea; Mast, Austin R

    2015-09-01

    Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi, even though latest estimates suggest that only 33% of herbarium specimens have been digitally transcribed, 54% of herbaria use a specimen database, and 24% are imaging specimens. In 2012, iDigBio, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) coordinating center and national resource for the digitization of public, nonfederal U.S. collections, launched several working groups to address this deficiency. Here, we report the development of 14 workflow modules with 7-36 tasks each. These workflows represent the combined work of approximately 35 curators, directors, and collections managers representing more than 30 herbaria, including 15 NSF-supported plant-related Thematic Collections Networks and collaboratives. The workflows are provided for download as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word files. Customization of these workflows for specific institutional implementation is encouraged.

  6. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae. An early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions.

  7. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae. An early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:25764428

  8. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  9. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  10. Vitamin B6 biosynthesis in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Tambasco-Studart, Marina; Titiz, Olca; Raschle, Thomas; Forster, Gabriela; Amrhein, Nikolaus; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is an essential metabolite in all organisms. It can act as a coenzyme for numerous metabolic enzymes and has recently been shown to be a potent antioxidant. Plants and microorganisms have a de novo biosynthetic pathway for vitamin B6, but animals must obtain it from dietary sources. In Escherichia coli, it is known that the vitamin is derived from deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (an intermediate in the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis) and 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine. It has been assumed that vitamin B6 is synthesized in the same way in plants, but this hypothesis has never been experimentally proven. Here, we show that, in plants, synthesis of the vitamin takes an entirely different route, which does not involve deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate but instead utilizes intermediates from the pentose phosphate pathway, i.e., ribose 5-phosphate or ribulose 5-phosphate, and from glycolysis, i.e., dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The revelation is based on the recent discovery that, in bacteria and fungi, a novel pathway is in place that involves two genes (PDX1 and PDX2), neither of which is homologous to any of those involved in the previously doctrined E. coli pathway. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana has two functional homologs of PDX1 and a single homolog of PDX2. Furthermore, and contrary to what was inferred previously, we show that the pathway appears to be cytosolic and is not localized to the plastid. Last, we report that the single PDX2 homolog is essential for plant viability. PMID:16157873

  11. DNA microarray analyses in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, David W

    2006-01-01

    DNA microarrays were originally devised and described as a convenient technology for the global analysis of plant gene expression. Over the past decade, their use has expanded enormously to cover all kingdoms of living organisms. At the same time, the scope of applications of microarrays has increased beyond expression analyses, with plant genomics playing a leadership role in the on-going development of this technology. As the field has matured, the rate-limiting step has moved from that of the technical process of data generation to that of data analysis. We currently face major problems in dealing with the accumulating datasets, not simply with respect to how to archive, access, and process the huge amounts of data that have been and are being produced, but also in determining the relative quality of the different datasets. A major recognized concern is the appropriate use of statistical design in microarray experiments, without which the datasets are rendered useless. A vigorous area of current research involves the development of novel statistical tools specifically for microarray experiments. This article describes, in a necessarily selective manner, the types of platforms currently employed in microarray research and provides an overview of recent activities using these platforms in plant biology.

  12. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Julianne E.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1984-01-01

    Cross and longitudinal sections were prepared for light microscopy from vertical control plants (Xanthium strumarium L. Chicago strain), free-bending horizontal stems, plants restrained 48 hours in a horizontal position, and plants restrained 48 hours and then released, bending immediately about 130°. Top cells of free-bending stems shrink or elongate little; bottom cells continue to elongate. In restrained stems, bottom cells elongate some and increase in diameter; top cells elongate about as much but decrease in diameter. Upon release, bottom cells elongate more and decrease in diameter, while top cells shorten and increase in diameter, accounting for the bend. During restraint, bottom cells take up water while tissue pressures increase; top cells fail to take up water although tissue pressures are decreasing. Settling of amyloplasts was observed in cells of the starch sheath. Removal of different amounts of stem (Xanthium; Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, cv Bonny Best; Ricinus communis L. cv Yolo Wonder) showed that perception of gravity occurs in the bending (elongation) zone, although bending of fourth and fifth internodes from the top was less than in uncut controls. Uniform application of 1% indoleacetic acid in lanolin to cut stem surfaces partially restored bending. Reversing the gradient in tension/compression in horizontal stems (top under compression, bottom under tension) did not affect gravitropic bending. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16663939

  13. Monophyly of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes: green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Brinkmann, Henner; Burey, Suzanne C; Roure, Béatrice; Burger, Gertraud; Löffelhardt, Wolfgang; Bohnert, Hans J; Philippe, Hervé; Lang, B Franz

    2005-07-26

    Between 1 and 1.5 billion years ago, eukaryotic organisms acquired the ability to convert light into chemical energy through endosymbiosis with a Cyanobacterium (e.g.,). This event gave rise to "primary" plastids, which are present in green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes ("Plantae" sensu Cavalier-Smith). The widely accepted view that primary plastids arose only once implies two predictions: (1) all plastids form a monophyletic group, as do (2) primary photosynthetic eukaryotes. Nonetheless, unequivocal support for both predictions is lacking (e.g.,). In this report, we present two phylogenomic analyses, with 50 genes from 16 plastid and 15 cyanobacterial genomes and with 143 nuclear genes from 34 eukaryotic species, respectively. The nuclear dataset includes new sequences from glaucophytes, the less-studied group of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes. We find significant support for both predictions. Taken together, our analyses provide the first strong support for a single endosymbiotic event that gave rise to primary photosynthetic eukaryotes, the Plantae. Because our dataset does not cover the entire eukaryotic diversity (but only four of six major groups in), further testing of the monophyly of Plantae should include representatives from eukaryotic lineages for which currently insufficient sequence information is available.

  14. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  15. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  16. Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2.

  17. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; White, Rosemary G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene at 1.0 and 10.0 cubic centimeters per cubic meter decreased the rate of gravitropic bending in stems of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), but 0.1 cubic centimeter per cubic meter ethylene had little effect. Treating cocklebur plants with 1.0 millimolar aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) (ethylene synthesis inhibitor) delayed stem bending compared with controls, but adding 0.1 cubic centimeter per cubic meter ethylene in the surrounding atmosphere (or applying 0.1% ethephon solution) partially restored the rate of bending of AVG-treated plants. Ethylene increases in bending stems, and AVG inhibits this. Virtually all newly synthesized ethylene appeared in bottom halves of horizontal stems, where ethylene concentrations were as much as 100 times those in upright stems or in top halves of horizontal stems. This was especially true when horizontal stems were physically restrained from bending. Ethylene might promote cell elongation in bottom tissues of a horizontal stem or indicate other factors there (e.g. a large amount of `functioning' auxin). Or top and bottom tissues may become differentially sensitive to ethylene. Auxin applied to one side of a vertical stem caused extreme bending away from that side; gibberellic acid, kinetin, and abscisic acid were without effect. Acidic ethephon solutions applied to one side of young seedlings of cocklebur, tomato, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) caused bending away from that side, but neutral ethephon solutions did not cause bending. Buffered or unbuffered acid (HCl) caused similar bending. Neutral ethephon solutions produced typical ethylene symptoms (i.e. epinasty, inhibition of stem elongation). HCl or acidic ethephon applied to the top of horizontal stems caused downward bending, but these substances applied to the bottom of such stems inhibited growth and upward bending—an unexpected result. PMID:11539089

  18. Will an algal CO2-concentrating mechanism work in higher plants?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Moritz T; McCormick, Alistair J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Many algae use a biophysical carbon concentrating mechanism for active accumulation and retention of inorganic carbon within chloroplasts, with CO2 fixation by RuBisCO within a micro-compartment, the pyrenoid. Engineering such mechanisms into higher plant chloroplasts is a possible route to augment RuBisCO operating efficiency and photosynthetic rates. Significant progress has been made recently in characterising key algal transporters and identifying factors responsible for the aggregation of RuBisCO into the pyrenoid. Several transporters have now also been successfully incorporated into higher plant chloroplasts. Consistent with the predictions from modelling, regulation of higher plant plastidic carbonic anhydrases and some form of RuBisCO aggregation will be needed before the mechanism delivers potential benefits. Key research priorities include a better understanding of the regulation of the algal carbon concentrating mechanism, advancing the fundamental characterisation of known components, evaluating whether higher plant chloroplasts can accommodate a pyrenoid, and, ultimately, testing transgenic lines under realistic growth conditions. PMID:27194106

  19. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Use of Higher Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, T. W.; Alford, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two workshops concerning the use of higher plants in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) are summarized. Criteria for plant selection were identified from these categories: food production, nutrition, oxygen production and carbon dioxide utilization, water recycling, waste recycling, and other morphological and physiological considerations. Types of plant species suitable for use in CELSS, growing procedures, and research priorities were recommended. Also included are productivity values for selected plant species.

  20. In Vitro Reconstitution of Light-harvesting Complexes of Plants and Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Natali, Alberto; Roy, Laura M.; Croce, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    In plants and green algae, light is captured by the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), a family of integral membrane proteins that coordinate chlorophylls and carotenoids. In vivo, these proteins are folded with pigments to form complexes which are inserted in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. The high similarity in the chemical and physical properties of the members of the family, together with the fact that they can easily lose pigments during isolation, makes their purification in a native state challenging. An alternative approach to obtain homogeneous preparations of LHCs was developed by Plumley and Schmidt in 19871, who showed that it was possible to reconstitute these complexes in vitro starting from purified pigments and unfolded apoproteins, resulting in complexes with properties very similar to that of native complexes. This opened the way to the use of bacterial expressed recombinant proteins for in vitro reconstitution. The reconstitution method is powerful for various reasons: (1) pure preparations of individual complexes can be obtained, (2) pigment composition can be controlled to assess their contribution to structure and function, (3) recombinant proteins can be mutated to study the functional role of the individual residues (e.g., pigment binding sites) or protein domain (e.g., protein-protein interaction, folding). This method has been optimized in several laboratories and applied to most of the light-harvesting complexes. The protocol described here details the method of reconstituting light-harvesting complexes in vitro currently used in our laboratory,and examples describing applications of the method are provided. PMID:25350712

  1. Ribosomal protein L10 is encoded in the mitochondrial genome of many land plants and green algae

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genomes of plants generally encode 30-40 identified protein-coding genes and a large number of lineage-specific ORFs. The lack of wide conservation for most ORFs suggests they are unlikely to be functional. However, an ORF, termed orf-bryo1, was recently found to be conserved among bryophytes suggesting that it might indeed encode a functional mitochondrial protein. Results From a broad survey of land plants, we have found that the orf-bryo1 gene is also conserved in the mitochondria of vascular plants and charophycean green algae. This gene is actively transcribed and RNA edited in many flowering plants. Comparative sequence analysis and distribution of editing suggests that it encodes ribosomal protein L10 of the large subunit of the ribosome. In several lineages, such as crucifers and grasses, where the rpl10 gene has been lost from the mitochondrion, we suggest that a copy of the nucleus-encoded chloroplast-derived rpl10 gene may serve as a functional replacement. Conclusion Despite the fact that there are now over 20 mitochondrial genome sequences for land plants and green algae, this gene has remained unidentified and largely undetected until now because of the unlikely coincidence that most of the earlier sequences were from the few lineages that lack the intact gene. These results illustrate the power of comparative sequencing to identify novel genomic features. PMID:19917118

  2. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  3. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  4. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in chloroplast genomes of lower and higher plants.

    PubMed

    George, Biju; Bhatt, Bhavin S; Awasthi, Mayur; George, Binu; Singh, Achuit K

    2015-11-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), contain repetitive DNA sequence where tandem repeats of one to six base pairs are present number of times. Chloroplast genome sequences have been  shown to possess extensive variations in the length, number and distribution of SSRs. However, a comparative analysis of chloroplast microsatellites is not available. Considering their potential importance in generating genomic diversity, we have systematically analysed the abundance and distribution of simple and compound microsatellites in 164 sequenced chloroplast genomes from wide range of plants. The key findings of these studies are (1) a large number of mononucleotide repeats as compared to SSR(2-6)(di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexanucleotide repeats) are present in all chloroplast genomes investigated, (2) lower plants such as algae show wide variation in relative abundance, density and distribution of microsatellite repeats as compared to flowering plants, (3) longer SSRs are excluded from coding regions of most chloroplast genomes, (4) GC content has a weak influence on number, relative abundance and relative density of mononucleotide as well as SSR(2-6). However, GC content strongly showed negative correlation with relative density (R (2) = 0.5, P < 0.05) and relative abundance (R (2) = 0.6, P < 0.05) of cSSRs. In summary, our comparative studies of chloroplast genomes illustrate the variable distribution of microsatellites and revealed that chloroplast genome of smaller plants possesses relatively more genomic diversity compared to higher plants.

  5. Design of components for growing higher plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design unique systems and components for growing higher plants in microgravity during long-term space missions (Mars and beyond). Specific design tasks were chosen to contribute to and supplement NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Selected tasks were automated seeding of plants, plant health sensing, and food processing. Prototype systems for planting both germinated and nongerminated seeds were fabricated and tested. Water and air pressure differences and electrostatic fields were used to trap seeds for separation and transport for planting. An absorption spectrometer was developed to measure chlorophyll levels in plants as an early warning of plant health problems. In the area of food processing, a milling system was created using high-speed rotating blades which were aerodynamically configured to produce circulation and retractable to prevent leakage. The project produced significant results having substantial benefit to NASA. It also provided an outstanding learning experience for the students involved.

  6. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.

  7. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems. PMID:23770072

  8. Discovery of new anticancer agents from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Small organic molecules derived from higher plants have been one of the mainstays of cancer chemotherapy for approximately the past half a century. In the present review, selected single chemical entity natural products of plant origin and their semi-synthetic derivatives currently in clinical trials are featured as examples of new cancer chemotherapeutic drug candidates. Several more recently isolated compounds obtained from plants showing promising in vivo biological activity are also discussed in terms of their potential as anticancer agents, with many of these obtained from species that grow in tropical regions. Since extracts of only a relatively small proportion of the ca. 300,000 higher plants on earth have been screened biologically to date, bioactive compounds from plants should play an important role in future anticancer drug discovery efforts. PMID:22202049

  9. Higher plant antioxidants and redox signaling under environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong-bo; Chu, Li-ye; Shao, Ming-an; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Mi, Hong-mei

    2008-06-01

    Main antioxidants in higher plants include glutathione, ascorbate, tocopherol, proline, betaine, and others, which are also information-rich redox buffers and important redox signaling components that interact with biomembrane-related compartments. As an evolutionary consequence of aerobic life for higher plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by partial reduction of molecular oxygen. The above enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in higher plants can protect their cells from oxidative damage by scavenging ROS. In addition to crucial roles in defense system and as enzyme cofactors, antioxidants influence higher plant growth and development by modifying processes from mitosis and cell elongation to senescence and death. Most importantly, they provide essential information on cellular redox state, and regulate gene expression associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses to optimize defense and survival. An overview of the literature is presented in terms of main antioxidants and redox signaling in plant cells. Special attention is given to ROS and ROS-antioxidant interaction as a metabolic interface for different types of signals derived from metabolism and from the changing environment, which regulates the appropriate induction of acclimation processes or, execution of cell death programs, which are the two essential directions for higher plants.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-01-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal obbjects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charopyhte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorbance spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900 nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance in the wave band of 400-550 nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did not change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400 – 500 nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  11. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  12. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation.

  13. Regulation of photosynthesis by ion channels in cyanobacteria and higher plants.

    PubMed

    Checchetto, Vanessa; Teardo, Enrico; Carraretto, Luca; Formentin, Elide; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario; Szabo, Ildiko

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy, and supplies ATP and NADPH for CO2 fixation into carbohydrates and for the synthesis of several compounds which are essential for autotrophic growth. Oxygenic photosynthesis takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and photosynthetic prokaryote cyanobacteria. An ancestral photoautotrophic prokaryote related to cyanobacteria has been proposed to give rise to chloroplasts of plants and algae through an endosymbiotic event. Indeed, photosynthetic complexes involved in the electron transport coupled to H(+) translocation and ATP synthesis are similar in higher plants and cyanobacteria. Furthermore, some of the protein and solute/ion conducting machineries also share common structure and function. Electrophysiological and biochemical evidence support the existence of ion channels in the thylakoid membrane in both types of organisms. By allowing specific ion fluxes across thylakoid membranes, ion channels have been hypothesized to either directly or indirectly regulate photosynthesis, by modulating the proton motive force. Recent molecular identification of some of the thylakoid-located channels allowed to obtain genetic proof in favor of such hypothesis. Furthermore, some ion channels of the envelope membrane in chloroplasts have also been shown to impact on this light-driven process. Here we give an overview of thylakoid/chloroplast located ion channels of higher plants and of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We focus on channels shown to be implicated in the regulation of photosynthesis and discuss the possible mechanisms of action.

  14. Transcriptomics of Desiccation Tolerance in the Streptophyte Green Alga Klebsormidium Reveal a Land Plant-Like Defense Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kaplan, Franziska; Blaas, Kathrin; Zechmann, Bernd; Komsic-Buchmann, Karin; Becker, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and physiology of a strain of the alpine aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium crenulatum under control and strong desiccation-stress conditions. Principal Findings For comparison we first established a reference transcriptome. The high-coverage reference transcriptome includes about 24,183 sequences (1.5 million reads, 636 million bases). The reference transcriptome encodes for all major pathways (energy, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, sugars), nearly all deduced pathways are complete or missing only a few transcripts. Upon strong desiccation, more than 7000 transcripts showed changes in their expression levels. Most of the highest up-regulated transcripts do not show similarity to known viridiplant proteins, suggesting the existence of some genus- or species-specific responses to desiccation. In addition, we observed the up-regulation of many transcripts involved in desiccation tolerance in plants (e.g. proteins similar to those that are abundant in late embryogenesis (LEA), or proteins involved in early response to desiccation ERD), and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO) known to act as osmolytes). Major physiological shifts are the up-regulation of transcripts for photosynthesis, energy production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which is supported by elevated cellular glutathione content as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy as well as an increase in total antiradical power. However, the effective quantum yield of Photosystem II and CO2 fixation decreased sharply under the applied desiccation stress. In contrast, transcripts for cell integrative

  15. The mitochondrial genome of Chara vulgaris: insights into the mitochondrial DNA architecture of the last common ancestor of green algae and land plants.

    PubMed

    Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

    2003-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has undergone radical changes during the evolution of green plants, yet little is known about the dynamics of mtDNA evolution in this phylum. Land plant mtDNAs differ from the few green algal mtDNAs that have been analyzed to date by their expanded size, long spacers, and diversity of introns. We have determined the mtDNA sequence of Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae), a green alga belonging to the charophycean order (Charales) that is thought to be the most closely related alga to land plants. This 67,737-bp mtDNA sequence, displaying 68 conserved genes and 27 introns, was compared with those of three angiosperms, the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha, the charophycean alga Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Coleochaetales), and the green alga Mesostigma viride. Despite important differences in size and intron composition, Chara mtDNA strikingly resembles Marchantia mtDNA; for instance, all except 9 of 68 conserved genes lie within blocks of colinear sequences. Overall, our genome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses provide unequivocal support for a sister-group relationship between the Charales and the land plants. Only four introns in land plant mtDNAs appear to have been inherited vertically from a charalean algar ancestor. We infer that the common ancestor of green algae and land plants harbored a tightly packed, gene-rich, and relatively intron-poor mitochondrial genome. The group II introns in this ancestral genome appear to have spread to new mtDNA sites during the evolution of bryophytes and charalean green algae, accounting for part of the intron diversity found in Chara and land plant mitochondria.

  16. Multispecies methods of testing for toxicity: use of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis in nitrogen fixation and correlations between responses by algae and terrestrial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    1991-12-01

    Responses of the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic relationship to long-term (5- to 7-week) and short-term (2-week) exposures of copper sulfate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and streptomycin sulfate were examined in bush beans and clover. Toxic effects were evaluated by comparing plant biomass (yield), nodulation success, nitrogen fixation rate as indicated by acetylene reduction, and plant nitrogen content in controls and in plants exposed to various concentrations of the chemicals. Plants with long-term continuous root exposure were affected more than plants with short-term exposure, as indicated by reductions in nitrogen fixation rates and plant growth. Although rates of acetylene reduction (nitrogen fixation) were depressed, plant biomass and the numbers of root nodules produced were simpler, less expensive indices of exposure. In a second test, the responses of algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris) and terrestrial plants (radishes, barley, bush beans, and soybeans) to 21 different herbicides were compared to evaluate the use of a short-term (96-h) algal growth inhibition test for identifying chemicals potentially toxic to terrestrial plants. Two test end points were evaluated: (1) the highest concentration resulting in no statistically significant reduction in the growth rate of algae or terrestrial plants, and (2) the concentration at which algal growth or terrestrial plant biomass was reduced by 50%. Test results were correlated for the two algae and for all pairs of vascular plants. However, results of the algal tests did not correlate with those of the terrestrial plants. Furthermore, according to tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, there was only a 50% chance of successfully identifying herbicide levels that reduced terrestrial plant biomass. For the herbicides and species examined, short-term toxicity tests with algae were not good indicators of toxicity to terrestrial plants.

  17. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  18. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    “Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  19. Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina

    Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. Air temperature changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered air temperatures. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of air temperature of 45 (°) СC.

  20. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Freebury, Colin E.; Hamilton, Paul B.; Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  1. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Paul C; Freebury, Colin E; Hamilton, Paul B; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah.

  2. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Paul C; Freebury, Colin E; Hamilton, Paul B; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  3. Fungal elicitors of the phytoalexin response in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Charles A.

    1981-09-01

    Several types of fungal molecules including cell wall polysaccharides, polypeptides, glycoproteins and lipid molecules have been found to serve as elicitors of phytoalexins in higher plants. Recent work has shown that an extracellular enzyme, endopolygalacturonase, from culture filtrates of the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer elicits the biosynthesis of an antifungal antibiotic, casbene, in extracts of treated castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) seedlings. A suggested mode of action of this elicitor in the plant in which fragments of the plant cell wall released through the catalytic action of the enzyme serve as secondary elicitors to trigger the plant response is proposed on the basis of preliminary observations. Possible modes of interaction of other types of fungal elicitors with plants are also discussed.

  4. Fractionation of metal stable isotopes by higher plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; Von Wiren, N.; Guelke, M.; Weiss, D.J.; Bullen, T.D.

    2009-01-01

    Higher plants induce chemical reactions in the rhizosphere, facilitating metal uptake by roots. Fractionation of the isotopes in nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc produces a stable isotope composition in the plants that generally differs from that of the growth medium. Isotope fractionation also occurs during transport of the metals within most plants, but its extent depends on plant species and on the metal, in particular, on the metal's redox state and what ligand it is bound to. The metal stable isotope variations observed in plants create an isotope signature of life at the Earth's surface, contributing substantially to our understanding of metal cycling processes in the environment and in individual organisms.

  5. Octadecanoid-Mediated Signal Transduction in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Elmar W.

    The observation that methyljasmonate is a strong promoter of senescence marked the discovery of lipid-derived signaling molecules of higher plants. This group of compounds, now collectively termed octadecanoids, is derived from the fatty acid α-linolenic acid and involved in physiological processes such diverse as the triggering of defense reactions against herbivores and pathogens, mechanotransduction, plant volatile emission, potato tuberization, and many others. Recent research has yielded clues to a deeper understanding of octadecanoid biology. Control over this central signaling system may open new avenues in biological pest control through plant defense regulators.

  6. The Interactions of Aquaporins and Mineral Nutrients in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ding, Lei; Gao, Limin; Li, Yingrui; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) present in the plasma and intracellular membranes, facilitate the transport of small neutral molecules across cell membranes in higher plants. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of aquaporin subcellular localization, transport selectivity, and gating properties. Although the role of aquaporins in maintaining the plant water status has been addressed, the interactions between plant aquaporins and mineral nutrients remain largely unknown. This review highlights the roles of various aquaporin orthologues in mineral nutrient uptake and transport, as well as the regulatory effects of mineral nutrients on aquaporin expression and activity, and an integrated link between aquaporins and mineral nutrient metabolism was identified. PMID:27483251

  7. The Interactions of Aquaporins and Mineral Nutrients in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Ding, Lei; Gao, Limin; Li, Yingrui; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) present in the plasma and intracellular membranes, facilitate the transport of small neutral molecules across cell membranes in higher plants. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of aquaporin subcellular localization, transport selectivity, and gating properties. Although the role of aquaporins in maintaining the plant water status has been addressed, the interactions between plant aquaporins and mineral nutrients remain largely unknown. This review highlights the roles of various aquaporin orthologues in mineral nutrient uptake and transport, as well as the regulatory effects of mineral nutrients on aquaporin expression and activity, and an integrated link between aquaporins and mineral nutrient metabolism was identified. PMID:27483251

  8. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-07-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant`s essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  9. Cellular Mechanisms of Gravitropic Response in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Sergei; Smolikova, Galina; Pozhvanov, Gregory; Suslov, Dmitry

    The evolutionary success of land plants in adaptation to the vectorial environmental factors was based mainly on the development of polarity systems. In result, normal plant ontogenesis is based on the positional information. Polarity is a tool by which the developing plant organs and tissues are mapped and the specific three-dimensional structure of the organism is created. It is due to their polar organization plants are able to orient themselves relative to the gravity vector and different vectorial cues, and to respond adequately to various stimuli. Gravitation is one of the most important polarized environmental factor that guides the development of plant organisms in space. Every plant can "estimate" its position relative to the gravity vector and correct it, if necessary, by means of polarized growth. The direction and the magnitude of gravitational stimulus are constant during the whole plant ontogenesis. The key plant response to the action of gravity is gravitropism, i.e. the directed growth of organs with respect to the gravity vector. This response is a very convenient model to study the mechanisms of plant orientation in space. The present report is focused on the main cellular mechanisms responsible for graviropic bending in higher plants. These mechanisms and structures include electric polarization of plant cells, Ca ({2+) }gradients, cytoskeleton, G-proteins, phosphoinositides and the machinery responsible for asymmetric auxin distribution. Those mechanisms tightly interact demonstrating some hierarchy and multiple feedbacks. The Ca (2+) gradients provide the primary physiological basis of polarity in plant cells. Calcium ions influence on the bioelectric potentials, the organization of actin cytoskeleton, the activity of Ca (2+) -binding proteins and Ca (2+) -dependent protein kinases. Protein kinases modulate transcription factors activity thereby regulating the gene expression and switching the developmental programs. Actin cytoskeleton affects

  10. 97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils with higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1996-10-01

    Introduction of higher plants into a bioremediation system can enhance degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and target compounds, particularly relatively immobile and recalcitrant organic molecules. Over the past several years, an interdisciplinary team of civil engineers, chemical engineers, soil chemists, soil microbiologists, and plant scientists at Kansas State University have been studying phytoremediation systems. Greenhouse experiments have focused on selecting plants that are most adapted to degrading target compounds and to surviving in soils highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Plant species do not seem to differ in their ability to aid in the decomposition of pyrene and anthracene, but benzo[a]pyrene is much more difficult to degrade. Most species are ineffective in enhancing the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene. Four field studies have been initiated in California, Texas, New Jersey, and Virginia to test some of our greenhouse observations.

  12. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarssen, Ben G. K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

    2000-04-01

    The relative abundances of three higher-plant-derived biomarkers, retene, cadalene and ip-iHMN, have been measured in marine sedimentary rocks from the northwest margin of Australia. It is thought that each biomarker represents input from a different plant type. The distributions of these three compounds form a fingerprint, representing higher plant input (HPF). Variations in HPF in Oxfordian sediments were nearly identical in all three locations, with retene becoming very abundant relative to the other two compounds with decreasing age of the sediment. This finding strongly suggests that the composition of terrestrial input during deposition largely determines HPF and that the possible effects of diagenesis and catagenesis on the distribution of the three biomarkers are relatively unimportant. The marked increase in the abundance of retene relative to that of cadalene during the Oxfordian is interpreted to reflect an increase in the contribution of plants that produced precursors for retene, i.e., conifers, brought about by a significant change in climate. This was exemplified by measuring the distributions of retene and cadalene, expressed in the higher plant parameter (HPP) for a suite of sediments from the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, covering the complete Jurassic period. The HPP profile displays three major cycles, each covering a period of at least 10 million years. This profile not only compared well with published palaeoclimate data, but also showed a remarkable similarity with second order cycles in the global sea level curve, thus strongly supporting the proposal that variations in HPF and HPP are indications of changes in palaeoclimate. The relation with global sea level further suggests that global factors, e.g., the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, may play a major role in determining the observed variations in the distributions of these higher-plant-derived biomarkers.

  13. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  14. Plants at high altitude exhibit higher component of alternative respiration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narinder; Vyas, Dhiraj; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Total respiration, capacities of cytochrome (CytR) and alternative respiration (AR) were studied in two varieties of barley (Horedum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) each and one variety of pea (Pisum sativum) at low (Palampur; 1300 m) and high altitudes (Kibber; 4200 m). Similar studies were carried out in naturally growing Rumex nepalensis and Trifoilum repenses at Palampur, Palchan (2250 m) and Marhi (3250 m). All the plants species exhibited lower CytR but significantly higher AR capacity at high altitude (HA) (72-1117% higher) as compared to those at low altitude (LA). Glycolytic product, pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, citrate increased with increase in altitude. While the role of these metabolites in relation to HA biology is discussed, significantly higher AR at HA is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism against the metabolic perturbations wherein it might act to lower reactive oxygen species and also provides metabolic homeostasis to plants under the environment of HA.

  15. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017. PMID:26203423

  16. Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.

    PubMed

    Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp.

  17. Larvicidal algae.

    PubMed

    Marten, Gerald G

    2007-01-01

    Although most algae are nutritious food for mosquito larvae, some species kill the larvae when ingested in large quantities. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that kill larvae do so by virtue of toxicity. While blue-green algae toxins may offer possibilities for delivery as larvicides, the toxicity of live blue-green algae does not seem consistent enough for live algae to be useful for mosquito control. Certain species of green algae in the order Chlorococcales kill larvae primarily because they are indigestible. Where these algae are abundant in nature, larvae consume them to the exclusion of other food and then starve. Under the right circumstances, it is possible to introduce indigestible algae into a breeding habitat so they become abundant enough to render it unsuitable for mosquito production. The algae can persist for years, even if the habitat dries periodically. The main limitation of indigestible algae lies in the fact that, under certain conditions, they may not replace all the nutritious algae in the habitat. More research on techniques to ensure complete replacement will be necessary before indigestible algae can go into operational use for mosquito control.

  18. The Relevance of Higher Plants in Lead Compound Discovery Programs⊥

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N.; Chai, Heebyung

    2011-01-01

    Along with compounds from terrestrial microorganisms, the constituents of higher plants have provided a substantial number of the natural product-derived drugs used currently in western medicine. Interest in the elucidation of new structures of the secondary metabolite constituents of plants has remained high among the natural products community over the first decade of the 21st century, particularly of species that are used in systems of traditional medicine or are utilized as botanical dietary supplements. In this review, progress made in the senior author’s laboratory in research work on naturally occurring sweeteners and other taste-modifying substances and on potential anticancer agents from tropical plants will be described. PMID:21650152

  19. Shedding light on ethylene metabolism in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria A.; Bianchetti, Ricardo E.; Freschi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene metabolism in higher plants is regulated by a wide array of endogenous and environmental factors. During most physiological processes, ethylene levels are mainly determined by a strict control of the rate-limiting biosynthetic steps responsible for the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and its subsequent conversion to ethylene. Responsible for these reactions, the key enzymes ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are encoded by multigene families formed by members that can be differentially regulated at the transcription and post-translational levels by specific developmental and environmental signals. Among the wide variety of environmental cues controlling plant ethylene production, light quality, duration, and intensity have consistently been demonstrated to influence the metabolism of this plant hormone in diverse plant tissues, organs, and species. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between light signal transduction and ethylene evolution appears to involve a complex network that includes central transcription factors connecting multiple signaling pathways, which can be reciprocally modulated by ethylene itself, other phytohormones, and specific light wavelengths. Accumulating evidence has indicated particular photoreceptors as essential mediators in light-induced signaling cascades affecting ethylene levels. Therefore, this review specifically focuses on discussing the current knowledge of the potential molecular mechanisms implicated in the light-induced responses affecting ethylene metabolism during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant responses. Besides presenting the state of the art in this research field, some overlooked mechanisms and future directions to elucidate the exact nature of the light–ethylene interplay in higher plants will also be compiled and discussed. PMID:25520728

  20. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  1. How Ethylene Works in the Reproductive Organs of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Francisco; del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is a notable signaling molecule in higher plants. In the year 1993 the ET receptor gene, ETR1, was identified; this ETR1 receptor protein being the first plant hormone receptor to be isolated. It is striking that there are six ET receptors in tomato instead of five in Arabidopsis, the two best-known signaling-model systems. Even though over the last few years great progress has been made in elucidating the genes and proteins involved in ET signaling, the complete pathway remains to be established. The present review examines the most representative successive advances that have taken place in this millennium in terms of the signaling pathway of ET, as well as the implications of the signaling in the reproductive organs of plants (i.e., flowers, fruits, seeds and pollen grains). A detailed comparative study is made on the advances in knowledge in the last decade, showing how the characterization of ET signaling provides clues for understanding how higher plants regulate their ET sensitivity. Also, it is indicated that ET signaling is at present sparking interest within phytohormonal molecular physiology and biology, and it is explained why several socio-economic aspects (flowering and fruit ripening) are undoubtedly involved in ET physiology. PMID:19516984

  2. Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex and its regulator from the green alga Chara braunii expands the evolutionary breadth of plant G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

    2013-12-01

    The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae.

  3. Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex and its regulator from the green alga Chara braunii expands the evolutionary breadth of plant G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

    2013-12-01

    The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

  4. Chaperonin cofactors, Cpn10 and Cpn20, of green algae and plants function as hetero-oligomeric ring complexes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Chin C; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2012-06-01

    The chloroplast chaperonin system of plants and green algae is a curiosity as both the chaperonin cage and its lid are encoded by multiple genes, in contrast to the single genes encoding the two components of the bacterial and mitochondrial systems. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), three genes encode chaperonin cofactors, with cpn10 encoding a single ∼10-kDa domain and cpn20 and cpn23 encoding tandem cpn10 domains. Here, we characterized the functional interaction of these proteins with the Escherichia coli chaperonin, GroEL, which normally cooperates with GroES, a heptamer of ∼10-kDa subunits. The C. reinhardtii cofactor proteins alone were all unable to assist GroEL-mediated refolding of bacterial ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase but gained this ability when CrCpn20 and/or CrCpn23 was combined with CrCpn10. Native mass spectrometry indicated the formation of hetero-oligomeric species, consisting of seven ∼10-kDa domains. The cofactor "heptamers" interacted with GroEL and encapsulated substrate protein in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Different hetero-oligomer arrangements, generated by constructing cofactor concatamers, indicated a preferential heptamer configuration for the functional CrCpn10-CrCpn23 complex. Formation of heptamer Cpn10/Cpn20 hetero-oligomers was also observed with the Arabidopsis thaliana (At) cofactors, which functioned with the chloroplast chaperonin, AtCpn60α(7)β(7). It appears that hetero-oligomer formation occurs more generally for chloroplast chaperonin cofactors, perhaps adapting the chaperonin system for the folding of specific client proteins.

  5. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  6. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  7. Experimental determination of magnesium isotope fractionation during higher plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolou-Bi, Emile B.; Poszwa, Anne; Leyval, Corinne; Vigier, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Two higher plant species (rye grass and clover) were cultivated under laboratory conditions on two substrates (solution, phlogopite) in order to constrain the corresponding Mg isotope fractionations during plant growth and Mg uptake. We show that bulk plants are systematically enriched in heavy isotopes relative to their nutrient source. The Δ 26Mg plant-source range from 0.72‰ to 0.26‰ for rye grass and from 1.05‰ to 0.41‰ for clover. Plants grown on phlogopite display Mg isotope signatures (relative to the Mg source) ˜0.3‰ lower than hydroponic plants. For a given substrate, rye grass display lower δ 26Mg (by ˜0.3‰) relative to clover. Magnesium desorbed from rye grass roots display a δ 26Mg greater than the nutrient solution. Adsorption experiments on dead and living rye grass roots also indicate a significant enrichment in heavy isotopes of the Mg adsorbed on the root surface. Our results indicate that the key processes responsible for heavy isotope enrichment in plants are located at the root level. Both species also exhibit an enrichment in light isotopes from roots to shoots (Δ 26Mg leaf-root = -0.65‰ and -0.34‰ for rye grass and clover grown on phlogopite respectively, and Δ 26Mg leaf-root of -0.06‰ and -0.22‰ for the same species grown hydroponically). This heavy isotope depletion in leaves can be explained by biological processes that affect leaves and roots differently: (1) organo-Mg complex (including chlorophyll) formation, and (2) Mg transport within plant. For both species, a positive correlation between δ 26Mg and K/Mg was observed among the various organs. This correlation is consistent with the link between K and Mg internal cycles, as well as with formation of organo-magnesium compounds associated with enrichment in heavy isotopes. Considering our results together with the published range for δ 26Mg of natural plants and rivers, we estimate that a significant change in continental vegetation would induce a change of

  8. Shoot phototropism in higher plants: new light through old concepts.

    PubMed

    Christie, John M; Murphy, Angus S

    2013-01-01

    Light is a key environmental factor that drives many aspects of plant growth and development. Phototropism, the reorientation of growth toward or away from light, represents one of these important adaptive processes. Modern studies of phototropism began with experiments conducted by Charles Darwin demonstrating that light perception at the shoot apex of grass coleoptiles induces differential elongation in the lower epidermal cells. This led to the discovery of the plant growth hormone auxin and the Cholodny-Went hypothesis attributing differential tropic bending to lateral auxin relocalization. In the past two decades, molecular-genetic analyses in the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has identified the principal photoreceptors for phototropism and their mechanism of activation. In addition, several protein families of auxin transporters have been identified. Despite extensive efforts, however, it still remains unclear as to how photoreceptor activation regulates lateral auxin transport to establish phototropic growth. This review aims to summarize major developments from over the last century and how these advances shape our current understanding of higher plant phototropism. Recent progress in phototropism research and the way in which this research is shedding new light on old concepts, including the Cholodny-Went hypothesis, is also highlighted.

  9. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  10. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  11. Lessons from natural and artificial polyploids in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, M; Coate, J; Sherman-Broyles, S; Abbott, R; Hiscock, S; Doyle, J

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy in higher plants is a major source of genetic novelty upon which selection may act to drive evolution, as evidenced by the widespread success of polyploid species in the wild. However, research into the effects of polyploidy can be confounded by the entanglement of several processes: genome duplication, hybridisation (allopolyploidy is frequent in plants) and subsequent evolution. The discovery of the chemical agent colchicine, which can be used to produce artificial polyploids on demand, has enabled scientists to unravel these threads and understand the complex genomic changes involved in each. We present here an overview of lessons learnt from studies of natural and artificial polyploids, and from comparisons between the 2, covering basic cellular and metabolic consequences through to alterations in epigenetic gene regulation, together with 2 in-depth case studies in Senecio and Glycine. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Arai and Fujimoto in this themed issue. PMID:23816545

  12. Slow molecular evolution in 18S rDNA, rbcL and nad5 genes of mosses compared with higher plants.

    PubMed

    Stenøien, H K

    2008-03-01

    The evolutionary potential of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) has been debated for decades. Fossil record and biogeographical distribution patterns suggest very slow morphological evolution and the retainment of several ancient traits since the split with vascular plants some 450 million years ago. Many have argued that bryophytes may evolve as rapidly as higher plants on the molecular level, but this hypothesis has not been tested so far. Here, it is shown that mosses have experienced significantly lower rates of molecular evolution than higher plants within 18S rDNA (nuclear), rbcL (chloroplast) and nad5 (mitochondrial) genes. Mosses are on an average evolving 2-3 times slower than ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; and also green algae seem to be evolving faster than nonvascular plants. These results support the observation of a general correlation between morphological and molecular evolutionary rates in plants and also show that mosses are 'evolutionary sphinxes' regarding both morphological and molecular evolutionary potential.

  13. The Charophycean green algae as model systems to study plant cell walls and other evolutionary adaptations that gave rise to land plants.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Doyle, Jeff J; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    The Charophycean green algae (CGA) occupy a key phylogenetic position as the evolutionary grade that includes the sister group of the land plants (embryophytes), and so provide potentially valuable experimental systems to study the development and evolution of traits that were necessary for terrestrial colonization. The nature and molecular bases of such traits are still being determined, but one critical adaptation is thought to have been the evolution of a complex cell wall. Very little is known about the identity, origins and diversity of the biosynthetic machinery producing the major suites of structural polymers (i. e., cell wall polysaccharides and associated molecules) that must have been in place for land colonization. However, it has been suggested that the success of the earliest land plants was partly based on the frequency of gene duplication, and possibly whole genome duplications, during times of radical habitat changes. Orders of the CGA span early diverging taxa retaining more ancestral characters, through complex multicellular organisms with morphological characteristics resembling those of land plants. Examination of gene diversity and evolution within the CGA could help reveal when and how the molecular pathways required for synthesis of key structural polymers in land plants arose.

  14. POT1 proteins in green algae and land plants: DNA-binding properties and evidence of co-evolution with telomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shakirov, Eugene V.; Song, Xiangyu; Joseph, Jessica A.; Shippen, Dorothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Telomeric DNA terminates with a single-stranded 3′ G-overhang that in vertebrates and fission yeast is bound by POT1 (Protection Of Telomeres). However, no in vitro telomeric DNA binding is associated with Arabidopsis POT1 paralogs. To further investigate POT1–DNA interaction in plants, we cloned POT1 genes from 11 plant species representing major branches of plant kingdom. Telomeric DNA binding was associated with POT1 proteins from the green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus and two flowering plants, maize and Asparagus. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that several residues critical for telomeric DNA recognition in vertebrates are functionally conserved in plant POT1 proteins. However, the plant proteins varied in their minimal DNA-binding sites and nucleotide recognition properties. Green alga POT1 exhibited a strong preference for the canonical plant telomere repeat sequence TTTAGGG with no detectable binding to hexanucleotide telomere repeat TTAGGG found in vertebrates and some plants, including Asparagus. In contrast, POT1 proteins from maize and Asparagus bound TTAGGG repeats with only slightly reduced affinity relative to the TTTAGGG sequence. We conclude that the nucleic acid binding site in plant POT1 proteins is evolving rapidly, and that the recent acquisition of TTAGGG telomere repeats in Asparagus appears to have co-evolved with changes in POT1 DNA sequence recognition. PMID:19783822

  15. Light regulation of gene expression in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, E.M.; Silverthorne, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this review areas of currently active research are considered which have demonstrated that a plant's response to light involves changes in the expression of specific genes at the level of RNA. The regulation of gene expression by phytochrome and the UV-sensitive photoreceptor have been studied most extensively at the molecular level, and this review particularly focuses on such studies in higher plants. Some of the observations made on the differences in gene expression between light-grown and dark-grown plants are also included, although the photoreceptor(s) responsible for the differences may not have been ascertained. In some of these cases, phytochrome involvement has been or may be demonstrated in later studies, while in others the observed differences may be a result of the action of other photoreceptors or of multiple light-affected processes. One such process is the development of chloroplasts, a major developmental step triggered by light in angiosperms. In addition, many of the genes whose expression is changed by light and which have been studied at a molecular level encode chloroplast proteins. 156 references.

  16. Biomass or growth rate endpoint for algae and aquatic plants: relevance for the aquatic risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bergtold, Matthias; Dohmen, Gerhard Peter

    2011-04-01

    Ecotoxicological studies with algae and aquatic plants are essential parts of the aquatic risk assessment for crop protection products (CPP). Growth rate is used as a response variable and in addition the effects on biomass and/or yield (in the following biomass) can be measured. The parameter biomass generally provides a lower numerical value compared with the growth rate for systematic and mathematical reasons. Therefore, some regulators prefer to use the EbC50 value (i.e., the concentration at which 50% reduction of biomass is observed) rather than ErC50 (the concentration at which a 50% inhibition of growth rate is observed) as the endpoint for ecotoxicological risk assessment. However, the parameter growth rate is scientifically more appropriate and robust against deviations in test conditions, permitting better interpretation of, and comparison between, studies. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the growth rate and biomass parameters with regard to their protectiveness and suitability for environmental risk assessment of CPP. It has been shown for a number of herbicides that the use of the EC50 value (without distinction between growth rate and biomass endpoints) from laboratory studies in combination with an assessment factor of 10 is sufficiently protective for aquatic plants (except for the herbicide 2,4-D). In this paper we evaluated EbC50 and ErC50 values separately. Data on 19 different herbicides were compiled from the literature or GLP reports. The EbC50 and ErC50 values obtained in laboratory studies were compared with effect concentrations in ecosystem studies (mainly mesocosm). This comparison of laboratory and field data shows that the overall aquatic risk assessment using ErC50 values in combination with the currently applied assessment factor of 10 is sufficient to exclude significant risk to aquatic plants in the environment. PMID:20836059

  17. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions.

  18. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China's Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region's specific conditions. PMID:26750244

  19. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions. PMID:26750244

  20. 5-Oxoprolinase (l-Pyroglutamate Hydrolase) in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mazelis, Mendel; Creveling, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    5-Oxoprolinase has been found to be widely distributed in higher plants. This enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent hydrolysis of 5-oxo-l-proline (l-pyrollidone carboxylate, l-pyroglutamate) to glutamate. The enzyme has been purified almost 60 fold from wheat germ (Triticum aestivum L). This enzyme requires a divalent cation, either Mn2+ or Mg2+, and a combination of both appears to be the most effective. There is also an absolute requirement for a monovalent cation best fulfilled by either NH4+ or K+. The Km for ATP is 0.4 mm and for 5-oxo-l-proline is 14 μm. A small amount of activity is observed when other purine nucleotides such as ITP and GTP replace ATP. The substitution of the pyrimidine nucleotides CTP and UTP for ATP yield almost completely inactive preparations. The enzyme appears to have an active sulfhydryl group since there is an increase in activity in the presence of dithioerythritol. Preincubation with reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetamide lead to complete inactivation. The presence of this enzyme leads to the speculation of the possible presence of a γ-glutamyl cycle in higher plants. PMID:16660609

  1. Diagenesis of higher plant triterpenes in evaporitic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Poinsot, J.; Adam, P.; Trendel, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Several samples from a Tertiary carbonated evaporitic series (Sainte-Cecile, Camargue, France) were investigated. Their analysis revealed a high abundance of new or uncommon hydrocarbons and organic S compounds related to higher plant triterpenes. Several of them, in particular, 12,29-cyclolupa-12,18,20(29)-triene 1, could be positively identified. These triterpenoids are generally absent from non-evaporitic sediments which contain essentially aromatic triterpenoids resulting from microbially mediated aromatization processes starting in ring A (or in ring B when preceded by the loss of ring A). The uncommon transformations undergone by higher plant triterpenes in the highly anoxic sediments from Sainte-Cecile are specific for each series of triterpenes (i.e., oleanane, ursane, lupane) and are probably linked with the rapid disappearance of the functionality located in ring A by reduction or by the incorporation of the triterpenes in S-rich macromolecules by reaction with inorganic S species. These biological markers represent new source parameters which may be quite useful as indicators of terrestrial inputs in evaporitic deposits. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  3. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  4. Toxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles to cladocerans, algae, rotifers and plants - effects of size and crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Clément, Laura; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, there is an increasing risk of human and environmental exposure to nanotechnology-based materials. However, the data on the potential environmental effects of nanoparticles are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of particle size and crystal structure (anatase and rutile) of titanium dioxide on their toxicity. Thus, acute and chronic toxicity tests included a modified acute test (72 h) using daphnies and algae, rotifers and plants as model organisms. Gradient of toxicity varied with the tested biological organisms. Our results revealed that TiO(2) nanoparticles in anatase crystal structure are toxic in the entire set of tests conducted. However, at highconcentration, through their antimicrobial properties, they significantly promoted growth of roots. Because of its lipophilicity, the rutile crystalline structure of TiO(2) NPs form larger aggregates in aqueous medium; then they have less effect on biological organisms, and thus a lower toxicity than the anatase crystalline form of TiO(2). We also demonstrated that exposure duration, aggregation and concentrations are contributing factors in nanoparticles-mediated toxicity.

  5. Effect of Algae and Plant Lectins on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Clinically Relevant Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250 μg/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24 h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

  6. The rapid quantitation of the filamentous blue-green alga plectonema boryanum by the luciferase assay for ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, V. N.

    1974-01-01

    Plectonema boryanum is a filamentous blue green alga. Blue green algae have a procaryotic cellular organization similar to bacteria, but are usually obligate photoautotrophs, obtaining their carbon and energy from photosynthetic mechanism similar to higher plants. This research deals with a comparison of three methods of quantitating filamentous populations: microscopic cell counts, the luciferase assay for ATP and optical density measurements.

  7. Variation potential in higher plants: Mechanisms of generation and propagation

    PubMed Central

    Vodeneev, Vladimir; Akinchits, Elena; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance intercellular electrical signals, including variation potential (VP) in higher plants, are a potential mechanism of coordinate functional responses in different plant cells under action of stressors. VP, which is caused by damaging factors (e.g., heating, crushing), is transient depolarization with an irregular shape. It can include a long-term depolarization and fast impulse depolarization (‘AP-like’ spikes). Mechanisms of VP generation and propagation are still under investigation. It is probable that VP is a local electrical response induced by propagation of hydraulic wave and (or) chemical agent. Both hypotheses are based on numerous experimental results but they predict VP velocities which are not in a good accordance with speed of variation potential propagation. Thus combination of hydraulic and chemical signals is the probable mechanism of VP propagation. VP generation is traditionally connected with transient H+-ATPase inactivation, but AP-like spikes are also connected with passive ions fluxes. Ca2+ influx is a probable mechanism which triggers H+-ATPase inactivation and ions channels activation at VP. PMID:26313506

  8. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C2S2M2 at 12 Å resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching. PMID:19696744

  9. The genetic control of plastid division in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Pyke, K

    1997-08-01

    The division of plastids is an important part of plastid differentiation and development and in distinct cell types, such as leaf mesophyll cells, results in large populations of chloroplasts. The morphology and population dynamics of plastid division have been well documented, but the molecular controls underlying plastid division are largely unknown. With the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants in which specific aspects of plastid and proplastid division have been disrupted, the potential exists for a detailed knowledge of how plastids divide and what factors control the rate of division in different cell types. It is likely that knowledge of plant homologues of bacterial cell division genes will be essential for understanding this process in full. The processes of plastid division and expansion appear to be mutually independent processes, which are compensatory when either division or expansion are disrupted genetically. The rate of cell expansion appears to be an important factor in initiating plastid division and several systems involving rapid cell expansion show high levels of plastid division activity. In addition, observation of plastids in different cell types in higher plants shows that cell-specific signals are also important in the overall process in determining not only the differentiation pathway of plastids but also the extent of plastid division. It appears likely that with the exploitation of molecular techniques and mutants, a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of plastid division may soon be a reality.

  10. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  11. Biochemical Analysis of Autophagy in Algae and Plants by Monitoring the Electrophoretic Mobility of ATG8.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Andrés-Garrido, Ascensión; Crespo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Identification of specific autophagy markers has been fundamental to investigate autophagy as catabolic process. Among them, the ATG8 protein turned out to be one of the most widely used and specific molecular markers of autophagy both in higher and lower eukaryotes. Here, we describe how ATG8 can be used to monitor autophagy in Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis by western blot analysis.

  12. Biochemical Analysis of Autophagy in Algae and Plants by Monitoring the Electrophoretic Mobility of ATG8.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Andrés-Garrido, Ascensión; Crespo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Identification of specific autophagy markers has been fundamental to investigate autophagy as catabolic process. Among them, the ATG8 protein turned out to be one of the most widely used and specific molecular markers of autophagy both in higher and lower eukaryotes. Here, we describe how ATG8 can be used to monitor autophagy in Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis by western blot analysis. PMID:27424752

  13. Need for higher fuel burnup at the Hatch Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Beckhman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Hatch is a BWR 4 and has been in operation for some time. The first unit became commercial about 1975. Obtaining higher burnups, or higher average discharge exposures, is nothing new at Hatch. Since we have started, the discharge exposure of the plant has increased. Now, of course, we are not approaching the numbers currently being discussed but, the average discharge exposure has increased from around 20,000 MWD/MTU in the early to mid-1980s to 34,000 MWD/MTU in 1994, I am talking about batch average values. There are also peak bundle and peak rod values. You will have to make the conversions if you think in one way or the other because I am talking in batch averages. During Hatch`s operating history we have had some problems with fuel failure. Higher burnup fuel raises a concern about how much fuel failure you are going to have. Fuel failure is, of course, an economic issue with us. Back in the early 1980s, we had a problem with crud-induced localized corrosion, known as CILC. We have gotten over that, but we had some times when it was up around 27 fuel failures a year. That is not a pleasant time to live through because it is not what you want from an economic viewpoint or any other. We have gotten that down. We have had some fuel failures recently, but they have not been related to fuel burnup or to corrosion. In fact, the number of failures has decreased from the early 1980s to the 90s even though burnup increased during that time. The fuel failures are more debris-related-type failures. In addition to increasing burnups, utilities are actively evaluating or have already incorporated power uprate and longer fuel cycles (e.g., 2-year cycles). The goal is to balance out the higher power density, longer cycles, higher burnup, and to have no leakers. Why do we as an industry want to have higher burnup fuel? That is what I want to tell you a little bit about.

  14. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution.

  15. More good news about polymeric plant- and algae-derived biomaterials in drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Jacques; Van der Colff, Jaco; Steenekamp, Jan; Stieger, Nicole; Hamman, Josias

    2014-05-01

    Natural polymers are continuously investigated for use in pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications due to the renewability of their supply. Besides the conventional use of natural materials in dosage form design such as fillers, they are progressively investigated as functional excipients in specialised dosage forms. The hydrophilic nature of natural polymers together with their non-toxic and biodegradable properties make them useful in the design of modified release dosage forms. Matrix type tablets and beads made from natural gums and mucilages often exhibit sustained drug release through erosion in combination with swelling. Natural polymers are used to reach different pharmaceutical objectives, for instance, inulin and pectin are plant derived polymers that have suitable properties to produce colon-specific drug delivery. Alginate is an example of a natural polymer that has been used in the formulation of gastro-retentive dosage forms. Different cellulose derived polymers have been investigated as coating materials for dosage forms. Natural polymers can be chemically modified to produce molecules with specific properties and formation of co-polymers or polymer mixtures provide new opportunities to develop innovative drug delivery systems. PMID:24597532

  16. Peroxisomal targeting signals in green algae.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Akiko; Sato, Nagisa; Hayashi, Yasuko

    2009-03-01

    Peroxisomal enzymatic proteins contain targeting signals (PTS) to enable their import into peroxisomes. These targeting signals have been identified as PTS1 and PTS2 in mammalian, yeast, and higher plant cells; however, no PTS2-like amino acid sequences have been observed in enzymes from the genome database of Cyanidiochyzon merolae (Bangiophyceae), a primitive red algae. In studies on the evolution of PTS, it is important to know when their sequences came to be the peroxisomal targeting signals for all living organisms. To this end, we identified a number of genes in the genome database of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which contains amino acid sequences similar to those found in plant PTS. In order to determine whether these sequences function as PTS in green algae, we expressed modified green fluorescent proteins (GFP) fused to these putative PTS peptides under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. To confirm whether granular structures containing GFP-PTS fusion proteins accumulated in the peroxisomes of Closterium ehrenbergii, we observed these cells after the peroxisomes were stained with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine. Our results confirm that the GFP-PTS fusion proteins indeed accumulated in the peroxisomes of these green algae. These findings suggest that the peroxisomal transport system for PTS1 and PTS2 is conserved in green algal cells and that our fusion proteins can be used to visualize peroxisomes in live cells.

  17. Combination of a higher-tier flow-through system and population modeling to assess the effects of time-variable exposure of isoproturon on the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Weber, Denis; Schaefer, Dieter; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Hammel, Klaus; Preuss, Thomas G; Ratte, Hans Toni

    2012-04-01

    A flow-through system was developed to investigate the effects of time-variable exposure of pesticides on algae. A recently developed algae population model was used for simulations supported and verified by laboratory experiments. Flow-through studies with Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under time-variable exposure to isoproturon were performed, in which the exposure patterns were based on the results of FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) model calculations for typical exposure situations via runoff or drain flow. Different types of pulsed exposure events were realized, including a whole range of repeated pulsed and steep peaks as well as periods of constant exposure. Both species recovered quickly in terms of growth from short-term exposure and according to substance dissipation from the system. Even at a peak 10 times the maximum predicted environmental concentration of isoproturon, only transient effects occurred on algae populations. No modified sensitivity or reduced growth was observed after repeated exposure. Model predictions of algal growth in the flow-through tests agreed well with the experimental data. The experimental boundary conditions and the physiological properties of the algae were used as the only model input. No calibration or parameter fitting was necessary. The combination of the flow-through experiments with the algae population model was revealed to be a powerful tool for the assessment of pulsed exposure on algae. It allowed investigating the growth reduction and recovery potential of algae after complex exposure, which is not possible with standard laboratory experiments alone. The results of the combined approach confirm the beneficial use of population models as supporting tools in higher-tier risk assessments of pesticides.

  18. Small molecules that interact with RNA: riboswitch-based gene control and its involvement in metabolic regulation in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Bocobza, Samuel E; Aharoni, Asaph

    2014-08-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind small molecules and in turn regulate gene expression. This mechanism allows the cell to sense the intracellular concentration of these small molecules. A particular riboswitch typically regulates its adjacent gene by altering the transcription, the translation or the splicing of this gene. Recently, a riboswitch that binds thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was characterized and found to regulate thiamin biosynthesis in plants and algae. Furthermore, it appears that this element is an essential regulator of primary metabolism in plants. Manipulation of endogenous riboswitch activity resulted in metabolic phenotypes that underlined the role of these elements and their ligands in preserving metabolic homeostasis. This situation supports the hypothesis that riboswitches could be remnants of the most ancient metabolic regulators. Here, we review the mode of action of the plant and algal TPP riboswitch and its relevance to the metabolic network. We also discuss the potential engineering of riboswitches as metabolite sensors in plants and platforms for gene control. Whether additional such RNA-based mechanisms exist in plants and in algae is still an open question, yet, the importance of these elements to metabolic regulation is beyond doubt. PMID:24773387

  19. Small molecules that interact with RNA: riboswitch-based gene control and its involvement in metabolic regulation in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Bocobza, Samuel E; Aharoni, Asaph

    2014-08-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind small molecules and in turn regulate gene expression. This mechanism allows the cell to sense the intracellular concentration of these small molecules. A particular riboswitch typically regulates its adjacent gene by altering the transcription, the translation or the splicing of this gene. Recently, a riboswitch that binds thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) was characterized and found to regulate thiamin biosynthesis in plants and algae. Furthermore, it appears that this element is an essential regulator of primary metabolism in plants. Manipulation of endogenous riboswitch activity resulted in metabolic phenotypes that underlined the role of these elements and their ligands in preserving metabolic homeostasis. This situation supports the hypothesis that riboswitches could be remnants of the most ancient metabolic regulators. Here, we review the mode of action of the plant and algal TPP riboswitch and its relevance to the metabolic network. We also discuss the potential engineering of riboswitches as metabolite sensors in plants and platforms for gene control. Whether additional such RNA-based mechanisms exist in plants and in algae is still an open question, yet, the importance of these elements to metabolic regulation is beyond doubt.

  20. Formation of N-acetylglutamate by extracts of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Morris, C J; Thompson, J F

    1977-04-01

    The enzymic synthesis of N-acetylglutamate was studied in extracts of higher plant tissues, especially in sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.). Sugar beet leaves had an enzyme that transferred the acetyl group either from acetyl-CoA or from N(2)-acetylornithine to glutamate. The enzyme was so unstable that special precautions were necessary for its detection and appreciable purification was impossible. The Km values were 2.5 and 0.025 mM for acetyl-CoA and N(2)-acetylornithine, respectively. The Km for glutamate was 23 mM with acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase and 2.7 mM with acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase. The pH optimum for acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase was about 7.2 whereas that for acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase was about 8.3. Acetylphosphate, N(2)-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyrate, propionyl-CoA, and succinyl-CoA were not substrates.Arginine inhibited the acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase and acetylglutamate phosphokinase but had no effect on the acetylornithineglutamate transacetylase. Related compounds had either no effect or much less than arginine. Arginine had no effect on enzyme levels.Acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase was also found in Raphanus sativus L., Glycine max L. Merr., Arachis hypogaea L., Brassica rapa L., and Pisum sativum L. Acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase was found in all of the above species plus Zea mays L., Avena sativa L., and Triticum aestivum L.

  1. Cellulose microfibril assembly and orientation in higher plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.C.; Maclachlan, G.A.; Brown, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Freeze-fractured plasma membranes of seedlings of Zea mays L., Burpee's Snowcross, and Pisum sativum L., variety Alsaka, contain terminal complex structures and the impressions of microfibrils from the newest cell wall layer.Terminal complex subunits are on the exoplasmic fracture (EF) face, and rosette subunits are on the protoplasmic fracture (PF) face of the membrane. The association of terminal complexes and rosettes with microfibril tips and their association with newly deposited groups of microfibrils is indirect evidence for their role in microfibril assembly. Microtubules may be responsible for certain orientations of microfibrils, particularly the formation of bands of microfibrils in newly deposited wall layers. However, microfibril orienting mechanisms are more complex, involving factors still present during colchicine treatment. Since UDP-glucose is thought to be a precursor of cellulose microfibrils in higher plant cells, EM radioautography was used to determine the site of incorporation of glucose. However, under the conditions used, glucose was only incorporated from UDP-glucose at the surface of cut or damaged pea stem cells, i.e., in vitro. Thus, incorporation of glucose from UDP-glucose was not useful for probing the patterns of cellulose microfibril synthesis in vivo. 18 references, 8 figures.

  2. Higher Plants in life support systems: design of a model and plant experimental compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezard, Pauline; Farges, Berangere; Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    The development of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) requires full control and efficient engineering for fulfilling the common objectives of water and oxygen regeneration, CO2 elimination and food production. Most of the proposed CELSS contain higher plants, for which a growth chamber and a control system are needed. Inside the compartment the development of higher plants must be understood and modeled in order to be able to design and control the compartment as a function of operating variables. The plant behavior must be analyzed at different sub-process scales : (i) architecture and morphology describe the plant shape and lead to calculate the morphological parameters (leaf area, stem length, number of meristems. . . ) characteristic of life cycle stages; (ii) physiology and metabolism of the different organs permit to assess the plant composition depending on the plant input and output rates (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients); (iii) finally, the physical processes are light interception, gas exchange, sap conduction and root uptake: they control the available energy from photosynthesis and the input and output rates. These three different sub-processes are modeled as a system of equations using environmental and plant parameters such as light intensity, temperature, pressure, humidity, CO2 and oxygen partial pressures, nutrient solution composition, total leaf surface and leaf area index, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, water potential, organ biomass distribution and composition, etc. The most challenging issue is to develop a comprehensive and operative mathematical model that assembles these different sub-processes in a unique framework. In order to assess the parameters for testing a model, a polyvalent growth chamber is necessary. It should permit a controlled environment in order to test and understand the physiological response and determine the control strategy. The final aim of this model is to have an envi

  3. Metabolism of TNT associated with roots of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.C.; Chou, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Contamination with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is widespread at sites of past munitions manufacture. It is moderately toxic to plants and highly toxic to some animals. Some aquatic plant species have been observed to promote degradation of TNT. The degradative activity is associated with the root systems but products are found in the surrounding medium. The authors have examined a range of sixteen genera of non-aquatic plants grown hydroponically to determine whether the promotion of TNT degradation is a general phenomenon of plant root systems. All tested species showed the ability to reduce TNT extensively. Rates varied several fold when calculated on a wet weight of tissue basis. Isolated roots, disrupted roots, and root extracts generally showed less activity than intact roots attached to the plants. Water in which the plants had been grown did not promote degradation.

  4. Mercury toxicity, molecular response and tolerance in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yang, Zhi Min

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in soils has become a great concern as a result of its natural release and anthropogenic activities. This review presents broad aspects of our recent understanding of mercury contamination and toxicology in plants including source of Hg contamination, toxicology, tolerant regulation in plants, and minimization strategy. We first introduced the sources of mercury contamination in soils. Mercury exists in different forms, but ionic mercury (Hg(2+)) is the predominant form in soils and readily absorbed by plants. The second issue to be discussed is the uptake, transport, and localization of Hg(2+) in plants. Mercury accumulated in plants evokes severe phytotoxicity and impairs numerous metabolic processes including nutrient uptake, water status, and photosynthesis. The mechanisms of mercury-induced toxicology, molecular response and gene networks for regulating plant tolerance will be reviewed. In the case of Hg recent much progress has been made in profiling of transcriptome and more importantly, uncovering a group of small RNAs that potentially mediates plant tolerance to Hg. Several newly discovered signaling molecules such as nitric oxide and carbon monoxide have now been described as regulators of plant tolerance to Hg. A recently emerged strategy, namely selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize Hg (or other metals) accumulation will be discussed in the last part of the review.

  5. Structural features of the plastid ribosomal RNA operons of two red algae: Antithamnion sp. and Cyanidium caldarium.

    PubMed

    Maid, U; Zetsche, K

    1991-04-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the plastid 16S rDNA of the multicellular red alga Antithamnion sp. and the 16S rDNA/23S rDNA intergenic spacers of the plastid DNAs of the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium and of Antithamnion sp. were determined. Sequence comparisons support the idea of a polyphyletic origin of the red algal and the higher-plant chloroplasts. Both spacer regions include the unsplit tRNA(Ile)(GAU) and tRNA(Ala)(UGC) genes and so the plastids of both algae form a homogeneous group with those of chromophytic algae and Cyanophora paradoxa characterized by 'small-sized' rDNA spacers in contrast to green algae and higher plants. Nevertheless, remarkable sequence differences within the rRNA and the tRNA genes give the plastids of Cyanidium caldarium a rather isolated position. PMID:1868197

  6. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from higher plant mitochondria and proplastids: regulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P; Reid, E E; Lyttle, C R; Dennis, D T

    1977-05-01

    The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pea (Pisum sativum L.) mitochondria is inhibited when MgATP is added to the reaction mixture; 50% inhibition occurs at 4 mm ATP. The inhibition does not increase with time and is higher in the more highly purified preparations. Crude preparations of the complex show a time-dependent inactivation when incubated with 7.5 mm MgATP alone but this is not found with the more highly purified complex. This inactivation does not occur at 0 C. The complex could not be reactivated by high concentrations of Mg(2+). It is suggested that a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism may occur in plants, but the phosphatase and kinase are not tightly bound to the complex and are lost on isolation. The complex does not respond in a significant manner to energy charge. The NAD(+) to NADH ratio is the principal means of regulation of the complex, NADH being competitive with NAD(+) for the dihydrolipoamide component. The CoA to acetyl-CoA ratio is not important in regulation.The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) proplastid complex is inhibited by the addition of 2 mm MgATP to the assay mixture. The inhibition is immediate, suggesting that phosphorylation of the enzyme is not involved or must be very rapid. Incubation of the complex with 20 mm MgCl(2) causes an activation of the complex. Maximum activity is not expressed in this case for 30 minutes. A similar activation can be achieved by preincubating the complex with 1 mm pyruvate. These data suggest that the complex is not fully activated on isolation.

  7. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  8. Multispecies methods of testing for toxicity: Use of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis in nitrogen fixation and correlations between responses by algae and terrestrial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Responses of the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic relationship to long-term (5- to 7-week) and short-term (2-week) exposures of copper sulfate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and streptomycin sulfate were examined in bush beans and clover. Toxic effects were evaluated by comparing plant biomass (yield), nodulation success, nitrogen fixation rate as indicated by acetylene reduction, and plant nitrogen content in controls and in plants exposed to various concentrations of the chemicals. Plants with long-term continuous root exposure were affected more than plants with short-term exposure, as indicated by reductions in nitrogen fixation rates and plant growth. Although rates of acetylene reduction (nitrogen fixation) were depressed, plants biomass and the numbers of root nodules produced were simpler, less expensive indices of exposure. In a second test, the responses of algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris) and terrestrial plants (radishes, barley, bush beans, and soybeans) to 21 different herbicides were compared to evaluate the use of a short-term (96-h) algal growth inhibition test for identifying chemicals potentially toxic to terrestrial plants.

  9. Cell wall, cytoskeleton, and cell expansion in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    To accommodate two seemingly contradictory biological roles in plant physiology, providing both the rigid structural support of plant cells and the adjustable elasticity needed for cell expansion, the composition of the plant cell wall has evolved to become an intricate network of cellulosic, hemicellulosic, and pectic polysaccharides and protein. Due to its complexity, many aspects of the cell wall influence plant cell expansion, and many new and insightful observations and technologies are forthcoming. The biosynthesis of cell wall polymers and the roles of the variety of proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis continue to be characterized. The interactions within the cell wall polymer network and the modification of these interactions provide insight into how the plant cell wall provides its dual function. The complex cell wall architecture is controlled and organized in part by the dynamic intracellular cytoskeleton and by diverse trafficking pathways of the cell wall polymers and cell wall-related machinery. Meanwhile, the cell wall is continually influenced by hormonal and integrity sensing stimuli that are perceived by the cell. These many processes cooperate to construct, maintain, and manipulate the intricate plant cell wall--an essential structure for the sustaining of the plant stature, growth, and life.

  10. Reconciling functions and evolution of isoprene emission in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Francesco; Fineschi, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Compilation and analysis of existing inventories reveal that isoprene is emitted by c. 20% of the perennial vegetation of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Isoprene emitters are found across different plant families without any clear phylogenetic thread. However, by critically appraising information in inventories, several ecological patterns of isoprene emission can be highlighted, including absence of emission from C4 and annual plants, and widespread emission from perennial and deciduous plants of temperate environments. Based on this analysis, and on available information on biochemistry, ecology and functional roles of isoprene, it is suggested that isoprene may not have evolved to help plants face heavy or prolonged stresses, but rather assists C3 plants to run efficient photosynthesis and to overcome transient and mild stresses, especially during periods of active plant growth in warm seasons. When the stress status persists, or when evergreen leaves cope with multiple and repeated stresses, isoprene biosynthesis is replaced by the synthesis of less volatile secondary compounds, in part produced by the same biochemical pathway, thus indicating causal determinism in the evolution of isoprene-emitting plants in response to the environment.

  11. Metal-based nanotoxicity and detoxification pathways in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanxin; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-06-16

    The potential risks from metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment have increased with the rapidly rising demand for and use of nanoenabled consumer products. Plant's central roles in ecosystem function and food chain integrity ensure intimate contact with water and soil systems, both of which are considered sinks for NPs accumulation. In this review, we document phytotoxicity caused by metal-based NPs exposure at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although the exact mechanisms of plant defense against nanotoxicity are unclear, several relevant studies have been recently published. Possible detoxification pathways that might enable plant resistance to oxidative stress and facilitate NPs detoxification are reviewed herein. Given the importance of understanding the effects and implications of metal-based NPs on plants, future research should focus on the following: (1) addressing key knowledge gaps in understanding molecular and biochemical responses of plants to NPs stress through global transcriptome, proteome, and metablome assays; (2) designing long-term experiments under field conditions at realistic exposure concentrations to investigate the impact of metal-based NPs on edible crops and the resulting implications to the food chain and to human health; and (3) establishing an impact assessment to evaluate the effects of metal-based NPs on plants with regard to ecosystem structure and function.

  12. The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, G L; Jones, M A; Smirnoff, N

    1998-05-28

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has important antioxidant and metabolic functions in both plants and animals, but humans, and a few other animal species, have lost the capacity to synthesize it. Plant-derived ascorbate is thus the major source of vitamin C in the human diet. Although the biosynthetic pathway of L-ascorbic acid in animals is well understood, the plant pathway has remained unknown-one of the few primary plant metabolic pathways for which this is the case. L-ascorbate is abundant in plants (found at concentrations of 1-5 mM in leaves and 25 mM in chloroplasts) and may have roles in photosynthesis and transmembrane electron transport. We found that D-mannose and L-galactose are efficient precursors for ascorbate synthesis and are interconverted by GDP-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase. We have identified an enzyme in pea and Arabidopsis thaliana, L-galactose dehydrogenase, that catalyses oxidation of L-galactose to L-galactono-1,4-lactone. We propose an ascorbate biosynthesis pathway involving GDP-D-mannose, GDP-L-galactose, L-galactose and L-galactono-1,4-lactone, and have synthesized ascorbate from GDP-D-mannose by way of these intermediates in vitro. The definition of this biosynthetic pathway should allow engineering of plants for increased ascorbate production, thus increasing their nutritional value and stress tolerance.

  13. Biochemical Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation during Lipid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Gamarra, B.; Cormier, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Although hydrogen isotopes (δ2H) of leaf wax lipids are increasingly being applied as (paleo-) hydrological proxies, we still do not understand some of the basic processes that shape the δ2H values of these compounds. In general, it is believed that three variables shape the δ2H values of leaf wax lipids: source water δ2H values, evaporative deuterium (2H) enrichment of leaf water and the biosynthetic fractionation (ɛbio) during the synthesis of organic compounds. While the influences of source water δ2H values and leaf water evaporative 2H enrichment have been well documented, very little is known how ɛbio shapes the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids. I will present the results from recent experiments, where we show that the magnitude of ɛbio, and thus the δ2H value of plant-derived lipids, strongly depends on the carbon (C) metabolism of a plant. Specifically, I will show that plants that rely for their tissue formation on recently assimilated C have δ2H values in their n-alkanes that are up to 60‰ more negative than plants that depend for their tissue formation on stored carbohydrates. Our findings can be explained by the fact that NADPH is the primary source of hydrogen in plant lipids and that the δ2H value of NADPH differs whether NADPH was generated directly in the light reaction of photosynthesis or whether it was generated by processing stored carbohydrates. As such, the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids will directly depend on whether the tissue containing these lipids was synthesized using recent assimilates, e.g. in a C autonomous state or, if it was synthesized from stored or otherwise aquired C sources, e.g. in a not C autonomous state. Given the magnidude of this effect, our results have important implications for interpretation of plant-derived lipid δ2H values when used as (paleo-) hydrological proxies. In addition, our results suggest, that δ2H values of plant-derived lipids could be employed as a new tools to assess the C

  14. Oil is on the agenda: Lipid turnover in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amélie A; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Lipases hydrolyze ester bonds within lipids. This process is called lipolysis. They are key players in lipid turnover and involved in numerous metabolic pathways, many of which are shared between organisms like the mobilization of neutral or storage lipids or lipase-mediated membrane lipid homeostasis. Some reactions though are predominantly present in certain organisms, such as the production of signaling molecules (endocannabinoids) by diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipases in mammals and plants or the jasmonate production in flowering plants. This review aims at giving an overview of the different functional classes of lipases and respective well-known activities, with a focus on the most recent findings in plant biology for selected classes. Here we will put an emphasis on the physiological role and contribution of lipases to the turnover of neutral lipids found in seed oil and other vegetative tissue as candidates for increasing the economical values of crop plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27155216

  15. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU.

  16. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  17. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: influence of soil properties.

    PubMed

    McGrath, S P; Micó, C; Curdy, R; Zhao, F J

    2010-10-01

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED50) of Mo in different soils, explaining>65% of the variance in ED50 for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations.

  18. Symbiosis and the social network of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Volkening, Jeremy D; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2013-02-01

    In the Internet era, communicating with friends and colleagues via social networks constitutes a significant proportion of our daily activities. Similarly animals and plants also interact with many organisms, some of which are pathogens and do no good for the plant, while others are beneficial symbionts. Almost all plants indulge in developing social networks with microbes, in particular with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and emerging evidence indicates that most employ an ancient and widespread central 'social media' pathway made of signaling molecules within what is called the SYM pathway. Some plants, like legumes, are particularly active recruiters of friends, as they have established very sophisticated and beneficial interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, also via the SYM pathway. Interestingly, many members of the Brassicaceae, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seem to have removed themselves from this ancestral social network and lost the ability to engage in mutually favorable interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite these generalizations, recent studies exploring the root microbiota of A. thaliana have found that in natural conditions, A. thaliana roots are colonized by many different bacterial species and therefore may be using different and probably more recent 'social media' for these interactions. In general, recent advances in the understanding of such molecular machinery required for plant-symbiont associations are being obtained using high throughput genomic profiling strategies including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The crucial mechanistic understanding that such data reveal may provide the infrastructure for future efforts to genetically manipulate crop social networks for our own food and fiber needs. PMID:23246268

  19. Photosynthetic and respiratory activity in germfree higher plant species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Equipment developed for the study of gas exchange in germfree plants is described. The equipment includes a gas exchange chamber to house the plant under study, a gas feed assembly to introduce and remove gas from the chamber, and a clinostat to rotate the apparatus. Fluorescent and incandescent lights are used to illuminate the chamber and a sealed plastic barrier is used to isolate the potting soil from the chamber atmosphere. The gas outflow from the chamber can be diverted to an infrared CO2 analyzer. The performance of the system was evaluated.

  20. Experimental identification of Ca isotopic fractionations in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobert, Florian; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Bourgeade, Pascale; Labolle, François; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Hydroponic experiments have been performed in order to identify the co-occurring geochemical and biological processes affecting the Ca isotopic compositions within plants. To test the influence of the Ca concentration and pH of the nutritive solution on the Ca isotopic composition of the different plant organs, four experimental conditions were chosen combining two different Ca concentrations (5 and 60 ppm) and two pHs (4 and 6). The study was performed on rapid growing bean plants in order to have a complete growth cycle. Several organs (root, stem, leaf, reproductive) were sampled at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks of culture) and prepared for Ca isotopic measurements. The results allow to identify three Ca isotopic fractionation levels. The first one takes place when Ca enters the lateral roots, during Ca adsorption on cation-exchange binding sites in the apoplasm. The second one takes place when Ca is bound to the polygalacturonic acids (pectins) of the middle lamella of the xylem cell wall. Finally, the last fractionation occurs in the reproductive organs, also caused by cation-exchange processes with pectins. However, the cell wall structures of these organs and/or number of available exchange sites seem to be different to those of the xylem wall. These three physico-chemical fractionation mechanisms allow to enrich the organs in the light 40Ca isotope. The amplitude of the Ca isotopic fractionation within plant organs is highly dependent on the composition of the nutritive solution: low pH (4) and Ca concentrations (5 ppm) have no effect on the biomass increase of the plants but induce smaller fractionation amplitudes compared to those obtained from other experimental conditions. Thus, Ca isotopic signatures of bean plants are controlled by the external nutritive medium. This study highlights the potential of Ca isotopes to be applied in plant physiology (to identify Ca uptake, circulation and storage mechanisms within plants) and in

  1. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  2. Circadian rhythms and post-transcriptional regulation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Andrés; Yanovsky, Marcelo J

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock of plants allows them to cope with daily changes in their environment. This is accomplished by the rhythmic regulation of gene expression, in a process that involves many regulatory steps. One of the key steps involved at the RNA level is post-transcriptional regulation, which ensures a correct control on the different amounts and types of mRNA that will ultimately define the current physiological state of the plant cell. Recent advances in the study of the processes of regulation of pre-mRNA processing, RNA turn-over and surveillance, regulation of translation, function of lncRNAs, biogenesis and function of small RNAs, and the development of bioinformatics tools have helped to vastly expand our understanding of how this regulatory step performs its role. In this work we review the current progress in circadian regulation at the post-transcriptional level research in plants. It is the continuous interaction of all the information flow control post-transcriptional processes that allow a plant to precisely time and predict daily environmental changes. PMID:26124767

  3. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  4. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins.

  5. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  6. An expanding universe of circadian networks in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Kay, Steve A

    2010-05-01

    Extensive circadian clock networks regulate almost every biological process in plants. Clock-controlled physiological responses are coupled with daily oscillations in environmental conditions resulting in enhanced fitness and growth vigor. Identification of core clock components and their associated molecular interactions has established the basic network architecture of plant clocks, which consists of multiple interlocked feedback loops. A hierarchical structure of transcriptional feedback overlaid with regulated protein turnover sets the pace of the clock and ultimately drives all clock-controlled processes. Although originally described as linear entities, increasing evidence suggests that many signaling pathways can act as both inputs and outputs within the overall network. Future studies will determine the molecular mechanisms involved in these complex regulatory loops.

  7. In search of actionable targets for agrigenomics and microalgal biofuel production: sequence-structural diversity studies on algal and higher plants with a focus on GPAT protein.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) pathway provides several targets for genetic engineering to optimize microalgal lipid productivity. GPAT (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the initial step of TAG biosynthesis. Despite many recent biochemical studies, a comprehensive sequence-structure analysis of GPAT across diverse lipid-yielding organisms is lacking. Hence, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of plastid-located GPAT proteins from 7 microalgae and 3 higher plants species. The close evolutionary relationship observed between red algae/diatoms and green algae/plant lineages in the phylogenetic tree were further corroborated by motif and gene structure analysis. The predicted molecular weight, amino acid composition, Instability Index, and hydropathicity profile gave an overall representation of the biochemical features of GPAT protein across the species under study. Furthermore, homology models of GPAT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Glycine max provided deep insights into the protein architecture and substrate binding sites. Despite low sequence identity found between algal and plant GPATs, the developed models exhibited strikingly conserved topology consisting of 14α helices and 9β sheets arranged in two domains. However, subtle variations in amino acids of fatty acyl binding site were identified that might influence the substrate selectivity of GPAT. Together, the results will provide useful resources to understand the functional and evolutionary relationship of GPAT and potentially benefit in development of engineered enzyme for augmenting algal biofuel production.

  8. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  9. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  10. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. I - A role for ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and two inhibitors of ethylene action, Ag(+) and CO2, are shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag(+) further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect.

  11. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Jaime; Serk, Henrik; Granlund, Irene; Pesquet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Background Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that strengthens and waterproofs the cell wall of specialized plant cell types. Lignification is part of the normal differentiation programme and functioning of specific cell types, but can also be triggered as a response to various biotic and abiotic stresses in cells that would not otherwise be lignifying. Scope Cell wall lignification exhibits specific characteristics depending on the cell type being considered. These characteristics include the timing of lignification during cell differentiation, the palette of associated enzymes and substrates, the sub-cellular deposition sites, the monomeric composition and the cellular autonomy for lignin monomer production. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of lignin biosynthesis and polymerization at the cell biology level. Conclusions The lignification process ranges from full autonomy to complete co-operation depending on the cell type. The different roles of lignin for the function of each specific plant cell type are clearly illustrated by the multiple phenotypic defects exhibited by knock-out mutants in lignin synthesis, which may explain why no general mechanism for lignification has yet been defined. The range of phenotypic effects observed include altered xylem sap transport, loss of mechanical support, reduced seed protection and dispersion, and/or increased pest and disease susceptibility. PMID:25878140

  12. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  13. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. V - Changing sensitivity to auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Gillespie, Linda; Rorabaugh, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    The relationship in plants between the sensitivity to auxin and differential growth and bending was investigated experimentally. Decapitated and marked sunflower hypocotyl sections were immersed in buffered auxin solutions of different concentrations (0, 10 to the -8th, or 0.001 molar) and were photographed at 1/2 hr intervals; the negatives were analyzed with a digitizer/computer to evaluate surface-length changes in terms of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. It was found that bending decreased with increasing concentration of auxin. Increasing the auxin concentration inhibits the elongation growth of lower surfaces but promotes upper-surface growth, indicating that the lower surfaces have a greater Km sensitivity to applied auxin than the upper surfaces. At optimum auxin levels (maximum growth), the growth of bottom surfaces exceeded that of top surfaces, indicating that bottom tissues had a greater Vmax sensitivity.

  14. Studies of genetic transformation of higher plants using irradiated pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Chyi, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pandey has reported extensively on an unusual genetic phenomenon he called egg transformation. When compatible pollen was treated wth genetically lethal dosage of ..gamma..-radiation (100,000 rad), and used as mentor pollen to overcome selfincompatibility of several Nicotiana species, some genetic characters were found to be transferred from the radiation killed pollen to nonhybrid progeny. Observed transformants were fertile, cytogenetically normal, and had maternal phenotypes except for those specific traits transferred from the donors. Heavily irradiated pollen was believed to discharge its radiation-fragmented DNA (chromatin) into the embryo sac and bring about the transformation of the egg. The frequency of gene transfer was reported to be over 50%, and happened for all three characters Pandey studied - self incompatible specificities, flower color, and pollen color. Plant species studied were tomato, pea, apple, rapeseed, and Nicotiana species, including various stocks from Dr. Pandey. Treatments included pollinations with soley irradiated donor pollen, with a mixture of irradiated donor and normal self pollen, with a mixture of normal donor and self pollen, and double pollinations with irradiated donor pollen and normal self pollen, using different time intervals to separate the two pollinations. A total of 6210 pollinations were made, and 17,522 seedlings representing 87,750 potential transformational events were screened. In no case was an unambiguous transformant recovered. This research was unable to confirm or expand upon the findings of Dr. Pandey, or elucidate the mechanisms underlying such phenomena. Alternative explanations for Pandey's data were postulated. This approach to gene transfer by using irradiated pollen appears to be of little practical use to plant breeders.

  15. The molecular biology of plastid division in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Cassie; Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon G

    2005-04-01

    Plastids are essential plant organelles vital for life on earth, responsible not only for photosynthesis but for many fundamental intermediary metabolic reactions. Plastids are not formed de novo but arise by binary fission from pre-existing plastids, and plastid division therefore represents an important process for the maintenance of appropriate plastid populations in plant cells. Plastid division comprises an elaborate pathway of co-ordinated events which include division machinery assembly at the division site, the constriction of envelope membranes, membrane fusion and, ultimately, the separation of the two new organelles. Because of their prokaryotic origin bacterial cell division has been successfully used as a paradigm for plastid division. This has resulted in the identification of the key plastid division components FtsZ, MinD, and MinE, as well as novel proteins with similarities to prokaryotic cell division proteins. Through a combination of approaches involving molecular genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry, it is now becoming clear that these proteins act in concert during plastid division, exhibiting both similarities and differences compared with their bacterial counterparts. Recent efforts in the cloning of the disrupted loci in several of the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts mutants has further revealed that the division of plastids is controlled by a combination of prokaryote-derived and host eukaryote-derived proteins residing not only in the plastid stroma but also in the cytoplasm. Based on the available data to date, a working model is presented showing the protein components involved in plastid division, their subcellular localization, and their protein interaction properties. PMID:15753112

  16. Stable transformation and reverse genetic analysis of Penium margaritaceum: a platform for studies of charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Fei, Zhangjun; Andreas, Amanda; Willats, William G T; Domozych, David S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-02-01

    The charophyte green algae (CGA, Streptophyta, Viridiplantae) occupy a key phylogenetic position as the immediate ancestors of land plants but, paradoxically, are less well-studied than the other major plant lineages. This is particularly true in the context of functional genomic studies, where the lack of an efficient protocol for their stable genetic transformation has been a major obstacle. Observations of extant CGA species suggest the existence of some of the evolutionary adaptations that had to occur for land colonization; however, to date, there has been no robust experimental platform to address this genetically. We present a protocol for high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Penium margaritaceum, a unicellular CGA species. The versatility of Penium as a model for studying various aspects of plant cell biology and development was illustrated through non-invasive visualization of protein localization and dynamics in living cells. In addition, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for reverse genetic studies was demonstrated by targeting genes associated with cell wall modification (pectin methylesterase) and biosynthesis (cellulose synthase). This provided evidence supporting current models of cell wall assembly and inter-polymer interactions that were based on studies of land plants, but in this case using direct observation in vivo. This new functional genomics platform has broad potential applications, including studies of plant organismal biology and the evolutionary innovations required for transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. PMID:24308430

  17. Stable transformation and reverse genetic analysis of Penium margaritaceum: a platform for studies of charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Fei, Zhangjun; Andreas, Amanda; Willats, William G T; Domozych, David S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-02-01

    The charophyte green algae (CGA, Streptophyta, Viridiplantae) occupy a key phylogenetic position as the immediate ancestors of land plants but, paradoxically, are less well-studied than the other major plant lineages. This is particularly true in the context of functional genomic studies, where the lack of an efficient protocol for their stable genetic transformation has been a major obstacle. Observations of extant CGA species suggest the existence of some of the evolutionary adaptations that had to occur for land colonization; however, to date, there has been no robust experimental platform to address this genetically. We present a protocol for high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Penium margaritaceum, a unicellular CGA species. The versatility of Penium as a model for studying various aspects of plant cell biology and development was illustrated through non-invasive visualization of protein localization and dynamics in living cells. In addition, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for reverse genetic studies was demonstrated by targeting genes associated with cell wall modification (pectin methylesterase) and biosynthesis (cellulose synthase). This provided evidence supporting current models of cell wall assembly and inter-polymer interactions that were based on studies of land plants, but in this case using direct observation in vivo. This new functional genomics platform has broad potential applications, including studies of plant organismal biology and the evolutionary innovations required for transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats.

  18. NUCLEAR DNA AND CYTOPLASMIC DNA FROM TISSUES OF HIGHER PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Yasuo; Bassel, Alix; Stern, Herbert

    1965-01-01

    Young wheat roots were labeled with 32P-inorganic phosphate. Following the labeling period, roots were homogenized in a sucrose medium and fractionated into nuclei, cytoplasmic particles (including proplastids and mitochondria), and a soluble fraction containing most of the microsomes. DNA prepared from the particles had a higher buoyant density than that from the nuclei and showed a marked loss in total label if the roots were exposed to non-radioactive medium for 48 hours prior to fractionation of the cells. PMID:5885425

  19. [Immunostimulating action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Proksch, A; Riess-Maurer, I; Vollmar, A; Odenthal, S; Stuppner, H; Jurcic, K; Le Turdu, M; Fang, J N

    1985-01-01

    From the water or alcaline-water extracts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. and -angustifolia DC., Eupatorium cannabium L. and -perfoliatum L., Chamomilla recutita L. Rauscher, Calendula officinalis L., Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. B., Achyrocline satureioides DC., Arnica montana L., Sabal serrulata Roem. et Schult., and Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax) senticosus Maxim. polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000 and higher have been isolated, which, according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. The isolated compounds belong to the group of watersoluble, acidic branched-chain heteroglycans. Their immunostimulating activity is compared and discussed with respect to other polysaccharides of biological activity.

  20. Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA -Literature Review and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabrodina, Marina; Kittang, Ann-Iren; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Aase Wolff, Silje; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The human exploration of space requires the development of closed life support systems to regenerate oxygen, purify water, and produce food. MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a model system for advanced life support based on different microbial species and higher plants. The main objective of the LiRHiPliSMe (Literature Review of Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA) project was to elaborate the preliminary roadmap for higher plant research activities for the MELiSSA project Phase 2 (Preliminary Space Experiments). The first task was to establish an understanding of the current knowledge concerning how higher plant will adapt to Moon/Mars physical factors different from Earth with focus on reduced gravity, space radiation, variations in magnetic field and combined effects of these factors. The literature related to how Moon/Mars physical factors can affect genetic processes, growth regulators, development, morphology, water and nutrients transport, gas exchange and metabolism of higher plants during one life cycle were collected. The possible effects of the space environment on the plant role as a food and on the mass balance in a Life Support System that includes a Higher Plant Compartment are reviewed. Based on this literature review there was made an assessment of where new or extended scientific knowledge about space factors effects on higher plant growth and development is needed. The requirements for research activities on higher plants in enclosed life support systems were identified. The required higher plant research activities for MELiSSA phase 2 both on ground and in space were placed in a timescale from the present until higher plants can be grown in closed life support systems on Moon and Mars.

  1. Automorphosis of higher plants on a 3-D clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Kamisaka, S.; Yamashita, M.; Masuda, Y.

    On a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, various plant organs developed statocytes capable of responding to the gravity vector. The graviresponse of primary roots of garden cress and maize grown on the clinostat was the same as the control roots, whereas that of maize coleoptiles was reduced. When maize seedlings were grown in the presence of 10^-4 M gibberellic acid and kinetin, the graviresponse of both roots and shoots was suppressed. The corresponding suppression of amyloplast development was observed in the clinostatted and the hormone-treated seedlings. Maize roots and shoots showed spontaneous curvatures in different portions on the 3-D clinostat. The hormone treatment did not significantly influence such an automorphic curvature. When the root cap was removed, maize roots did not curve gravitropically. However, the removal suppressed the automorphic curvatures only slightly. On the other hand, the removal of coleoptile tip did not influence its graviresponse, whereas the spontaneous curvature of decapitated coleoptiles on the clinostat was strongly suppressed. Also, cytochalasin B differently affected the gravitropic and the automorphic curvatures of maize roots and shoots. From these results it is concluded that the graviperception and the early processes of signal transmission are unnecessary for automorphoses under simulated microgravity conditions. Moreover, the results support the view that the amyloplasts act as statoliths probably via an interaction with microfilaments.

  2. Automorphosis of higher plants on a 3-D clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Yamashita, M; Masuda, Y

    1998-01-01

    On a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, various plant organs developed statocytes capable of responding to the gravity vector. The graviresponse of primary roots of garden cress and maize grown on the clinostat was the same as the control roots, whereas that of maize coleoptiles was reduced. When maize seedlings were grown in the presence of 10(-4) M gibberellic acid and kinetin, the graviresponse of both roots and shoots was suppressed. The corresponding suppression of amyloplast development was observed in the clinostatted and the hormone-treated seedlings. Maize roots and shoots showed spontaneous curvatures in different portions on the 3-D clinostat. The hormone treatment did not significantly influence such an automorphic curvature. When the root cap was removed, maize roots did not curve gravitropically. However, the removal suppressed the automorphic curvatures only slightly. On the other hand, the removal of coleoptile tip did not influence its graviresponse, whereas the spontaneous curvature of decapitated coleoptiles on the clinostat was strongly suppressed. Also, cytochalasin B differently affected the gravitropic and the automorphic curvatures of maize roots and shoots. From these results it is concluded that the graviperception and the early processes of signal transmission are unnecessary for automorphoses under simulated microgravity conditions. Moreover, the results support the view that the amyloplasts act as statoliths probably via an interaction with microfilaments. PMID:11541377

  3. Molecular insights into Zeaxanthin-dependent quenching in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengqi; Tian, Lijin; Kloz, Miroslav; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms protect themselves from high-light stress by dissipating excess absorbed energy as heat in a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Zeaxanthin is essential for the full development of NPQ, but its role remains debated. The main discussion revolves around two points: where does zeaxanthin bind and does it quench? To answer these questions we have followed the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching from leaves to individual complexes, including supercomplexes. We show that small amounts of zeaxanthin are associated with the complexes, but in contrast to what is generally believed, zeaxanthin binding per se does not cause conformational changes in the complexes and does not induce quenching, not even at low pH. We show that in NPQ conditions zeaxanthin does not exchange for violaxanthin in the internal binding sites of the antennas but is located at the periphery of the complexes. These results together with the observation that the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching is active in isolated membranes, but not in functional supercomplexes, suggests that zeaxanthin is acting in between the complexes, helping to create/participating in a variety of quenching sites. This can explain why none of the antennas appears to be essential for NPQ and the multiple quenching mechanisms that have been observed in plants. PMID:26323786

  4. Gene sampling can bias multi-gene phylogenetic inferences: the relationship between red algae and green plants as a case study.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuji; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The monophyly of Plantae including glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants (green algae plus land plants) has been recovered in recent phylogenetic analyses of large multi-gene data sets (e.g., those including >30,000 amino acid [aa] positions). On the other hand, Plantae monophyly has not been stably reconstructed in inferences from multi-gene data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions. An analysis of 5,216 aa positions in Nozaki et al. (Nozaki H, Iseki M, Hasegawa M, Misawa K, Nakada T, Sasaki N, Watanabe M. 2007. Phylogeny of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes as deduced from slowly evolving nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1592-1595.) strongly rejected the monophyly of Plantae, whereas Hackett et al. (Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Li S, Reyes-Prieto A, Rummele SE, Bhattacharya D. 2007. Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolates. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1702-1713.) robustly recovered the Plantae clade in an analysis of 6,735 aa positions. We suspected that the significant incongruity observed between the two studies was attributable to a bias generally overlooked in multi-gene phylogenetic estimation, rather than data size, taxon sampling, or methods for tree reconstruction. Although glaucophytes were excluded from our analyses due to a shortage of sequence data, we found that the recovery of a sister-group relationship between red algae and green plants primarily depends on gene sampling in phylogenetic inferences from <10,000 aa positions. Phylogenetic analyses of data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions, which can be prepared without large-scale sequencing (e.g., expressed sequence tag analyses), are practical in challenging various unresolved issues in eukaryotic evolution. However, our results indicate that severe biases can arise from gene sampling in multi-gene inferences from <10,000 aa positions. We also address the validity of fast-evolving gene exclusion in multi

  5. Molecular biology of Lea genes of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains our progress to date in determining the function of the D-7 Lea proteins in cotton embryos. We have completely sequenced the D-7 gene and established {ital E. coli} transformants which synthesize reasonable amounts of the D-7 protein. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was required to assay fractions for D-7 protein during purification to homogeneity, since D-7 has no known enzymatic activity, contains no Trp, and little Phe or Tyr, and {ital E. coli} has several proteins of similar molecular weight to D-7. Purified D-7 was used to generate monospecific antibodies which are being used for determination of the cellular distribution of D-7, and also for exact quantitation of D-7 in late-stage cotton embryos. Computerized modelling of D-7 has shown similarities to proteins with a coiled-coil structure, but fitting D-7 to this structure resulted in a violation of the handedness rule. If the pitch of the helix is changed from 3.6 to 3.667, however, a three dimensional structure (not a coiled coil) is generated which has overall energetics of formation nearly as favorable as the traditional {alpha} helix. The driving force for the change in pitch is proposed to result from favorable energetics of dimerization. Preliminary evidence indicates that D-7 does indeed dimerize in solution. Future experiments will determine the exact 3D structure of D-7 and the related protein D-29, as well as test the hypothesis that D-7 and D-29 are involved in mitigating dehydration of embryos and plants through sequestering phosphate or other ions in sufficient quantity to prevent ion precipitation or crystallization. 13 refs., 3 figs. (MHB)

  6. Extensive sequence divergence in the 3' inverted repeat of the chloroplast rbcL gene in non-flowering land plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Calie, P J; Manhart, J R

    1994-09-01

    A stem-loop region is present at the 3' terminus of the chloroplast rbcL mRNA in all taxa surveyed to date. In spinach, this structure has been shown by others to be involved in modulating transcript stability and correct 3' terminus processing, and is a conserved feature of other flowering plant rbcL mRNAs. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an analogous structure has been shown by others to serve as a transcription terminator. Our sequencing data have shown that this region is highly divergent in several non-flowering land plants, as evidenced by representatives from the ferns, conifers, 'fern-allies' and liverworts. To extend our analysis, a computer-assisted survey of the stem-loop region of the 3' flanking region of published chloroplast rbcL genes was undertaken. The flowering plant rbcL inverted repeats (IR) were remarkably conserved in sequence, allowing for precise multiple alignments of both monocot and dicot sequences within a single matrix. Surprisingly, sequences obtained from non-flowering land plants, algae, photosynthetic protists and photosynthetic prokaryotes were extremely variant, in terms of both sequence composition and thermodynamic parameters.

  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from higher plant mitochondria and proplastids.

    PubMed

    Reid, E E; Thompson, P; Lyttle, C R; Dennis, D T

    1977-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pea (Pisum sativum L.) mitochondria was purified 23-fold by high speed centrifugation and glycerol gradient fractionation. The complex had a s(20,w) of 47.5S but this is a minimal value since the complex is unstable. The complex is specific for NAD(+) and pyruvate; NADP(+) and other keto acids give no reaction. Mg(2+), thiamine pyrophosphate, and cysteine are also required for maximal activity. The pH optimum for the complex was between 6.5 and 7.5.Continuous sucrose density gradients were used to separate castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm proplastids from mitochondria. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was found to be coincident with the proplastid peak on all of the gradients. Some separation of proplastids and mitochondria could be achieved by differential centrifugation and the ratios of the activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to succinic dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase to succinic dehydrogenase were consistent with both the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and acetyl-CoA carboxylase being present in the proplastid. The proplastid fraction has to be treated with a detergent, Triton X-100, before maximal activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity is expressed, indicating that it is bound in the organelle. The complex had a sharp pH optimum of 7.5. The complex required added Mg(2+), cysteine, and thiamine pyrophosphate for maximal activity but thiamine pyrophosphate was inhibitory at higher concentrations.

  8. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-05-05

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  9. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Silje A.; Coelho, Liz H.; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  10. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  11. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  12. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution. PMID:11887207

  13. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    PubMed

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  14. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

  15. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants.

  16. The effect of higher plant microflora on the microbial landscape of a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Gitelson, Josef; Borodina, Elena

    2012-07-01

    Having summarized certain data obtained earlier, we defined the aim of this work as an estimation of the effect of higher plant microflora on the microbial landscape of a closed ecosystem (CES). The microflora of such a component as higher plants can influence other system components not only by way of transfer with air and water flows, but also through the direct contact of the crew with the crops cultivated within CES when harvesting, thrashing, using them for food. Involving the higher plant component into the closed system the microorganism diversity and occurrence of microscopic fungi in other components of the closed ecosystem increased. The presence of microscopic fungi, especially on plants and in the air, is potentially dangerous for the health of the system residents. Since the contribution of the higher plant microflora (especially mycoflora) to the microbial landscape of a CES is significant, it is necessary to reduce the microbial flora of the higher plant component and limit its dispersion to other system components. One of the possible measures to limit the higher plant microflora colonization is air purification between components. Reducing the number of microscopic fungi by decreasing the humidity in the system's atmosphere should also be considered.

  17. Biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation during biosynthesis in higher plants reflects carbon metabolism of the plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marc-André; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Compound-specific isotope analyses of plant material are frequently applied to understand the response of plants to the environmental changes. As it is generally assume that the main factors controlling δ2H values in plants are the plant's source water and evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water, hydrogen isotope analyses of plant material are mainly applied regarding hydrological conditions at different time scales. However, only few studies have directly addressed the variability of the biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation occurring during biosynthesis of organic compounds (ɛbio), accounting also for a large part in the δ2H values of plants but generally assumed to be constant. Here we present the results from a climate-controlled growth chambers experiment where tested the sensitivity of ɛbio to different light treatments. The different light treatments were applied to induce different metabolic status (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic) in 9 different plant species that we grew from large storage organs (e.g. tubers or roots). The results show a systematic ɛbio shift (up to 80 ) between the different light treatments for different compounds (i.e. long chain n-alkanes and cellulose). We suggest that this shift is due to the different NADPH pools used by the plants to build up the compounds from stored carbohydrates in heterotrophic or autotrophic conditions. Our results have important implications for the calibration and interpretation of sedimentary and tree rings records in geological studies. In addition, as the δ2H values reflect also strongly the carbon metabolism of the plant, our findings support the idea of δ2H values as an interesting proxy for plant physiological studies.

  18. A time-saving method for higher plant tests in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Andersohn, Cornelia; Fuchs, Maike; Seyed-Mansouri, Regina; Fleischmann, Susanne; Wilke, Berndt-Michael

    2002-01-01

    For higher plant tests in hydroculture we developed a method to unify the usually separately performed germination and growth testing. This method renders unnecessary the time-consuming and laborious installation of the germinated plants into the growth system. PMID:11931464

  19. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  20. Structure of PSI, PSII and antennae complexes from yellow-green alga Xanthonema debile.

    PubMed

    Gardian, Zdenko; Tichý, Josef; Vácha, František

    2011-05-01

    Photosynthetic carbon fixation by Chromophytes is one of the significant components of a carbon cycle on the Earth. Their photosynthetic apparatus is different in pigment composition from that of green plants and algae. In this work we report structural maps of photosystem I, photosystem II and light harvesting antenna complexes isolated from a soil chromophytic alga Xanthonema debile (class Xanthophyceae). Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations followed by single particle analysis revealed that the overall structure of Xanthophytes' PSI and PSII complexes is similar to that known from higher plants or algae. Averaged top-view projections of Xanthophytes' light harvesting antenna complexes (XLH) showed two groups of particles. Smaller ones that correspond to a trimeric form of XLH, bigger particles resemble higher oligomeric form of XLH. PMID:21455629

  1. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    DOEpatents

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  2. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  3. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Atsushi; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST) and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups. PMID:26307970

  4. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Atsushi; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2015-08-20

    Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST) and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups.

  5. The comet assay in higher terrestrial plant model: Review and evolutionary trends.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; Manier, Nicolas; Cuny, Damien; Deram, Annabelle

    2015-12-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive technique for the measurement of DNA damage in individual cells. Although it has been primarily applied to animal cells, its adaptation to higher plant tissues significantly extends the utility of plants for environmental genotoxicity research. The present review focuses on 101 key publications and discusses protocols and evolutionary trends specific to higher plants. General consensus validates the use of the percentage of DNA found in the tail, the alkaline version of the test and root study. The comet protocol has proved its effectiveness and its adaptability for cultivated plant models. Its transposition in wild plants thus appears as a logical evolution. However, certain aspects of the protocol can be improved, namely through the systematic use of positive controls and increasing the number of nuclei read. These optimizations will permit the increase in the performance of this test, namely when interpreting mechanistic and physiological phenomena.

  6. The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Gitelson, I. I.

    The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link have been considered, as the sterile plant growth in closed ecological human life support systems is impossible. One of the ways of controlling the link microbial community - building sterile intrasystem barriers between the system links - is problematic and dangerous. An accidental breach of microorganisms through the barrier can lead to disastrous consequences - either unrestrained reproduction of microbes including pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species or, on the contrary, elimination of species most valuable for the given microbial community. Another way of control is maintaining suitable conditions for human and plant habitat, creating some constructive system properties directed at microbial exchange weakening. The use of catalytic furnace for oxidizing organic impurities in system atmosphere, UV processing of air and plants in the phytotron before and in the beginning of the experiments promoted decrease of microorganism amount in the link. To restrict the distribution of microorganisms of the higher plant link in other system links the module for yield processing being under constant suction was isolated. To prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the system we applied the UV processing of all objects transferred to the system and continuous atmosphere overpressure inside the system. It is important to detect the ultimate amount of microorganism indicator groups in the higher plant link biocenosis. It would indicate the microbial pollution of the link and be the signal for regulation of its microbial population or processing technologies in the studied objects. There were two 4-month experiments with the "human - higher plants" closed ecosystem carried out. There was no progressive deterioration for plants, decrease of wheat yield to zero and rapid growth of microorganisms in the higher plant link after making all listed arrangements. Microbiological analyses of the studied

  7. [Ecological Effects of Algae Blooms Cluster: The Impact on Chlorophyll and Photosynthesis of the Water Hyacinth].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-feng; He, Jun; Yang, Yi-zhong; Han, Shi-qun

    2015-08-01

    The response of chlorophyll and photosynthesis of water hyacinth leaves in different concentrations of clustered algae cells was studied in the simulation experiment, and the aim was to reveal the mechanism of the death of aquatic plants during algae blooms occurred through studying the physiological changes of the macrophytes, so as to play the full function of the ecological restoration of the plants. And results showed the dissolved oxygen quickly consumed in root zone of aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered and showed the lack of oxygen (DO < 0.2 g x L(-1)); and the ORP was lower than -100 mV after 1 d, and it declined to -200 mV at the end of the experiment. There were lots of nutrients releasing to the water after the algae cell died and concentration of DTN in treatment 1 and 2 were 44.49 mg x L(-1) and 111.32 mg x L(-1), and the content of DTP were 2.57 mg x L(-1) and 9.10 mg x L(-1), respectively. The NH4+ -N concentrations were as high as 32.99 mg x L(-1) and 51.22 mg x L(-1), and the root zone with the anoxia, strong reducing, higher nutrients environment had a serious stress effects to the aquatic plants. The macrophytes photosynthesis reduced quickly and the plant body damaged with the intimidation of higher NH4+ -N concentration (average content was 45.6 mg x L(-1)) and hypoxia after algae cell decomposed. The average net photosynthesis rate, leaf transpiration rate of the treatment 2 reduced to 3.95 micromol (M2 x S)(-1), 0.088 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), and only were 0.18 times, 0.11 times of the control group, respectively, at the end of the experiment, the control group were 22 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), 0.78 micromol x (M2 x s)(-1). Results indicated the algae bloom together had the irreversible damage to the aquatic plants. Also it was found large amounts of new roots and the old roots were dead in the treatment 1, but roots were all died in the treatment 2, and leaves were yellow and withered. Experiment results manifested that the serious

  8. [Ecological Effects of Algae Blooms Cluster: The Impact on Chlorophyll and Photosynthesis of the Water Hyacinth].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-feng; He, Jun; Yang, Yi-zhong; Han, Shi-qun

    2015-08-01

    The response of chlorophyll and photosynthesis of water hyacinth leaves in different concentrations of clustered algae cells was studied in the simulation experiment, and the aim was to reveal the mechanism of the death of aquatic plants during algae blooms occurred through studying the physiological changes of the macrophytes, so as to play the full function of the ecological restoration of the plants. And results showed the dissolved oxygen quickly consumed in root zone of aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered and showed the lack of oxygen (DO < 0.2 g x L(-1)); and the ORP was lower than -100 mV after 1 d, and it declined to -200 mV at the end of the experiment. There were lots of nutrients releasing to the water after the algae cell died and concentration of DTN in treatment 1 and 2 were 44.49 mg x L(-1) and 111.32 mg x L(-1), and the content of DTP were 2.57 mg x L(-1) and 9.10 mg x L(-1), respectively. The NH4+ -N concentrations were as high as 32.99 mg x L(-1) and 51.22 mg x L(-1), and the root zone with the anoxia, strong reducing, higher nutrients environment had a serious stress effects to the aquatic plants. The macrophytes photosynthesis reduced quickly and the plant body damaged with the intimidation of higher NH4+ -N concentration (average content was 45.6 mg x L(-1)) and hypoxia after algae cell decomposed. The average net photosynthesis rate, leaf transpiration rate of the treatment 2 reduced to 3.95 micromol (M2 x S)(-1), 0.088 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), and only were 0.18 times, 0.11 times of the control group, respectively, at the end of the experiment, the control group were 22 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), 0.78 micromol x (M2 x s)(-1). Results indicated the algae bloom together had the irreversible damage to the aquatic plants. Also it was found large amounts of new roots and the old roots were dead in the treatment 1, but roots were all died in the treatment 2, and leaves were yellow and withered. Experiment results manifested that the serious

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  10. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

  11. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets. PMID:26101608

  12. Advanced life support systems in lunar and Martian environments utilizing a higher plant based engineering paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a higher-plant-based engineering paradigm for advanced life support in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) on the surface of the moon or Mars, called the CELSS Breadboard Project, designed at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Such a higher-plant-based system would use the plants for a direct food source, gas exchange, water reclamation, and plant residuals in a complex biological resource recovery scheme. The CELSS Breadboard Project utilizes a 'breadboard' approach of developing independent systems that are evaluated autonomously and are later interconnected. Such a scheme will enable evaluation of life support system methodologies tested for their efficiency in a life support system for habitats on the moon or Mars.

  13. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments. PMID:24865297

  14. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments. PMID:24865297

  15. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-28

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments.

  16. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  17. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf. PMID:4060672

  18. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  19. Expression and membrane-targeting of an active plant cytochrome P450 in the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Włodarczyk, Artur; Jensen, Poul Erik; Purton, Saul; Robinson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has potential as a cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins and other compounds, but mainstream adoption has been hindered by a scarcity of genetic tools and a need to identify products that can be generated in a cost-effective manner. A promising strategy is to use algal chloroplasts as a site for synthesis of high value bioactive compounds such as diterpenoids since these are derived from metabolic building blocks that occur naturally within the organelle. However, synthesis of these complex plant metabolites requires the introduction of membrane-associated enzymes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s). Here, we show that a gene (CYP79A1) encoding a model P450 can be introduced into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast genome using a simple transformation system. The gene is stably expressed and the P450 is efficiently targeted into chloroplast membranes by means of its endogenous N-terminal anchor domain, where it is active and accounts for 0.4% of total cell protein. These results provide proof of concept for the introduction of diterpenoid synthesis pathways into the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii. PMID:25556316

  20. Growth and development in inert non-aqueous liquids. [of higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A preview is presented of the survival and growth capabilities of higher plants in non-aqueous, inert liquids. The two media which were used are mineral (white) oil and fluorochemical inert liquid FC-75. Both liquids dissolve oxygen and carbon dioxide readily, but are insoluble in water. Consequently, plants submerged in these liquids are capable of gas exchange with the atmosphere, but possess a water impermeable coating the dimensions of which are determined by the size of the liquid holding container. In a sense, growing plants in a tank of mineral oil imparts on them a cuticle. Plants plus prescribed volumes of water were innoculated into mineral oil. Organisms with minimal water supplied could then be observed. Also, submersed plants covered with an oil slick were shown to be capable of growth in dessicating atmospheres.

  1. Leaf Optical Properties in Higher Plants: Linking Spectral Characteristics with Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Knapp, Alan K.

    1999-01-01

    A number of studies have addressed responses of leaf spectral reflectance, transmittance, or absorptance to physiological stress. Stressors included dehydration, ozone, herbicides, disease, insufficient mycorrhizae and N fertilization, flooding and insects. Species included conifers, grasses, and broadleaved trees. Increased reflectance with maximum responses near 700 nm wavelength occurred in all cases. Varying the chlorophyll content in leaves or pigment extracts can simulate this effect. Thus, common optical responses to stress result from decreases in leaf chlorophyll contents or the capacity of chloroplasts to absorb light. Leaf optic can be quite sensitive to any stressor that alters soil-plant-atmosphere processes.

  2. NOVEL ICE-BINDING PROTEINS FROM A PSYCHROPHILIC ANTARCTIC ALGA (CHLAMYDOMONADACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A; Janech, Michael G; Fritsen, Christian H

    2009-02-01

    Many cold-adapted unicellular plants express ice-active proteins, but at present, only one type of such proteins has been described, and it shows no resemblance to higher plant antifreezes. Here, we describe four isoforms of a second and very active type of extracellular ice-binding protein (IBP) from a unicellular chlamydomonad alga collected from an Antarctic intertidal location. The alga is a euryhaline psychrophile that, based on sequences of the alpha tubulin gene and an IBP gene, appears to be the same as a snow alga collected on Petrel Island, Antarctica. The IBPs, which do not resemble any known antifreezes, have strong recrystallization inhibition activity and have an ability to slow the drainage of brine from sea ice. These properties, by maintaining liquid environments, may increase survival of the cells in freezing environments. The IBPs have a repeating TXT motif, which has previously been implicated in ice binding in insect antifreezes and a ryegrass antifreeze. PMID:27033652

  3. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The distribution, species composition, and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  4. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution, species composition and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  5. Recent developments in primer design for DNA polymorphism and mRNA profiling in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohan; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Primer design is a critical step in the application of PCR-based technologies in gene expression and genetic diversity analysis. As more plant genomes have been sequenced in recent years, the emphasis of primer design strategy has shifted to genome-wide and high-throughput direction. This paper summarizes recent advances in primer design for profiling of DNA polymorphism and mRNA in higher plants, as well as new primer systems developed for animals that can be adapted for plants. PMID:16509990

  6. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity. Grant numbers: WS50WB9319-3, IVA1216-00588.

  7. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  8. Surface-bound iron: a metal ion buffer in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus?

    PubMed Central

    Carrano, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the iron uptake and storage mechanisms of terrestrial/higher plants have been well studied, the corresponding systems in marine algae have received far less attention. Studies have shown that while some species of unicellular algae utilize unique mechanisms of iron uptake, many acquire iron through the same general mechanisms as higher plants. In contrast, the iron acquisition strategies of the multicellular macroalgae remain largely unknown. This is especially surprising since many of these organisms represent important ecological and evolutionary niches in the coastal marine environment. It has been well established in both laboratory and environmentally derived samples, that a large amount of iron can be ‘non-specifically’ adsorbed to the surface of marine algae. While this phenomenon is widely recognized and has prompted the development of experimental protocols to eliminate its contribution to iron uptake studies, its potential biological significance as a concentrated iron source for marine algae is only now being recognized. This study used an interdisciplinary array of techniques to explore the nature of the extensive and powerful iron binding on the surface of both laboratory and environmental samples of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus and shows that some of this surface-bound iron is eventually internalized. It is proposed that the surface-binding properties of E. siliculosus allow it to function as a quasibiological metal ion ‘buffer’, allowing iron uptake under the widely varying external iron concentrations found in coastal marine environments. PMID:24368501

  9. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOEpatents

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  10. Physiology and toxicology of hormone-disrupting chemicals in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Couée, Ivan; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Ramel, Fanny; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Sulmon, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    Higher plants are exposed to natural environmental organic chemicals, associated with plant-environment interactions, and xenobiotic environmental organic chemicals, associated with anthropogenic activities. The effects of these chemicals result not only from interaction with metabolic targets, but also from interaction with the complex regulatory networks of hormone signaling. Purpose-designed plant hormone analogues thus show extensive signaling effects on gene regulation and are as such important for understanding plant hormone mechanisms and for manipulating plant growth and development. Some natural environmental chemicals also act on plants through interference with the perception and transduction of endogenous hormone signals. In a number of cases, bioactive xenobiotics, including herbicides that have been designed to affect specific metabolic targets, show extensive gene regulation effects, which are more in accordance with signaling effects than with consequences of metabolic effects. Some of these effects could be due to structural analogies with plant hormones or to interference with hormone metabolism, thus resulting in situations of hormone disruption similar to animal cell endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. These hormone-disrupting effects can be superimposed on parallel metabolic effects, thus indicating that toxicological characterisation of xenobiotics must take into consideration the whole range of signaling and metabolic effects. Hormone-disruptive signaling effects probably predominate when xenobiotic concentrations are low, as occurs in situations of residual low-level pollutions. These hormone-disruptive effects in plants may thus be of importance for understanding cryptic effects of low-dosage xenobiotics, as well as the interactive effects of mixtures of xenobiotic pollutants.

  11. Putative polyadenylation signals in nuclear genes of higher plants: a compilation and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, C P

    1987-01-01

    In animal and viral pre-mRNAS, the process of polyadenylation is mediated through several cis-acting poly (A) signals present upstream and downstream from poly (A) sites. The situation regarding polyadenylation of higher plant pre-mRNAS, however, has remained obscure so far. In this paper, a search for putative poly (A) signals is made by considering the published data from 46 plant genomic DNA sequences. Certain domains in the 3' untranslated regions from nuclear genes of higher plants were compiled and occurrence of sequence motifs such as AATAAA, CAYTG, YGTGTTYY and YAYTG was scored in relation to poly (A) sites. Moreover, consensus sequences for important regions in the 3' untranslated sequences and poly (A) signals were also deduced from the data. It was inferred that sequence motifs similar to poly (A) signals exist around poly (A) sites but some of them are in entirely different spatial relationship than observed in other eukaryotes. This indicates their probable non-involvement in the process of polyadenylation in higher plants necessitating a functional analysis approach to define the plant specific poly (A) signals. PMID:3697078

  12. Solution NMR and molecular dynamics reveal a persistent alpha helix within the dynamic region of PsbQ from photosystem II of higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Rathner, Petr; Rathner, Adriana; Horničáková, Michaela; Wohlschlager, Christian; Chandra, Kousik; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extrinsic proteins of photosystem II of higher plants and green algae PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbR are essential for stable oxygen production in the oxygen evolving center. In the available X‐ray crystallographic structure of higher plant PsbQ residues S14‐Y33 are missing. Building on the backbone NMR assignment of PsbQ, which includes this “missing link”, we report the extended resonance assignment including side chain atoms. Based on nuclear Overhauser effect spectra a high resolution solution structure of PsbQ with a backbone RMSD of 0.81 Å was obtained from torsion angle dynamics. Within the N‐terminal residues 1–45 the solution structure deviates significantly from the X‐ray crystallographic one, while the four‐helix bundle core found previously is confirmed. A short α‐helix is observed in the solution structure at the location where a β‐strand had been proposed in the earlier crystallographic study. NMR relaxation data and unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations corroborate that the N‐terminal region behaves as a flexible tail with a persistent short local helical secondary structure, while no indications of forming a β‐strand are found. Proteins 2015; 83:1677–1686. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26138376

  13. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. III. Distribution of Plastoquinones in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    The distribution of plastoquinones A 45, B and C was studied in representatives from 34 different plant families beginning with liverworts and mosses to higher plants. All of these species, including many monocots and dicots, contained significant amounts of the 3 quinones. Two species of Aesculus contained plastoquinone A 20 in addition to plastoquinone A 45, B, and C. Many dicots, such as Aesculus, watermelon, tobacco and tomato accumulated increasing quantities of plastoquinones A and C1-C4 during the growing season. The concentrations of plastoquinones B and C5-C6 tended to remain at a constant low level during the season (<0.01 μmole per mg chlorophyll). Preliminary studies with bean plants (Vicia faba and Phaseolus sp.) indicate that the levels of quinones varied little under different growth conditions (day length and temp.) although Vicia faba tended to have higher PQ A values with increased temperature. PMID:16656647

  14. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  15. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  16. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1990-02-01

    The goals of examining the mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover in higher plants remain the same. We will continue with two of the major approaches (1) in vivo chemical modification of RNA structure and (2) analysis of Rubisco SSU RNA structure and turnover in transgenic plants. We plan to reduce the amount of molecular physiology (studies of transcription and steady state levels) to a minimum and expand these efforts into the analysis of plant rebonucleases. We have also broadened our examination of light induced turnover of rubisco SSU RNA to include general RNA turnover. We plan to identify specific 3{prime}->5{prime} precessive ribonuclease by complementation of E. coli mutants. The activity of these novel RNases and their potential role in plant RNA turnover and processing will be characterized.

  17. Uptake and metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Görge, E; Brandt, S; Werner, D

    1994-12-01

    The fate of the explosive 2,4,6-TNT in plants is of major interest. Therefore, a method was developed to analyse TNT and derivatives in plant tissue. The method was utilized to investigate the uptake and metabolism of TNT inMedicago sativa andAllium schoenoprasum grown in hydroponic cultures containing TNT levels of 0.1 to 10 mg/1. Detectable concentrations of nitrotoluenes were significantly higher inAllium schoenoprasum than inMedicago sativa. The uptake of TNT in plants was directly related to the initial TNT level. The principal nitroaromatic components in roots and shoots of both plant species were identified as 4-ADNT and 2-ADNT in equal amounts, with substantially less TNT.

  18. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present. PMID:26809621

  19. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    PubMed

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined.

  20. Phylogenetic analyses and expression studies reveal two distinct groups of calreticulin isoforms in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Persson, Staffan; Rosenquist, Magnus; Svensson, Karin; Galvão, Rafaelo; Boss, Wendy F; Sommarin, Marianne

    2003-11-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional protein mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells. Here, we present the first analysis, to our knowledge, of evolutionary diversity and expression profiling among different plant CRT isoforms. Phylogenetic studies and expression analysis show that higher plants contain two distinct groups of CRTs: a CRT1/CRT2 group and a CRT3 group. To corroborate the existence of these isoform groups, we cloned a putative CRT3 ortholog from Brassica rapa. The CRT3 gene appears to be most closely related to the ancestral CRT gene in higher plants. Distinct tissue-dependent expression patterns and stress-related regulation were observed for the isoform groups. Furthermore, analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed differences in the glycosylation status among members within the CRT1/CRT2 isoform group. Based on evolutionary relationship, a new nomenclature for plant CRTs is suggested. The presence of two distinct CRT isoform groups, with distinct expression patterns and posttranslational modifications, supports functional specificity among plant CRTs and could account for the multiple functional roles assigned to CRTs.

  1. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  2. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  3. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  4. Transcriptomes of Plant Gametophytes Have a Higher Proportion of Rapidly Evolving and Young Genes than Sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gossmann, Toni I.; Saleh, Dounia; Schmid, Marc W.; Spence, Michael A.; Schmid, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive traits in plants tend to evolve rapidly due to various causes that include plant-pollinator coevolution and pollen competition, but the genomic basis of reproductive trait evolution is still largely unknown. To characterize evolutionary patterns of genome wide gene expression in reproductive tissues in the gametophyte and to compare them to developmental stages of the sporophyte, we analyzed evolutionary conservation and genetic diversity of protein-coding genes using microarray-based transcriptome data from three plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa), and soybean (Glycine max). In all three species a significant shift in gene expression occurs during gametogenesis in which genes of younger evolutionary age and higher genetic diversity contribute significantly more to the transcriptome than in other stages. We refer to this phenomenon as “evolutionary bulge” during plant reproductive development because it differentiates the gametophyte from the sporophyte. We show that multiple, not mutually exclusive, causes may explain the bulge pattern, most prominently reduced tissue complexity of the gametophyte, a varying extent of selection on reproductive traits during gametogenesis as well as differences between male and female tissues. This highlights the importance of plant reproduction for understanding evolutionary forces determining the relationship of genomic and phenotypic variation in plants. PMID:26956888

  5. Concentration and distribution of cobalt in higher plants: The use of micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkaus, E.; Gouget, B.; Gallien, J.-P.; Khodja, H.; Carrot, F.; Morel, J. L.; Collins, R.

    2005-04-01

    Cobalt is not classified as an essential element for plants, however, it is usually described as "beneficial". This trace element can be a contaminant in soils due to agricultural additives or metal refineries. Certain plants species have the ability to extract metals (such as Co) from soils, thus, cleaning the environment. Therefore, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of metal absorption is required to improve these phytoremediation technologies. Patterns of cobalt accumulation and storage were determined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) species. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with different Co treatments, using controlled environmental conditions. The spatial distributions of K, Ca, Fe and Co in whole plants, and in leaf and stem sections, were examined by micro-PIXE. In conjunction, total Co concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Micro-PIXE spectroscopy proved to be a convenient technique for indicating Co concentrations and distribution patterns in these plants. This knowledge aids in the identification of vegetal Co sequestration and, thus, helps to unravel how Co is transported in higher plants.

  6. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  7. Auxin and cytoskeletal organization in algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaojun; Scherp, Peter; Heimann, Kirsten; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2008-05-01

    Hormones affect growth and alter the cytoskeleton suggesting that hormones and the cytoskeleton interact with each other. The cytoskeleton of ancestral algae such as Chara showed similar sensitivity to auxin as higher plants, even in generative structures but the sensitivity differed between IAA and alpha-NAA and presumably other auxins. The ability of cells to elongate depends on microtubule organization during the transition from disorganized to perpendicular to longitudinal organization of the cytoskeleton. Because of the many functions of the cytoskeleton it is possible that its composition is influenced by selective gene expression and adaptation to growth regulators. Co-localization of microtubules and F-actin change at a high temporal and spatial scale. High resolution measurements of mRNA expression indicate rapid turnover that may affect the composition of the cytoskeleton.

  8. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. IV - Further studies on participation of ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; White, Rosemary G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1986-01-01

    Various hypotheses regarding the influence of ethylene on gravitropism in higher plant shoots were experimentally tested. It was found that ethylene at 1.0 and 10.0 cu cm/cu m decreased the rate of gravitropic bending in cocklebur stems, while 0.1 cm/cu m of ethylene had little effect. Treating cocklebur plants with 1.0 mmol aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, an ethylene synthesis inhibitor) delayed stem bending compared with controls, but adding 0.1 cu cm/cu m ethylene in the surrounding atmosphere partially restored the rate of bending of AVG-treated plants. Virtually all newly synthesized ethylene appeared in bottom halves of horizontal stems, where ethylene concentrations were as much as 100 times those in upright stems or in top halves of horizontal stems. Auxin applied to one side of a vertical stem caused extreme bending away from that side; gibberellic acid, kinetin, and abscisic acid were without effect.

  9. Protein tyrosine nitration in higher plants grown under natural and stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.; del Río, Luis A.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification (PTM) mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that is linked to nitro-oxidative damages in plant cells. During the last decade, the identification of proteins undergoing this PTM under adverse environmental conditions has increased. However, there is also a basal endogenous nitration which seems to have a regulatory function. The technological advances in proteome analysis have allowed identifying these modified proteins and have shown that the number and identity of the nitrated proteins change among plant species, analysed organs and growing/culture conditions. In this work, the current knowledge of protein tyrosine nitration in higher plants under different situations is reviewed. PMID:23444154

  10. How does plant chemical diversity contribute to biodiversity at higher trophic levels?

    PubMed

    Schuman, Meredith C; van Dam, Nicole M; Beran, Franziska; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Plants, perhaps Earth's most accomplished chemists, produce thousands of specialized metabolites having no direct role in cell division or growth. These phytochemicals vary by taxon, with many taxa producing characteristic substance classes; and within taxa, with individual variation in structural variety and production patterns. Observations of corresponding variation in herbivore metabolism, behavior, and diet breadth motivated the development of chemical ecology research. We discuss the importance of plant biodiversity in general and phytochemical diversity in particular for biodiversity and ecological interactions at higher trophic levels. We then provide an overview of the descriptive, molecular and analytical tools which allow modern biologists to investigate phytochemical diversity and its effects on higher trophic levels, from physiological mechanisms to ecological communities. PMID:27436646

  11. Preliminary Modelling of Mass Flux at the Surface of Plant Leaves within the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, Madeleine; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    The ESA project Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ecosystem of micro-organisms and higher plants, constructed with the objective of being operated as a tool to understand artificial ecosystems to be used for a long-term or permanent manned planetary base (e.g. Moon or Mars). The purpose of such a system is to provide for generation of food, water recycling, atmospheric regeneration and waste management within defined standards of quality and reliability. As MELiSSA consists of individual compartments which are connected to each other, the robustness of the system is fully dependent on the control of each compartment, as well as the flow management between them. Quality of consumables and reliability of the ecosystem rely on the knowledge, understanding and control of each of the components. This includes the full understanding of all processes related to the higher plants. To progress in that direction, this paper focuses on the mechanical processes driving the gas and liquid exchanges between the plant leaf and its environment. The process responsible for the mass transfer on the surface of plant leaves is diffusion. The diffusion flux is dependent on the behaviour of the stoma of the leaf and also on the leaf boundary layer (BL). In this paper, the physiology of the leaf is briefly examined in order to relate parameters such as light quality, light quantity, CO2 concentration, temperature, leaf water potential, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) gradients and pollutants to the opening or closing of stomata. The diffusion process is described theoretically and the description is compared to empirical approaches. The variables of the BL are examined and the effect airflow in the compartment has on the BL is investigated. Also presented is the impact changes in different environmental parameters may have on the fluid exchanges. Finally, some tests, to evaluate the accuracy of the concluded model, are suggested.

  12. Role of Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cytoskeleton including its microtubule (Mt) component participates in processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of Mts into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. The cortical array somehow directs the deposition of cellulose. Little molecular information is available regarding the formation of these arrays or the cellular signals to which they respond. Experimental data described here suggests that plant cells use calcium, in the form of a Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin complex, to affect the dynamics of Mts within the cortical array. Owing to the importance of Ca[sup ++] as a regulatory ion in higher plants we are probing for a putative Ca[sup ++]/Mt transduction pathway which may serve to integrate Mt activities within the growing and developing plant cell. We are using a lysed cell model in conjunction with immunocytochemical and biochemical methodologies to dissect how Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin interacts with Mts to affect their function.

  13. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  14. Carbon dioxide and the stomatal control of water balance and photosynthesis in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Taiz, L.; Zeiger, E.; Mawson, B. T.; Cornish, K.; Radin, J. W.; Turcotte, E. L.; Hercovitz, S.; Tallman, G.; Karlsson, P. E.; Bogomolni, R. A.; Talbott, L. D.; Srivastava, A.

    1992-01-01

    Research continued into the investigation of the effects of carbon dioxide on stomatal control of water balance and photosynthesis in higher plants. Topics discussed this period include a method of isolating a sufficient number of guard cell chloroplasts for biochemical studies by mechanical isolation of epidermal peels; the measurement of stomatal apertures with a digital image analysis system; development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of metabolites in guard cells; and genetic control of stomatal movements in Pima cotton. (CBS)

  15. Impact of common cytostatic drugs on pollen fertility in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Mišík, Miroslav; Kundi, Michael; Pichler, Clemens; Filipic, Metka; Rainer, Bernhard; Mišíková, Katarina; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Cytostatic drugs are among the most toxic chemicals which are produced. Many of them cause damage of the genetic material which may affect the fertility of higher organisms. To study the impact of the widely used anticancer drugs [cisplatin (CisPt), etoposide (Et), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] on the reproduction of higher plants, pollen abortion experiments were conducted with species which belong to major plant families, namely with Tradescantia paludosa (Commelinaceae), Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae), and Alisma plantago-aquatica (Alismataceae). All compounds increased the frequencies of abortive grains. The lowest effective doses were in general in a narrow range (i.e., 1 and 10 mg/kg of dry soil). The effects of the individual drugs were similar in T. paludosa, A. plantago-aquatica, and Ch. majus, while A. thaliana was consistently less sensitive. The highest abortion rate was obtained in most experiments with CisPt, followed by 5-FU and Et. Comparisons of the doses which caused effects in the present experiments in the different species with the predicted environment concentrations and with the levels of the cytostatics which were detected in hospital wastewaters show that the realistic environmental concentrations of the drugs are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs affect the fertility of higher plants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:25779110

  16. Blue Light Activates a Specific Protein Kinase in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, Philippe; Short, Timothy W.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light mediates the phosphorylation of a membrane protein in seedlings from several plant species. When crude microsomal membrane proteins from dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) stem segments, or from maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) coleoptiles are illuminated and incubated in vitro with [γ-32P]ATP, a protein of apparent molecular mass from 114 to 130 kD is rapidly phosphorylated. Hence, this system is probably ubiquitous in higher plants. Solubilized maize membranes exposed to blue light and added to unirradiated solubilized maize membranes show a higher level of phosphorylation of the light-affected protein than irradiated membrane proteins alone, suggesting that an unirradiated substrate is phosphorylated by a light-activated kinase. This finding is further demonstrated with membrane proteins from two different species, where the phosphorylated proteins are of different sizes and, hence, unambiguously distinguishable on gel electrophoresis. When solubilized membrane proteins from one species are irradiated and added to unirradiated membrane proteins from another species, the unirradiated protein becomes phosphorylated. These experiments indicate that the irradiated fraction can store the light signal for subsequent phosphorylation in the dark. They also support the hypothesis that light activates a specific kinase and that the systems share a close functional homology among different higher plants. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:16653043

  17. Boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants: A literature review: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sposito, G.; Calderone, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    This study provides a review of the literature on boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants, particularly trees. It addresses those aspects of the soil chemistry of boron that are most relevant to uptake by trees, then discusses the plant biochemistry of boron, its uptake and accumulation in plant tissue, and its phytotoxicity symptoms in plant species. The literature reviewed suggests that boron uptake is accomplished by a passive, massflow mechanism, as opposed to a metabolic process, with the most likely chemical form taken up being the neutral complex, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The biochemical role of boron is not well understood, but evidence exists for its involvement with carbohydrate transformations and the control of growth-regulating compounds. Because of the mass-flow uptake mechanism, the distribution of boron in trees is connected intimately with the patterns of transpiration, which are species-dependent. Precise data on the effect of plant genotype on boron uptake, however, were not found in the published literature. The phytotoxicity symptoms of boron in trees also are species-dependent, although a consensus does exist as to the general nature of external symptoms and the basis of boron tolerance.

  18. Analysis of an essential carotenogenic enzyme: ζ-carotene desaturase from unicellular Alga Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2010-11-10

    The green alga Dunaliella has become a valuable model organism for understanding the interesting mechanism of massive carotenoid accumulation. Previously, DNA sequences of several carotenogenic enzymes were obtained from Dunaliella. In this study, the cDNA of zds was isolated from Dunaliella salina using a polymerase chain reaction approach. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2178 base pairs (bp) containing a 1731 bp putative open reading frame which coded a 576 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose molecular weight was 63.9 kDa computationally. A complete homologous search displayed that the nucleotide and putative protein sequence have sequence identities of 69% and 66% with those of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. It was predicted that this ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) may be located in the chloroplast of D. salina. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the D. salina Zds had a closer relationship with the Zds of algae and higher plants than with those of other species.

  19. Dynamics of higher plant photosystem cross-section associated with state transitions.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Alexander V; Johnson, Matthew P

    2009-03-01

    Photosynthetic state transitions are a well-known phenomenon of short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic membrane to changes in spectral quality of light in low light environments. The principles of the monitoring and quantification of the process in higher plants are revised here. The use of the low-temperature excitation fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of the photosystem I antenna cross-section dynamics is described. This cross section was found to increase by 20-25% exclusively due to the migration and attachment of LHCIIb complex in State 2. Analysis of the fine structure of the additional PSI cross-section spectrum revealed the 510 nm band, characteristic of Lutein 2 of LHCIIb and present only when the complex is in a trimeric state. The excitation fluorescence spectrum of the phospho-LHCII resembles the spectrum of aggregated and hence quenched LHCII. This novel observation could explain the fact that at no point in the course of the state transition high fluorescence and long lifetime components of detached trimeric LHCII have ever been observed. In the plants lacking Lhcb1 and 2 proteins and unable to perform state transitions, compensatory sustained adjustments of the photosystem I and II antennae have been revealed. Whilst the major part of the photosystem II antenna is built largely of CP26 trimers, possessing less chlorophyll b and more of the red-shifted chlorophyll a, photosystem I in these plants contains more than 20% of extra LHCI antenna enriched in chlorophyll b. Hence, both photosystems in the plants lacking state transitions have less spectrally distinct antennae, which enable to avoid energy imbalance due to the changes in the light quality. These alterations reveal remarkable plasticity of the higher plant photosynthetic antenna design providing the basis for a flexible adaptation to the light environment.

  20. The main goals of experiments with the higher plants in the project MARS - 500.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Gushin, Vadim; Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott

    At the present step of development of manned flight to Mars there is a current opinion that including a greenhouse in the composition of Life Support Systems (LSS) of Martian expedition would essentially improve a spacecraft habitat conditions and also would have impact to preventing of a number of possible consequences of continuous presence of human in artificial environment. Development of design objectives of future space greenhouses applicable for conditions of Martian expedition should be based, in our opinion, not only on the results of real space experiments, conducted onboard of orbital stations, but also on the results of ground-based experiments. In connection with above considerations there is a number of technological, biological and psychological experiments is planned to be conducted in the frame of MARS-500 project to resolve questions related to incorporation of higher plants in LSS of inter-planetary flights. The questions include: testing of developed elements of the greenhouse construction and methods for cultivation of vegetables under conditions of imitation of the flight of Martian expedition; selection of breeds and species of vegetables, characterized by high speed of biomass accumulation, attractive taste and appearance; investigation of growth, development and metabolism of plants under long-term continuous cultivation in manned pressurized object; comparison of the productivity of the plants as a function of utilization of different light source; determination of maximum amount of planted biomass of the plants and number of possible vegetation under conditions of long-term utilization of vegetation chamber of the greenhouse without substrate replacement; investigation of crops dietetic preferences of crew members; estimation of quality of plant biomass using seeding of the plants by microorganisms and nitrates and vitamins content as markers; development and approbation of methodical approaches to estimation of psychological factors of

  1. Phytate (Inositol Hexakisphosphate) in Soil and Phosphate Acquisition from Inositol Phosphates by Higher Plants. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (P) fixation to the soil solid phase is considered to be important for P availability and is often attributed to the strong binding of orthophosphate anion species. However, the fixation and subsequent immobilization of inositolhexa and pentaphosphate isomers (phytate) in soil is often much stronger than that of the orthosphate anion species. The result is that phytate is a main organic P form in soil and the dominating form of identifiable organic P. The reasons for the accumulation are not fully clear. Two hypothesis can be found in the literature in the last 20 years, the low activity of phytase (phosphatases) in soil, which makes phytate P unavailable to the plant roots, and, on the other hand, the strong binding of phytate to the soil solid phase with its consequent stabilization and accumulation in soil. The hypothesis that low phytase activity is responsible for phytate accumulation led to the development of genetically modified plant genotypes with a higher expression of phytase activity at the root surface and research on the effect of a higher phytate activity on P acquisition. Obviously, this hypothesis has a basic assumption, that the phytate mobility in soil is not the limiting step for P acquisition of higher plants from soil phytate. This assumption is, however, not justified considering the results on the sorption, immobilization and fixation of phytate to the soil solid phase reported in the last two decades. Phytate is strongly bound, and the P sorption maximum and probably the sorption strength of phytate P to the soil solid phase is much higher, compared to that of orthophosphate P. Mobilization of phytate seems to be a promising step to make it available to the plant roots. The excretion of organic acid anions, citrate and to a lesser extend oxalate, seems to be an important way to make phytate P available to the plants. Phytase activity at the root surface seems not be the limiting step in P acquisition from phytate. Phytate is not

  2. Freeze shattering: a simple and effective method for permeabilizing higher plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wasteneys, G O; Willingale-Theune, J; Menzel, D

    1997-10-01

    This article describes a practical technique for permeabilization of higher plant cell walls, which is usually one of the first steps required for immunolocalization of cellular components (and other cytological methods) in plant cell studies. Our strategy involves shattering the walls of cells while the tissues are frozen in liquid nitrogen. It replaces the use of wall degrading enzymes or the need to employ laborious sectioning or other mechanical means for providing access of probes to cells. Freeze-shattering retains the integrity of whole tissues and cells surprisingly well and thus is especially useful when used in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy for recording the three-dimensional arrangement of cytoskeletal elements in relation to cell shape. In this article, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique for anti-tubulin and anti-actin immunofluorescence and for rhodamine phalloidin labelling of the cytoskeleton in various higher plant tissues including onion root tip and bulb scale epidermis, Tradescantia stamen hairs and Arabidopsis leaf epidermis and mesophyll cells. PMID:9369020

  3. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  4. Soil-based phytotoxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to terrestrial higher plants

    PubMed

    Gong; Wilke; Fleischmann

    1999-02-01

    Seed germination and early stage seedling growth tests were conducted to determine the ecotoxicological threshold of 2,4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in two soils of different properties. Soils were amended up to 1,600 mg TNT kg-1 soil and four representative species of higher plants, two dicotyledons (Lepidium sativum L., common name: cress; and Brassica rapa Metzg., turnip) and two monocotyledons (Acena sativa L., oat; and Triticum aestivum L., wheat), were assessed. Cumulative seed germination and fresh shoot biomass were measured as evaluation endpoints. Phytotoxicity of TNT was observed to be affected by soil properties and varied between plant species. Cress and turnip showed higher sensitivity to TNT than did oat and wheat. The lowest observable adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of TNT derived from this study was 50 mg kg-1 soil. In contrast to high TNT concentrations, low levels of TNT, i.e. , 5-25 mg kg-1 soil for cress and turnip and 25-50 mg kg-1 for oat and wheat, stimulated seedling growth. Oat was capable of tolerating as much as 1,600 mg TNT kg-1 and demonstrated a potential ability of TNT detoxification in one of the soils tested, suggesting that this plant might be useful in the bioremediation of TNT contaminated soils.

  5. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    2001-07-01

    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  6. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed.

  7. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  8. Physcomitrella HMGA-type proteins display structural differences compared to their higher plant counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Lyngaard, Carina; Stemmer, Christian; Stensballe, Allan; Graf, Manuela; Gorr, Gilbert; Decker, Eva; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2008-10-03

    High mobility group (HMG) proteins of the HMGA family are chromatin-associated proteins that act as architectural factors in nucleoprotein structures involved in gene transcription. To date, HMGA-type proteins have been studied in various higher plant species, but not in lower plants. We have identified two HMGA-type proteins, HMGA1 and HMGA2, encoded in the genome of the moss model Physcomitrella patens. Compared to higher plant HMGA proteins, the two Physcomitrella proteins display some structural differences. Thus, the moss HMGA proteins have six (rather than four) AT-hook DNA-binding motifs and their N-terminal domain lacks similarity to linker histone H1. HMGA2 is expressed in moss protonema and it localises to the cell nucleus. Typical of HMGA proteins, HMGA2 interacts preferentially with A/T-rich DNA, when compared with G/C-rich DNA. In cotransformation assays in Physcomitrella protoplasts, HMGA2 stimulated reporter gene expression. In summary, our data show that functional HMGA-type proteins occur in Physcomitrella.

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  10. Interaction of higher plant (jute), electrofused bacteria and mycorrhiza on anthracene biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Zhang, J Y; Deng, H H; Ou, Y K; Leung, H M; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2008-05-01

    The interaction of bacteria, mycorrhiza and jute (Corchotus capsulari, a higher plant) to reduce anthracene in different concentrations of spiked soils was investigated. Dominant indigenous bacterium (Pseudomonas sp.) isolated in the rhizosphere of jute was electrofused with anthracene degraders (Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) which were able to produce different types of biosurfactants. The highest population (56 x 10(5)CFU/g) was found in the planted soil with the inoculation of mixtures of electrofused anthracene degraders after 7 days. The growth of anthracene degraders in the spiked soil was improved by gene transfer from indigenous bacteria. After 35 days, enhanced anthracene removals were observed in inoculated soils planted with jute (65.5-75.2%) compared with unplanted soil without inoculation (12.5%). The interaction of jute and electrofused S. paucimobilis enabled the greatest reduction of soil anthracene with or without the addition of P. aeruginosa. Mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly inhibited by anthracene in soils up to 150 mg/kg. Inoculation of jute with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices improved plant growth and enhanced anthracene removal in the presence of electrofused S. paucimobilis.

  11. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  12. Study on the Relationship between Delayed Fluorescence and Photosynthetic Capability at Elevated Temperature in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Xu, Wenhai; Wang, Junsheng; Xing, Da

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous elevation of the global temperature, high-temperature stress has been a major environmental factor that affects plant growth and productivity. Effects of short-term heat temperature stress on light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) decay kinetic curve, intensity and emission spectrum have been investigated in C3 soybean (Jing Huang No.3) and C4 maize (Yun Xi No.5081) species. The temperature responses of DF decay kinetic curve from two different species show that decay rate characteristics are affected by high temperature. The spectroscopy measurements indicate that heat stress influence the shape of DF emission spectra of two species, especially the peak intensities at 685nm and 730nm. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate that DF intensity of each plant positively correlated with F730/F685 of DF emission spectra at elevated temperatures. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of samples has the same temperature response with DF intensity and F730/F685. Based on these results, we can conclude that there is an excellent correlation between F730/F685 of DF emission spectra, DF intensity and Pn in both C3 and C4 plants. Therefore, we proposed that the F730/F685 of DF emission spectrum can be used to measure the photosynthetic capability of higher plants to heat stress.

  13. Characterization of thylakoid lipid membranes from cyanobacteria and higher plants by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    van Eerden, Floris J; de Jong, Djurre H; de Vries, Alex H; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Marrink, Siewert J

    2015-06-01

    The thylakoid membrane is mainly composed of non-common lipids, so called galactolipids. Despite the importance of these lipids for the function of the photosynthetic reaction centers, the molecular organization of these membranes is largely unexplored. Here we use multiscale molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the thylakoid membrane of both cyanobacteria and higher plants. We consider mixtures of up to five different galactolipids plus phosphatidylglycerol to represent these complex membranes. We find that the different lipids generally mix well, although nanoscale heterogeneities are observed especially in case of the plant membrane. The fluidity of the cyanobacterial membrane is markedly reduced compared to the plant membrane, even considering elevated temperatures at which thermophilic cyanobacteria are found. We also find that the plant membrane more readily undergoes a phase transformation to an inverted hexagonal phase. We furthermore characterized the conformation and dynamics of the cofactors plastoquinone and plastoquinol, revealing of the fast flip-flop rates for the non-reduced form. Together, our results provide a molecular view on the dynamical organization of the thylakoid membrane. PMID:25749153

  14. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans.

  15. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  16. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  17. The supramolecular architecture, function, and regulation of thylakoid membranes in red algae: an overview.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Nan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2010-11-01

    Red algae are a group of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. Phycobilisomes (PBSs), which are composed of various types of phycobiliproteins and linker polypeptides, are the main light-harvesting antennae in red algae, as in cyanobacteria. Two morphological types of PBSs, hemispherical- and hemidiscoidal-shaped, are found in different red algae species. PBSs harvest solar energy and efficiently transfer it to photosystem II (PS II) and finally to photosystem I (PS I). The PS I of red algae uses light-harvesting complex of PS I (LHC I) as a light-harvesting antennae, which is phylogenetically related to the LHC I found in higher plants. PBSs, PS II, and PS I are all distributed throughout the entire thylakoid membrane, a pattern that is different from the one found in higher plants. Photosynthesis processes, especially those of the light reactions, are carried out by the supramolecular complexes located in/on the thylakoid membranes. Here, the supramolecular architecture, function and regulation of thylakoid membranes in red algal are reviewed.

  18. Some properties and amino acid sequence of plastocyanin from a green alga, Ulva arasakii.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, F; Fukazawa, T; Mishina, Y; Sugimura, Y

    1989-08-01

    Plastocyanin was purified from a multicellular, marine green alga, Ulva arasakii, by conventional methods to homogeneity. The oxidized plastocyanin showed absorption maxima at 252, 276.8, 460, 595.3, and 775 nm, and shoulders at 259, 265, 269, and 282.5 nm; the ratio A276.8/A595.3 was 1.5. The midpoint redox potential was determined to be 0.356 V at pH 7.0 with a ferri- and ferrocyanide system. The molecular weight was estimated to be 10,200 and 11,000 by SDS-PAGE and by gel filtration, respectively. U. arasakii also has a small amount of cytochrome c6, like Enteromorpha prolifera. The amino acid sequence of U. arasakii plastocyanin was determined by Edman degradation and by carboxypeptidase digestion of the plastocyanin, six tryptic peptides, and five staphylococcal protease peptides. The plastocyanin contained 98 amino acid residues, giving a molecular weight of 10,236 including one copper atom. The complete sequence is as follows: AQIVKLGGDDGALAFVPSKISVAAGEAIEFVNNAGFPHNIVFDEDAVPAGVDADAISYDDYLNSKGETV VRKLSTPGVY G VYCEPHAGAGMKMTITVQ. The sequence of U. arasakii plastocyanin is closet to that of the E. prolifera protein (85% homology). A phylogenetic tree of five algal and two higher plant plastocyanins was constructed by comparing the amino acid differences. The branching order is considered to be as follows: a blue-green alga, unicellular green algae, multicellular green algae, and higher plants. PMID:2509442

  19. Early diagenetic transformation of higher-plant triterpenoids in deep-sea sediments from Baffin Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haven, H.L. Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison ); Peakman, T.M. ); Rullkoetter, J. )

    1992-05-01

    A sediment sequence of early Miocene to Holocene from Ocean Drilling Program Site 645 in central Baffin Bay was found to contain abundant triterpenoids of higher-plant origin including mono-desmethyl derivatives and other oxidative degradation products. 24-nor-triterpenoids of the oleanene, ursene, and lupane series were found in the nonaromatic hydrocarbon and alcohol fractions of the sediment extracts. Other diagenetic transformation products included 24,28-dinor-olean-17-ene and 24-nor-urs-12-en-11-one as well as their tentatively identified des-A counterparts. The identification of these novel degradation products was confirmed by synthesis of a suite of reference compounds. The simple reaction sequence applied to obtain 24-nor-urs-12-ene-from 3{alpha}-acetoxyurs-12-en-24-oic acid is likely to happen in a similar manner during early diagenesis of organic matter in nature. These results have implications for the understanding of the diagenetic reaction sequence leading to the formation of other demethylated triterpenoids of terrigenous origin (e.g., 24,28-dinor-lupanes). 28,30-dinot-17{alpha}-hopane is sometimes the dominant hydrocarbon in the most deeply buried samples. Its co-occurrence with higher plant triterpenoids and the low abundance of other regular hopanoids is not considered an indication, however, that 28,20-dinor-17{alpha}-hopane is derived from a higher plant precursor molecule. It is suggested that two independent sedimentary processes are responsible for the presence of the two types of demethylated triterpenoids observed in Baffin Bay sediments.

  20. Role of Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1991-01-01

    This work is aimed at defining the role of calcium/calmodulin in regulating cortical microtubules (MTS) in higher plants. Recent thrust has been to define the effects of calcium upon microtubules in vivo. Using lysed protoplasts, we noted Mts are destabilized by calcium/calmodulin. This effect could be the result of gross depolymerization induced by Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin, or by an increase in the dynamic flux rate. Intact protoplasts exposed to high (10 mM) levels of calcium (which would be expected to increase intercellular calcium levels) contained microtubules that were hypersensitive to Mt inhibitors, compared to control protoplasts exposed to low calcium environments.

  1. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  2. Studies on the chalcone synthase gene of two higher plants: petroselinum hortense and matthiola incana

    SciTech Connect

    Hemleben, V.; Frey, M.; Rall, S.; Koch, M.; Kittel, M.; Kreuzaler, F.; Ragg, H.; Fautz, E.; Hahlbrock, K.

    1982-01-01

    Two higher plant systems are presented which allow to study coordinated gene expression of the light-induced metabolic pathway of flavonoid biosynthesis: tissue culture cells of Petroselinum hortense (Apiaceae) and different developmental stages of various genotypes of Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae). The gene structure of the chalcone synthase is mainly studied. A cDNA clone (pLF56) of parsley has been constructed and characterized conferring the chalcone synthase gene sequence. Strong cross hybridization between the parsley cDNA and Matthiola DNA allowed to identify a HindIII fragment (6000 bp) identical in size for parsley and different Matthiola wild type lines and a mutant line.

  3. Design and implementation of components for a bioregenerative system for growing higher order plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakman, B.; Dioso, L.; Parker, D.; Segal, L.; Merriman, C.; Howard, I.; Vu, H.; Anderson, K.; Riley, S.; Amery, D.

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1988-89 scholastic year. The primary goal was to address specific needs in the design of an integrated system to grow higher order plants in space. The initial phase of the design effort concentrated on studying such a system and identifying its needs. Once these needs were defined, emphasis was placed on the design and fabrication of devices to meet them. Specific attention was placed on a hand-held harvester, a nutrient concentration sensor, an air-water separator, and a closed-loop biological system simulation.

  4. The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Moreira, D; Le Guyader, H; Philippe, H

    2000-05-01

    Chloroplast structure and genome analyses support the hypothesis that three groups of organisms originated from the primary photosynthetic endosymbiosis between a cyanobacterium and a eukaryotic host: green plants (green algae + land plants), red algae and glaucophytes (for example, Cyanophora). Although phylogenies based on several mitochondrial genes support a specific green plants/red algae relationship, the phylogenetic analysis of nucleus-encoded genes yields inconclusive, sometimes contradictory results. To address this problem, we have analysed an alternative nuclear marker, elongation factor 2, and included new red algae and protist sequences. Here we provide significant support for a sisterhood of green plants and red algae. This sisterhood is also significantly supported by a multi-gene analysis of a fusion of 13 nuclear markers (5,171 amino acids). In addition, the analysis of an alternative fusion of 6 nuclear markers (1,938 amino acids) indicates that glaucophytes may be the closest relatives to the green plants/red algae group. Thus, our study provides evidence from nuclear markers for a single primary endosymbiosis at the origin of these groups, and supports a kingdom Plantae comprising green plants, red algae and glaucophytes.

  5. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  6. Nuclearly encoded splicing factors implicated in RNA splicing in higher plant organelles.

    PubMed

    de Longevialle, Andéol Falcon; Small, Ian D; Lurin, Claire

    2010-07-01

    Plant organelles arose from two independent endosymbiosis events. Throughout evolutionary history, tight control of chloroplasts and mitochondria has been gained by the nucleus, which regulates most steps of organelle genome expression and metabolism. In particular, RNA maturation, including RNA splicing, is highly dependent on nuclearly encoded splicing factors. Most introns in organelles are group II introns, whose catalytic mechanism closely resembles that of the nuclear spliceosome. Plant group II introns have lost the ability to self-splice in vivo and require nuclearly encoded proteins as cofactors. Since the first splicing factor was identified in chloroplasts more than 10 years ago, many other proteins have been shown to be involved in splicing of one or more introns in chloroplasts or mitochondria. These new proteins belong to a variety of different families of RNA binding proteins and provide new insights into ribonucleo-protein complexes and RNA splicing machineries in organelles. In this review, we describe how splicing factors, encoded by the nucleus and targeted to the organelles, take part in post-transcriptional steps in higher plant organelle gene expression. We go on to discuss the potential for these factors to regulate organelle gene expression.

  7. [Development of a ground-based experimental facility for space cultivation of higher plant].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Wang, P X; Hou, J D; Ai, W D; Chao, Z G

    2000-02-01

    A ground-based experimental facility was developed for conducting initial ground-based simulation study of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The facility is composed of a main chamber, O2 and CO2 composition control subsystems, plant cultivation subsystem and whole data management subsystem. The growth room, being composed of a inner wall of mirror-face stainless steel, holds a volume of 1.8 m3 and a growing area of 1.2 m2; electronic fluorescent lamps were used as lighting sources and polyvinyl formal was used for root matrixes; the environmental parameters of the growing room such as temperature, relative humidity, O2 concentration, CO2 concentration, lighting period and irradiance intensity and the nutrient parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration, liquid level of nutrient storage tank and flow rate of nutrient were all controlled automatically; all of the above-mentioned parameters can be inspected, collected, stored and printed regularly and dynamically. The results of a combined debugging and preliminary plant cultivation verified that the technical target of the facility had reached its initial design requirements, it can be used to conduct ground-based simulation studies of space cultivation of higher plants.

  8. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) for the presence of epiphytic algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. SOD activity significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) with the presence of epiphytic algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p < 0.01). However, in the treatments of T1 and T4, SOD activity had no obvious change with the presence of epiphytic algae (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. At the end of the experiment, the effects of epiphytic algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p < 0.001), the effects of epiphytic algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p < 0.001), respectively, and their interaction (p < 0.001). Our observations

  9. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) for the presence of epiphytic algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. SOD activity significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) with the presence of epiphytic algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p < 0.01). However, in the treatments of T1 and T4, SOD activity had no obvious change with the presence of epiphytic algae (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. At the end of the experiment, the effects of epiphytic algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p < 0.001), the effects of epiphytic algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p < 0.001), respectively, and their interaction (p < 0.001). Our observations

  10. Osmotin-expressing transgenic tea plants have improved stress tolerance and are of higher quality.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amita; Saini, Uksha; Joshi, Robin; Kaur, Devinder; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Kumar, Nitish; Gulati, Ashu; Mohanpuria, Prashant; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2014-04-01

    Drought is a major stress that affects the yield and quality of tea, a widely consumed beverage crop grown in more than 20 countries of the world. Therefore, osmotin gene-expressing transgenic tea plants produced using earlier optimized conditions were evaluated for their tolerance of drought stress and their quality. Improved tolerance of polyethylene glycol-induced water stress and faster recovery from stress were evident in transgenic lines compared with the normal phenotype. Significant improvements in growth under in-vitro conditions were also observed. Besides enhanced reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity, the transgenic lines contained significantly higher levels of flavan-3-ols and caffeine, key compounds that govern quality and commercial yield of the beverage. The selected transgenic lines have the potential to meet the demands of the tea industry for stress-tolerant plants with higher yield and quality. These traits of the transgenic lines can be effectively maintained for generations because tea is commercially cultivated through vegetative propagation only.

  11. Light-regulated, tissue-specific immunophilins in a higher plant.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Albers, M W; Schreiber, S L

    1994-02-01

    In addition to their application in organ transplantation, immunosuppressive drugs are valuable tools for studying signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Using affinity chromatography, we have purified immunosuppressive drug receptors (immunophilins) from fava bean. Proteins belonging to both major classes of the immunophilin family identified from animal sources [FK506- and rapamycin-binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins] were present in this higher plant. FKBP13, the most abundant FKBP family member in leaf tissues, was not detected in root tissues, whereas other FKBPs were present in both tissues. While the abundance of cyclophilin A in leaves was similar to that in roots, cyclophilin B/C was expressed at a much higher level in leaf tissues than in root tissues. Subcellular localization of immunophilins in mesophyll cells showed that chloroplasts contained FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C but not other members, which explains the preferential expression of these two proteins in leaves over roots. The abundance of chloroplast-localized immunophilins, FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C, was regulated by light. Although etiolated leaves produced detectable levels of cyclophilin B/C, they did not express FKBP13. Illumination of etiolated plants dramatically increased the expression of both FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C. The light-induced expression of FKBP13 is closely correlated with the accumulation of chlorophyll in the leaf tissue. Our findings suggest that FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C may play a specific role in chloroplasts. PMID:7508125

  12. Microtubule converging centers-implications for microtubule dynamics in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bajer, A.S.; Mole-Bajer, J.

    1993-12-31

    The reorganization of the microtubular cytoskeleton was studied during telophase-interphase transition and interphase in Haemanthus endosperm cells, and in cell fragments (cytoplasts). This report concerns the role of microtubule (MT) converging centers (MTCCs) in the reorganization of the higher plant cytoskeleton. Microtubules (MTs) were visualized with the immunogold and immunogold-silver enhanced methods. Cells were fixed at room temperature (21{degrees}-24{degrees}C) and after high (35{degrees}-37{degrees}C) and low (4{degrees}-7{degrees}C) temperature shocks. The temperature shocks modify behavior of MTCCs. During early prophase and telophase-interphase transition, the formation of MTCCs is greatly enhanced at elevated temperature. These are stages when a pronounced reorganization of the cytoskeleton takes place. MTCCs are polar structures with remarkably different dynamics and properties at the diverging and converging ends. The indirect evidence shows that the converging tip of MTCC is (-) and the diverging end is (+). Our data imply that the reorganization of the higher plant cytoskeleton is basically a competitive sorting of MTs intrinsic polarity, with MTCCs as principal structural components.

  13. Composition and structure of the 80S ribosome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: 80S ribosomes are conserved in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Manuell, Andrea L; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Haynes, Paul A; Milligan, Ronald A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2005-08-12

    We have conducted a proteomic analysis of the 80S cytosolic ribosome from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and accompany this with a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ribosome. Proteins homologous to all but one rat 40S subunit protein, including a homolog of RACK1, and all but three rat 60S subunit proteins were identified as components of the C. reinhardtii ribosome. Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) evidence and annotation of the completed C. reinhardtii genome identified genes for each of the four proteins not identified by proteomic analysis, showing that algae potentially have a complete set of orthologs to mammalian 80S ribosomal proteins. Presented at 25A, the algal 80S ribosome is very similar in structure to the yeast 80S ribosome, with only minor distinguishable differences. These data show that, although separated by billions of years of evolution, cytosolic ribosomes from photosynthetic organisms are highly conserved with their yeast and animal counterparts.

  14. [Algae removal of high algae raw water by coagulation enhanced by ozonation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zheng-Jian; Cheng, Fang-Qin

    2009-07-15

    Apparent molecular weight distribution (AMWD) and resin fractionation were used to characterize organic matters of the raw water. Removal of algae, change and removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disinfection by products (DBPs) control during the preozonation enhanced coagulation treatments in the jar-scale and pilot-scale experiment were studied. Algae activity (AA) was measured and used to elucidate the mechanisms of algae removal by above treatments. Results show that algae removal can be improved distinctively by proper preozonation, as the ozone dose 1.0 mg x L(-1), for instance. Algae removal could be increased from 55%-85% by traditional coagulation to 95% by enhanced coagulation after preozonation; and the best removal achieved 99.3% with ozone 1.0 mg x L(-1) and PACl 3.0 mg x L(-1); the residual THMFP (Trihalomethanes formation potential) was lowered from 117 microg x L(-1) by traditional coagulation to 46 microg x L(-1). But higher dose of ozone (as > or = 2.0 mg x L(-1)) impairs organic matter removal, although it decreases algae activity further. Significant differences were found in algae removal by AA detection between ozonation and traditional coagulation. Traditional coagulation had little effect on AA no matter the different PAC1 doses; while AA decreased clearly after ozonation. AA was lowered below 12 under 0.5-2.0 mg x L(-1) ozonation; and it kept decreasing with increase of ozone dosage. During the following coagulation, coagulant or some of its hydrolysised components enhanced the AA decrease by ozonation. Compared to the method of normal microscopy counting, AA test expresses the influence of algae living state by water treatment processes more clearly; which would provide treatment process designer with more distinct information about algae removal mechanisms and how to arrange the treatment processes to improve algae removal.

  15. Some effects of high- gradient magnetic field on tropism of roots of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrachuk, A.; Belyavskaya, N.

    The perception of gravity in living organisms is mostly based on the response of the gravisensing system to displacement of some specific mass caused by gravitational force. According to the starch-statolith hypothesis the amyloplasts play the role of specific mass in gravisensing cells of higher plants. Kuznetsov & Hasenstein (1996) have demonstrated that the high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) exerts a directional ponderomotive force on diamagnetic substances, in particular, statoliths. This effect of the HGMF causes root response similar to that produced by the change in gravity vector. Their studies supported the starch-statolith hypothesis and showed that ponderomotive force can be used to modify force acting on statoliths by manipulating statolith locations within gravisensing cells. We have designed the HGMF facility that allows for generating the HGMF and analyzing its effects on higher plants' roots. It records by videosystem and measures with the help of image analysis software the parameters of kinetics of root bending under both the HGMF action and gravistimulation. Two species of plants (pea and cress) have been examined. The main results of the work are the following: 1) The magnetotropic effect of HGMF on root growth was found for both species. 2) The critical value of ponderomotive force that caused the magnetotropic effect was estimated by modeling the magnetic field spatial distribution in the region of root apex. 3) The electron-microscopic analysis of statocytes after the HGMF treatment was carried out. The displacement of amyloplasts in root statocytes of two species of plants in HGMF was firstly demonstrated at the ultrastructural level. 4) Spatial distribution of exogenous proton fluxes (pH) along the roots was studied. The changes in pH distribution along curvature zone and apices of roots were revealed in the HGMF. It is known that application of HGMFs or strong uniform magnetic fields may influence ion transport due to Ampere force. It

  16. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  17. Isotopic discrimination of zinc during root-uptake and cellular incorporation in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T. F.; Weiss, D. J.; Coles, B. J.; Horstwood, M.; Parrish, R. R.; Zhao, F. J.; Kirk, G. J.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: Isotopic variability of terrestrial zinc offers a unique tool for studying the geochemical and biochemical cycling of zinc through natural ecosystems. However, to realise this potential, the mechanisms controlling the isotopic composition of zinc during geosphere-biosphere interactions must first be understood. The uptake of zinc by plants involves a variety of abiotic and biochemical reactions, and can provide insights into the types of processes that may fractionate zinc isotopes within living systems. We therefore present an experimental study to quantify if and how zinc isotopes are fractionated during uptake in higher plants. Methodology: Two experimental approaches were taken: (1) a hydroponic study in which rice, lettuce, and tomato cultivars were grown in one of two nutrient solutions (a HEDTA + NTA buffered system, and an EDTA buffered system), and (2) a field-based study in which rice plants were grown in experimental paddy fields under both zinc-sufficient and zinc-deficient conditions. Upon harvest, roots, shoots, nutrient solutions and soils were acid digested, and matrix components were removed from the zinc fraction using anion exchange procedures. For soils the 'bioavailble' zinc fraction was abstracted using a 1 N HCl leaching step. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined on a ThermoElemental Axiom MC-ICP-MS, using copper as an internal reference to correct for mass discrimination effects. Combined measurement errors based on repeated analyses of ultra-pure standards and plant reference materials were <0.035 ppm per atomic mass unit (pamu) (2σ) for 66Zn/64Zn measurements. Results: Under hydroponic condisions, all three plant species exhibit a similar pattern of zinc isotopic discrimination, with a small enrichment from nutrient solution to root of +0.04 to +0.09 ppm pamu, followed by an isotopic depletion from root to shoot of -0.13 to -0.26 ppm pamu. While the same trend is observed with the HEDTA + NTA and EDTA nutrient

  18. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops. PMID:20085253

  19. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  20. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

    PubMed

    Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  1. A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

  2. Glycerophosphocholine Metabolism in Higher Plant Cells. Evidence of a New Glyceryl-Phosphodiester Phosphodiesterase

    PubMed Central

    van der Rest, Benoît; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard; Douce, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) is a diester that accumulates in different physiological processes leading to phospholipid remodeling. However, very little is known about its metabolism in higher plant cells. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses performed on carrot (Daucus carota) cells fed with GroPCho revealed the existence of an extracellular GroPCho phosphodiesterase. This enzymatic activity splits GroPCho into sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and free choline. In vivo, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate is further hydrolyzed into glycerol and inorganic phosphate by acid phosphatase. We visualized the incorporation and the compartmentation of choline and observed that the major choline pool was phosphorylated and accumulated in the cytosol, whereas a minor fraction was incorporated in the vacuole as free choline. Isolation of plasma membranes, culture medium, and cell wall proteins enabled us to localize this phosphodiesterase activity on the cell wall. We also report the existence of an intracellular glycerophosphodiesterase. This second activity is localized in the vacuole and hydrolyzes GroPCho in a similar fashion to the cell wall phosphodiesterase. Both extra- and intracellular phosphodiesterases are widespread among different plant species and are often enhanced during phosphate deprivation. Finally, competition experiments on the extracellular phosphodiesterase suggested a specificity for glycerophosphodiesters (apparent Km of 50 μm), which distinguishes it from other phosphodiesterases previously described in the literature. PMID:12226504

  3. Excitation-energy transfer dynamics of higher plant photosystem I light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2011-03-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) plays a major role in the light reactions of photosynthesis. In higher plants, PSI is composed of a core complex and four outer antennas that are assembled as two dimers, Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements on the isolated dimers show very similar kinetics. The intermonomer transfer processes are resolved using target analysis. They occur at rates similar to those observed in transfer to the PSI core, suggesting competition between the two transfer pathways. It appears that each dimer is adopting various conformations that correspond to different lifetimes and emission spectra. A special feature of the Lhca complexes is the presence of an absorption band at low energy, originating from an excitonic state of a chlorophyll dimer, mixed with a charge-transfer state. These low-energy bands have high oscillator strengths and they are superradiant in both Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3. This challenges the view that the low-energy charge-transfer state always functions as a quencher in plant Lhc's and it also challenges previous interpretations of PSI kinetics. The very similar properties of the low-energy states of both dimers indicate that the organization of the involved chlorophylls should also be similar, in disagreement with the available structural data.

  4. Effects of ion pairing with calcium and magnesium on selenate availability to higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.R.; Tice, K.R.; Thomason, D.N.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of solution speciation on the bioavailability of trace metals are well documented, but the role of speciation in the bioavailability of oxyanionic trace elements that may form significant ion pairs with Ca and Mg in saline media has not been investigated. The authors assessed the effects of such ion pairing on the availability of selenate to representative monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous higher plants. Formation constants for the CaSO{sub 4}{sup 0} formation was confirmed, but the value of 10{sup 2.7} for CaSeO{sub 4}{sup 0} was found to be in error; a value of 10{sup 2.0} is proposed here as the correct formation constant. Five solution culture experiments were conducted using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or tall wheatgrass (Elytrigia pontica [Podp.] Holub) with treatments consisting of NaSeO{sub 4} levels in combination with various levels of MgCl{sub 2} or CaCl{sub 2}. Both shoot Se concentrations and whole-plant Se contents were highly correlated with the free SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activity but were poorly correlated with the sum of the free ion plus Ca and Mg ion pair species. Thus, the authors have shown, for the first time, that the free ion model of trace metal bioavailability is also valid for oxyanions that form complexes with Ca and Mg in saline media but that this conclusion hinges critically on the accuracy of the pertinent formation constants.

  5. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. )

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  6. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  7. Comparative Studies of Enzymes Related to Serine Metabolism in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Geoffrey P.; Rosenblum, I. Y.; Sallach, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    The following enzymes related to serine metabolism in higher plants have been investigated: 1) d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, 2) phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase, 3) d-glycerate dehydrogenase, and 4) hydroxypyruvate:l-alanine transaminase. Comparative studies on the distribution of the 2 dehydrogenases in seeds and leaves from various plants revealed that d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is widely distributed in seeds in contrast to d-glycerate dehydrogenase, which is either absent or present at low levels, and that the reverse pattern is observed in green leaves. The levels of activity of the 4 enzymes listed above were followed in different tissues of the developing pea (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska). In the leaf, from the tenth to seventeenth day of germination, the specific activity of d-glycerate dehydrogenase increased markedly and was much higher than d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase which remained relatively constant during this time period. Etiolation resulted in a decrease in d-glycerate dehydrogenase and an increase in d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activities. In apical meristem, on the other hand, the level of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase exceeded that of d-glycerate dehydrogenase at all time periods studied. Low and decreasing levels of both dehydrogenases were found in epicotyl and cotyledon. The specific activities of the 2 transaminases remained relatively constant during development in both leaf and apical meristem. In general, however, the levels of phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase were comparable to those of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in a given tissue as were those for hydroxypyruvate: l-alanine transaminase and d-glycerate dehydrogenase. PMID:5699148

  8. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  9. Consequences of variation in plant defense for biodiversity at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Antagonistic interactions between insect herbivores and plants impose selection on plants to defend themselves against these attackers. Although selection on plant defense traits has typically been studied for pairwise plant-attacker interactions, other community members of plant-based food webs are unavoidably affected by these traits as well. A plant trait might, for example, affect parasitoids and predators feeding on the herbivore. Consequently, defensive plant traits structure the diversity and composition of the complex community associated with the plant, and communities as a whole also feed back to selection on plant traits. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how plant defense traits structure insect communities and discuss how molecular mechanisms might drive community-wide effects.

  10. Early herbivore alert matters: plant-mediated effects of egg deposition on higher trophic levels benefit plant fitness.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Frago, Enric; Griese, Eddie; Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-09-01

    Induction of plant defences, specifically in response to herbivore attack, can save costs that would otherwise be needed to maintain defences even in the absence of herbivores. However, plants may suffer considerable damage during the time required to mount these defences against an attacker. This could be resolved if plants could respond to early cues, such as egg deposition, that reliably indicate future herbivory. We tested this hypothesis in a field experiment and found that egg deposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae on black mustard (Brassica nigra) induced a plant response that negatively affected feeding caterpillars. The effect cascaded up to the third and fourth trophic levels (larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids) by affecting the parasitisation rate and parasitoid performance. Overall, the defences induced by egg deposition had a positive effect on plant seed production and may therefore play an important role in the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores. PMID:26147078

  11. Progress in the study of biological effects of hydrogen on higher plants and its promising application in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jiqing; Ye, Zhouheng; Sun, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    While the medical effects of hydrogen have been broadly analyzed, research into the effects of hydrogen on higher plants has often been of lesser concern. Recent studies on the botanical effects of hydrogen have shown that it is involved in signal transduction pathways of plant hormones and can improve the resistance of plants to stressors, such as drought, salinity, cold and heavy metals. In addition, hydrogen could delay postharvest ripening and senescence of fruits. Observational evidence has also shown that hydrogen can regulate the flowering time of plants. These results indicate that hydrogen may have great potential applications within agricultural production, indicating that there may be a new 'hydrogen agricultural era' to come.

  12. Distribution of drimane sesquiterpenoids and tocopherols in liverworts, ferns and higher plants: Polygonaceae, Canellaceae and Winteraceae species.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Harinantenaina, Liva; Toyota, Masao; Nishiki, Mayumi; Bardon, Alicia; Nii, Kaeko

    2012-06-01

    The liverwort, Porella vernicosa complex produces a very hot tasting polygodial, a drimane-type sesquiterpene dialdehyde. The same compound has been isolated from two ferns, Thelypteris hispidula and Blechnum fluviatile, as well as from the higher plants Polygonum hydropiper, P. hydropiper f. purpurascens (Polygonaceae), Cinnamosma, Caspicodendron, Canella and Warburgia species (Canellaceae), and Pseudowintera colorata, Tasmannia lanceolata, Drimys and Zygogynum species (Winteraceae). In addition, the liverworts and higher plants which elaborate polygodial and its related pungent drimane dials contain a small amount of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol or delta-tocotrienol. The present paper gives the results of a comparative study on the drimane-type sesquiterpenoids in some liverworts, ferns and higher plants, and the role of tocopherols in these plant groups.

  13. Contribution of PsbS Function and Stomatal Conductance to Foliar Temperature in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kulasek, Milena; Bernacki, Maciej Jerzy; Ciszak, Kamil; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Natural capacity has evolved in higher plants to absorb and harness excessive light energy. In basic models, the majority of absorbed photon energy is radiated back as fluorescence and heat. For years the proton sensor protein PsbS was considered to play a critical role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of light absorbed by PSII antennae and in its dissipation as heat. However, the significance of PsbS in regulating heat emission from a whole leaf has never been verified before by direct measurement of foliar temperature under changing light intensity. To test its validity, we here investigated the foliar temperature changes on increasing and decreasing light intensity conditions (foliar temperature dynamics) using a high resolution thermal camera and a powerful adjustable light-emitting diode (LED) light source. First, we showed that light-dependent foliar temperature dynamics is correlated with Chl content in leaves of various plant species. Secondly, we compared the foliar temperature dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, the PsbS null mutant npq4-1 and a PsbS-overexpressing transgenic line under different transpiration conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor. We found no direct correlations between the NPQ level and the foliar temperature dynamics. Rather, differences in foliar temperature dynamics are primarily affected by stomatal aperture, and rapid foliar temperature increase during irradiation depends on the water status of the leaf. We conclude that PsbS is not directly involved in regulation of foliar temperature dynamics during excessive light energy episodes. PMID:27273581

  14. Photosynthetic complex stoichiometry dynamics in higher plants: environmental acclimation and photosynthetic flux control

    PubMed Central

    Schöttler, Mark A.; Tóth, Szilvia Z.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is dynamically adjusted to long-term changes in environmental conditions such as growth light intensity and light quality, and to changing metabolic demands for ATP and NADPH imposed by stresses and leaf aging. By changing photosynthetic complex stoichiometry, a long-term imbalance between the photosynthetic production of ATP and NADPH and their metabolic consumption is avoided, and cytotoxic side reactions are minimized. Otherwise, an excess capacity of the light reactions, relative to the demands of primary metabolism, could result in a disturbance of cellular redox homeostasis and an increased production of reactive oxygen species, leading to the destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus and the initiation of cell death programs. In this review, changes of the abundances of the different constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to environmental conditions and during leaf ontogenesis are summarized. The contributions of the different photosynthetic complexes to photosynthetic flux control and the regulation of electron transport are discussed. PMID:24860580

  15. Clocks in algae.

    PubMed

    Noordally, Zeenat B; Millar, Andrew J

    2015-01-20

    As major contributors to global oxygen levels and producers of fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, and phycocolloids, algae have significant ecological and commercial roles. Early algal models have contributed much to our understanding of circadian clocks at physiological and biochemical levels. The genetic and molecular approaches that identified clock components in other taxa have not been as widely applied to algae. We review results from seven species: the chlorophytes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ostreococcus tauri, and Acetabularia spp.; the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium spp.; the euglenozoa Euglena gracilis; and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The relative simplicity, experimental tractability, and ecological and evolutionary diversity of algal systems may now make them particularly useful in integrating quantitative data from "omic" technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with computational and mathematical methods.

  16. In silico identification and analysis of phytoene synthase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Zheng, Q S; Wei, Y P; Chen, J; Liu, R; Wan, H J

    2015-08-14

    In this study, we examined phytoene synthetase (PSY), the first key limiting enzyme in the synthesis of carotenoids and catalyzing the formation of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate in terpenoid biosynthesis. We used known amino acid sequences of the PSY gene in tomato plants to conduct a genome-wide search and identify putative candidates in 34 sequenced plants. A total of 101 homologous genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PSY evolved independently in algae as well as monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Our results showed that the amino acid structures exhibited 5 motifs (motifs 1 to 5) in algae and those in higher plants were highly conserved. The PSY gene structures showed that the number of intron in algae varied widely, while the number of introns in higher plants was 4 to 5. Identification of PSY genes in plants and the analysis of the gene structure may provide a theoretical basis for studying evolutionary relationships in future analyses.

  17. A cryptic intracellular green alga in Ginkgo biloba: ribosomal DNA markers reveal worldwide distribution.

    PubMed

    Trémouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne; Huss, Volker A R

    2007-07-01

    Intracellular symbioses involving eukaryotic microalgae and a variety of heterotrophic protists and invertebrates are widespread, but are unknown in higher plants. Recently, we reported the isolation and molecular identification of a Coccomyxa-like green alga from in vitro cell cultures of Ginkgo biloba L. This alga resides intracellularly in an immature "precursor" form with a nonfunctional chloroplast, implying that algal photosynthetic activity has no role in this endosymbiosis. In necrotizing Ginkgo cells, precursors evolved into mature algae, proliferated, and were liberated into the culture medium after host cell bursting. In the present paper we demonstrate by molecular methods a worldwide distribution of the alga in planta. Endosymbiont-specific sequences of ribosomal DNA could be traced in Ginkgo tissues of each specimen examined from different geographic locations in Europe, North America, and Asia. The Ginkgo/Coccomyca association represents a new kind of intracellular, vertically inherited symbiosis. Storage bodies, probably of lipid nature, present in the cytoplasm of each partner suggest a possible involvement of the endosymbiont in metabolic pathways of its host.

  18. Factors Affecting Development of Peroxisomes and Glycolate Metabolism among Algae of Different Evolutionary Lines of the Prasinophyceae.

    PubMed

    Kehlenbeck, P.; Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1995-12-01

    Leaf-type peroxisomes are not present in the primitive unicellular Prasinophycean line of algae but are present in the multicellular algae Mougeotia, Chara, and Nitella, which are in the one evolutionary line, Charophyceae, that led to higher plants. Processes related to glycolate metabolism that may have been modified or induced with the appearance of peroxisomes have been examined. The algal dissolved inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism and alkalization of the medium during photosynthesis were not lost when peroxisomes appeared in the members of the Charophycean line of algae. Therefore, it is unlikely that lowering of the CO2 concentration in the environment was a major factor in the evolutionary appearance of peroxisomes. Multicellular Mougeotia, early members of the Charophycean line of algae, have peroxisomes, but they excrete excess glycolate into the medium. The cytosolic pyruvate reductase for D-lactate synthesis and the glycolate dehydrogenase activity almost disappeared when peroxisomal glycolate oxidase, which also oxidizes L-lactate, appeared. These biochemical changes do not indicate what caused the induction of leaf-type peroxisomes in this evolutionary line of algae. The oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and glycolate oxidase require about 200 to 400 [mu]M O2 for 0.5 Vmax. These high-O2-requiring steps in glycolate metabolism would have functioned faster with increasing atmospheric O2, which might have been the causative factor in the induction of peroxisomes.

  19. Larval settlement of the common Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma in response to bacteria from the surface of coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Megan J; Williamson, Jane E; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Steinberg, Peter D

    2006-10-01

    Bacterial biofilms are increasingly seen as important for the successful settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. Here we tested the effects of biofilms on settlement of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Larvae settled on many surfaces including various algal species, rocks, sand and shells. Settlement was reduced by autoclaving rocks and algae, and by treatment of algae with antibiotics. These results, and molecular and culture-based analyses, suggested that the bacterial community on plants was important for settlement. To test this, approximately 250 strains of bacteria were isolated from coralline algae, and larvae were exposed to single-strain biofilms. Many induced rates of settlement comparable to coralline algae. The genus Pseudoalteromonas dominated these highly inductive strains, with representatives from Vibrio, Shewanella, Photobacterium and Pseudomonas also responsible for a high settlement response. The settlement response to different bacteria was species specific, as low inducers were also dominated by species in the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio. We also, for the first time, assessed settlement of larvae in response to characterised, monospecific biofilms in the field. Larvae metamorphosed in higher numbers on an inducing biofilm, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, than on either a low-inducing biofilm, Pseudoalteromonas rubra, or an unfilmed control. We conclude that the bacterial community on the surface of coralline algae is important as a settlement cue for H. erythrogramma larvae. This study is also an example of the emerging integration of molecular microbiology and more traditional marine eukaryote ecology.

  20. The re-assimilation of ammonia produced by photorespiration and the nitrogen economy of C3 higher plants.

    PubMed

    Keys, Alfred J

    2006-02-01

    Photorespiration involves the conversion of glycine to serine with the release of ammonia and CO(2). In C(3) terrestrial higher plants the flux through glycine and serine is so large that it results in the production of ammonia at a rate far exceeding that from reduction of new nitrogen entering the plant. The photorespiratory nitrogen cycle re-assimilates this ammonia using the enzymes glutamine synthetase and glutamine:2-oxoglutarateaminotransferase.

  1. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  2. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Christopher R.; Nawrath, Christiane; Poirier, Yves

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  3. Production characteristics of the "higher plants-soil-like substrate" system as an element of the bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Shihov, V. N.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100-1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the "higher plants - SLS" system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.

  4. Lack of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in a range of higher plants that store starch.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, G; ap Rees, T A

    1990-10-15

    The aim of this work was to discover whether fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is present in higher-plant cells that synthesize storage starch. The following were examined: suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max), tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum), florets of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), developing endosperm of maize and of sweet corn (Zea mays), roots of pea (Pisum sativum), and the developing embryos of round and wrinkled varieties of pea. Unfractionated extracts of each tissue readily converted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in assays for both plastidic and cytosolic FBPase. These conversions were not inhibited by 20 microM-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Except in extracts of pea embryos and sweet-corn endosperm, treatment with affinity-purified antibodies to pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase reduced the above fructose 6-phosphate production to the rate found with boiled extracts. The antibody-resistant activity from sweet corn was slight. In immunoblot analyses, antibody to plastidic FBPase did not react positively with any protein in extracts of soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize endosperm and pea roots. Positive reactions were found for extracts of embryos of both round and wrinkled varieties of peas and endosperm of sweet corn. For pea embryos, but not for sweet-corn endosperm, the Mr of the recognized protein corresponded to that of plastidic FBPase. It is argued that soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize (var. White Horse Tooth) endosperm and pea roots lack significant activity of plastidic FBPase, but that this enzyme is present in developing embryos of pea. The data for sweet corn (var. Golden Bantam) are not decisive. It is also argued that, where FBPase is absent, carbon for starch synthesis does not enter the amyloplast as triose phosphate. PMID:2173563

  5. Lack of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in a range of higher plants that store starch.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, G; ap Rees, T A

    1990-10-15

    The aim of this work was to discover whether fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is present in higher-plant cells that synthesize storage starch. The following were examined: suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max), tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum), florets of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), developing endosperm of maize and of sweet corn (Zea mays), roots of pea (Pisum sativum), and the developing embryos of round and wrinkled varieties of pea. Unfractionated extracts of each tissue readily converted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in assays for both plastidic and cytosolic FBPase. These conversions were not inhibited by 20 microM-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Except in extracts of pea embryos and sweet-corn endosperm, treatment with affinity-purified antibodies to pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase reduced the above fructose 6-phosphate production to the rate found with boiled extracts. The antibody-resistant activity from sweet corn was slight. In immunoblot analyses, antibody to plastidic FBPase did not react positively with any protein in extracts of soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize endosperm and pea roots. Positive reactions were found for extracts of embryos of both round and wrinkled varieties of peas and endosperm of sweet corn. For pea embryos, but not for sweet-corn endosperm, the Mr of the recognized protein corresponded to that of plastidic FBPase. It is argued that soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize (var. White Horse Tooth) endosperm and pea roots lack significant activity of plastidic FBPase, but that this enzyme is present in developing embryos of pea. The data for sweet corn (var. Golden Bantam) are not decisive. It is also argued that, where FBPase is absent, carbon for starch synthesis does not enter the amyloplast as triose phosphate.

  6. Hemin inhibits ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in both a higher plant and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Sullivan, M.L.

    1988-05-03

    In eukaryotes, a major route for ATP-dependent protein breakdown proceeds through covalent intermediates of target proteins destined for degradation and the highly conserved, 76 amino acid protein ubiquitin. In rabbit reticulocytes, it has been shown that hemin effectively inhibits this pathway by blocking the catabolism of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Here the authors demonstrate that hemin is also an effective inhibitor of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway in both a higher plant, oats (Avena sativa), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hemin inhibits all stages of the pathway in vitro, including ATP-dependent formation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, disassembly of conjugates by ubiquitin-protein lyase(s) (or isopeptidases), and degradation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates by ATP-dependent protease(s). Using ubiquitin-/sup 125/I-lysozyme conjugates synthesized in vitro as substrates, they determined the specific effects of hemin on the rates of disassembly and degradation separately. The concentration of hemin required for half-maximal inhibition of both processes was identical in each species, approx. 60 ..mu..M in oats and approx. 50 ..mu..M in yeast. Similar inhibitory effects were observed when two hemin analogues, mesoheme or protoporphyrin IX, were employed. These results demonstrate that the effect of hemin on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is not restricted to erythroid cells and as a result hemin may be a useful tool in studies of this pathway in all eukaryotic cells. These results also question models where hemin serves as a specific negative modulator of proteolysis in erythroid cells.

  7. Arabidopsis carotenoid mutants demonstrate that lutein is not essential for photosynthesis in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, B; McDonald, K A; Truong, M; Britton, G; DellaPenna, D

    1996-01-01

    Lutein, a dihydroxy beta, epsilon-carotenoid, is the predominant carotenoid in photosynthetic plant tissue and plays a critical role in light-harvesting complex assembly and function. To further understand lutein synthesis and function, we isolated four lutein-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis that define two loci, lut1 and lut2 (for lutein deficient). These loci are required for lutein biosynthesis but not for the biosynthesis of beta, beta-carotenoids. The lut1 mutations are recessive, accumulate high levels of zeinoxanthin, which is the immediate precursor of lutein, and define lut1 as a disruption in epsilon ring hydroxylation. The lut2 mutations are semidominant, and their biochemical phenotype is consistent with a disruption of epsilon ring cyclization. The lut2 locus cosegregates with the recently isolated epsilon cyclase gene, thus, providing additional evidence that the lut2 alleles are mutations in the epsilon cyclase gene. It appears likely that the epsilon cyclase is a key step in regulating lutein levels and the ratio of lutein to beta,beta-carotenoids. Surprisingly, despite the absence of lutein, neither the lut1 nor lut2 mutation causes a visible deleterious phenotype or altered chlorophyll content, but both mutants have significantly higher levels of beta, beta-carotenoids. In particular, there is a stable increase in the xanthophyll cycle pigments (violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin) in both lut1 and lut2 mutants as well as an increase in zeinoxanthin in lut1 and beta-carotene in lut2. The accumulation of specific carotenoids is discussed as it pertains to the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and incorporation into the photosynthetic apparatus. Presumably, particular beta, beta-carotenoids are able to compensate functionally and structurally for lutein in the photosystems of Arabidopsis. PMID:8837513

  8. Research on the effects of altered gravity and other factors on the growth and development of higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment, maintenance and use of the NASA-UCSC Botanical Centrifuge is discussed. The broad goals of this project were: (1) to establish facilities for conducting experiments under conditions of sustained centrifugation; (2) to pursue research on the gravitational physiology of higher plants; (3) to develop experimental hardware suitable for studies of plant development in the weightless condition; and (4) to accommodate visiting investigators whose researches are of interest to the NASA Biomedical Program and who may require for some limited time, the use of a medium size centrifuge with associated facilities appropriate for plant physiological studies.

  9. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (εwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (εwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of ‑140‰ for monocotyledonous species, ‑107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the εwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants.

  10. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (εwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (εwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of −140‰ for monocotyledonous species, −107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the εwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants. PMID:26806719

  11. C-13 dynamics in benthic algae: Effects of light, phosphorus, and biomass development

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Walter; Fanta, S.E.; Roberts, Brian J

    2008-07-01

    We performed three experiments in indoor streams and one experiment in a natural stream to investigate the effects of growth factors on {delta}{sup 13}C levels in benthic microalgae. In the indoor streams, algae grown under conditions of high light and high phosphorus had {delta}{sup 13}C values that were 16% higher than those in algae grown under conditions of low light and low phosphorus. Light effects were much stronger than phosphorus effects. The effects of both factors increased in strength as algal biomass accrued, and by the end of the experiments, algal {delta}{sup 13}C and biomass were highly correlated. In the natural stream, algae exposed to direct sunlight were enriched 15% over shaded algae, corroborating the strong effect of light in the indoor streams. Growth factors such as light and nutrients probably reduce discrimination against {delta}{sup 13}C (raising {delta}{sup 13}C values) in benthic microalgae by causing CO{sub 2} depletion both within individual cells and within the assemblage matrix. However, because the most marked fractionation occurred in older and thicker assemblages, CO{sub 2} depletion within the assemblage matrix appeared to be more important than depletion within individual cells. In the absence of carbon-concentrating mechanisms, elevated {delta}{sup 13}C suggests that inorganic carbon may limit the growth of benthic algae. The extensive range of d13C values (-14{per_thousand} to -36{per_thousand}) created by light and nutrient manipulations in this study easily encompassed the mean {delta}{sup 13}C values of both C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} terrestrial plants, indicating the challenge aquatic ecologists face in identifying carbon sources for higher trophic levels when light and nutrient conditions vary.

  12. Microbodies of the alga Chara.

    PubMed

    Stabenau, Helmut; Säftel, Werner; Winkler, Uwe

    2003-05-01

    Chara fragilis possesses microbodies with a remarkably large size of up to 2 micro m in diameter. Many of the organelles contain huge nucleoids of amorphous material or paracrystalline inclusions. After isolation of the organelles by gradient centrifugation the specific density of the microbodies was determined to be 1.25 g cm-3. Catalase, glycolate oxidase and hydroxypyruvate reductase as well as enzymes of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway were demonstrated to be constituents of the microbodies in Chara indicating that they are similar to those in green leaves. The data obtained are in agreement with the view that the Charophyceae and especially the algae in the subgroup of Charales are very closely related to the land plants.

  13. Mitochondrial Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase from Higher Plants. Functional Complementation in Yeast, Localization in Plants, and Overexpression in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Rontein, Denis; Wu, Wen-I; Voelker, Dennis R.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants are known to synthesize ethanolamine (Etn) moieties by decarboxylation of free serine (Ser), but there is also some evidence for phosphatidyl-Ser (Ptd-Ser) decarboxylation. Database searches identified diverse plant cDNAs and an Arabidopsis gene encoding 50-kD proteins homologous to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalian mitochondrial Ptd-Ser decarboxylases (PSDs). Like the latter, the plant proteins have putative mitochondrial targeting and inner membrane sorting sequences and contain near the C terminus a Glycine-Serine-Threonine motif corresponding to the site of proteolysis and catalytic pyruvoyl residue formation. A truncated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cDNA lacking the targeting sequence and a chimeric construct in which the targeting and sorting sequences were replaced by those from yeast PSD1 both complemented the Etn requirement of a yeast psd1 psd2 mutant, and PSD activity was detected in the mitochondria of the complemented cells. Immunoblot analysis of potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria demonstrated that PSD is located in mitochondrial membranes, and mRNA analysis in Arabidopsis showed that the mitochondrial PSD gene is expressed at low levels throughout the plant. An Arabidopsis knockup mutant grew normally but had 6- to 13-fold more mitochondrial PSD mRNA and 9-fold more mitochondrial PSD activity. Total membrane PSD activity was, however, unchanged in the mutant, showing mitochondrial activity to be a minor part of the total. These results establish that plants can synthesize Etn moieties via a phospholipid pathway and have both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial PSDs. They also indicate that mitochondrial PSD is an important housekeeping enzyme whose expression is strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:12857846

  14. Linkage disequilibrium and association studies in higher plants: present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pushpendra K; Rustgi, Sachin; Kulwal, Pawan L

    2005-03-01

    During the last two decades, DNA-based molecular markers have been extensively utilized for a variety of studies in both plant and animal systems. One of the major uses of these markers is the construction of genome-wide molecular maps and the genetic analysis of simple and complex traits. However, these studies are generally based on linkage analysis in mapping populations, thus placing serious limitations in using molecular markers for genetic analysis in a variety of plant systems. Therefore, alternative approaches have been suggested, and one of these approaches makes use of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association analysis. Although this approach of association analysis has already been used for studies on genetics of complex traits (including different diseases) in humans, its use in plants has just started. In the present review, we first define and distinguish between LD and association mapping, and then briefly describe various measures of LD and the two methods of its depiction. We then give a list of different factors that affect LD without discussing them, and also discuss the current issues of LD research in plants. Later, we also describe the various uses of LD in plant genomics research and summarize the present status of LD research in different plant genomes. In the end, we discuss briefly the future prospects of LD research in plants, and give a list of softwares that are useful in LD research, which is available as electronic supplementary material (ESM).

  15. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  16. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26757140

  17. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  18. Strong induction of phytochelatin synthesis by zinc in marine green alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    Hirata, K; Tsujimoto, Y; Namba, T; Ohta, T; Hirayanagi, N; Miyasaka, H; Zenk, M H; Miyamoto, K

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), heavy-metal-sequestering peptides, in the marine green alga, Dunaliella tertiolecta, was evaluated under various conditions of exposure to heavy metals. To investigate the effect of heavy metals on both PC synthesis and their upstream biosynthetic reactions, an ion-pair-HPLC system was developed in this study, by which PCs and their biosynthetic intermediates, cysteine (Cys), gamma-glutamylcysteine (gammaEC) and glutathione (GSH), could be determined simultaneously with high sensitivity. When the cells were exposed to Zn2+, the level of PCs was maximal at 200 microM and significantly higher than that obtained after exposure to 400 microM Cd2+, which is the strongest inducer of PC synthesis in higher plants in vivo and in vitro as well as in microalgae. The predominant PC subtype was PC4, followed by PC3 and PC5, whereas PC2, which is generally abundant in higher plants, has the lowest level among PC2 to PC5. These results suggest that the characteristics of PC synthase in D. tertiolecta including the requirement of heavy metals for its catalysis and substrate specificity towards GSH and PC(n) are considerably different from those in higher plants and other algae. While PC synthesis proceeded in the heavy-metal-treated cells, the level of GSH did not appreciably change. To maintain the same size of the GSH pool, GSH must be newly synthesized to balance the amount consumed for PC synthesis. PMID:16233052

  19. Gene-enzyme telationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R. A.

    1980-04-21

    Progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) chemistry of the arogenate molecule; (2) plant enzymology at the organismal level; (3) isolation of regulatory mutants in tobacco; and (4) stability of the haploid state in Nicotiana sylvestris.

  20. Adaptations of higher plant cell walls to water loss: drought vs desiccation.

    PubMed

    Moore, John P; Vicré-Gibouin, Mäite; Farrant, Jill M; Driouich, Azeddine

    2008-10-01

    Water-deficit stress poses unique challenges to plant cells dependent on a hydrostatic skeleton and a polysaccharide-rich cell wall for growth and development. How the plant cell wall is adapted to loss of water is of interest in developing a general understanding of water stress tolerance in plants and of relevance in strategies related to crop improvement. Drought tolerance involves adaptations to growth under reduced water potential and the concomitant restructuring of the cell wall that allow growth processes to occur at lower water contents. Desiccation tolerance, by contrast, is the evolution of cell walls that are capable of losing the majority of cellular water without suffering permanent and irreversible damage to cell wall structure and polymer organization. This minireview highlights common features and differences between these two water-deficit responses observed in plants, emphasizing the role of the cell wall, while suggesting future research avenues that could benefit fundamental understanding in this area.

  1. Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Lessner, Krista M; Dearing, M Denise; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosides are a major group of plant secondary compounds characterized by one or more sugars conjugated to a lipophilic, possibly toxic aglycone, which is released upon hydrolysis. We compared small intestinal homogenate hydrolysis activity of three rodent and two avian species against four substrates: amygdalin and sinigrin, two plant-derived glucosides, the sugar lactose, whose hydrolysis models some activity against flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides, and the disaccharide sugar maltose (from starch), used as a comparator. Three new findings extend our understanding of physiological processing of plant glucosides: (1) the capacity of passerine birds to hydrolyze plant glucosides seems relatively low, compared with rodents; (2) in this first test of vertebrates' enzymic capacity to hydrolyze glucosinolates, sinigrin hydrolytic capacity seems low; (3) in laboratory mice, hydrolytic activity against lactose resides on the enterocytes' apical membrane facing the intestinal lumen, but activity against amygdalin seems to reside inside enterocytes.

  2. The evolutionary reality of species and higher taxa in plants: a survey of post-modern opinion and evidence.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Timothy G; Humphreys, Aelys M

    2015-07-01

    Species are normally considered to be the fundamental unit for understanding the evolution of biodiversity. Yet, in a survey of botanists in 1940, twice as many felt that plant genera were more natural units than plant species. Revisiting the survey, we found more people now regarded species as a more evolutionarily real unit, but a sizeable number still felt that genera were more evolutionarily real than species. Definitions of 'evolutionarily real' split into those based on shared evolutionary history and those based on shared evolutionary fate via ongoing evolutionary processes. We discuss recent work testing for shared evolutionary fate at the species and higher levels and present preliminary evidence for evolutionarily significant higher taxa in plants.

  3. Effect of low-intensity infrared and millimeter radiation on higher plants' biopotentials.

    PubMed

    Mironova, E A; Romanovskii, Y M

    2001-01-01

    This article studies the effect of local low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the bioelectric responses of plants. In our investigation, we used thirty-three wavelengths in the visible and infrared spectrurm regions as well as three wavelengths in the millimeter spectrum region. As a result, we obtained the bioelectric responses of plants to electromagnetic radiation not only in the absorption region of cellular pigments (such as chlorophyll, flavin, and phytochrome) but also in the absorption region of water molecules.

  4. Bioremediation of Atmospheric Hydrocarbons via Bacteria Naturally Associated with Leaves of Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; El-Nemr, I; Sorkhoh, N; Radwan, S S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria associated with leaves of sixteen cultivated and wild plant species from all over Kuwait were analyzed by a culture-independent approach. This technique depended on partial sequencing of 16S rDNA regions in total genomic DNA from the bacterial consortia and comparing the resulting sequences with those in the GenBank database. To release bacterial cells from leaves, tough methods such as sonication co-released too much leaf chloroplasts whose DNA interfered with the bacterial DNA. A more satisfactory bacterial release with a minimum of chloroplast co-release was done by gently rubbing the leaf surfaces with soft tooth brushes in phosphate buffer. The leaves of all plant species harbored on their surfaces bacterial communities predominated by hydrocarbonoclastic (hydrocarbon-utilizing) bacterial genera. Leaves of 6 representative plants brought about in the laboratory effective removal of volatile hydrocarbons in sealed microcosms. Each individual plant species had a unique bacterial community structure. Collectively, the phyllospheric microflora on the studied plants comprised the genera Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Arthrobacter, Marinobacter, Neisseria, Ralstonia, Ochrobactrum. Exiguobacterium, Planomicrobium, Propionibacterium, Kocuria, Rhodococcus and Stenotrophomonas. This community structure was dramatically different from the structure we determined earlier for the same plants using the culture-dependent approach, although in both cases, hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were frequent.

  5. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Hai-Ling; Li, Yue; Kang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Yang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants. PMID:26684301

  6. Progress in the study of biological effects of hydrogen on higher plants and its promising application in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the medical effects of hydrogen have been broadly analyzed, research into the effects of hydrogen on higher plants has often been of lesser concern. Recent studies on the botanical effects of hydrogen have shown that it is involved in signal transduction pathways of plant hormones and can improve the resistance of plants to stressors, such as drought, salinity, cold and heavy metals. In addition, hydrogen could delay postharvest ripening and senescence of fruits. Observational evidence has also shown that hydrogen can regulate the flowering time of plants. These results indicate that hydrogen may have great potential applications within agricultural production, indicating that there may be a new ‘hydrogen agricultural era’ to come. PMID:25276344

  7. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  8. The soil-like substrate: problems and perspective of its use for higher plants cultivation in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..; Ushakova, Sofya; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Being the product of biological mineralization of plant wastes, the soil-like substrate (SLS) contains sufficient amount of nutrients required for plant growth and development. The multiple experiments carried out at the IBP SB RAS demonstrated the SLS fitness for cultivation of higher plant of phototrophic unit in biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS). Together with it, some problems demanding further investigations and solutions had revealed. One of the cardinal problems was interlinked with a relatively low allowance of assimilable nitrogen in comparison with other elements contained in the SLS. Different problems arising under a durational plant cultivation on the SLS in a regime of multi-species uneven-aged conveyer is considered. The work attends considerable attention to analysis of questions occurring at plant cultivation on a reusable SLS that resulted in a yield decrease. The ways of more effective exploitation of the SLS both as a bioreactor for plant wastes mineralization and as a substrate for plant cultivation in a long-functioning BTLSS of an increased closure level of mass exchange processes are suggested.

  9. Origin of the algae.

    PubMed

    Perasso, R; Baroin, A; Qu, L H; Bachellerie, J P; Adoutte, A

    1989-05-11

    Eukaryotic algae are traditionally separated into three broad divisions: the rhodophytes, the chromophytes and the chlorophytes. The evolutionary relationships between these groups, their links with other eukaryotes and with other photosynthetic groups, such as euglenophytes and cryptophytes, have been the subject of much debate and speculation. Here we analyse partial sequences of the large (28S) cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA from ten new species of protists belonging to various groups of unicellular algae. By combining them with the homologous sequences from 14 other unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, we show that rhodophytes, chromophytes and chlorophytes emerge as three distinct groups late among eukaryotes, that is, close to the metazoa-metaphytes radiation. This implies a relatively late occurrence of eukaryotic photosynthetic symbiosis. We also provide details of intra- and inter-phyla relationships.

  10. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  11. Engineering plastid fatty acid biosynthesis to improve food quality and biofuel production in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Marcelo; Carrer, Helaine

    2011-06-01

    The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in plants using molecular biology tools. Evidences suggest that regular consumption of food rich in VLCPUFAs has multiple positive health benefits. Alternative sources of these nutritional fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes. However, fish stocks are in severe decline because of decades of overfishing, and also fish oils can be contaminated by the accumulation of toxic compounds. Recently, there is also an increase in oilseed use for the production of biofuels. This tendency is partly associated with the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of fossil oil and the attractive need to develop renewable sources of fuel. In contrast to this scenario, oil derived from crop plants is normally contaminant free and less environmentally aggressive. Genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level foreign protein expression, marker-gene excision and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Here, we describe the possibility to improve fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, production of new fatty acids and increase their content in plants by genetic engineering of plastid fatty acid biosynthesis via plastid transformation.

  12. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T.; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L.; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A.; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  13. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  14. Testing Crew Responses to Varied Higher Plant Presentations in the MARS-500 Day Mission Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquit, J. D.; Bates, S. C.; Gushin, V. I.; Synchev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.; Marchant, C. C.; Bingham, G. E.

    2008-06-01

    Maintaining psychological and behavioral health of humans during long-duration space missions is of great importance for the future success of space exploration as the hostile space environment adversely impacts the psychological, social, and physiological well-being of humans in space. Growing and tending plants has been proposed as a countermeasures for the negative impacts of long-duration space missions[3] as interactions with plant life on earth have been found to be beneficial to humans in other settings. Preliminary results from a pilot 14-day chamber study appear to support the notion that interactions with plant life may act as a countermeasure for the negative impacts of life in space. Additional data will be collected during the Mars 500-day Chamber Study at Institute of Biomedical Problems (IMBP).

  15. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  16. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  17. Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

  18. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  19. On reproduction in red algae: further research needed at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Pilar; Robaina, Rafael R

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular red algae (Rhodophyta) have some of the most complex life cycles known in living organisms. Economically valuable seaweeds, such as phycocolloid producers, have a triphasic (gametophyte, carposporophyte, and tetrasporophyte) life cycle, not to mention the intricate alternation of generations in the edible "sushi-alga" nori. It is a well-known fact that reproductive processes are controlled by one or more abiotic factor(s), including day length, light quality, temperature, and nutrients. Likewise, endogenous chemical factors such as plant growth regulators have been reported to affect reproductive events in some red seaweeds. Still, in the genomic era and given the high throughput techniques at our disposal, our knowledge about the endogenous molecular machinery lags far behind that of higher plants. Any potential effective control of the reproductive process will entail revisiting most of these results and facts to answer basic biological questions as yet unresolved. Recent results have shed light on the involvement of several genes in red alga reproductive events. In addition, a working species characterized by a simple filamentous architecture, easy cultivation, and accessible genomes may also facilitate our task. PMID:25755663

  20. Estimates of nuclear DNA content in 98 species of brown algae (Phaeophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Naomi; Kapraun, Donald F.; Gómez Garreta, Amelia; Ribera Siguan, M. Antonia; Rull, Jorde L.; Salvador Soler, Noemi; Lewis, Raymond; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Brown algae are critical components of marine ecosystems around the world. However, the genome of only one species of the class has so far been sequenced. This contrasts with numerous sequences available for model organisms such as higher plants, flies or worms. The present communication expands our coverage of DNA content information to 98 species of brown algae with a view to facilitating further genomic investigations of the class. Methodology The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and the red blood cell (chicken erythrocyte) standard were used to estimate 2C values by static microspectrophotometry. Principal results 2C DNA contents are reported for 98 species of brown algae, almost doubling the number of estimates available for the class. The present results also expand the reported DNA content range to 0.2–3.6 pg, with several species of Fucales and Laminariales containing apparent polyploid genomes with 2C = 1.8–3.6 pg. Conclusions The data provide DNA content values for 12 of the 19 recognized orders of brown algae spanning the breadth of the class. Despite earlier contentions concerning DNA content and the presence of oogamy, the present results do not support a correlation between phylogenetic placement and genome size. The closest sister groups to the brown algae have genome sizes on the order of 0.3 pg (e.g. Schizocladiophyceae), suggesting that this may be the ancestral genome size. However, DNA content ranges widely across the class. PMID:22476472

  1. Optimising dissolved air flotation/filtration treatment of algae-laden lagoon effluent using surface charge: a Bolivar treatment plant case study.

    PubMed

    Yap, Russell; Holmes, Michael; Peirson, William; Whittaker, Michael; Stuetz, Richard; Jefferson, Bruce; Henderson, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) incorporating filtration (DAFF) is used at the Bolivar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to polish lagoon effluent for reuse. Elevated algal populations are frequently experienced and can lead to increased coagulant requirements and process control issues. Streaming current detectors (SCDs) and a charge demand analyser (CDA) were used to monitor the full-scale plant. This was followed by an optimisation study using a pilot plant with a CDA. It was found that the normal operational charge demand range for DAF at Bolivar was between -46 and -40 μeq L(-1). Decreasing the pH of coagulation reduced coagulant consumption and facilitated more sensitive CDA responses to changes in alum dose.

  2. Phosphoinositide kinases and the synthesis of polyphosphoinositides in higher plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobak, B. K.; Dewey, R. E.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are a family of inositol-containing phospholipids which are present in all eukaryotic cells. Although in most cells these lipids, with the exception of phosphatidylinositol, constitute only a very minor proportion of total cellular lipids, they have received immense attention by researchers in the past 15-20 years. This is due to the discovery that these lipids, rather than just having structural functions, play key roles in a wide range of important cellular processes. Much less is known about the plant phosphoinositides than about their mammalian counterparts. However, it has been established that a functional phosphoinositide system exists in plant cells and it is becoming increasingly clear that inositol-containing lipids are likely to play many important roles throughout the life of a plant. It is not our intention to give an exhaustive overview of all aspects of the field, but rather we focus on the phosphoinositide kinases responsible for the synthesis of all phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol. Also, we mention some of the aspects of current phosphoinositide research which, in our opinion, are most likely to provide a suitable starting point for further research into the role of phosphoinositides in plants.

  3. Phosphoinositide kinases and the synthesis of polyphosphoinositides in higher plant cells.

    PubMed

    Drøbak, B K; Dewey, R E; Boss, W F

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are a family of inositol-containing phospholipids which are present in all eukaryotic cells. Although in most cells these lipids, with the exception of phosphatidylinositol, constitute only a very minor proportion of total cellular lipids, they have received immense attention by researchers in the past 15-20 years. This is due to the discovery that these lipids, rather than just having structural functions, play key roles in a wide range of important cellular processes. Much less is known about the plant phosphoinositides than about their mammalian counterparts. However, it has been established that a functional phosphoinositide system exists in plant cells and it is becoming increasingly clear that inositol-containing lipids are likely to play many important roles throughout the life of a plant. It is not our intention to give an exhaustive overview of all aspects of the field, but rather we focus on the phosphoinositide kinases responsible for the synthesis of all phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol. Also, we mention some of the aspects of current phosphoinositide research which, in our opinion, are most likely to provide a suitable starting point for further research into the role of phosphoinositides in plants.

  4. Isolation and characterization of ice-binding proteins from higher plants.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Vanderbeld, Barbara; Bredow, Melissa; Tomalty, Heather; Davies, Peter L; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of ice-binding proteins from plants can involve many techniques, only a few of which are presented here. Chief among these methods are tests for ice recrystallization inhibition activity. Two distinct procedures are described; neither is normally used for precise quantitative assays. Thermal hysteresis assays are used for quantitative studies but are also useful for ice crystal morphologies, which are important for the understanding of ice-plane binding. Once the sequence of interest is cloned, recombinant expression, necessary to verify ice-binding protein identity can present challenges, and a strategy for recovery of soluble, active protein is described. Lastly, verification of function in planta borrows from standard protocols, but with an additional screen applicable to ice-binding proteins. Here we have attempted to assist researchers wishing to isolate and characterize ice-binding proteins from plants with a few methods critical to success.

  5. Isolation and characterization of ice-binding proteins from higher plants.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Vanderbeld, Barbara; Bredow, Melissa; Tomalty, Heather; Davies, Peter L; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of ice-binding proteins from plants can involve many techniques, only a few of which are presented here. Chief among these methods are tests for ice recrystallization inhibition activity. Two distinct procedures are described; neither is normally used for precise quantitative assays. Thermal hysteresis assays are used for quantitative studies but are also useful for ice crystal morphologies, which are important for the understanding of ice-plane binding. Once the sequence of interest is cloned, recombinant expression, necessary to verify ice-binding protein identity can present challenges, and a strategy for recovery of soluble, active protein is described. Lastly, verification of function in planta borrows from standard protocols, but with an additional screen applicable to ice-binding proteins. Here we have attempted to assist researchers wishing to isolate and characterize ice-binding proteins from plants with a few methods critical to success. PMID:24852641

  6. DNA repair and recombination in higher plants: insights from comparative genomics of arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The DNA repair and recombination (DRR) proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, caused by environmental agents and other genotoxic agents, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to abide them. Results We identified genes potentially involved in DRR mechanisms in Arabidopsis and rice using similarity searches and conserved domain analysis against proteins known to be involved in DRR in human, yeast and E. coli. As expected, many of DRR genes are very similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Beside these eukaryotes specific genes, several prokaryotes specific genes were also found to be well conserved in plants. In Arabidopsis, several functionally important DRR gene duplications are present, which do not occur in rice. Among DRR proteins, we found that proteins belonging to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were relatively more conserved than proteins needed for the other DRR pathways. Sub-cellular localization studies of DRR gene suggests that these proteins are mostly reside in nucleus while gene drain in between nucleus and cell organelles were also found in some cases. Conclusions The similarities and dissimilarities in between plants and other organisms' DRR pathways are discussed. The observed differences broaden our knowledge about DRR in the plants world, and raises the potential question of whether differentiated functions have evolved in some cases. These results, altogether, provide a useful framework for further experimental studies in these organisms. PMID:20646326

  7. Nucleases in higher plants and their possible involvement in DNA degradation during leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Wataru; Takami, Tsuneaki

    2014-07-01

    During leaf senescence, macromolecules such as proteins and lipids are known to be degraded for redistribution into upper tissues. Similarly, nucleic acids appear to undergo fragmentation or degradation during senescence, but the physiological role of nucleic acid degradation, particularly of genomic DNA degradation, remains unclear. To date, more than a dozen of plant deoxyribonucleases have been reported, whereas it remains to be verified whether any of them degrade DNA during leaf senescence. This review summarizes current knowledge related to the plant nucleases that are induced developmentally or in a tissue-specific manner and are known to degrade DNA biochemically. Of these, several endonucleases (BFN1, CAN1, and CAN2) and an exonuclease (DPD1) in Arabidopsis seem to act in leaf senescence because they were shown to be inducible at the transcript level. This review specifically examines DPD1, which is dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. Results show that, among the exonuclease family to which DPD1 belongs, DPD1 expression is extraordinary when estimated using a microarray database. DPD1 is the only example among the nucleases in which DNA degradation has been confirmed in vivo in pollen by mutant analysis. These data imply a significant role of organelle DNA degradation during leaf senescence and implicate DPD1 as a potential target for deciphering nucleotide salvage in plants.

  8. Enhancement of transformation rates in higher plants by low-dose irradiation: Are DNA repair systems involved in the incorporation of exogenous DNA into the plant genome?

    PubMed

    Köhler, F; Cardon, G; Pöhlman, M; Gill, R; Schieder, O

    1989-02-01

    Irradiation (X-ray; 5-15 Gy) of protoplasts treated with plasmid-DNA and PEG yielded higher transformation rates in comparison to non-irradiated protoplasts transformed by the same method. This could be demonstrated for four plant species. The irradiation doses used did not affect the total number of colonies regenerated without selection pressure, but resulted in 3-6-fold enhancement of hygromycin- or kanamycin-resistant colonies. Plant regeneration frequencies of transformed colonies derived from irradiated and non-irradiated protoplasts were similar in tobacco as well as in Petunia. Higher integration rates of foreign DNA as a consequence of an increased recombination machinery in irradiated cells may be responsible for the enhancement of the number of stably transformed colonies.

  9. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  10. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 {mu}g C {center dot} {mu}g chl{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h{sup {minus}1} higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and {sup 14}C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and {sup 14}C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities.

  11. Role of Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants. Progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1992-12-31

    The cytoskeleton including its microtubule (Mt) component participates in processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of Mts into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. The cortical array somehow directs the deposition of cellulose. Little molecular information is available regarding the formation of these arrays or the cellular signals to which they respond. Experimental data described here suggests that plant cells use calcium, in the form of a Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin complex, to affect the dynamics of Mts within the cortical array. Owing to the importance of Ca{sup ++} as a regulatory ion in higher plants we are probing for a putative Ca{sup ++}/Mt transduction pathway which may serve to integrate Mt activities within the growing and developing plant cell. We are using a lysed cell model in conjunction with immunocytochemical and biochemical methodologies to dissect how Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin interacts with Mts to affect their function.

  12. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  13. Engineering sciences design. Design and implementation of components for a bioregenerative system for growing higher order plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal was to address specific needs in the design of an integrated system to grow higher plants in space. With the needs defined, the emphasis was placed on the design and fabrication of devices to meet these needs. Specific attention was placed on a hand-held harvester, a nutrient concentration sensor, an air-water separator, and a closed-loop biological system simulation.

  14. The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

  15. Herbivore-Triggered Electrophysiological Reactions: Candidates for Systemic Signals in Higher Plants and the Challenge of Their Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Mithöfer, Axel; Will, Torsten; Felle, Hubert H; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2016-04-01

    In stressed plants, electrophysiological reactions (elRs) are presumed to contribute to long-distance intercellular communication between distant plant parts. Because of the focus on abiotic stress-induced elRs in recent decades, biotic stress-triggered elRs have been widely ignored. It is likely that the challenge to identify the particular elR types (action potential [AP], variation potential, and system potential [SP]) was responsible for this course of action. Thus, this survey focused on insect larva feeding (Spodoptera littoralis and Manduca sexta) that triggers distant APs, variation potentials, and SPs in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species (Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, and Nicotiana tabacum). APs were detected only after feeding on the stem/culm, whereas SPs were observed systemically following damage to both stem/culm and leaves. This was attributed to the unequal vascular innervation of the plant and a selective electrophysiological connectivity of the plant tissue. However, striking variations in voltage patterns were detected for each elR type. Further analyses (also in Brassica napus and Cucurbita maxima) employing complementary electrophysiological approaches in response to different stimuli revealed various reasons for these voltage pattern variations: an intrinsic plasticity of elRs, a plant-specific signature of elRs, a specific influence of the applied (a)biotic trigger, the impact of the technical approach, and/or the experimental setup. As a consequence, voltage pattern variations, which are not irregular but rather common, need to be included in electrophysiological signaling analysis. Due to their widespread occurrence, systemic propagation, and respective triggers, elRs should be considered as candidates for long-distance communication in higher plants. PMID:26872949

  16. Herbivore-Triggered Electrophysiological Reactions: Candidates for Systemic Signals in Higher Plants and the Challenge of Their Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Mithöfer, Axel; Will, Torsten; Felle, Hubert H; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2016-04-01

    In stressed plants, electrophysiological reactions (elRs) are presumed to contribute to long-distance intercellular communication between distant plant parts. Because of the focus on abiotic stress-induced elRs in recent decades, biotic stress-triggered elRs have been widely ignored. It is likely that the challenge to identify the particular elR types (action potential [AP], variation potential, and system potential [SP]) was responsible for this course of action. Thus, this survey focused on insect larva feeding (Spodoptera littoralis and Manduca sexta) that triggers distant APs, variation potentials, and SPs in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species (Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, and Nicotiana tabacum). APs were detected only after feeding on the stem/culm, whereas SPs were observed systemically following damage to both stem/culm and leaves. This was attributed to the unequal vascular innervation of the plant and a selective electrophysiological connectivity of the plant tissue. However, striking variations in voltage patterns were detected for each elR type. Further analyses (also in Brassica napus and Cucurbita maxima) employing complementary electrophysiological approaches in response to different stimuli revealed various reasons for these voltage pattern variations: an intrinsic plasticity of elRs, a plant-specific signature of elRs, a specific influence of the applied (a)biotic trigger, the impact of the technical approach, and/or the experimental setup. As a consequence, voltage pattern variations, which are not irregular but rather common, need to be included in electrophysiological signaling analysis. Due to their widespread occurrence, systemic propagation, and respective triggers, elRs should be considered as candidates for long-distance communication in higher plants.

  17. Quantification and Localization of S-Nitrosothiols (SNOs) in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Juan B; Valderrama, Raquel; Carreras, Alfonso; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are a family of molecules produced by the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with -SH thiol groups present in the cysteine residues of proteins and peptides caused by a posttranslational modification (PTM) known as S-nitrosylation (strictly speaking S-nitrosation) that can affect the cellular function of proteins. These molecules are a relatively more stable form of NO and consequently can act as a major intracellular NO reservoir and, in some cases, as a long-distance NO signal. Additionally, SNOs can be transferred between small peptides and protein thiol groups through S-transnitrosylation mechanisms. Thus, detection and cellular localization of SNOs in plant cells can be useful tools to determine how these molecules are modulated under physiological and adverse conditions and to determine their importance as a mechanism for regulating different biochemical pathways. Using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence ozone technique and a specific fluorescence probe (Alexa Fluor 488 Hg-link phenylmercury), the methods described in this chapter enable us to determine SNOs in an nM range as well as their cellular distribution in the tissues of different plant species. PMID:27094417

  18. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  19. Attempts to detect cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in higher plants by three assay methods.

    PubMed

    Bressan, R A; Ross, C W

    1976-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (Avena sativa L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were measured with a modified Gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. The incorporation of adenosine-8-(14)C into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic AMP was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. The binding assay proved reliable for mouse and rat liver analyses, but was nonspecific for plant tissues. It responded to various components from lettuce and potato tissues chromatographically similar to but not identical with cyclic AMP. The protein kinase activation assay was much more specific, but it also exhibited positive responses in the presence of compounds not chromatographically identical to cyclic AMP. The concentrations of cyclic AMP in the plant tissues tested were at the lower limits of detection and characterization obtainable with these assays. The estimates of maximal levels were much lower than reported in many previous studies. PMID:16659419

  20. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  1. The Role of Silicon in Higher Plants under Salinity and Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Huynh, Wayne Q.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2016-01-01

    Although deemed a “non-essential” mineral nutrient, silicon (Si) is clearly beneficial to plant growth and development, particularly under stress conditions, including salinity and drought. Here, we review recent research on the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms underlying Si-induced alleviation of osmotic and ionic stresses associated with salinity and drought. We distinguish between changes observed in the apoplast (i.e., suberization, lignification, and silicification of the extracellular matrix; transpirational bypass flow of solutes and water), and those of the symplast (i.e., transmembrane transport of solutes and water; gene expression; oxidative stress; metabolism), and discuss these features in the context of Si biogeochemistry and bioavailability in agricultural soils, evaluating the prospect of using Si fertilization to increase crop yield and stress tolerance under salinity and drought conditions. PMID:27486474

  2. The Role of Silicon in Higher Plants under Salinity and Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Huynh, Wayne Q; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2016-01-01

    Although deemed a "non-essential" mineral nutrient, silicon (Si) is clearly beneficial to plant growth and development, particularly under stress conditions, including salinity and drought. Here, we review recent research on the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms underlying Si-induced alleviation of osmotic and ionic stresses associated with salinity and drought. We distinguish between changes observed in the apoplast (i.e., suberization, lignification, and silicification of the extracellular matrix; transpirational bypass flow of solutes and water), and those of the symplast (i.e., transmembrane transport of solutes and water; gene expression; oxidative stress; metabolism), and discuss these features in the context of Si biogeochemistry and bioavailability in agricultural soils, evaluating the prospect of using Si fertilization to increase crop yield and stress tolerance under salinity and drought conditions. PMID:27486474

  3. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  4. Thermal stability of higher plant biomarkers evaluated through pyrolysis; geologic implications in thermally-mature sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Von Bargen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The organic molecules known as n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and sterols are widely used biomarkers in paleoecological and organic matter source-apportionment studies, and are complementary to traditional bulk organic matter proxies (organic carbon stable isotopes and C/N ratios). These organic matter parameters are hindered by early and late diagenesis, through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, which can lead to uncertainty in sediments on geologic timescales. This study seeks to use modern central Texas plants and soils as tools for our understanding and interpretation of biomarker patterns deep time, specifically in thermally mature sediment and paleosols. Bulk leaf and soil samples were heat treated to a range of temperatures in a muffle furnace in the absence of oxygen in order to clarify the role of abiotic degradation (thermal cracking) on bulk SOM and biomarker distributions. Preliminary results for unaltered n-alkane distributions of Southern Cattail (Typha domingensis) biomass shows a strong odd-over-even predominance, where the most abundant n-alkanes are nC23, nC25, nC27, and nC29. The biomass exposed to slow pyrolysis temperature of 300°C had n-alkanes ranging from nC11-nC29, with no odd-over-even predominance. The high abundance of lower molecular weight n-alkanes (plant material is severely disrupted by modest heating, an observation that must be taken into account when interpreting these biomarkers in deeply-buried geological samples.

  5. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  6. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  7. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg.

  8. Tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plants, representing the higher plant compartment in bioregenerative life support systems, to super-optimal air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2013-01-01

    Plants intended to be included in the photosynthesizing compartment of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) need to be studied in terms of both their production parameters under optimal conditions and their tolerance to stress factors that might be caused by emergency situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plants to the super-optimal air temperature of 45 ± 1 °C as dependent upon PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) intensity and the duration of the exposure to the stress factor. Chufa plants were grown hydroponically, on expanded clay, under artificial light. The nutrient solution was Knop's mineral medium. Until the plants were 30 days old, they had been grown at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and air temperature 25 °C. Thirty-day-old plants were exposed to the temperature 45 °C for 6 h, 20 h, and 44 h at PAR intensities 690 μmol m-2 s-1 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1. The exposure to the damaging air temperature for 44 h at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR caused irreversible damage to PSA, resulting in leaf mortality. In chufa plants exposed to heat shock treatment at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR for 6 h and 20 h, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, and CO2 release in the light was recorded. Functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus, estimated from parameters of pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence in Photosystem 2 (PS 2), decreased 40% to 50%. After the exposure to the stress factor was finished, functional activity of PSA recovered its initial values, and apparent photosynthesis (Papparent) rate after a 20-h exposure to the stress factor was 2.6 times lower than before the elevation of the temperature. During the first hours of plant exposure to the temperature 45 °C at 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, respiration rate was higher than photosynthesis rate, but after 3-4 h of the exposure, photosynthetic processes exceeded oxidative ones and CO2 absorption in the light was recorded. At the end of the 6-h exposure

  9. Genetic engineering of corn and other higher plants: Progress report for the period August 1, 1984--July 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a number of potential vectors for maize transformation. All vectors have used the bacterial CAT gene connected between a maize promoter and a maize polyadenylation site. The product of this gene is readily assayed in maize tissue and may provide a fast screen for young seedlings. We have found that chloramphenicol reduces the growth of young seedlings and causes bleaching of the first leaves, but does not kill the plant. A mosaic with a transforming DNA may allow better growth. We remove a portion of the root to assay for CAT activity. CAT activity should be detected even if only a small number of cells contain DNA. If activity is detected in these young plants, the plant will be potted, and F1 and F2 plants will be generated. These will then be screened for stable inheritance of the transforming DNA. The higher the expression of the CAT gene in these few cells, the more reliable will be the assay. Accordingly, we have connected the CAT gene to one of the strongest maize promoters active in the young seedling. This promoter was identified in a large scale screening operation that identified the single copy gene that expressed the most abundant polyA RNA. The promoter and coding regions have been sequenced. The product of this gene has not yet been determined.

  10. Inclusion of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes as a source of higher plant mineral nutrition in BTLSS mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Anischenko, Olesya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Human exometabolites inclusion into an intrasystem mass exchange will allow increasing of a closure level of a biological-technical life support system (BTLSS). Previously at the IBP SB RAS it was shown that human mineralized exometabolites could be incorporated in the BTLSS mass exchange as a mineral nutrition source for higher plants. However, it is not known how that combined use of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes in the capacity of nutrient medium, being a part of the BTLSS consumer wastes, will affect the plant productivity. Several wheat vegetations were grown in an uneven-aged conveyor on a neutral substrate. A mixture of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes was used as a nutrient solution in the experiment treatment and human mineralized exometabolites were used in the control. Consequently, a high wheat yield in the experiment treatment practically equal to the control yield was obtained. Thus, mineralized fish wastes can be an additional source of macro-and micronutrients for plants, and use of such wastes for the plant mineral nutrition allows increasing of BTLSS closure level.

  11. Biological effects of weightlessness and clinostatic conditions registered in cells of root meristem and cap of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytnik, K. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Belyavskaya, N. A.; Nedukha, E. M.; Tarasenko, V. A.

    Research in cellular reproduction, differentiation and vital activity, i.e. processes underlying the development and functioning of organisms, plants included, is essential for solving fundamental and applied problems of space biology. Detailed anatomical analysis of roots of higher plants grown on board the Salyut 6 orbital research station show that under conditions of weightlessness for defined duration mitosis, cytokinesis and tissue differentiation in plant vegetative organs occur essentially normally. At the same time, certain rearrangements in the structural organization of cellular organelles - mainly the plastid apparatus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and nucleus - are established in the root meristem and cap of the experimental plants. This is evidence for considerable changes in cellular metabolism. The structural changes in the subcellular level arising under spaceflight conditions are partially absent in clinostat experiments designed to simulate weightlessness. Various clinostatic conditions have different influences on the cell structural and functional organization than does space flight. It is suggested that alterations of cellular metabolism under weightlessness and clinostatic conditions occur within existing genetic programs.

  12. Transport of phosphocholine in higher plant cells: sup 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, E.; Bligny, R.; Roby, C.; Douce, R. )

    1990-06-01

    Phosphocholine (PC) is an abundant primary form of organic phosphate that is transported in plant xylem sap. Addition of PC to the perfusate of compressed P{sub i}-starved sycamore cells monitored by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy resulted in an accumulation of PC and all the other phosphate esters in the cytoplasmic compartment. Addition of hemicholinium-3, an inhibitor of choline uptake, to the perfusate inhibited PC accumulation but not inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}). When the P{sub i}-starved cells were perfused with a medium containing either P{sub i} or PC, the resulting P{sub i} distribution in the cell was the same. Addition of choline instead of PC to the perfusate of compressed cells resulted in an accumulation of PC in the cytoplasmic compartment from choline kinase activity. In addition, PC phosphatase activity has been discovered associated with the cell wall. These results indicate that PC was rapidly hydrolyzed outside the cell and that choline and P{sub i} entered the cytosolic compartment where choline kinase re-forms PC.

  13. Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sabrina; Gabriel, Edith; Chadœuf, Joël; Bonneu, Florent; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2016-07-25

    Weed control is generally considered to be essential for crop production and herbicides have become the main method used for weed control in developed countries. However, concerns about harmful environmental consequences have led to strong pressure on farmers to reduce the use of herbicides. As food demand is forecast to increase by 50% over the next century, an in-depth quantitative analysis of crop yields, weeds and herbicides is required to balance economic and environmental issues. This study analysed the relationship between weeds, herbicides and winter wheat yields using data from 150 winter wheat fields in western France. A Bayesian hierarchical model was built to take account of farmers' behaviour, including implicitly their perception of weeds and weed control practices, on the effectiveness of treatment. No relationship was detected between crop yields and herbicide use. Herbicides were found to be more effective at controlling rare plant species than abundant weed species. These results suggest that reducing the use of herbicides by up to 50% could maintain crop production, a result confirmed by previous studies, while encouraging weed biodiversity. Food security and biodiversity conservation may, therefore, be achieved simultaneously in intensive agriculture simply by reducing the use of herbicides.

  14. Cytosine methylation of plastid genome in higher plants. Fact or artefact?

    PubMed

    Fojtová, M; Kovarík, A; Matyásek, R

    2001-03-01

    DNA methylation of chloroplast genome has been studied in a large variety of angiosperm species using restriction enzyme analysis of three genomic loci (totally encompassing about 10% of chloroplast genome) and bisulfite genomic sequencing of tobacco ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (large subunit) gene (rbcL). Except for CCWGG (W=A or T) sites that were partially refractory to the cleavage with methylation sensitive EcoRII in all loci, no cytosine methylation was found at the CCGG (MspI/HpaII) and several other restriction sites tested. However, EcoRII was unable to completely digest an unmethylated CCWGG site in the cloned rbcL gene on plasmid. Further a bisulfite genomic sequencing performed on EcoRII-restricted DNA failed to show any 5-methylcytosine either within or outside inspected EcoRII sites along the 3' end of rbcL coding region. In conclusion our results do not support evidence for methylated cytosine residues in plant chloroplast genomes and we suggest that results obtained with EcoRII should be interpreted with great care especially when small differences in methylation levels are analysed. PMID:11448733

  15. Photoprotection and triplet energy transfer in higher plants: the role of electronic and nuclear fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Cupellini, Lorenzo; Jurinovich, Sandro; Prandi, Ingrid G; Caprasecca, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-28

    Photosynthetic organisms employ several photoprotection strategies to avoid damage due to the excess energy in high light conditions. Among these, quenching of triplet chlorophylls by neighboring carotenoids (Cars) is fundamental in preventing the formation of singlet oxygen. Cars are able to accept the triplets from chlorophylls by triplet energy transfer (TET). We have here studied TET rates in CP29, a minor light-harvesting complex (LHC) of the Photosystem II in plants. A fully atomistic strategy combining classical molecular dynamics of the LHC in its natural environment with a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/polarizable MM description of the TET is used. We find that the structural fluctuations of the pigment-protein complex can largely enhance the transfer rates with respect to those predicted using the crystal structure, reducing the triplet quenching times in the subnanosecond scale. These findings add a new perspective for the interpretation of the photoprotection function and its relation with structural motions of the LHC.

  16. Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sabrina; Gabriel, Edith; Chadœuf, Joël; Bonneu, Florent; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Weed control is generally considered to be essential for crop production and herbicides have become the main method used for weed control in developed countries. However, concerns about harmful environmental consequences have led to strong pressure on farmers to reduce the use of herbicides. As food demand is forecast to increase by 50% over the next century, an in-depth quantitative analysis of crop yields, weeds and herbicides is required to balance economic and environmental issues. This study analysed the relationship between weeds, herbicides and winter wheat yields using data from 150 winter wheat fields in western France. A Bayesian hierarchical model was built to take account of farmers' behaviour, including implicitly their perception of weeds and weed control practices, on the effectiveness of treatment. No relationship was detected between crop yields and herbicide use. Herbicides were found to be more effective at controlling rare plant species than abundant weed species. These results suggest that reducing the use of herbicides by up to 50% could maintain crop production, a result confirmed by previous studies, while encouraging weed biodiversity. Food security and biodiversity conservation may, therefore, be achieved simultaneously in intensive agriculture simply by reducing the use of herbicides. PMID:27453451

  17. Gene-Enzyme Relationships of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-12

    Inhibition studies of amino acids in Nicotiana silvestris suspension cells gave clues to the difficulties for obtaining mutants deficient in post prephenate pathway proteins of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydratase). Such mutants, if successfully obtained, would allow gene-enzyme relationships of aromatic amino acid proteins to be studied. We found that amino acids were inhibitory toward plant cell growth, and thus were unable to rescue analog resistant mutants. Toxicity of all amino acids toward exponentially dividing Nicotiana silvestris suspension cultured cells was monitored by following growth rates. Except for L-glutamine, all 19 protein amino acids inhibited cell growth. Inhibition of growth progressed to cell deterioration. Electron microscopy showed that amino acids triggered a state of cell shrinkage that eventually degenerated to total cellular disorganization. L-glutamine was not only an effective agent for prevention of amino acid toxicity, but enhanced the final growth yield. L-glutamine also was able to completely reverse inhibition effects in cells that had been in the slowed exponential phase. Two types of inhibition occurred and we have proposed that any amino acid inhibition that can be completely antagonized by L-glutamine be called ''general amino acid inhibition''. ''Specific amino acid inhibition'' resulting from particular pathway imbalances caused by certain exogenous amino acids, can be recognized and studied in the presence of L-glutamine which can abolishes the complication effects of general amino acid inhibition.

  18. Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species

    PubMed Central

    Gaba, Sabrina; Gabriel, Edith; Chadœuf, Joël; Bonneu, Florent; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Weed control is generally considered to be essential for crop production and herbicides have become the main method used for weed control in developed countries. However, concerns about harmful environmental consequences have led to strong pressure on farmers to reduce the use of herbicides. As food demand is forecast to increase by 50% over the next century, an in-depth quantitative analysis of crop yields, weeds and herbicides is required to balance economic and environmental issues. This study analysed the relationship between weeds, herbicides and winter wheat yields using data from 150 winter wheat fields in western France. A Bayesian hierarchical model was built to take account of farmers’ behaviour, including implicitly their perception of weeds and weed control practices, on the effectiveness of treatment. No relationship was detected between crop yields and herbicide use. Herbicides were found to be more effective at controlling rare plant species than abundant weed species. These results suggest that reducing the use of herbicides by up to 50% could maintain crop production, a result confirmed by previous studies, while encouraging weed biodiversity. Food security and biodiversity conservation may, therefore, be achieved simultaneously in intensive agriculture simply by reducing the use of herbicides. PMID:27453451

  19. Automated pressure probe for measurement of water transport properties of higher plant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Durachko, Daniel M.

    1986-10-01

    A computer-assisted instrument was constructed to measure the fundamental physical properties that regulate water transport at the cell level in plants. With this automated pressure probe, we measure a cell's hydrostatic pressure by inserting an oil-filled glass capillary into the cell. The capillary is connected to a pressure sensor and to a plunger controlled by a stepper motor. At the capillary tip an interface forms between the cell sap and oil. The image of this interface is directed through a microscope to a video camera. The interface position is detected by a video processor sampling at 60 Hz and is regulated by a microcomputer which advances or retracts the plunger at rates up to 280 steps per second. To determine the hydraulic conductance of cell membranes, the computer carries out pressure-relaxation and pressure-clamp experiments. Pressure is recorded with a resolution of 0.02 bar and is regulated in pressure-clamp experiments at ±0.02 bar. The instrument measures the cell volumetric elastic modulus by injecting or removing small volumes from the cell while simultaneously measuring cell turgor pressure. This system was tested on the cells of pea seedlings and proved superior to the previous techniques, especially for pressure-clamp experiments and volumetric elastic modulus determinations.

  20. Calcium-dependent protein kinases in plants: evolution, expression and function.

    PubMed

    Valmonte, Gardette R; Arthur, Kieren; Higgins, Colleen M; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2014-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are plant proteins that directly bind calcium ions before phosphorylating substrates involved in metabolism, osmosis, hormone response and stress signaling pathways. CPKs are a large multigene family of proteins that are present in all plants studied to date, as well as in protists, oomycetes and green algae, but are not found in animals and fungi. Despite the increasing evidence of the importance of CPKs in developmental and stress responses from various plants, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of CPKs from algae to higher plants has not been undertaken. This paper describes the evolution of CPKs from green algae to plants using a broadly sampled phylogenetic analysis and demonstrates the functional diversification of CPKs based on expression and functional studies in different plant species. Our findings reveal that CPK sequence diversification into four major groups occurred in parallel with the terrestrial transition of plants. Despite significant expansion of the CPK gene family during evolution from green algae to higher plants, there is a high level of sequence conservation among CPKs in all plant species. This sequence conservation results in very little correlation between CPK evolutionary groupings and functional diversity, making the search for CPK functional orthologs a challenge.

  1. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  2. SCALE FORMATION IN CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGAE

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. Malcolm; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinig, Hans; Falk, Heinz; Sitte, Peter

    1970-01-01

    The cell wall of the marine chrysophycean alga Pleurochrysis scherfellii is composed of distinct wall fragments embedded in a gelatinous mass. The latter is a polysaccharide of pectic character which is rich in galactose and ribose. These wall fragments are identified as scales. They have been isolated and purified from the vegetative mother cell walls after zoospore formation. Their ultrastructure is described in an electron microscope study combining sectioning, freeze-etch, and negative staining techniques. The scales consist of a layer of concentrically arranged microfibrils (ribbons with cross-sections of 12 to 25 x 25 to 40 A) and underlying radial fibrils of similar dimensions. Such a network-plate is densely coated with particles which are assumed to be identical to the pectic component. The microfibrils are resistant to strong alkaline treatment and have been identified as cellulose by different methods, including sugar analysis after total hydrolysis, proton resonance spectroscopical examination (NMR spectroscopy) of the benzoylated product, and diverse histochemical tests. The formation and secretion of the scales can be followed along the maturing Golgi cisternae starting from a pronounced dilated "polymerization center" as a completely intracisternal process which ends in the exocytotic extrusion of the scales. The scales reveal the very same ultrastructure within the Golgi cisternae as they do in the cell wall. The present finding represents the first evidence on cellulose formation by the Golgi apparatus and is discussed in relation to a basic scheme for cellulose synthesis in plant cells in general. PMID:5513606

  3. Identification of phytochelatins in the cadmium-stressed conjugating green alga Micrasterias denticulata.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic environments like peat bogs are affected by anthropogenic metal input into the environment. These ecosystems are inhabited by unicellular green algae of the class Zygnematophyceae. In this study the desmid Micrasterias denticulata was stressed with 600 nM Cd, 10 μM Cr and 300 nM Cu for 3 weeks. GSH levels were measured with HPLC and did not differ between the different treatments or the control. According to the metallo-thiolomics concept, mass spectrometry was used as a method for unambiguous thiol peptide identification. PC2, PC3 and PC4 were clearly identified in the Cd stressed sample with UPLC-MS by their MS spectrum and molecular masses. PC2 and PC3 were determined to be the main thiol compounds, while PC4 was only abundant in traces in Micrasterias. In addition, the identity of PC2 and PC3 was confirmed by MS/MS. No PCs were detected in the Cu stressed algae sample. However, in the Cr stressed sample traces of PC2 were indicated by a peak in UPLC-MS at the retention time of the PC2 standard, but the intensity was too low to acquire reliable MS and MS/MS spectra. In this study PCs have been detected for the first time in a green alga of the division Streptophyta, a close relative to higher plants. PMID:23266414

  4. Evaluation of Effective MMP Inhibitors from Eight Different Brown Algae in Human Fibrosarcoma HT1080 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min Joo; Karadeniz, Fatih; Ahn, Byul-Nim; Kong, Chang-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucial extracellular matrices degrading enzymes that have important roles in metastasis of cancer progression as well as other significant conditions such as oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Marine plants are on the rise for their potential to provide natural products that exhibit remarkable health benefits. In this context, brown algae species have been of much interest in the pharmaceutical field with reported instances of isolation of bioactive compounds against tumor growth and MMP activity. In this study, eight different brown algae species were harvested, and their extracts were compared in regard to their anti-MMP effects. According to gelatin zymography results, Ecklonia cava, Ecklonia bicyclis, and Ishige okamurae showed higher inhibitory effects than the other samples on MMP-2 and -9 activity at the concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL. However, only I. okamurae was able to regulate the MMP activity through the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitor of MMP observed by mRNA levels. Overall, brown algae species showed to be good sources for anti-MMP agents, while I. okamurae needs to be further studied for its potential to yield pharmaceutical molecules that can regulate MMP-activity through cellular pathways as well as enzymatic inhibition. PMID:26451351

  5. Identification of phytochelatins in the cadmium-stressed conjugating green alga Micrasterias denticulata.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic environments like peat bogs are affected by anthropogenic metal input into the environment. These ecosystems are inhabited by unicellular green algae of the class Zygnematophyceae. In this study the desmid Micrasterias denticulata was stressed with 600 nM Cd, 10 μM Cr and 300 nM Cu for 3 weeks. GSH levels were measured with HPLC and did not differ between the different treatments or the control. According to the metallo-thiolomics concept, mass spectrometry was used as a method for unambiguous thiol peptide identification. PC2, PC3 and PC4 were clearly identified in the Cd stressed sample with UPLC-MS by their MS spectrum and molecular masses. PC2 and PC3 were determined to be the main thiol compounds, while PC4 was only abundant in traces in Micrasterias. In addition, the identity of PC2 and PC3 was confirmed by MS/MS. No PCs were detected in the Cu stressed algae sample. However, in the Cr stressed sample traces of PC2 were indicated by a peak in UPLC-MS at the retention time of the PC2 standard, but the intensity was too low to acquire reliable MS and MS/MS spectra. In this study PCs have been detected for the first time in a green alga of the division Streptophyta, a close relative to higher plants.

  6. The major low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in chloroplasts shows antigenic conservation among diverse higher plant species.

    PubMed

    Vierling, E; Harris, L M; Chen, Q

    1989-02-01

    Several plant species are known to synthesize low-molecular-weight nucleus-encoded heat shock proteins (HSPs) which localize to chloroplasts. DNA sequence analysis of chloroplast HSP cDNAs from pea (Pisum sativum) and soybean (Glycine max) has shown that the carboxyl-terminal halves of these proteins are homologous to low-molecular-weight HSPs from a wide range of eucaryotes (E. Vierling, R. T. Nagao, A. E. DeRocher, and L. M. Harris, EMBO J. 7:575-581, 1988). We used a pea cDNA to construct fusion proteins containing either the carboxyl-terminal heat shock domain or the amino-terminal domain of the chloroplast HSP. The fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used to produce choloroplast HSP-specific polyclonal antibodies. The carboxyl-terminal antibodies recognized chloroplast HSP precursor proteins from pea and from three divergent plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, petunia (Petunia hybrida), and maize (Zea mays). The amino-terminal antibodies recognized effectively only the pea precursor. When intact plants of each species were subjected to a heat stress regime mimicking field growth conditions, significant levels of the mature forms of the chloroplast HSPs accumulated in pea, A. thaliana, and maize. The levels of accumulated HSPs remained unchanged for 12 h following the stress treatment. We conclude that the synthesis of chloroplast-localized HSPs is an important component of the stree response in all higher plants and that chloroplast HSPs from dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants have a conserved carboxyl-terminal domain.

  7. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  8. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

  9. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae.

    PubMed

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume.

  10. Role of Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants. Progress report, FY91

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1991-12-31

    This work is aimed at defining the role of calcium/calmodulin in regulating cortical microtubules (MTS) in higher plants. Recent thrust has been to define the effects of calcium upon microtubules in vivo. Using lysed protoplasts, we noted Mts are destabilized by calcium/calmodulin. This effect could be the result of gross depolymerization induced by Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin, or by an increase in the dynamic flux rate. Intact protoplasts exposed to high (10 mM) levels of calcium (which would be expected to increase intercellular calcium levels) contained microtubules that were hypersensitive to Mt inhibitors, compared to control protoplasts exposed to low calcium environments.

  11. A continual model of soil organic matter transformations for predicting soil forming dynamics inside higher plant CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Pochekutov, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    A continual model of humification and mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) formed under the conditions of a Lunar base from biological waste materials is proposed. The model parameters corresponding to the conditions of several Earths climatic regions are estimated. The time necessary for the formation of organic matter in the soil based on regolith and higher plant residues has been evaluated. Soil formation under tropical conditions are shown to be the most appropriate for Lunar base CELSS due to high matter turnover rate, relatively short formation time, minimum deposited mass, and satisfactory predictability of expected soil parameters.

  12. Properties of Higher Plant Mitochondria. III. Effects of Respiratory Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Ikuma, Hiroshi; Bonner, Walter D.

    1967-01-01

    The effects of representative respiratory inhibitors were investigated on the coupled respiration of mung bean mitochondria using succinate and l-malate as substrates. The inhibitors studied were: (I) malonate, (II) amytal and rotenone, (III) antimycin A and 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (NOQNO), and (IV) cyanide and azide. Malonate inhibition of succinate oxidation follows a classical type of competitive inhibition with an inhibitor dissociation constant of 0.13 mm. There is no inhibition detectable when malate is used as substrate. In contrast to animal mitochondria, amytal is capable of inhibiting 20 to 40% of succinate oxidation and 90 to 100% of malate oxidation, but inhibition due to rotenone amounts to only 0 to 20% of succinate oxidation and 40 to 50% of malate oxidation. The half-maximal inhibition caused by amytal occurs at 2 to 2.5 mm and that by rotenone at 3 mμmoles/mg protein. The maximal inhibition caused by either antimycin A or NOQNO is 70 to 80% of the state 3 respiration. Very little inhibition was observed on the state 4 respiration, and both inhibitors were capable of titrating stoichiometrically with mitochondrial protein with identical titers, 0.22 mμmoles/mg protein for half-maximal inhibition. They differ, however, in that NOQNO does uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in mung bean mitochondria, but antimycin A does not do so. Both cyanide and azide inhibit the state 3 rate 65 to 80%. Inhibition of state 4 respiration can be up to 50% by cyanide, while almost none by azide. Uncoupling action was noted with cyanide, but very little with azide. It is concluded that the second state 3 rate of succinate oxidation includes 80% succinoxidase, the remaining 20% being contributed by the NADH pathway. Malate oxidation apparently does not involve succinoxidase. Malate oxidation is completely sensitive to amytal, but only 50% inhibited by rotenone. A difference between animal and plant mitochondria appears to be in the flavoproteins associated

  13. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties.

  14. Zeaxanthin Radical Cation Formation in Minor Light-Harvesting Complexes of Higher Plant Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Avenson, Thomas H.; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Zigmantas, Donatas; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Li, Zhirong; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-31

    Previous work on intact thylakoid membranes showed that transient formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation was correlated with regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting via energy-dependent quenching. A molecular mechanism for such quenching was proposed to involve charge transfer within a chlorophyll-zeaxanthin heterodimer. Using near infrared (880-1100 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that carotenoid (mainly zeaxanthin) radical cation generation occurs solely in isolated minor light-harvesting complexes that bind zeaxanthin, consistent with the engagement of charge transfer quenching therein. We estimated that less than 0.5percent of the isolated minor complexes undergo charge transfer quenching in vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher. We conclude that minor complexes which bind zeaxanthin are sites of charge transfer quenching in vivo and that they can assume Non-quenching and Quenching conformations, the equilibrium LHC(N)<--> LHC(Q) of which is modulated by the transthylakoid pH gradient, the PsbS protein, and protein-protein interactions.

  15. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  16. PPR proteins of green algae.

    PubMed

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome.

  17. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  18. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated. PMID:19826917

  19. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  20. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  1. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    PubMed

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  2. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.; Eprintsev, Alexander T.

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  3. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Eprintsev, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  4. Enhancement of Taihu blue algae anaerobic digestion efficiency by natural storage.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hengfeng; Lu, Minfeng; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-12-01

    Taihu blue algae after different storage time from 0 to 60 d were anaerobic fermented to evaluate their digestibility and process stability. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) of blue algae under 15 d natural storage led to the highest CH4 production of 287.6 mL g(-1) VS at inoculum substrate ratio 2.0, demonstrating 36.69% improvement comparing with that from fresh algae. Storage of blue algae led to cell death, microcystins (MCs) release and VS reduction by spontaneous fermentation. However, it also played an important role in removing algal cell wall barrier, pre-hydrolysis and pre-acidification, leading to the improvement in CH4 yield. Closer examination of volatile fatty acids (VFA) variation, VS removal rates and key enzymes change during AD proved short storage time (≤ 15 d) of blue algae had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation. Furthermore, AD presented significant biodegradation potential for MCs released from Taihu blue algae.

  5. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  6. Volatile metabolites of higher plants cenoses as photosynthesizing LSS component under optimum conditions and temperature stress at different light intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, J.; Tikhomirov, A.; Parshina, O.; Ushakova, S.; Kalacheva, G.

    One of major yet still poorly known functions of the photosynthesizing component in life support system (LSS) is to improve the quality of air through volatile emissions (VE) of plants capable of accumulating in closed volumes, interacting between themselves and having favorable or adverse impact on humans. In all likelihood, the effect of stress changing the functional condition of plants is to be accompanied with alteration in composition and quantity of VE. There are practically no works dealing with effect of such environmental factors as light intensity and elevated air temperature on qualitative and quantitative composition of VE by higher plants' cenoses. Meanwhile experimental modeling and investigation of stability of man-made human life support systems make this problem of very important. The aim of this work is to experimentally evaluate relationship between qualitative and quantitative composition of VE and the functional condition of wheat cenoses as the basic culture of LSS photosynthesizing component under normal conditions and under temperature stress against light of different intensity. Effect of elevated temperature 35 and 45°C (with the light intensity of 70, 150 or 240 W/m2 PAR) on photosynthesis, respiration, qualitative and quantitative composition of VE of wheat (Triticum aestuvi L., variety 232) cenoses was studied in the atmosphere of growth chambers. More than 20 volatile compounds (terpenoids - a pinene, +3 carene, limonene, benzene, a - and trans-caryophylene, a - and ?-terpinene, their derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) were qualitatively and quantitatively estimated by chromatomassspectroscopy (GC-MS). The light intensity of 240 W/m2 PAR at 35° increase, and at 45° - decrease of thermal stability of photosynthesis and respiration. Elevated temperatures resulted in non- uniform variation of the rate and direction of VE synthesis. VE was highest at irradiance 70 W/m 2 and lowest at 240 W/m2 and 35° . During the reparation

  7. Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae.

    PubMed

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Sobotka, Roman; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching.

  8. Isolation and characterization of soluble boron complexes in higher plants. The mechanism of phloem mobility of boron.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H; Penn, S G; Lebrilla, C B; Brown, P H

    1997-01-01

    Boron (B) polyol complexes have been isolated and characterized from the phloem sap of celery (Apium graveolens L.) and the extrafloral nectar of peach (Prunus persica L.). In celery the direct analysis of untreated phloem sap by matrix-assisted laser desorption-Fourier transform mass spectrometry, with verification by high-performance liquid chromagraphy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealed that B is present in the phloem as the mannitol-B-mannitol complex. Molecular modeling further predicted that this complex is present in the 3,4 3',4' bis-mannitol configuration. In the extrafloral nectar of peach, B was present as a mixture of sorbitol-B-sorbitol, fructose-B-fructose, or sorbitol-B-fructose. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first successful isolation and characterization of soluble B complexes from higher plants and provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed phloem B mobility in these species. PMID:9046600

  9. A Neogene Higher Plant N-Alkane Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Record From the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Pagani, M.

    2006-12-01

    Water availability and a plant's capacity to cope with water stress are expressed in carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of leaf waxes. Therefore, coupled sedimentary n-alkane δ13C and δD isotope records provide unique continental-scale information about the paleo-hydrological cycle and its influence on biology over long time scales. In this study, we assess the relationship between Neogene North American climate and floral change, particularly C4 grass expansion, by establishing δ13C and δD records of higher-plant leaf wax n-alkanes from Gulf of Mexico sediments (DSDP site 94). Changes in the hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water can be driven by changes in evaporation/evapotranspiration or changes in the evaporative source from which precipitation derives. However, for this study changes in moisture source are unlikely because these sediments located in Gulf of Mexico likely received the majority of precipitation from the Gulf of Mexico itself over the time interval studied. In general, δ13C and δD values shift in concert, with the most positive δ13C and δD values occurring near the Epoch boundaries. N-alkane δ13C values reflect factors other than water stress alone, including the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2, plant community, and atmospheric pCO2. Notably, 13C enrichment occurring near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary potentially reflects the rapid decrease in pCO2 at this time. In addition, between 4.5 and 5.5 Ma, n-alkane δ13C values trend more negative as δD becomes increasingly D-enriched, indicative of increased evaporation. Given that contemporaneous North American terrestrial isotope (Passey et al., 2002) and equatorial Atlantic marine (Wagner, 2002) records show similar trends, it appears that major changes in the hydrological cycle took place at this time.

  10. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive. PMID:22472516

  11. Stable chloroplast transformation of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium species.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Miri; Raveh, Dina; Sivan, Alex; Arad, Shoshana Malis; Shapira, Michal

    2002-05-01

    Red algae are extremely attractive for biotechnology because they synthesize accessory photosynthetic pigments (phycobilins and carotenoids), unsaturated fatty acids, and unique cell wall sulfated polysaccharides. We report a high-efficiency chloroplast transformation system for the unicellular red microalga Porphyridium sp. This is the first genetic transformation system for Rhodophytes and is based on use of a mutant form of the gene encoding acetohydroxyacid synthase [AHAS(W492S)] as a dominant selectable marker. AHAS is the target enzyme of the herbicide sulfometuron methyl, which effectively inhibits growth of bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae. Biolistic transformation of synchronized Porphyridium sp. cells with the mutant AHAS(W492S) gene that confers herbicide resistance gave a high frequency of sulfomethuron methyl-resistant colonies. The mutant AHAS gene integrated into the chloroplast genome by homologous recombination. This system paves the way for expression of foreign genes in red algae and has important biotechnological implications.

  12. A look at diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) in algae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jit Ern; Smith, Alison G

    2012-11-30

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) from algae are considered to be a potentially viable source of biodiesel and thereby renewable energy, but at the moment very little is known about the biosynthetic pathway in these organisms. Here we compare what is currently known in eukaryotic algal species, in particular the characteristics of algal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the last enzyme of de novo TAG biosynthesis. Several studies in plants and mammals have shown that there are two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, which catalyse the same reaction but have no clear sequence similarities. Instead, they have differences in functionality and spatial and temporal expression patterns. Bioinformatic searches of sequenced algal genomes reveal that most algae have multiple copies of putative DGAT2s, whereas other eukaryotes have single genes. Investigating whether these putative isoforms are indeed functional and whether they confer significantly different phenotypes to algal cells will be vital for future efforts to genetically modify algae for biofuel production.

  13. Autophagy in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Crespo, José L

    2010-05-01

    Degradation and recycling of intracellular components via autophagy is conserved among eukaryotes. This catabolic process is mediated by autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, which have been identified in different systems including yeasts, mammals and plants. The genome of the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains homologues to yeast and plant ATG genes although autophagy has not been previously described in this organism. In our study, we report the molecular characterization of autophagy in Chlamydomonas. Using the ATG8 protein from Chlamydomonas as a molecular autophagy marker, we demonstrate that this degradative process is induced in stationary cells or under different stresses such as nutrient limitation, oxidative stress or the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results also indicate that TOR, a major regulator of autophagy, inhibits this process in Chlamydomonas.

  14. Acute toxic and genotoxic activities of widely used cytostatic drugs in higher plants: Possible impact on the environment.

    PubMed

    Mišík, Miroslav; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard; Filipic, Metka; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2014-11-01

    Cytostatic drugs are highly toxic pharmaceuticals and it was repeatedly postulated that they may cause adverse effects in ecosystems. The acute toxic and genotoxic properties of these drugs have not been adequately investigated in higher plants so far; therefore, we studied the most widely used drugs (5-flurouracil, 5FU; etoposide, Et; cisplatin, CisPt; carboplatin, CaPt; vincristine sulfate, VinS and cyclophosphamide monohydrate, CP) in micronucleus (MN) assays with meiotic pollen tetrad cells of Tradescantia and with root cells from Allium cepa. MNi are formed as a consequence of chromosome breaks and aneuploidy. We monitored also the acute toxic properties of the drugs, i.e. inhibition of cell division (mitotic indices and retardation of root growth) in the latter species. All compounds caused in both indicator plants genotoxic effects. The order of genotoxic potencies expressed as NOELs in µM was CisPt (0.1)≥ Et (0.5)>CP (1.0)>CaPt (10)>5FU (30)>VinS (100) in Tradescantia. A similar order was seen in Allium MN but Et was less active (5.0µM). Four compounds caused alterations of the mitotic indices under the present conditions namely CisPt (0.5), Et (10.0), 5FU (10.0) and VinS (100). Inhibition of root growth decreased in the order CisPt (0.5)>Et (1.0)≥VinS (1.0)>5FU (5.0)>CaPt (33.0)>CP (>1000). Comparisons of the NOELs with the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) show that the latter values are at least 5 orders of magnitude lower and indicate that it is unlikely that their release in the environment may cause adverse effects in higher plants. However, it is notable that the levels of both platinum compounds and of 5FU in hospital effluents may reach levels which may induce damage of the genetic material.

  15. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  16. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  17. On reproduction in red algae: further research needed at the molecular level

    PubMed Central

    García-Jiménez, Pilar; Robaina, Rafael R.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular red algae (Rhodophyta) have some of the most complex life cycles known in living organisms. Economically valuable seaweeds, such as phycocolloid producers, have a triphasic (gametophyte, carposporophyte, and tetrasporophyte) life cycle, not to mention the intricate alternation of generations in the edible “sushi-alga” nori. It is a well-known fact that reproductive processes are controlled by one or more abiotic factor(s), including day length, light quality, temperature, and nutrients. Likewise, endogenous chemical factors such as plant growth regulators have been reported to affect reproductive events in some red seaweeds. Still, in the genomic era and given the high throughput techniques at our disposal, our knowledge about the endogenous molecular machinery lags far behind that of higher plants. Any potential effective control of the reproductive process will entail revisiting most of these results and facts to answer basic biological questions as yet unresolved. Recent results have shed light on the involvement of several genes in red alga reproductive events. In addition, a working species characterized by a simple filamentous architecture, easy cultivation, and accessible genomes may also facilitate our task. PMID:25755663

  18. Molecular characterization of a novel heavy metal uptake transporter from higher plants and its potential for use in phytoremediation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    'In the following the author reports on progress on the Department of Energy Grant from the Office of Energy Research and Office of Environmental Management on the topic of Molecular characterization of a novel heavy metal uptake transporter from higher plants and its potential use in phytoremediation. In this research the authors are investigating the following hypotheses: (1) A novel metal transporter cDNA isolated in my lab functions as a plasma membrane heavy metal and uptake transporter in plants roots. (2.) Over-expression of this cDNA in plants can be used to enhance plasma membrane metal uptake into plant tissues.'

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  20. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  1. Growth and Metabolism of the Green Alga, Chlorella Pyrenoidosa, in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, W. Ronald

    2003-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on living organisms during space flight has been a topic of interest for some time, and a substantial body of knowledge on the subject has accumulated. Despite this, comparatively little information is available regarding the influence of microgravity on algae, even though it has been suggested for long duration flight or occupancy in space that plant growth systems, including both higher plants and algae, are likely to be necessary for bioregenerative life support systems. High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating-Wall Vessel or HARV bioreactors developed at Johnson Space Center provide a laboratory-based approach to investigating the effects of microgravity on cellular reactions. In this study, the HARV bioreactor was used to examine the influence of simulated microgravity on the growth and metabolism of the green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa. After the first 2 days of culture, cell numbers increased more slowly in simulated microgravity than in the HARV gravity control; after 7 days, growth in simulated microgravity was just over half (58%) that of the gravity control and at 14 days it was less than half (42%). Chlorophyll and protein were also followed as indices of cell competence and function; as with growth, after 2-3 days, protein and chlorophyll levels were reduced in modeled microgravity compared to gravity controls. Photosynthesis is a sensitive biochemical index of the fitness of photosynthetic organisms; thus, CO2-dependent O2 evolution was tested as a measure of photosynthetic capacity of cells grown in simulated microgravity. When data were expressed with respect to cell number, modeled microgravity appeared to have little effect on CO2 fixation. Thus, even though the overall growth rate was lower for cells cultured in microgravity, the photosynthetic capacity of the cells appears to be unaffected. Cells grown in simulated microgravity formed loose clumps or aggregates within about 2 days of culture, with aggregation increasing over time

  2. [Impacts of human disturbance on the species composition of higher plants in the wetlands around Dianchi Lake, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xi-Xi; Wu, Zhao-Lu; Luo, Kang; Ding, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Introducing higher plants to build semi-natural wetland ecosystem is one of the key approaches to restore the wetlands and lakes that suffered from serious pollution and destruction. Based on the investigation data from 128 quadrats at 26 sampling sites in the wetlands around Dianchi Lake in December 2011-October 2012, and in combining with the references published in the 1960s, this paper discussed the impacts of human activities on the species composition of higher plants in the wetlands around the Lake. In 2012, there were 299 species of 88 families in the wetlands, of which, 181 species were native species, and 118 species were alien ones (including 32 invasive species). Of the 42 species of hydrophytes in the total species, 13 species were alien ones (including 2 invasive species). In comparing with the species data recorded in the 1960s, 232 plants were newly recorded and 43 species disappeared in 2012. Aquatic plants changed obviously. The decreased species were 2 submerged plants, 2 floating plants, and 5 floating leaved plants, and the increased species were 8 emergent plants. Fourteen community types were identified by cluster analysis, of which, the main communities were those dominated by alien species including Pistia stratiotes and Alternanthera philoxeroides. As compared with the data in the 1960s, the plant communities dominated by native species such as Ottelia acuminate and Vallisneria natans were not found presently. Therefore, in the practice of introducing higher plants to restore the degraded wetlands and lakes, it would be necessary to scientifically and appropriately select and blend plant species to avoid the wetland degradation by human activities.

  3. Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens.

    PubMed

    Li, William K W; McLaughlin, Fiona A; Lovejoy, Connie; Carmack, Eddy C

    2009-10-23

    As climate changes and the upper Arctic Ocean receives more heat and fresh water, it becomes more difficult for mixing processes to deliver nutrients from depth to the surface for phytoplankton growth. Competitive advantage will presumably accrue to small cells because they are more effective in acquiring nutrients and less susceptible to gravitational settling than large cells. Since 2004, we have discerned an increase in the smallest algae and bacteria along with a concomitant decrease in somewhat larger algae. If this trend toward a community of smaller cells is sustained, it may lead to reduced biological production at higher trophic levels. PMID:19900890

  4. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  5. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  6. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with themore » requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.« less

  7. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  8. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  9. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  10. Results of the first stage (2002-2009) of investigation of higher plants onboard RS ISS, as an element of future closed Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu

    A key task for biomedical human support in long-term manned space expeditions is the develop-ment of the Life Support System (LSS). It is expected that in the first continuous interplanetary expeditions LSS of only a few biological elements of the LSS, such as higher plants will be in-cluded. Therefore, investigations of growth and development of higher plants for consideration in the LSS are of high importance. In a period from October, 2002 to December 2009, 15 ex-periments on cultivation of different plants, including two genetically marked species of dwarf peas, a leaf vegetable strain of Mizuna, radish, barley and wheat were conducted in space greenhouse "LADA" onboard Russian Segment (RS) of International Space Station (ISS). The experiments resulted in the conclusion that the properties of growth and development of plants grown in space greenhouse "LADA" were unaffected by spaceflight conditions. In experiments conducted in a period from 2003 to 2005, it was shown for the first time that pea plants pre-serve reproductive functions, forming viable seeds during at least four continuous full cycles of ontogenesis ("seed to seed") under spaceflight conditions. No changes were found in the genetic apparatus of the pea plants in the four "space" generations. Since 2005, there have been routine collections of microbiological samples from the surfaces of the plants grown on-board in "LADA" greenhouse. Analysis has shown that the properties of contamination of the plants grown aboard by microorganism contain no abnormal patterns. Since 2008, the plants cultivated in "LADA" greenhouse have been frozen onboard RS ISS in the MELFI refrigerator and transferred to the Earth for further investigations. Investigations of Mizuna plants grown and frozen onboard of ISS, showed no differences between "ground control" and "space" plants in chemical and biochemical properties. There also no stress-response was found in kashinriki strain barley planted and frozen onboard ISS.

  11. Impacts of UV radiation and photomodification on the toxicity of PAHs to the higher plant Lemna gibba (duckweed)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaodong Huang; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M. . Dept. of Biology)

    1993-06-01

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be enhanced by both biotic and abiotic processes. This is exemplified by light, which, by virtue of the extensive [pi]-orbital systems of PAHs, can be a major factor in PAH toxicity. Light activation of PAHs is known to occur via photosensitization reactions and potentially by photomodification of the chemicals to more toxic species. To examine the modes of PAH action in the light and determine if the photomodified compounds are hazardous, the authors investigated the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene to the aquatic higher plant Lemna gibba (a duckweed). Toxicity end points were inhibition of growth and extent of chlorosis. Light did indeed activated the phytotoxicity of PAHs, with UV radiation more effective than visible light. Dose-response curves based on chemical concentration and light intensity revealed the order of phytotoxic strength to be anthracene > phenanthrene > benzo[a]pyrene. To explore whether photomodified PAHs were contributing to toxicity, the chemicals were irradiated before toxicity testing. The rates of photomodification of the three PAHs were rapid, and the relative velocities were coincident with the order of toxic strength. Furthermore, the photomodified PAHs were more hazardous to Lemna than the intact compounds. Because interpretations of the potential impacts of PAHs in the environment are based mostly on measurements of the structurally intact chemicals, the severity of PAH hazards is possibly underestimated.

  12. Evidence for a universal pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis in higher plants from sup 18 O incorporation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Heath, T.G.; Gage, D.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Previous labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) with {sup 18}O{sub 2} have been mainly conducted with water-stressed leaves. In this study, {sup 18}O incorporation into ABA of stressed leaves of various species was compared with {sup 18}O labeling of ABA of turgid leaves and of fruit tissue in different stages of ripening. In stressed leaves of all six species investigated, avocado (Persea americana), barley (Hordeum vulgare), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), {sup 18}O was most abundant in the carboxyl group, whereas incorporation of a second and third {sup 18}O in the oxygen atoms on the ring of ABA was much less prominent after 24 h in {sup 18}O{sub 2}. ABA from turgid bean leaves showed significant {sup 18}O incorporation, again with highest {sup 18}O enrichment in the carboxyl group. On the basis of {sup 18}O-labeling patterns observed in ABA from different tissues it is concluded that, despite variations in precusor pool sizes and intermediate turnover rates, there is a universal pathway of ABA biosynthesis in higher plants which involves cleavage of a larger precursor molecule, presumably an oxygenated carotenoid.

  13. Aragonitic Pennsylvanian phylloid algae from New Mexico: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, B.L.; Moore, C.H. Jr. ); Dickson, J.A.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Remarkably well-preserved codiacean algae (Eugonophyllum and Anchicodium) retaining original aragonite are present in the Virgilian Holder Formation, Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico. The algae are preserved in a 20-cm-thick packstone between two t