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Sample records for algae lichens mosses

  1. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  2. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-04-10

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species.

  3. Lichens and mosses as polonium and uranium biomonitors on Sobieszewo Island.

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    In the study the activities of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides in moss and lichen samples were determined using the alpha spectrometry. Different lichens and mosses were collected around the Sobieszewo Island (northern Poland) and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (238)U deposition. Mosses and lichens have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (238)U from atmospheric fallout. The obtained results showed that (210)Po, (238)U concentrations are changing in analyzed thallophytes samples depending on the type of thallus.

  4. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yogui, G T; Sericano, J L

    2008-11-01

    Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have investigated PBDEs in the southern hemisphere including Antarctica. This paper presents the first evaluation of PBDEs in lichens (Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra) and mosses (Sanionia uncinata) collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. PBDEs were detected at low levels in all lichen and moss samples. On average, the levels of PBDEs in mosses (818 pg g(-1) dry weight; 101 ng g(-1) lipid) were significantly higher than in lichens (168 pg g(-1) dry weight; 9.11 ng g(-1) lipid). This difference is most likely due to the differing mechanisms of PBDEs uptake from the atmosphere which are controlled by a number of chemical, environmental and plant variables. Contaminant concentrations were not statistically different at sites close to and distant from human facilities. Long-range atmospheric transport is believed to be the primary source of PBDEs to King George Island. The pattern of congeners in plants resembles those found in commercial mixtures of Penta-BDE. In addition, the presence of BDE-183 in lichens and mosses suggests that other technical formulations (e.g., Octa-BDE and Deca-BDE) have reached Antarctica. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Antarctic vegetation as a sink for anthropogenic organic pollutants.

  6. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  7. Biomonitoring of heavy metals contamination by mosses and lichens around Slovinky tailing pond (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Demková, Lenka; Bobul'ská, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Jezný, Tomáš; Ducsay, Ladislav

    2017-01-02

    Three moss (Pleurozium spp., Polytrichum spp., and Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea) taxons covered in the bags were used to monitor air quality. Bags were exposed at the different distances from the tailing pond because of insufficient security and source of heavy metal pollution. Moss/lichen bags were exposed for six weeks at 0-, 50-, 100-, 150- and 200-m distances from Slovinky tailing pond, in the main wind direction (down the valley). Accumulation ability of heavy metals expressed by relative accumulation factor (RAF) increases in the order of Polytrichum spp.Moss/lichen species showed different accumulation capacity for individual heavy metals. Rhytidiadelphus spp. was found to possess the significantly highest (P < 0.01) ability to accumulate Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. The highest RAF values of Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe were determined in samples exposed at 200-m distance from pollution source.

  8. Oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium in plant leaves, lichens and mosses.

    PubMed

    Ichimasa, M; Ichimasa, Y; Yagi, Y; Ko, R; Suzuki, M; Akita, Y

    1989-12-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium (HT) in vegetation was determined by in vitro experiments for pine needles, pine bark, lichens attached to pine trees, taken from a coastal pine forest in Ibaraki prefecture and comparison of such measurements was made with those in soil. The oxidation of HT in pine needles was extremely low, being only about 1/40000 that in the surface soil of a pine forest, whereas its oxidation in pine bark with a lichen was almost 1000-7000 times higher than that in pine needles. HT oxidation in pine bark, a lichen and a moss was determined in each case under light and dark conditions and was found to be essentially the same. All mosses and lichens examined in the present study were found to have unusually high levels of HT oxidation whether their habitat was tree or ground surface.

  9. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Comparative use of lichens, mosses and tree bark to evaluate nitrogen deposition in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie H; Pesch, Roland; Werner, Willy

    2014-06-01

    To compare three biomonitoring techniques for assessing nitrogen (N) pollution in Germany, 326 lichen, 153 moss and 187 bark samples were collected from 16 sites of the national N deposition monitoring network. The analysed ranges of N content of all investigated biomonitors (0.32%-4.69%) and the detected δ(15)N values (-15.2‰-1.5‰), made it possible to reveal species specific spatial patterns of N concentrations in biota to indicate atmospheric N deposition in Germany. The comparison with measured and modelled N deposition data shows that particularly lichens are able to reflect the local N deposition originating from agriculture.

  11. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied.

  12. Transfer of radionuclides to ants, mosses and lichens in semi-natural ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Janković Mandić, Lj

    2010-11-01

    There is a scarcity of data on transfer of both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides to detritivorous invertebrates for use in the assessment of radiation exposure. Although mosses and lichens have been extensively used in biomonitoring programs, the data on transfer of radionuclides to these species are limited, particularly for natural radionuclides. To enhance the available data, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were measured in ants, mosses and lichens and corresponding undisturbed soil collected from semi-natural ecosystems in Serbia and Montenegro and biota/soil concentration ratios (CR) calculated. Since the majority of internal dose to biota is expected to come from (40)K, the activity concentrations of this radionuclide were also determined. The mean CR values for (137)Cs, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in ants analyzed in this study were found to be 0.02, 0.06 and 0.02, respectively. The mean CR values of radionuclides in mosses were found to be 2.84 for (137)Cs, 0.19 for (226)Ra and 0.16 for (228)Ra, while those in lichens were found to be 1.08 for (137)Cs, 0.15 for (226)Ra and 0.13 for (228)Ra. The CR values obtained in this study were compared with default CR values used in the ERICA Tool database and also with those reported in other studies.

  13. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the Altindere Valley National Park (Maçka-Trabzon/Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sahin, B; Ozdemir, T

    2008-09-15

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the Altindere Valley National Park were investigated in March 2008. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 27 species in total, 15 of the Bacillariophyta, 7 of the Cyanophyta, 4 of the Chlorophyta and a single of the Euglenophyta species. The members of the Bacillariophyta were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses. Netrium digitus (Ehrenb.) Itzigs and Rothe var. curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded for the first time in the desmids flora of Turkey. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the submerged habitat was the richest of the three habitats.

  14. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  15. Lichens and moss as bioindicators and bioaccumulators in air pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, F; Neri, R; Benco, C; Serracca, L

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we review research conducted in the La Spezia district during 1989, 1992, and 1994, using lichens and moss as indicators of air pollution. SO2 pollution was examined by means of an Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) based on the frequency of epiphytic lichen within a sampling grid. Metal deposits were estimated using the lichen Parmelia caperata and the moss Hypnum cupressiforme as bioaccumulators. IAP maps show progressive air quality improvement from 1989 to 1994. This trend correlates to a decrease in SO2 emissions during recent years that is attributed to the use of methane for residential heating and the closing of a coal-fired power plant. Metal contamination maps show that the most polluted area is now in the southeastern part of the gulf. The pattern of pollution coincides with the location of the chief pollution sources in the area. From 1989 to 1994, the metal concentrations in lichens decreased, but metal deposits in the southeastern area were cause for concern. High concentrations of lead in the area are related to emissions from a waste incinerator and a plant that produces lead oxide. Epidemiological investigations reveal that the area population has the highest levels of lead in their blood. The use of bioindicators and bioaccumulators permits long-term and large-scale monitoring of environmental pollutant levels in full agreement with traditional methods.

  16. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  17. Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Belivermiş, Murat; Cotuk, Yavuz

    2010-11-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg(-1) respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg(-1) respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U were found to be 1.32 +/- 0.57, 2.79 +/- 1.67, 2.11 +/- 0.82, and 2.19 +/- 1.02, respectively. Very low (137)Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations.

  18. Community analysis reveals close affinities between endophytic and endolichenic fungi in mosses and lichens.

    PubMed

    U'ren, Jana M; Lutzoni, François; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Endolichenic fungi live in close association with algal photobionts inside asymptomatic lichen thalli and resemble fungal endophytes of plants in terms of taxonomy, diversity, transmission mode, and evolutionary history. This similarity has led to uncertainty regarding the distinctiveness of endolichenic fungi compared with endophytes. Here, we evaluate whether these fungi represent distinct ecological guilds or a single guild of flexible symbiotrophs capable of colonizing plants or lichens indiscriminately. Culturable fungi were sampled exhaustively from replicate sets of phylogenetically diverse plants and lichens in three microsites in a montane forest in southeastern Arizona (USA). Intensive sampling combined with a small spatial scale permitted us to decouple spatial heterogeneity from host association and to sample communities from living leaves, dead leaves, and lichen thalli to statistical completion. Characterization using data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and partial large subunit (ITS-LSU rDNA) provided a first estimation of host and substrate use for 960 isolates representing five classes and approximately 16 orders, 32 families, and 65 genera of Pezizomycotina. We found that fungal communities differ at a broad taxonomic level as a function of the phylogenetic placement of their plant or lichen hosts. Endolichenic fungal assemblages differed as a function of lichen taxonomy, rather than substrate, growth form, or photobiont. In plants, fungal communities were structured more by plant lineage than by the living vs. senescent status of the leaf. We found no evidence that endolichenic fungi are saprotrophic fungi that have been "entrapped" by lichen thalli. Instead, our study reveals the distinctiveness of endolichenic communities relative to those in living and dead plant tissues, with one notable exception: we identify, for the first time, an ecologically flexible group of symbionts that occurs both as endolichenic fungi and as

  19. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  20. Lichen, moss and soil in resolving the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log KOA (8-11) and log KWA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Comparative studies of metal air pollution by atomic spectrometry techniques and biomonitoring with moss and lichens.

    PubMed

    State, Gabriel; Popescu, Ion V; Radulescu, Cristiana; Macris, Cristina; Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Dulama, Ioana; Niţescu, Ovidiu

    2012-09-01

    Our study was dedicated to the analysis of air pollution level with metals in Dambovita County, Romania; maps of the concentration distributions for air pollutants were drawn; statistical analysis includes calculation of the background concentrations and the contamination factors. The highest values of the contamination factor CF is 63.1 ± 6.63 for mosses samples and 33.12 ± 3.96 for lichens and it indicates extreme contaminations in the surroundings of steel works and an electric plant. The comparison of the distribution maps for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations enables the identification of the pollution sources, the limits of areas with very high levels of pollution, the comparison of the concentration gradients in some areas and the influence of woodlands on the spread of pollutants through the air.

  2. Origin and distribution of rare earth elements in various lichen and moss species over the last century in France.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2014-07-15

    Rare earth elements (REE) are known to be powerful environmental tracers in natural biogeochemical compartments. In this study, the atmospheric deposition of REE was investigated using various lichens and mosses as well as herbarium samples from 1870 to 1998 from six major forested areas in France. The comparison between the REE distribution patterns in organisms and bedrocks showed a regional uniformity influence from dust particles originating from the bedrock and/or soil weathering that were entrapped by lichens and mosses. These lithological signatures were consistent over the last century. The REE patterns of different organism species allowed minor influence of the species to be highlighted compared to the regional lithology. This was even true where the morphological features played a role in the bioaccumulation levels, which were related to the variable efficiency in trapping atmospheric dust particles. A comparison between REE profiles in the organisms and bark indicated a lack of influence of the substrate on lichen REE content. Lichens and mosses appear to be robust passive monitors of REE atmospheric deposition over decades because the mineral data was preserved in herbarium samples despite organic degradation being shown by carbon isotopes and SEM observations. To overcome the bias of REE concentration that resulted from organic degradation, the use of a normalized method is recommended to interpret the historical samples.

  3. Inventory of the mosses, liverworts, and lichens of Olympic National Park, Washington- Species list

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, M.; Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, K.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of non-vascular cryptogam species (lichens, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) is especially challenging because of their small size, their often microscopic or chemical distinguishing features, and their enormous diversity. Consequently, they are a poorly known component of Olympic National Park, despite their ecological and aesthetic importance. This project is the first attempt at a systematic, comprehensive survey of non-vascular cryptogams in the Park and presents the current species list with descriptions of the substrate and vascular vegetation type where they were observed. The authors strove to collect from as many park environments as feasible, and distributed collections along important environmental gradients in different regions of the park using vascular vegetation as an environmental indicator. They also collected opportunistically when interesting habitats or microhabitats were encountered. Finally, the authors updated the nomenclature in the Park’s previous collection of nonvascular plants. This study identified approximately 13,200 bryophyte and lichen species, adding approximately 425 new species to the Olympic National Park Herbarium. These data, combined with select literature reports and personal data from Martin and Karen Hutten, added more than 350 species to the previously documented Olympic Peninsula lichen and bryophyte list. The authors discuss the list in a local, regional, and global context of rarity, as well as cryptogam conservation and further work needed in Olympic National Park. The improved inventory of Olympic National Park cryptogams represented by this project enables Olympic National Park to protect populations of rare and sensitive species, assess the damage caused by illegal harvest, and contribute information to the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service Sensitive Species Programs.

  4. The advantage of growing on moss: facilitative effects on photosynthetic performance and growth in the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens.

    PubMed

    Colesie, Claudia; Scheu, Sarah; Green, T G Allan; Weber, Bettina; Wirth, Rainer; Büdel, Burkhard

    2012-07-01

    Facilitative effects and plant-plant interactions are well known for higher plants, but there is a lack of information about their relevance in cryptogams. Additional information about facilitative effects between bryophytes and lichens would be an important contribution to recent research on positive plant-plant interactions, as these can have striking influences not only on the organisation of early successional terrestrial communities but also on succession dynamics by kick-starting ecosystem development through the import of key nutrients. We investigated and quantified these mechanisms between Peltigera rufescens and its associated mosses. Moss-associated thalli had a different morphology that led to several benefits from the association. They had 66% higher net photosynthetic rate and, because the majority of the gas exchange of lichen thalli took place through the lower surface, there was a further increase as the CO(2) concentration was >25% higher beneath moss-associated thalli. Microclimatic measurements showed that mean light levels were substantially lower and temperature extremes slightly ameliorated for moss-associated thalli. As a consequence, desiccation was slower which is, together with an increase in thallus thickness and water storage, the reason for extended periods of optimal net photosynthesis for the moss-associated thalli. All these benefits combined to produce a growth rate of the moss-associated thalli which was significantly higher, twice that of non-associated thalli [0.75 ± 0.4 vs. 0.30 ± 0.1 mm/month (mean ± SD)]. This appears to be the first demonstration of a strong mechanistic basis for facilitative effects between lichens and bryophytes.

  5. Distribution and floristics of moss- and lichen-dominated soil crusts in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, David J.

    1999-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of soil crust lichens and bryophytes was examined in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia. Twenty-one lichen species and 26 bryophyte species were collected within thirty quadrats along a sequence of runoff, interception and runoff zones. Crust cover was significantly greatest in the interception zones (79.0 %), followed by the runoff zones (24.0 %), and lowest in the groved, runon zones (6.6 %). Lichens and bryophytes were distributed across all geomorphic zones, and, although there were significantly more moss species in the interception zones (mean = 9.1) compared with either the runoff (4.2) or runon (3.2) zones, the number of lichen species did not vary between zones. Ordination of a reduced data set of 32 species revealed a separation of taxa into distinct groups corresponding to the three geomorphic zones. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the 32 species and thirteen environmental variables revealed that the most important factors associated with the distribution of species were sheet and scarp erosion, soil stability and coherence, litter cover and crust cover. Surface cracking, microtopography and plant cover were of intermediate importance. The CCA biplot revealed that the timbered runon zones (groves) were dominated by `shade-tolerant' mosses Fissidens vittatus and Barbula hornschuchiana, whilst the heavily eroded runoff zones supported sparse populations of `erosion tolerant' lichens ( Endocarpon rogersii) and mosses (Bryum argenteum and Didymodon torquatus). Interception zones supported a rich suite of `crust forming' mosses and lichens capable of tolerating moderate inundation by overland flow. Two other groups of taxa were identified by this analysis: the `pioneer' group, comprising mainly nitrogen-fixing lichens which occupy the zone of active erosion at the lower edge of the groves, and the `opportunists' dominated by liverworts, occupying the shallow depressions or bays at the

  6. Effect of copper stress on cup lichens Cladonia humilis and C. subconistea growing on copper-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae at copper-polluted sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Yoshitani, Azusa; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Haruka; Itoh, Kiminori

    2012-10-01

    We investigated lichen species in the habitats of the copper (Cu)-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae and found that the cup lichens Cladonia subconistea and C. humilis grow on this moss. We performed X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS) analysis of lichen samples and measured the visible absorption spectra of the pigments extracted from the samples to assess the effect of Cu stress on the cup lichens. The chlorophyll a/b ratio and degradation of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a were calculated from the spectral data. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicated that Cu concentrations in cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were much higher than those in control samples growing on non-polluted soil. Moreover, Cu microanalysis showed that Cu concentrations in parts of podetia of C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae increased as the substrate (S. cataractae) was approached, whereas those of C. humilis growing on S. cataractae decreased as the substrate was approached. This reflects the difference in the route of Cu ions from the source to the podetia. Furthermore, ICP-MS analysis confirmed that C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae was heavily contaminated with Cu, indicating that this lichen is Cu tolerant. We found a significant difference between the visible absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the Cu-contaminated and control samples. Hence, the spectra could be used to determine whether a cup lichen is contaminated with Cu. Chlorophyll analysis showed that cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were affected by Cu stress. However, it also suggested that the areas of dead moss under cup lichens were a suitable substrate for the growth of the lichen. Moreover, it suggested that cup lichens had allolepathic effects on S. cataractae; it is likely that secondary metabolites produced by cup lichens inhibited moss growth.

  7. Protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against damage by excessive illumination in homoiohydric leaves and poikilohydric mosses and lichens.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bukhov, N G; Shuvalov, V A; Kobayashi, Y; Lange, O L

    2001-10-01

    Experimental work on the control of photosystem II in the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants, mosses and lichens is reviewed on a background of current literature. Transmembrane proton transport during photoassimilatory and photorespiratory electron flows is considered insufficient for producing the intrathylakoid acidification necessary for control of photosystem II activity under excessive illumination. Oxygen reduction during the Mehler reaction is slow. Together with associated reactions (the water-water cycle), it poises the electron transport chain for coupled cyclic electron transport rather than acting as an efficient electron sink. Coupled electron transport not accompanied by ATP consumption in associated reactions provides the additional thylakoid acidification needed for the binding of zeaxanthin to a chlorophyll-containing thylakoid protein. This results in the formation of energy-dissipating traps in the antennae of photosystem II. Competition for energy capture decreases the activity of photosystem II. In hydrated mosses and lichens, but not in leaves of higher plants, protein protonation and zeaxanthin availability are fully sufficient for effective energy dissipation even when photosystem II reaction centres are open. In leaves, an additional light reaction is required, and energy dissipation occurs not only in the antennae but also in reaction centres. Loss of chlorophyll fluorescence during the drying of predarkened poikilohydric mosses and lichens indicates energy dissipation in the dry state which is unrelated to protonation and zeaxanthin availability. Excitation of photosystem II by sunlight is not destructive in these dry organisms, whereas photosystem II activity of dried leaves is rapidly lost under strong illumination.

  8. Migration of trace elements from basalt substrate to co-located vegetation (lichens and mosses) at the Wudalianchi volcanos, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yuan; Ju, Yiwen; Li, Boping; Sun, Yimin

    2016-03-01

    Vegetation (e.g., lichens and mosses) living on the basalt substrate have potential to accumulate trace elements in their tissues. Here, we analyze the trace elements in basalt (collected from major volcanic center to jet plate places, representing four different eruption phases) and adjacent lichens and mosses to assess their elemental source-receptor relation. The results indicate that As, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Ba are enriched in basalt, and depleted in lichens and mosses. However, Zn, Hg, and Pb are enriched in lichens and mosses and depleted in basalt. Moreover, with the increase of basalt age, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are gradually enriched in lichen and moss, but gradually depleted in basalt. Compared with transition metals, large ion lithophiles, the platinum group, and rare earth elements, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, and Os are more easily absorbed by No. 1 lichen. Specifically, S is highly assimilated in vegetation, with a highest value of 166, followed by I, C, Pb, Zn, and Hg. In addition, the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of water samples suggest that the surface water in the Wenbo area came from meteoric waters in summer with a high humidity, while the underground water in the Beiyaoquan area came from meteoric waters in winter with a low humidity.

  9. An improved method to isolate lichen algae by gel filtration.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M J; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    1985-08-01

    Photobiont cells of the lichen Evernia prunastri have completely been separated from their fungal partner by filtration through a bed of Sepharose 2B. Both mannitol and ribitol have been quantified by gas-liquid chromatography in the different steps of the isolation procedure. Absence of mannitol, which is exclusively produced by the mycobiont, has been used as the best probe to monitor isolation.

  10. Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Peksa, Ondřej; Skaloud, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds.

  11. Implementation of neural networks for classification of moss and lichen samples on the basis of gamma-ray spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Dragović, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije; Dragović, Ranko; Bacić, Goran

    2007-07-01

    Mosses and lichens have an important role in biomonitoring. The objective of this study is to develop a neural network model to classify these plants according to geographical origin. A three-layer feed-forward neural network was used. The activities of radionuclides ((226)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (40)K, (232)Th, (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (7)Be) detected in plant samples by gamma-ray spectrometry were used as inputs for neural network. Five different training algorithms with different number of samples in training sets were tested and compared, in order to find the one with the minimum root mean square error. The best predictive power for the classification of plants from 12 regions was achieved using a network with 5 hidden layer nodes and 3,000 training epochs, using the online back-propagation randomized training algorithm. Implementation of this model to experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification of moss and lichen samples in terms of their geographical origin. The average classification rate obtained in this study was (90.7 +/- 4.8)%.

  12. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  13. Bryophytes and lichens: Small but indispensable forest dwellers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  14. Bryophytes and lichens: small but indispensable forest dwellers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  15. Biomonitoring of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sert, Emel; Uğur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay

    2011-06-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatağan (Muğla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (210)Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg(-1), for mosses the ranges for (210)Po and (210)Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more (210)Po and (210)Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatağan (Muğla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) sites. (210)Po concentrations were found higher than (210)Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations.

  16. Microsatellite primers in the lichen symbiotic alga Trebouxia decolorans (Trebouxiophyceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Beck, Andreas; Singh, Garima; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans to study fine-scale population structure and clonal diversity. • Methods and Results: Using Illumina pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for T. decolorans. The primer sets were tested on 43 individuals sampled from four subpopulations in Germany. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with three to 15 alleles per locus, and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.636 to 0.821. • Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be useful to study the genetic diversity, dispersal, and reproductive mode of this common lichen photobiont. PMID:25202529

  17. Natural radionuclides in lichens, mosses and ferns in a thermal power plant and in an adjacent coal mine area in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Díaz Francés, Inmaculada; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Marcelli, Marcelo Pinto

    2017-02-01

    The radio-elements (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (230)Th, (232)Th and (210)Po were characterized in lichens, mosses and ferns species sampled in an adjacent coal mine area at Figueira City, Paraná State, Brazil, due to their importance for the assessment of human exposure related to the natural radioactivity. The coal is geologically associated with a uranium deposit and has been used as a fossil fuel in a thermal power plant in the city. Samples were initially prepared at LABIDRO (Isotopes and Hydrochemistry Laboratory), UNESP, Rio Claro (SP), Brazil. Then, alpha-spectrometry after several radiochemical steps was used at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratories, University of Seville, Seville, Spain, for measuring the activity concentration of the radionuclides. It was (210)Po the radionuclide that most bio-accumulates in the organisms, reaching the highest levels in mosses. The ferns species were less sensitive as bio-monitor than the mosses and lichens, considering polonium in relation to other radionuclides. Fruticose lichens exhibited lower polonium content than the foliose lichens sampled in the same site. Besides biological features, environmental characteristics also modify the radio-elements absorption by lichens and mosses like the type of vegetation covering these organisms, their substrate, the prevailing wind direction, elevation and climatic conditions. Only (210)Po and (238)U correlated in ferns and in soil and rock materials, being particulate emissions from the coal-fired power plant the most probable U-source in the region. Thus, the biomonitors used were able to detect atmospheric contamination by the radionuclides monitored.

  18. Application of the micro-PIXE technique for analyzing arsenic in biomat and lower plants of lichen and mosses around an arsenic mine site, at Gunma, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, T.; Sakamoto, F.; Kozai, N.; Samadfam, M.; Sakai, T.; Kamiya, T.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, M.

    2002-05-01

    Microhabitats of bacteria (biomat) and lower plants, such as lichen and mosses, are known to accumulate hazardous elements. Since the concentration of hazardous elements in the environment is quite low, we have applied the in-air μ-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) system developed in the TIARA facility of JAERI, which has low concentration detection limit of ppm, to measure As, one of the hazardous elements, distributions in biomat, lichen and mosses observed around an abandoned As mine site in Gunma, Japan to elucidate the applicability of these biomat and lower plants as bio-indicators of As. Spatial distributions of As, Fe, Si and S in all biomat, lichen and moss collected within 3 m from the mine entrance indicate that As is localized, and is associated with silicate and Fe-containing compounds. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak area for As to Fe in μ-PIXE spectrum of the moss collected from the concrete wall at 3 m downstream of the mine water discharge position is different from those of the lower plants on the rock near the closed entrance, but is the same as that of biomat formed at the mine water discharge position. This indicates that As trapped by the moss on the concrete wall probably has the same origin as the biomat. It is concluded that application of μ-PIXE analysis to the measurement of As in the lower plants and biomat gives not only the distribution of the hazardous element of As, but also the information of the origin.

  19. Physiological adaptations in the lichens Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula var. mitis, and the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum to copper-rich substrate.

    PubMed

    Backor, Martin; Klejdus, Borivoj; Vantová, Ivana; Kovácik, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Two lichen species (Peltigera rufescens and Cladina arbuscula subsp. mitis) and one moss species (Racomitrium lanuginosum) growing on a copper mine heaps (probably 200-300yr old) in the village of Spania dolina (Slovak Republic) were assessed for selected physiological parameters, including composition of assimilation pigments, chlorophyll a fluorescence, soluble proteins and free amino acid content. The lichen C. arbuscula subsp. mitis was collected also at a control locality where total copper concentration in the soil was approximately 3% that of the waste heaps. Concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb and Zn were highest in thalli of Peltigera, while the moss Racomitrium contained the highest content of Fe and Pb. Thalli of Cladina contained less metals than the cyanolichen Peltigera, and except for Zn metal concentrations in Cladina from the control locality were lower than in thalli of the same species from copper mine heaps. Regardless of the species or locality, the composition of assimilation pigments and chlorophyll a fluorescence showed that the tested lichens and moss were in good physiological condition and adapted to increased copper levels in the soil. There were significantly different amounts of total free amino acids in Peltigera, Cladina and Racomitrium from the Cu-polluted field. However, differences in amount of free amino acids in control, as well as Cu-polluted thalli of Cladina were less pronounced.

  20. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability.

  1. Enzymatic production of atranorin: a component of the oak moss absolute by immobilized lichen cells.

    PubMed

    Vicente, C; Fontaniella, B; Millanes, A M; Sebastián, B; Legaz, M E

    2003-04-01

    Cells of the lichen, Evernia prunastri, immobilized in calcium alginate were able to produce the depside atranorin from acetate. The synthesis of the depside was enhanced by molecular oxygen and NADH. This enhancement suggested the participation of an oxidase and an alcohol dehydrogenase to produce an aldehyde-substituted phenolic acid, hematommic acid, as the most probable precursor of atranorin. The participation of both enzymes was confirmed by loading immobilized cells with sodium azide, an inhibitor of several metallo-oxidases, and pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, which impeded atranorin production and accumulated beta-methyl orsellinate (after azide loading) or its alcohol derivative (after pirazole treatment).

  2. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  3. Dehydration rate and time of desiccation affect recovery of the lichen alga [corrected] Trebouxia erici: alternative and classical protective mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Francisco; de Nova, Pedro Gómez; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José M; Barreno, Eva; Guéra, Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of lichens and their photobionts are still poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms we have studied dehydration rate and desiccation time in Trebouxia, the most abundant chlorophytic photobiont in lichen. Our findings indicate that the drying rate has a profound effect on the recovery of photosynthetic activity of algae after rehydration, greater than the effects of desiccation duration. The basal fluorescence (F'(o)) values in desiccated algae were significantly higher after rapid dehydration, than after slow dehydration, suggesting higher levels of light energy dissipation in slow-dried algae. Higher values of PSII electron transport were recovered after rehydration of slow-dried Trebouxia erici compared to rapid-dried algae. The main component of non-photochemical quenching after slow dehydration was energy dependent (q (E)), whereas after fast dehydration it was photoinhibition (q (I)). Although q (E) seems to play a role during desiccation recovery, no significant variations were detected in the xanthophyll cycle components. Desiccation did not affect PSI functionality. Classical antioxidant activities like superoxide dismutase or peroxidase decreased during desiccation and early recovery. Dehydrins were detected in the lichen-forming algae T. erici and were constitutively expressed. There is probably a minimal period required to develop strategies which will facilitate transition to the desiccated state in this algae. In this process, the xanthophyll cycle and classical antioxidant mechanisms play a very limited role, if any. However, our results indicate that there is an alternative mechanism of light energy dissipation during desiccation, where activation is dependent on a sufficiently slow dehydration rate.

  4. Toxicity of fuel-contaminated soil to Antarctic moss and terrestrial algae.

    PubMed

    Nydahl, Anna C; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Jolley, Dianne F; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-09-01

    Fuel pollution is a significant problem in Antarctica, especially in areas where human activities occur, such as at scientific research stations. Despite this, there is little information on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on Antarctic terrestrial biota. The authors demonstrate that the Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Schistidium antarctici, and Ceratodon purpureus, and the Antarctic terrestrial alga Prasiola crispa are relatively tolerant to Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) fuel-contaminated soil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons). Freshly spiked soils were more toxic to all species than were aged soils containing degraded fuel, as measured by photosynthetic efficiency (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence [Fv/Fm]), pigment content, and visual observations. Concentrations that caused 20% inhibition ranged from 16,600 mg/kg to 53,200 mg/kg for freshly spiked soils and from 30,100 mg/kg to 56,200 mg/kg for aged soils. The photosynthetic efficiency of C. purpureus and S. antarctici was significantly inhibited by exposure to freshly spiked soils with lowest-observed-effect concentrations of 27,900 mg/kg and 40,400 mg/kg, respectively. Prasiola crispa was the most sensitive species to freshly spiked soils (Fv/Fm lowest-observed-effect concentration 6700 mg/kg), whereas the Fv/Fm of B. pseudotriquetrum was unaffected by exposure to SAB fuel even at the highest concentration tested (62,900 mg/kg). Standard toxicity test methods developed for nonvascular plants can be used in future risk assessments, and sensitivity data will contribute to the development of remediation targets for petroleum hydrocarbons to guide remediation activities in Antarctica.

  5. [How lichen was translated as Chii].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Teruyuki

    2009-01-01

    Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis.

  6. Diversity of winter photoinhibitory responses: A case study in co-occurring lichens, mosses, herbs and woody plants from subalpine environments.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José-María; García-Plazaola, José-Ignacio

    2017-02-14

    Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery. With this aim, WPI was analyzed in 50 species in the field and recovery kinetics were studied in one model species from each functional group. Results showed that high levels of WPI are much more frequent among woody plants than in any other group, but are also present in some herbs, lichens and mosses. Winter conditions almost always led to the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Nevertheless, changes in the de-epoxidation level were not associated with the activation/deactivation of WPI in the field and did not match changes in photochemical efficiency during recovery treatments. Seasonal changes in thylakoid proteins (mainly D1 and PsbS) were dependent on the functional group. The results highlight the diversity of physiological solutions and suggest a physical-mechanical reason for the more conservative strategy of woody species compared to other groups.

  7. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Freebury, Colin E.; Hamilton, Paul B.; Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  8. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Paul C; Freebury, Colin E; Hamilton, Paul B; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah.

  9. Effect of UV-B radiation on UV absorbing compounds and pigments of moss and lichen of Schirmacher oasis region, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Gautam, S; Bhushan Pant, A

    2012-12-22

    The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV—B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV—B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV—B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV—B radiations.

  10. Influence of organic matter content and human activities on the occurrence of organic pollutants in antarctic soils, lichens, grass, and mosses.

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Dachs, Jordi; Barceló, Damià; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-02-07

    Banned pesticides such as HCB and p,p'-DDE, and other legacy and ongoing pollutants such as PCBs and PAHs, were measured in different vegetation types and soil samples collected at selected areas from Antarctic Peninsula (Deception and Livingstone Islands, Southern Shetlands). Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2005 and 2009) were carried out to assess POPs levels at remote areas, and close to current and abandoned Antarctic research settlements, to assess potential sources of pollutants. Overall, the patterns in lichens, mosses, and grass were dominated by low molecular PCB congeners and PAHs and the presence of HCB and p,p'-DDE rather than heavier compounds, suggesting the importance of long-range atmospheric transport of POPs as the main vector for the introduction of these chemicals to Antarctica. Statistically significant correlations (p-level < 0.05) between concentrations in vegetation of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and the more volatile PAHs with lipid content were found with r(2) of 0.22-0.52 for PCBs, 0.42 for p,p'-DDE, and 0.44-0.72 for the more volatile PAHs. Thus, lipid content is an important factor controlling POPs in Antarctic lichens, mosses, and grass. A strong significant dependence of HCB (r(2) = 0.83), p,p'-DDE (r(2) = 0.60), and PCBs (r(2) = 0.36-0.47) concentrations in soil on its organic carbon content was also observed, indicating the important role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the retention of PCBs and OCPs in Polar Regions, where SOM content is low. Penguin colonies enhance the SOM content in some areas which is reflected in higher concentrations of all POPs, especially of persistent compounds such as p,p'-DDE. Higher concentrations of PCBs and PAHs found at the currently active Byers Camp (in an Antarctic Specially Protected Area) were explained by higher SOM content, thus indicating that Antarctic regulations are being successfully fulfilled in this small research area. On the other hand, PAHs in soils proximate to current Juan Carlos I research

  11. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    PubMed

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  12. Interspecific differences in cryoresistance of lichen symbiotic algae of genus Trebouxia assessed by cell viability and chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hájek, J; Váczi, P; Barták, M; Jahnová, L

    2012-06-01

    Unicellular algae of genus Trebouxia are the most frequent symbiotic photobionts found in lichen species adapted to extreme environments. When lichenised, they cope well with freezing temperature of polar regions, high-mountains environments and were successfully tested in open-space experiments. Trebouxia sp. is considered potential model species for exobiological experiments. The aim of this paper is to evaluate cryoresistence of Trebouxia sp. when isolated from lichen thalli and cultivated on media. In our study, six algal strains were exposed to repeated freezing/thawing cycles. The strains of Trebouxia sp. (freshly isolated from lichen Lasallia pustulata), Trebouxia erici, Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia glomerata, Trebouxia irregularis, and Trebouxia jamesii from culture collection were cooled from 25 to -40 °C at two different rates. The strains were also shock frozen in liquid nitrogen. After repeated treatment, the strains were inoculated and cultivated on a BBM agar for 7 days. Then, cell viability was assessed as relative share of living cells. Potential quantum yield of photochemical reactions in PS II (F(V)/F(M)), and effective quantum yield of photochemical reactions in PS II (Φ(PSII)) were measured. While the slow cooling rate (0.5 °C min(-1)) did not cause any change in viability, F(V)/F(M), and Φ(PSII), the fast cooling rate (6.0 °C min(-1)) caused species-specific decrease in all parameters. The most pronounced interspecific differences in cryoresistance were found after shock freezing and consequent cultivation. While T. asymmetrica and T. jamesii exhibited low viability of living cells (18.9% and 34.7%) and full suppression of photosynthetic processes, the other strains had viability over 60%, and unaffected values of F(V)/F(M), and Φ(PSII). This indicated a high degree of cryoresistance of T. glomerata, T. erici, T. irregularis and Trebouxia sp. strains. These strains could be used for detailed investigation of underlying physiological

  13. Effect of copper and lead on lipid metabolism in bryophytes and lichens.

    PubMed

    Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L

    2000-12-01

    Bryophytes and lichens have a widespread occurrence and can survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as drought, low temperatures, continuous light or prolonged darkness. It has been shown that lipid metabolism is sensitive to both metal response and metal resistance mechanisms in many organisms, including yeast, Silene cucubalus, and in the marine brown algae Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum. In the present study, the effects of lead and copper on lipid metabolism have been studied in two moss species, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and Dicranum scoparium, and also in the lichen Peltigera horizontalis with a cyanobacterial Nostoc photobiont.

  14. Heveochlorella (Trebouxiophyceae): a little-known genus of unicellular green algae outside the Trebouxiales emerges unexpectedly as a major clade of lichen photobionts in foliicolous communities.

    PubMed

    Sanders, William B; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Nelsen, Matthew P; Lücking, Robert; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2016-10-01

    Foliicolous lichens are formed by diverse, highly specialized fungi that establish themselves and complete their life cycle within the brief duration of their leaf substratum. Over half of these lichen-forming fungi are members of either the Gomphillaceae or Pilocarpaceae, and associate with Trebouxia-like green algae whose identities have never been positively determined. We investigated the phylogenetic affinities of these photobionts to better understand their role in lichen establishment on an ephemeral surface. Thallus samples of Gomphillaceae and Pilocarpaceae were collected from foliicolous communities in southwest Florida and processed for sequencing of photobiont marker genes, algal cultivation and/or TEM. Additional specimens from these families and also from Aspidothelium (Thelenellaceae) were collected from a variety of substrates globally. Sequences from rbcL and nuSSU regions were obtained and subjected to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Analysis of 37 rbcL and 7 nuSSU algal sequences placed all photobionts studied within the provisional trebouxiophycean assemblage known as the Watanabea clade. All but three of the sequences showed affinities within Heveochlorella, a genus recently described from tree trunks in East Asia. The photobiont chloroplast showed multiple thylakoid stacks penetrating the pyrenoid centripetally as tubules lined with pyrenoglobuli, similar to the two described species of Heveochlorella. We conclude that Heveochlorella includes algae of potentially major importance as lichen photobionts, particularly within (but not limited to) foliicolous communities in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The ease with which they may be cultivated on minimal media suggests their potential to thrive free-living as well as in lichen symbiosis.

  15. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study.

  16. [Spectral properties of the green alga Trebouxia--a phycobiont of cryptoendolithic lichens in the high-latitude polar regions of Antarctica].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, L G; Shatilovich, A V; Kaminskaia, O P; Gilichinskiĭ, D A

    2004-01-01

    An algologically pure culture of the green alga Trebouxia, a phycobiont of cryptoendolithic lichens, was isolated from the sandstone samples collected in the high-altitude polar regions of Antarctica. The absorption and the second-derivative absorption spectra of the acetone extract of the Antarctic phycobiont cells were studied in comparison with those of the Trebouxia phycobiont isolated recently from the Parmeliaceae lichen in the Mid-European climatic zone. The cells of the Antarctic phycobiont were characterized by a lower content of chlorophyll a and a higher ratio of chlorophyll b and carotenoids to chlorophyll a as compared to the Mid-European phycobiont. Furthermore, the carotenoids of the Antarctic phycobiont were more diverse. The low-temperature fluorescence spectra of the Antarctic phycobiont were characterized by an increased intensity of the short-wavelength fluorescence peak of chlorophyll a and a diminished intensity of fluorescence in the long-wavelength spectral region.

  17. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-13

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens.

  18. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  19. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-07

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs.

  20. A Lichen Lectin Specifically Binds to the alpha-1,4-Polygalactoside Moiety of Urease Located in the Cell Wall of Homologous Algae.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, Mara; Millanes, Ana-María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A lectin from the lichen Evernia prunastri developing arginase activity (EC. 3.5.3.1) binds to the homologous algae that contain polygalactosilated urease (EC. 3.5.1.5) in their cell walls acting as a lectin ligand. The enzyme bound to its ligand shows to be inactive to hydrolyze of arginine. Hydrolysis of the galactoside moiety of urease in intact algae with alpha-1,4-galactosidase (EC. 3.2.1.22) releases high amount of D-galactose and impedes the binding of the lectin to the algal cell wall. However, the use of beta-,4-galactosidase (EC.3.2.1.23) releases low amounts of D-galactose from the algal cell wall and does not change the pattern of binding of the lectin to its ligand. The production of glycosilated urease is restricted to the season in which algal cells divide and this assures the recognition of new phycobiont produced after cell division by its fungal partner.

  1. A Lichen Lectin Specifically Binds to the α-1,4-Polygalactoside Moiety of Urease Located in the Cell Wall of Homologous Algae

    PubMed Central

    Sacristán, Mara; Millanes, Ana-María; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2006-01-01

    A lectin from the lichen Evernia prunastri developing arginase activity (EC. 3.5.3.1) binds to the homologous algae that contain polygalactosilated urease (EC. 3.5.1.5) in their cell walls acting as a lectin ligand. The enzyme bound to its ligand shows to be inactive to hydrolyze of arginine. Hydrolysis of the galactoside moiety of urease in intact algae with α-1,4-galactosidase (EC. 3.2.1.22) releases high amount of D-galactose and impedes the binding of the lectin to the algal cell wall. However, the use of β-,4-galactosidase (EC.3.2.1.23) releases low amounts of D-galactose from the algal cell wall and does not change the pattern of binding of the lectin to its ligand. The production of glycosilated urease is restricted to the season in which algal cells divide and this assures the recognition of new phycobiont produced after cell division by its fungal partner. PMID:19521472

  2. Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Escolar, Cristina; Bardgett, Richard D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change.

  3. Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Escolar, Cristina; Bardgett, Richard D.; Dungait, Jennifer A. J.; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change. PMID:26379642

  4. Evolutionary inferences based on ITS rDNA and actin sequences reveal extensive diversity of the common lichen alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Skaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej

    2010-01-01

    The genus Asterochloris is one of the most common lichen photobionts. We present a molecular investigation of 41 cultured strains, for which nuclear-encoded ITS rDNA and partial actin I sequences were determined. The loci studied revealed considerable differences in their evolutionary dynamics as well as sequence variation. As compared to ITS data, the actin sequences show much greater variation, and the phylogenies yield strong resolution and support of many internal branches. The partitioning of ITS dataset into several regions yielded better node resolution. We recognized 16 well-supported monophyletic lineages, of which one represents the type species of the genus (Asterochloris phycobiontica), and six correspond to species previously classified to the genus Trebouxia (T. erici, T. excentrica, T. glomerata, T. irregularis, T. italiana and T. magna). Only 15% of isolated photobionts considered in our study could be assigned with certainty to previously described species, emphasizing amazing cryptic variability in Asterochloris. Concurrently with the formal delimitation of the genus Asterochloris, we propose new combinations for the former Trebouxia species; furthermore, T. pyriformis is reduced to a synonym of A. glomerata. The present knowledge of global diversity of Asterochloris algae is discussed.

  5. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. PMID:27042696

  6. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  7. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  8. Lichen Sclerosus

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Lichen sclerosus By Mayo Clinic Staff Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But ...

  9. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-19

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  10. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors.

    PubMed

    Lutzoni, F; Pagel, M; Reeb, V

    2001-06-21

    About one-fifth of all known extant fungal species form obligate symbiotic associations with green algae, cyanobacteria or with both photobionts. These symbioses, known as lichens, are one way for fungi to meet their requirement for carbohydrates. Lichens are widely believed to have arisen independently on several occasions, accounting for the high diversity and mixed occurrence of lichenized and non-lichenized (42 and 58%, respectively) fungal species within the Ascomycota. Depending on the taxonomic classification chosen, 15-18 orders of the Ascomycota include lichen-forming taxa, and 8-11 of these orders (representing about 60% of the Ascomycota species) contain both lichenized and non-lichenized species. Here we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Ascomycota, a phylum that includes greater than 98% of known lichenized fungal species. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic tree sampling methodology combined with a statistical model of trait evolution, we take into account uncertainty about the phylogenetic tree and ancestral state reconstructions. Our results show that lichens evolved earlier than believed, and that gains of lichenization have been infrequent during Ascomycota evolution, but have been followed by multiple independent losses of the lichen symbiosis. As a consequence, major Ascomycota lineages of exclusively non-lichen-forming species are derived from lichen-forming ancestors. These species include taxa with important benefits and detriments to humans, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  11. Lichen metabolism identified in Early Devonian terrestrial organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Porter, Steven; Kuglitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2003-02-01

    We used δ13C values to identify lichen metabolism in the globally distributed Early Devonian (409 386 Ma) macrofossil Spongiophyton minutissimum, which had been alternatively interpreted as a green plant of bryophyte grade or as a lichen, based on its morphology. Extant mosses and hornworts exhibited a range of δ13Ctissue values that was discrete from that of extant lichens. The δ13Ctissue values of 96 S. minutissimum specimens coincided with δ13Ctissue values of extant lichens. In contrast, S. minutissimum δ13Ctissue values showed no similarity to bryophyte carbon isotope values. The identification of large global populations of lichens during the Early Devonian may indicate that lichen-accelerated soil formation fostered the development of Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  13. Lichen Nitidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Chu J, et al. Lichen nitidus. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2014;186:E688. Tilly JJ, ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  14. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869736

  15. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869737

  16. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    PubMed

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined.

  17. Oxylipins in moss development and defense

    PubMed Central

    de León, Inés Ponce; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense. PMID:26191067

  18. Oxylipins in moss development and defense.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Inés; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense.

  19. Lichen planus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower immune responses Corticosteroid shots into a sore Vitamin A as a cream or taken by mouth Other medicines that are applied to the skin Dressings placed over your skin with medicines to keep you from scratching Ultraviolet light therapy Outlook (Prognosis) Lichen planus is usually not ...

  20. [Striated lichen].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Santillán, E

    1991-02-01

    Striated lichen is a rare disease seen primarily in pediatric ages. Of more of less quick appearance, generally persisting for a year, and later spontaneously involuting. Its etiology and pathogenia are unkown. It is a disease essentially clinically diagnosed and should be differentiated from other entities of linear distribution.

  1. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  2. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lichen simplex chronicus; Atopic dermatitis - lichen simplex chronicus; Psoriasis - lichen simplex chronicus ... people who have: Skin allergies Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Psoriasis Nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other emotional problems The ...

  3. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Mats; Maier, Stefanie; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Grube, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are obligate symbioses between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. Most lichens resynthesize their symbiotic thalli from propagules, but some develop within the structures of already existing lichen symbioses. Diploschistes muscorum starts as a parasite infecting the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Here we studied how this process influences lichen-associated microbiomes and photobionts by sampling four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany, and characterizing their microbial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria with a concomitant increase in Betaproteobacteria. Armatimonadia, Spartobacteria and Acidobacteria also decreased during the infection of Cladonia by Diploschistes. The lichens differed in photobiont specificity. Cladonia symphycarpa was associated with the same algal species at all sites, but Diploschistes muscorum had a flexible strategy with different photobiont combinations at each site. This symbiotic invasion system suggests that partners can be reorganized and selected for maintaining potential roles rather than depending on particular species.

  4. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Richard P; Zavarzina, Anna G; Liers, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium. They dominate on 8 % of the world's land surface, mainly in Arctic and Antarctic regions, tundra, high mountain elevations and as components of dryland crusts. In many ecosystems, lichens are the pioneers on the bare rock or soil following disturbance, presumably because of their tolerance to desiccation and high temperature. Lichens have long been recognized as agents of mineral weathering and fine-earth stabilization. Being dominant biomass producers in extreme environments they contribute to primary accumulation of soil organic matter. However, biochemical role of lichens in soil processes is unknown. Our recent research has demonstrated that Peltigeralean lichens contain redox enzymes which in free-living fungi participate in lignocellulose degradation and humification. Thus lichen enzymes may catalyse formation and degradation of soil organic matter, particularly in high-stress communities dominated by lower plants. In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations.

  5. [Lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Monsálvez, V; Rivera, R; Vanaclocha, F

    2010-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that is highly bothersome for men and women of all ages. The exact etiology is unknown, although genetic and autoimmune factors, as well as infections, have been implicated in its pathogenesis. First-line treatment is highly potent topical corticosteroid therapy for short periods. Surgery is reserved for cases of phimosis, urethral stenosis, synechiae, and squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  7. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  8. Genetic approaches to harvesting lichen products.

    PubMed

    Miao, V; Coëffet-LeGal, M F; Brown, D; Sinnemann, S; Donaldson, G; Davies, J

    2001-09-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi, green algae and/or cyanobacteria. They have a varied chemistry and produce many polyketide-derived compounds, including some, such as depsides and depsidones, that are rarely reported elsewhere. Although lichens have been appreciated in traditional medicines, their value has largely been ignored by the modern pharmaceutical industry because difficulties in establishing axenic cultures and conditions for rapid growth preclude their routine use in most conventional screening processes. Recently, molecular genetic techniques using PCR, genomic library construction and heterologous expression have provided an alternative approach to begin exploring the diversity of polyketide biosynthetic pathways in lichens. The techniques can be expanded to cover other pathway types and be integrated with conventional culture collection-based screening to provide a comprehensive search for novel chemical entities in these organisms.

  9. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  10. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals.

  11. Lichen planus pigmentosus and lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Gabriela; Kim, Randie H; Meehan, Shane; Elbuluk, Nada

    2016-12-15

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory skin conditionwith characteristic histopathological findings thathas many clinical variants. Recently, there have been25 cases reported in the literature of lichen planuspigmentosus (LPPi) that preceded the developmentof frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), which is a variantof lichen planopilaris (LPP). We review the literatureregarding LPPi, LPP, and FFA and present a case of a40-year-old African American woman with LPPi andLPP.

  12. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  13. The Representation of Arctic Soils in the Land Surface Model: The Importance of Mosses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beringer, Jason; Lynch, Amanda H.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Mack, Michelle; Bonan, Gordon B.

    2001-08-01

    Mosses dominate the surface cover in high northern latitudes and have the potential to play a key role in modifying the thermal and hydrologic regime of Arctic soils. These modifications in turn feed back to influence surface energy exchanges and hence may affect regional climate. However, mosses are poorly represented in models of the land surface. In this study the NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM) was modified in two ways. First, additional soil texture types including mosses and lichens were added to more realistically represent northern soils. Second, the LSM was also modified so that a different soil texture type could be specified for each layer. Several experiments were performed using climate data from an Arctic tundra site in 1995. The model was run for a homogeneous loam soil column and then also for columns that included moss, lichen, peat, and sand. The addition of a surface layer of moss underlain by peat and loam had a substantial impact on modeled surface processes. First, moss acted as an insulative layer producing cooler summer temperatures (6.9°C lower at 0.5 m) and warmer winter temperatures (2.3°C higher at 0.5 m) when compared with a homogenous loam soil column. Second, a soil column with a moss surface had a greater surface infiltration, leading to greater storage of soil moisture in lower layers when compared with a homogeneous loam column. Last, moss modulated the surface energy exchanges by decreasing soil heat flux (57% in July) and increasing turbulent fluxes of heat (67% in July) and moisture (15% in July). Mosses were also more effective contributors to total latent heating than was a bare loam surface. These results suggest that the addition of moss and the ability to prescribe different soil textures for different soil layers result in a more plausible distribution of heat and water within the column and that these modifications should be incorporated into regional and global climate models.

  14. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sclerosus PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 09:12 Size: 8.6 MB November 2014 What Is Lichen Sclerosus? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public What Is Lichen ...

  15. Lichens and lepidopterons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The newly found association of Usnea strigosa (Ach.) A. Eat. and the lichenophagous larva of the moth Zanclognatha theralis (Walker) is described. The possible biological role of lichen acids in the lichen-moth relationship is discussed.

  16. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  17. The role of fungal parasites in tri-trophic interactions involving lichens and lichen-feeding snails.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Merinero, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    Lichens are hosts for a variety of lichenicolous fungi. By investigating two lichens with specialized parasites, we will test the hypothesis that these parasites reduce lichen fitness by increasing the palatability of their respective hosts. The palatability of Lobarina scrobiculata and Lobaria pulmonaria with or without galls of the lichenicolous fungi, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae and P. lichenum, respectively, were quantified in a feeding-preference experiment with grazing snails (Cepaea hortensis). We repeated the experiment for pairs with or without gall in which the carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) had been reduced nondestructively by acetone rinsing. Lichens with galls had lower concentration of CBSCs than those without, but this contrast disappeared after acetone rinsing. In the lichen high in nitrogen (N) (the cyanolichen L. scrobiculata), the grazing was low, and the snails did not discriminate between specimens with and without Plectocarpon-galls. In L. pulmonaria low in N (green algae as main photobiont), the parasite reduced the lichen C : N ratio and the snails strongly preferred specimens with Plectocarpon-galls, regardless of whether CBSC concentration had been reduced or not. In conclusion, some lichen parasites can indirectly reduce lichen fitness by increasing its palatability and thus the grazing pressure from snails, whereas other parasites do not affect grazing preferences.

  18. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  19. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  20. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents.

  1. GIRAS TO MOSS INTERFACE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiNardo, Thomas P.; Jackson, R. Alan

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of land use change for an area in Boulder County, Colorado, was conducted using digital cartographic data. The authors selected data in the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) format which is digitized from the 1:250,000-scale land use and land cover map series. The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS) was used as an analytical tool for the study. The authors describe the methodology used in converting the GIRAS file into a MOSS format and the activities associated with the conversion.

  2. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  3. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  4. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  5. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Verma, Prashant; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Sharma, Sonal; Rasool, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus, a variant of lichen planus, is a disorder with conflicting taxonomy. Its worldwide recognition is still not fully understood because of insufficient contemporary evidence of the disease in the literature. The authors review the historical background, etiopathogenesis, clinical connotation, atypical variants, and histopathology to highlight its diversity.

  6. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  7. Identifying the origin of atmospheric inputs of trace elements in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia) with bryophytes, lichens, and soil monitoring.

    PubMed

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Sardans, Jordi; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The biomonitors Hypnum cupressiforme and Xanthoria parietina were used to assess the deposition of trace elements and their possible origin in the Prades Mountains, a protected Mediterranean forest area of NE Spain with several pollution sources nearby. Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 16 locations within this protected area. Soil trace element concentrations were also ascertained to calculate enrichment factors (EF) and use them to distinguish airborne from soilborne trace element inputs. In addition, lichen richness was measured to further assess atmospheric pollution. EF demonstrated to be useful not only for the moss but also for the lichen. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn presented values higher than three in both biomonitors. These trace elements were also the main ones emitted by the potential sources of pollutants. The distance between sampling locations and potential pollution sources was correlated with the concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Zn in the moss and with Cr, Ni, and Sb in the lichen. Lichen richness was negatively correlated with lichen Cu, Pb, and V concentrations on dry weight basis. The study reflected the remarkable influence that the pollution sources have on the presence of trace elements and on lichen species community composition in this natural area. The study highlights the value of combining the use of biomonitors, enrichment factors, and lichen diversity for pollution assessment to reach a better overview of both trace elements' impact and the localization of their sources.

  8. UV-protectant metabolites from lichens and their symbiotic partners.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Gouault, Nicolas; Tomasi, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Lichens are structurally complex symbiotic organisms that are exposed to a wide variety of external conditions (extreme temperatures, desiccation, UV radiation, etc.). These poikilohydric organisms have developed various mechanisms of photoprotection, such as light scattering, radiation screening, thermal dissipation, activation of antioxidant defense and macromolecules and membrane repair. These unique organisms produce a vast array of compounds, with more than 1000 secondary metabolites known. An important protective mechanism of lichens is the production of UV screening compounds, such as phenolic compounds (depsidones, depsides, diphenyl ethers), anthraquinones, xanthones or shikimic acid derivatives (calycin, mycosporines, scytonemin). Due to the harmful effects of the UVA wavelengths of sunlight, the search for new sunscreens remains important. We herein propose a review that focuses on the UV protectants from lichens and their symbiotic partners (lichenized fungi, green alga, cyanobacteria). In fact, lichens produce unique and/or efficient UV filters such as depsidones (lobaric acid, pannarin, etc.), depsides (atranorin, gyrophoric acid, etc.), diphenyl ethers (epiphorellic acids, buellin), bisxanthones (secalonic acids, etc.), mycosporines and MAAs, scytonemin along with classical pigments (melanin, carotenoids). We propose to classify these compounds with regard to their chemical structures and review the physicochemical properties that act as UV filters. While the most abundant lichen polyfunctionalized aromatic compounds, belonging to orsellinic derivatives, are UVB screens, these organisms produce strong UVA filters, e.g., calycin (pulvinic acid derivatives), bisxanthones (secalonic acids), scytonemin or mycosporines and MAAs with the latter ones exhibiting attractive properties as photoprotectants.

  9. Inventory of Rare or Endangered Non-Vascular Plants and Ferns Occurring in the Floodplain of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Floodplain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-03

    3 Liverworts and Horworts ------------------ 4 Lichens -------------------------------- 4 Ferns ------------------------------- 5 Algae of the...Mississippi River and Illinois River Floodplains ----- 6 Mosses of the Mississippi River and Illinois River Floodplains--- 35 Liverworts and Hornworts...any alga, hornwort, liverwort , moss, or lichen in the study area. Missouri (1974) lists some mosses which are designated 0 rare or endangered, but

  10. Ecophysiological analysis of moss-dominated biological soil crusts and their separate components from the Succulent Karoo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bettina; Graf, Tobias; Bass, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Biological soil crusts, formed by an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and bacteria in varying proportions, live in or directly on top of the uppermost soil layer. To evaluate their role in the global carbon cycle, gas exchange measurements were conducted under controlled conditions. Moss-dominated soil crusts were first analyzed as moss tufts on soil, then the mosses were removed and the soil was analyzed separately to obtain the physiological response of both soil and individual moss stems. Net photosynthetic response of moss stems and complete crusts was decreased by insufficient and excess amounts of water, resulting in optimum curves with similar ranges of optimum water content. Light saturation of both sample types occurred at high irradiance, but moss stems reached light compensation and saturation points at lower values. Optimum temperatures of moss stems ranged between 22 and 27°C, whereas complete crusts reached similar net photosynthesis between 7 and 27°C. Under optimum conditions, moss stems reached higher net photosynthesis (4.0 vs. 2.8 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and lower dark respiration rates (-0.9 vs. -2.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Respiration rates of soil without moss stems were high (up to -2.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) causing by far lower absolute values of NP/DR ratios of soil crusts as compared to moss stems. In carbon balances, it therefore has to be clearly distinguished between measurements of soil crust components versus complete crusts. High rates of soil respiration may be caused by leaching of mosses, creating high-nutrient microsites that favor microorganism growth.

  11. Nutrient scavenging activity and antagonistic factors of non-photobiont lichen-associated bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, M Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until recently, non-photobiont endothallic bacteria, while known to be present in large numbers, have generally been dismissed as functionally irrelevant cohabitants of the lichen thallus, or even environmental contaminants. Recent analyses of lichen metagenomes and innovative co-culture experiments have uncovered a functionally complex community that appears to contribute to a healthy lichen thallus in several ways. Lichen-associated bacteriomes are typically dominated by several lineages of Proteobacteria, some of which may be specific for lichen species. Recent work has implicated members of these lineages in several important ecophysiological roles. These include nutrient scavenging, including mobilization of iron and phosphate, nitrogen fixation, cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities, and oxidation of recalcitrant compounds, e.g. aromatics and aliphatics. Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. In the present paper we review the nature of non-phototrophic endolichenic bacteria associated with lichens, and give insight into the current state of knowledge on their importance the lichen symbiotic association.

  12. Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of hepatotoxic peptides in lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Fewer, David P; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2012-04-10

    Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. Microcystins are potent toxins that are responsible for the poisoning of both humans and animals. These toxins are mainly associated with aquatic cyanobacterial blooms, but here we show that the cyanobacterial symbionts of terrestrial lichens from all over the world commonly produce microcystins. We screened 803 lichen specimens from five different continents for cyanobacterial toxins by amplifying a part of the gene cluster encoding the enzyme complex responsible for microcystin production and detecting toxins directly from lichen thalli. We found either the biosynthetic genes for making microcystins or the toxin itself in 12% of all analyzed lichen specimens. A plethora of different microcystins was found with over 50 chemical variants, and many of the variants detected have only rarely been reported from free-living cyanobacteria. In addition, high amounts of nodularin, up to 60 μg g(-1), were detected from some lichen thalli. This microcystin analog and potent hepatotoxin has previously been known only from the aquatic bloom-forming genus Nodularia. Our results demonstrate that the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins in lichen symbiosis is a global phenomenon and occurs in many different lichen lineages. The very high genetic diversity of the mcyE gene and the chemical diversity of microcystins suggest that lichen symbioses may have been an important environment for diversification of these cyanobacteria.

  13. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  14. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  15. Genome characteristics reveal the impact of lichenization on lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum Hedwig (Verrucariales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lichen is a classic mutualistic organism and the lichenization is one of the fungal symbioses. The lichen-forming fungus Endocarpon pusillum is living in symbiosis with the green alga Diplosphaera chodatii Bialsuknia as a lichen in the arid regions. Results 454 and Illumina technologies were used to sequence the genome of E. pusillum. A total of 9,285 genes were annotated in the 37.5 Mb genome of E. pusillum. Analyses of the genes provided direct molecular evidence for certain natural characteristics, such as homothallic reproduction and drought-tolerance. Comparative genomics analysis indicated that the expansion and contraction of some protein families in the E. pusillum genome reflect the specific relationship with its photosynthetic partner (D. chodatii). Co-culture experiments using the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum and its algal partner allowed the functional identification of genes involved in the nitrogen and carbon transfer between both symbionts, and three lectins without signal peptide domains were found to be essential for the symbiotic recognition in the lichen; interestingly, the ratio of the biomass of both lichen-forming fungus and its photosynthetic partner and their contact time were found to be important for the interaction between these two symbionts. Conclusions The present study lays a genomic analysis of the lichen-forming fungus E. pusillum for demonstrating its general biological features and the traits of the interaction between this fungus and its photosynthetic partner D. chodatii, and will provide research basis for investigating the nature of its drought resistance and symbiosis. PMID:24438332

  16. Vertical evolution and intragenic spread of lichen-fungal group I introns.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Friedl, Thomas; Helms, Gert

    2002-07-01

    One family within the Euascomycetes (Ascomycota), the lichen-forming Physciaceae, is particularly rich in nuclear ribosomal [r]DNA group I introns. We used phylogenetic analyses of group I introns and lichen-fungal host cells to address four questions about group I intron evolution in lichens, and generally in all eukaryotes: 1) Is intron spread in the lichens associated with the intimate association of the fungal and photosynthetic cells that make up the lichen thallus? 2) Are the multiple group I introns in the lichen-fungi of independent origins, or have existing introns spread into novel sites in the rDNA? 3) If introns have moved to novel sites, then does the exon context of these sites provide insights into the mechanism of intron spread? and 4) What is the pattern of intron loss in the small subunit rDNA gene of lichen-fungi? Our analyses show that group I introns in the lichen-fungi and in the lichen-algae (and lichenized cyanobacteria) do not share a close evolutionary relationship, suggesting that these introns do not move between the symbionts. Many group I introns appear to have originated in the common ancestor of the Lecanorales, whereas others have spread within this lineage (particularly in the Physciaceae) putatively through reverse-splicing into novel rRNA sites. We suggest that the evolutionary history of most lichen-fungal group I introns is characterized by rare gains followed by extensive losses in descendants, resulting in a sporadic intron distribution. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the introns and host cells are required, therefore, to distinguish this scenario from the alternative hypothesis of widespread and independent intron gains in the different lichen-fungal lineages.

  17. Larvicidal algae.

    PubMed

    Marten, Gerald G

    2007-01-01

    Although most algae are nutritious food for mosquito larvae, some species kill the larvae when ingested in large quantities. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that kill larvae do so by virtue of toxicity. While blue-green algae toxins may offer possibilities for delivery as larvicides, the toxicity of live blue-green algae does not seem consistent enough for live algae to be useful for mosquito control. Certain species of green algae in the order Chlorococcales kill larvae primarily because they are indigestible. Where these algae are abundant in nature, larvae consume them to the exclusion of other food and then starve. Under the right circumstances, it is possible to introduce indigestible algae into a breeding habitat so they become abundant enough to render it unsuitable for mosquito production. The algae can persist for years, even if the habitat dries periodically. The main limitation of indigestible algae lies in the fact that, under certain conditions, they may not replace all the nutritious algae in the habitat. More research on techniques to ensure complete replacement will be necessary before indigestible algae can go into operational use for mosquito control.

  18. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  19. Lichens as natural sources of biotechnologically relevant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Marcelino T; Parrot, Delphine; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The search for microorganisms from novel sources and in particular microbial symbioses represents a promising approach in biotechnology. In this context, lichens have increasingly become a subject of research in microbial biotechnology, particularly after the recognition that a diverse community of bacteria other than cyanobacteria is an additional partner to the traditionally recognized algae-fungus mutualism. Here, we review recent studies using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent approaches showing that lichens can harbor diverse bacterial families known for the production of compounds of biotechnological interest and that several microorganisms isolated from lichens, in particular Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, can produce a number of bioactive compounds, many of them with biotechnological potential.

  20. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Linzon-Smith, Jaclyn; Beecker, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by inflammation of the papillary dermis that leads to white scarlike plaques. It occurs classically in the genitals but also has extragenital manifestations with a variety of clinical presentations including a bullous variant. The purpose of this review is to characterize extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus, suggest that it may be more common than dermatologists realize, and discuss treatment of both routine and recalcitrant cases.

  1. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence.

  2. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  3. The role of lichen on peatland development in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lorna; Moore, Tim; Roulet, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Lichen (Cladina stellaris) can be a dominant vegetation cover on bogs within the extensive peatland landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), northern Ontario, Canada. The unique characteristics of lichens (growth structure and function as a symbiotic organism), their ability to form thick, dense mats across the HBL bogs, and their increased tolerance of extreme environmental conditions, points to their importance as a distinct plant functional type. However, the role of lichen within the peatland ecosystem is poorly understood, particularly ecosystem interactions (vegetation associations) and peatland development (including microtopography) and the resulting carbon sink. Many studies consider the role of different plant functional types on peatland CO2 and CH4 exchange (e.g. Bubier et al., 2003; Strack et al., 2006), and this understanding is included in peatland growth and climate change models. As far as we are aware lichens are currently omitted from these models. We suggest that lichens represent a distinct plant functional type with CO2 exchange characteristics (NEE and respiration) that are quite different to vascular plants and mosses. In this study we measured lichen CO2 exchange in both natural and modified moisture conditions at field sites in the HBL over two field seasons. Our results indicate that lichen productivity is strongly influenced by abiotic factors that affect lichen moisture content, with very dry lichen exhibiting little or no photosynthetic capacity. We suggest that the low productivity of lichen mats results in lower rates of peat accumulation compared to Sphagnum-dominated peatland areas, and that this has consequences for the development of peatland microtopography (hummocks and hollows) and feedback mechanisms. To better understand the role of lichen mats on peat accumulation and to test possible feedback mechanisms we developed a model, the parameters of which are supported by data from field sites in the HBL. This dependence of

  4. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  5. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  6. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  7. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  8. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Bennett, James P; Biro, Steven M; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bessen, Richard A; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-05-11

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  9. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  10. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan; Kaplan, Jennifer; Kamino, Hideko; Sanchez, Miguel; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2013-12-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that tends to occur in middle-aged individuals with darker pigmented skin. Clinical findings include hyperpigmented, brown to gray-brown macules and patches in sun-exposed areas, typically on the head and neck. Histopathologic features include epidermal atrophy, vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer of the epidermis, perivascular lymphohistiocystic infiltrate in the upper dermis, and dermal melanophages. We present a unique case of LPP that was characterized by an atypical initial inflammatory phase and subsequent circinate lesions with central clearing.

  11. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus*

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; de Almeida, José Roberto Paes; Dinato, Sandra Lopes Mattos e; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution. PMID:24346904

  12. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hugo Rocha; Almeida, José Roberto Paes de; Mattos e Dinato, Sandra Lopes; Sementilli, Angelo; Romiti, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five year old male patient presenting with asymptomatic brown spots, on cervical, axillary, inguinal and popliteal regions, for the last nine months. Pathological examination showed hydropic degeneration of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and moderate inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis. Lichen planus pigmentosus inversus is a rare subtype of lichen planus characterized by hyperchromic, asymptomatic or mildly pruritic macules, measuring from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, with defined borders, affecting intertriginous areas, most commonly in the axillae and groin of Caucasian patients. It presents unique lichenoid histology. We report a case with typical clinical features, histology and evolution.

  13. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina.

    PubMed

    Elshobary, Mostafa E; Osman, Mohamed E; Abo-Shady, Atef M; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Sorensen, John; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

  14. Characterization of the diversity of mycosporine-like amino acids in lichens from high altitude region of Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Kumari, Rupender; Patel, Davendra K; Upreti, Dalip K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are tolerant to a number of environmental variables including high-intensity solar radiations, which is mainly due to the presence of chemical substances in the thallus. Especially, cyanobacterial lichens synthesize a unique class of chemical substances known as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) the primary characteristic of which is strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption between 300 and 360 nm. In view of its UV-protecting potential, the applicability of mass spectral fragmentation using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for the characterization of MAAs in lichen samples was explored. MAA compounds were characterized in four cyanobacteria-containing lichen species belonging to genus Peltigera, Stereocaulon and Lobaria. Among them, Peltigera and Lobaria are true cyanobacteria containing lichens (cyanolichens) while Stereocaulon is a tripartite lichen, as it contains both green algae (in the thallus) and cyanobacteria (in the cephalodia), collected from higher altitudes of Himalaya (Tungnath-Chopta in Garhwal Himalaya, 3432 m) from an exposed locality experiencing high light intensity. Mass spectral data of distinctive fragmentation pattern revealed that all the four species have good diversity of MAA compounds, especially Lobaria retigera was found to be enriched with highest diversity of oxo and imino MAAs. Overall, different numbers of oxo and imino MAA compounds were detected in the remaining lichen species. Good diversity of imino MAAs has ecological significance which is required to be investigated further. Moreover, the impressive diversity characterized in each lichen species suggests that lichens should be thoroughly studied for their MAAs contents.

  15. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the negative impacts of increasing aridity on ecosystem multifunctionality in drylands.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Berdugo, Miguel; Val, James; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-03-01

    The increase in aridity predicted with climate change will have a negative impact on the multiple functions and services (multifunctionality) provided by dryland ecosystems worldwide. In these ecosystems, soil communities dominated by mosses, lichens and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) play a key role in supporting multifunctionality. However, whether biocrusts can buffer the negative impacts of aridity on important biogeochemical processes controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted an empirical study, using samples from three continents (North America, Europe and Australia), to evaluate how the increase in aridity predicted by climate change will alter the capacity of biocrust-forming mosses to modulate multiple ecosystem processes related to C, N and P cycles. Compared with soil surfaces lacking biocrusts, biocrust-forming mosses enhanced multiple functions related to C, N and P cycling and storage in semiarid and arid, but not in humid and dry-subhumid, environments. Most importantly, we found that the relative positive effects of biocrust-forming mosses on multifunctionality compared with bare soil increased with increasing aridity. These results were mediated by plant cover and the positive effects exerted by biocrust-forming mosses on the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Our findings provide strong evidence that the maintenance of biocrusts is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change on multifunctionality in global drylands.

  16. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  17. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  18. Lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Orme, Charisse M; Kim, Randie H; Brinster, Nooshin; Elbuluk, Nada; Franks, Andrew G

    2016-12-15

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a type oflichenoid dermatitis with superficial dermalmelanophages that presents as symmetrical,hyperpigmented macules and patches that aredistributed over the forehead, temples, cheeks, andneck. The condition most often occurs in darkerskinned individuals and is frequently resistant totreatment. Here we present a patient of Egyptiandecent with a lacy reticulated LPP eruption on theface.

  19. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus*

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe Junior, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face. PMID:28300883

  20. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  1. Vertical distribution of a deep-water moss and associated epiphytes in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, C.D.; Phinney, H.K.; Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A one-person submersible was used to examine the vertical distribution of the deep-water moss Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst in Crater Lake (Oregon). Living specimens were found attached to sediment and rocks at depths between 25 m and 140 m. Dense beds of the moss were observed at depths between 30 m and 80 m, a region that corresponded roughly to the zone of maximum primary production by phytoplankton. The moss population supported a diverse assemblage of epiphytic algae, of which the most abundant genera included Cladophora,Oedogonium, Rhizoclonium, Tribonema, Vaucheria, and the diatoms Cocconeis, Cymbella, Epithemia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Melosira, Navicula, and Synedra. Chemical and physical data supported the hypothesis that the lower limit of distribution of the moss is determined by light limitation, whereas the upper limit is related to the availability of nutrients, particularly nitrate-nitrogen and trace elements. Deep-water videotapes of the moss population indicated that D. aduncus with its epiphytic algae was abundant enough in regions associated with the metalimnion and upper hypolimnion to have a potential influence on the nutrient dynamics of the Crater Lake ecosystem. Although the maximum depth at which living bryophytes occur in Crater Lake is similar to that found for Lake Tahoe, conditions in Lake Tahoe allow the growth and survival of a much more diverse assemblage of bryophytes and charophytes than is present in Crater Lake.

  2. Novel bacteria associated with Arctic seashore lichens have potential roles in nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Margrét Auður; Heiðmarsson, Starri; Jónsdóttir, Anna Rut; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2014-05-01

    While generally described as a bipartite mutualistic association between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, lichens also host diverse and heretofore little explored communities of nonphototrophic endolichenic bacteria. The composition and possible roles of these bacterial communities in the lichen symbiotic association constitute an emerging field of research. Saxicolous (rock-dwelling) seashore lichens present an unusual environment, characterized by rapid fluctuations in temperature, salinity, exposure to solar radiation, etc. The present study focuses on the bacterial biota associated with 4 species of crustose, halophilic, saxicolous seashore lichens found in northern Iceland. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based characterization of the composition of the lichen-associated microbiotas indicated that they are markedly lichen-species-specific and clearly distinguishable from the environmental microbiota represented by control sampling. A collection of bacterial strains was investigated and partially identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains were found to belong to 7 classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, Cytophagia, Sphingobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Several isolates display only a modest level of similarity to their nearest relatives found in GenBank, suggesting that they comprise previously undescribed taxa. Selected strains were tested for inorganic phosphate solubilization and biodegradation of several biopolymers, such as barley β-glucan, xylan, chitosan, and lignin. The results support a nutrient-scavenging role of the associate microbiota in the seashore lichen symbiotic association.

  3. Population structure of mycobionts and photobionts of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mendoza, F; Domaschke, S; García, M A; Jordan, P; Martín, M P; Printzen, C

    2011-03-01

    Lichens are symbioses between fungi (mycobionts) and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Many lichens occupy large distributional ranges covering several climatic zones. So far, little is known about the large-scale phylogeography of lichen photobionts and their role in shaping the distributional ranges of lichens. We studied south polar, temperate and north polar populations of the widely distributed fruticose lichen Cetraria aculeata. Based on the DNA sequences from three loci for each symbiont, we compared the genetic structure of mycobionts and photobionts. Phylogenetic reconstructions and Bayesian clustering methods divided the mycobiont and photobiont data sets into three groups. An amova shows that the genetic variance of the photobiont is best explained by differentiation between temperate and polar regions and that of the mycobiont by an interaction of climatic and geographical factors. By partialling out the relative contribution of climate, geography and codispersal, we found that the most relevant factors shaping the genetic structure of the photobiont are climate and a history of codispersal. Mycobionts in the temperate region are consistently associated with a specific photobiont lineage. We therefore conclude that a photobiont switch in the past enabled C. aculeata to colonize temperate as well as polar habitats. Rare photobiont switches may increase the geographical range and ecological niche of lichen mycobionts by associating them with locally adapted photobionts in climatically different regions and, together with isolation by distance, may lead to genetic isolation between populations and thus drive the evolution of lichens.

  4. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  5. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  6. Influence of a range of extreme environmental factors on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental factors. These factors were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their interchange on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress factors explored on dry thalli.

  7. Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse bacterial communities in the lichen microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    Hodkinson, Brendan P; Gottel, Neil R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Lutzoni, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although common knowledge dictates that the lichen thallus is formed solely by a fungus (mycobiont) that develops a symbiotic relationship with an alga and/or cyanobacterium (photobiont), the non-photoautotrophic bacteria found in lichen microbiomes are increasingly regarded as integral components of lichen thalli. For this study, comparative analyses were conducted on lichen-associated bacterial communities to test for effects of photobiont-types (i.e. green algal vs. cyanobacterial), mycobiont-types and large-scale spatial distances (from tropical to arctic latitudes). Amplicons of the 16S (SSU) rRNA gene were examined using both Sanger sequencing of cloned fragments and barcoded pyrosequencing. Rhizobiales is typically the most abundant and taxonomically diverse order in lichen microbiomes; however, overall bacterial diversity in lichens is shown to be much higher than previously reported. Members of Acidobacteriaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Brucellaceae and sequence group LAR1 are the most commonly found groups across the phylogenetically and geographically broad array of lichens examined here. Major bacterial community trends are significantly correlated with differences in large-scale geography, photobiont-type and mycobiont-type. The lichen as a microcosm represents a structured, unique microbial habitat with greater ecological complexity and bacterial diversity than previously appreciated and can serve as a model system for studying larger ecological and evolutionary principles.

  8. Large-scale patterns of epiphytic lichen species richness: photobiont-dependent response to climate and forest structure.

    PubMed

    Marini, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2011-09-15

    Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner. Although the photobiont type is a key life-history trait, tests of the potential differential role of the main photobiont types in shaping large-scale patterns of lichen species richness are still absent. The aim of the study was to test the influences of forest structure and climate on epiphytic lichen species richness across Italy and to see whether these relationships change for groups of species sharing different photobiont types. Regional species richness of epiphytic lichens divided into three main photobiont types (i.e. chlorococcoid green algae, cyanobacteria, and Trentepohlia algae) was retrieved for each of the 20 administrative regions. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the effect of climate and forest structure, and their potential interaction, on the regional species richness for the three photobiont types, accounting also for the effect of regional area. Regional species richness was associated with both climate and forest structure variables but the relationships with both factors were largely photobiont dependent. Regional area and precipitation were the only predictors included in all the models, confirming the strong dependence of lichens on atmospheric water supply, irrespective of the photobiont type. Number of species with chlorococcoid green algae were further positively associated with cover of high forest, whilst lichens with Trentepohlia were further enhanced by warm temperatures. Cyanolichen species richness was only related to area and precipitation. Our study shed light on the relative importance of climate and forest structure on lichen species richness patterns at the macroscale, showing a differential response of the photobiont types to various environmental determinants. This differential response suggested that the current and future impacts of global change on lichens cannot be generalized and that species

  9. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  10. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  11. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  12. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  13. Algae Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  14. Integrating coalescent and phylogenetic approaches to delimit species in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Deś, Anna D; Dal Grande, Francesco; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Beck, Andreas; Otte, Jürgen; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Jung A; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-07-01

    The accurate assessment of species boundaries in symbiotic systems is a prerequisite for the study of speciation, co-evolution and selectivity. Many studies have shown the high genetic diversity of green algae from the genus Trebouxia, the most common photobiont of lichen-forming fungi. However, the phylogenetic relationships, and the amount of cryptic diversity of these algae are still poorly understood, and an adequate species concept for trebouxiophycean algae is still missing. In this study we used a multifaceted approach based on coalescence (GMYC, STEM) and phylogenetic relationships to assess species boundaries in the trebouxioid photobionts of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata. We further investigated whether putative species of Trebouxia found in L. pustulata are shared with other lichen-forming fungi. We found that L. pustulata is associated with at least five species of Trebouxia and most of them are shared with other lichen-forming fungi, showing different patterns of species-to-species and species-to-community interactions. We also show that one of the putative Trebouxia species is found exclusively in association with L. pustulata and is restricted to thalli from localities with Mediterranean microclimate. We suggest that the species delimitation method presented in this study is a promising tool to address species boundaries within the heterogeneous genus Trebouxia.

  15. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface.

  16. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  17. The Lichens experiment at Foton M-2 mission: Survival capacity in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Garcia-Sancho, L.

    Lichens are one of the most resistant organisms at Earth They live at very extreme environments in deserts Atacama desert high mountains Himalaya Antarctica Dry Valleys etc This is possible due to the symbiotic relationship between both constituents the algae and the fungui and to their poikilohidric nature characteristic that allows them to survive latent when environmental conditions are very extreme i e when UV radiation is very high temperatures are extreme and dryness exists If humidity returns and temperature tendencies turn near the optimum around 10 C dormant lichens starts to photosynthetice We have selected two epilithic lichen species for the LICHENS experiment which was included at the ESA Biopan-facility located at the outer shell of the satellite Foton M-2 launched into low Earth orbit the 31th of Mai 2005 from Baikonur Russia On of this species was Rhizocarpon geographicum a bipolar epilithic lichen which grows at high mountain regions e g Sierra de Gredos Central Spain with continental climate has been systematically studied in the natural environment Plataforma de Gredos at 2000 m altitude as well as under simulated space conditions at the space simulation facilities of the DLR The sensitivity of the photosynthetic system PSII to the different environmental conditions dryness including vacuum treatment high temperature fluctuations high UV intensity was fluorometrically measured with a MINI PAM Walz Germany The lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum was

  18. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  19. Characterization of the GPI-anchored lipid transfer proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Edstam, Monika M; Laurila, Maiju; Höglund, Andrey; Raman, Amitha; Dahlström, Käthe M; Salminen, Tiina A; Edqvist, Johan; Blomqvist, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are characterized by a compact structure with a central hydrophobic cavity very suitable for binding hydrophobic ligands, such as lipids. The nsLTPs are encoded by large gene families in all land plant lineages, but seem to be absent from green algae. The nsLTPs are classified to different types based on molecular weight, sequence similarity, intron position or spacing between the cysteine residues. The Type G nsLTPs (LTPGs) have a GPI-anchor in the C-terminal region which may attach the protein to the exterior side of the plasma membrane. Here, we present the first characterization of nsLTPs from an early diverged plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. Moss LTPGs were heterologously produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. The purified moss LTPGs were found to be extremely heat stable and showed a binding preference for unsaturated fatty acids. Structural modeling implied that high alanine content could be important for the heat stability. Lipid profiling revealed that cutin monomers, such as C16 and C18 mono- and di-hydroxylated fatty acids, could be identified in P. patens. Expression of a moss LTPG-YFP fusion revealed localization to the plasma membrane. The expressions of many of the moss LTPGs were found to be upregulated during drought and cold treatments.

  20. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  1. Lichens On Galapagos Giant Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, J R; Weber, W A

    1964-06-19

    The association of Physcia picta with the giant Galdpagos tortoise is believed to be the first reported occurrence of lichens on land animals. The habitat is restricted to specific sites on the carapace of male tortoises.

  2. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.

  3. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology. PMID:26982784

  4. Molecular phylogeny and symbiotic selectivity of the green algal genus Dictyochloropsis s.l. (Trebouxiophyceae): a polyphyletic and widespread group forming photobiont-mediated guilds in the lichen family Lobariaceae.

    PubMed

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Beck, Andreas; Cornejo, Carolina; Singh, Garima; Cheenacharoen, Saran; Nelsen, Matthew P; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Dictyochloropsis s.l. is an ecologically important, common but little-studied genus of green algae. Here, we examined the diversity and host selectivity of algae attributed to this genus at both species-to-species and species-to-community levels. We conducted a molecular investigation of 15 cultured strains and several lichen photobionts, using 18S rRNA, rbcL and ITS sequence data. We further used seven alga-specific microsatellite markers to study algal sharing among fungi of the family Lobariaceae in two populations in Madeira and Taiwan (454 lichens). We found that the genus Dictyochloropsis s.l. is polyphyletic. Dictyochloropsis clade 1 comprises only free-living algae whereas Dictyochloropsis clade 2 includes lichenized algae as well as free-living algae. Fungal selectivity towards algae belonging to Dictyochloropsis clade 2 is high. Selectivity varies geographically, with photobionts being restricted to a single region. Finally, we showed that Dictyochloropsis clade 2 individuals are shared among different fungal hosts in communities of lichens of the Lobariaceae. As for other green algal lineages, there is a high amount of cryptic diversity in Dictyochloropsis. Furthermore, co-evolution between Dictyochloropsis clade 2 algae and representatives of the Lobariaceae is manifested at the community level, with several unrelated fungal species being horizontally connected by shared photobiont clones.

  5. Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation patterns including the magnitude, timing, and seasonality of rainfall are predicted to undergo substantial alterations in arid regions in the future, and desert organisms may be more responsive to such changes than to shifts in only mean annual rainfall. Soil biocrust communities (consisting of cyanobacteria, lichen, and mosses) are ubiquitous to desert ecosystems, play an array of ecological roles, and display a strong sensitivity to environmental changes. Crust mosses are particularly responsive to changes in precipitation and exhibit rapid declines in biomass and mortality following the addition of small rainfall events. Further, loss of the moss component in biocrusts leads to declines in crust structure and function. In this study, we sought to understand the physiological responses of the widespread and often dominant biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis to alterations in rainfall. Moss samples were collected during all four seasons and exposed to two rainfall event sizes and three desiccation period (DP) lengths. A carbon balance approach based on single precipitation events was used to define the carbon gain or loss during a particular hydration period. Rainfall event size was the strongest predictor of carbon balance, and the largest carbon gains were associated with the largest precipitation events. In contrast, small precipitation events resulted in carbon deficits for S. caninervis. Increasing the length of the DP prior to an event resulted in reductions in carbon balance, probably because of the increased energetic cost of hydration following more intense bouts of desiccation. The season of collection (i.e., physiological status of the moss) modulated these responses, and the effects of DP and rainfall on carbon balance were different in magnitude (and often in sign) for different seasons. In particular, S. caninervis displayed higher carbon balances in the winter than in the summer, even for events of identical size. Overall, our results

  6. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  7. Runoff source or sink? Biocrust hydrological function strongly depends on the relative abundance of mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, M. A.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.

    2012-04-01

    The redistribution of water in semi-arid environments is critical for overall ecosystem productivity. To a large degree, ecosystem engineers may determine the redistribution of water. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are one such group of ecosystem engineers. Their effects on infiltration have been somewhat controversial, varying from place to place and ranging from strongly positive to strongly negative. In addition, they coexist with and are modified by additional ecosystem engineers. We used a systems approach to examine the interactive effects of multiple engineers on infiltration processes across two analogous sets of interactors. First in Spain, we examined interactions among Stipa tenacissima, biocrusts, and the European rabbit; and in Australia, the interaction between biocrusts and the bilby (a rabbit-like marsupial). We focused on the effects of particular community properties of biocrusts such as species richness, total cover, species composition, and spatial patterning to characterize their variable effects on infiltration. We measured the early (sorptivity) and later (steady-state infiltration) stages of infiltration at two supply potentials using disk permeameters, which allowed us to determine the relative effects of different engineers and soil micropores on water flow through large macropores. In the Spanish case, structural equation modeling showed that both Stipa and biocrust cover exerted substantial and equal positive effects on infiltration under ponding, whereas indirectly, rabbit disturbance negatively affected infiltration by reducing crust cover; rabbits had negligible direct effects. The biocrust influence could be partitioned roughly equally between total cover and composition. All lichen species were negatively related to infiltration and almost all mosses were positively related to infiltration. In the Australian study, bilby forage pits had a direct and strong positive influence on steady state infiltration under ponding and most

  8. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  9. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-06-22

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated.

  10. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  11. A preliminary transcriptomic analysis of lichen Dirinaria sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhani, A. R. Siti; Munir, A. M. Abdul; Wahid, S. Mohd; Diba, A. B. Farah

    2013-11-01

    Lichen is a slow-growing symbiotic organism that consists of a fungus and a photobiont, comprising either an algae or a cyanobacterium living together in a single composite body, known as a thallus. Lichens have a remarkable ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions on earth that makes them a great biological indicator of air quality. The primary goal of this study is to discover the genes that may unravel the mechanism behind the tolerance of this lichen towards air pollution. Lichen samples of Dirinaria sp. were collected from two sites - Jerantut (J) as having a relatively good air quality and Klang (K), an area of bad air quality. Total RNA extraction was carried out, followed by sample preparation prior to transcriptomic sequencing. Altogether 21.7 million and 30.5 million high quality sequence reads from samples J and K, respectively were de novo assembled into 106884 and 88116 transcripts. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 59403 sequences (67.4%) of sample K and 68972 sequences (64.5%) of sample J had a match in the database with a cut-off value of 1e-06. A total of 42175 sequences (47.8%) of sample K and 25648 sequences (24%) of sample J had a Gene Ontology term match. The sequences were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathways, resulting in 129 KEGG pathways generated from sample K, whilst 123 KEGG pathways were produced from sample J.

  12. Segmental lichen planus pigmentosus: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Y Hari Kishan; Babu, Anagha Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population. It is considered a variant of lichen planus (LP). A 40-year-old male presented with asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules in a segmental distribution since 10 years that were clinically and histopathologically suggestive of LPP. We propose the terminology "segmental lichen planus pigmentosus" and report this unusual presentation.

  13. Fungal and algal gene expression in early developmental stages of lichen-symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Joneson, Suzanne; Armaleo, Daniele; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    How plants and microbes recognize each other and interact to form long-lasting relationships remains one of the central questions in cellular communication. The symbiosis between the filamentous fungus Cladonia grayi and the single-celled green alga Asterochloris sp. was used to determine fungal and algal genes upregulated in vitro in early lichen development. cDNA libraries of upregulated genes were created with suppression subtractive hybridization in the first two stages of lichen development. Quantitative PCR subsequently was used to verify the expression level of 41 and 33 candidate fungal and algal genes respectively. Induced fungal genes showed significant matches to genes putatively encoding proteins involved in self and non-self recognition, lipid metabolism, and negative regulation of glucose repressible genes, as well as to a putative d-arabitol reductase and two dioxygenases. Upregulated algal genes included a chitinase-like protein, an amino acid metabolism protein, a dynein-related protein and a protein arginine methyltransferase. These results also provided the first evidence that extracellular communication without cellular contact can occur between lichen symbionts. Many genes showing slight variation in expression appear to direct the development of the lichen symbiosis. The results of this study highlight future avenues of investigation into the molecular biology of lichen symbiosis.

  14. Ecophysiology and genetic structure of polar versus temperate populations of the lichen Cetraria aculeata.

    PubMed

    Domaschke, S; Vivas, M; Sancho, L G; Printzen, C

    2013-11-01

    We studied polar and temperate samples of the lichen Cetraria aculeata to investigate whether genetical differences between photobionts are correlated with physiological properties of the lichen holobiont. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration (DR) at different temperatures (from 0 to 30 °C) and photon flux densities (from 0 to 1,200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were studied for four populations of Cetraria aculeata. Samples were collected from maritime Antarctica, Svalbard, Germany and Spain, representing different climatic situations. Sequencing of the photobiont showed that the investigated samples fall in the polar and temperate clade described in Fernández-Mendoza et al. (Mol Ecol 20:1208-1232, 2011). Lichens with photobionts from these clades differ in their temperature optimum for photosynthesis, maximal net photosynthesis, maximal DR and chlorophyll content. Maximal net photosynthesis was much lower in Antarctica and Svalbard than in Germany and Spain. The difference was smaller when rates were expressed by chlorophyll content. The same is true for the temperature optima of polar (11 °C) and temperate (15 and 17 °C) lichens. Our results indicate that lichen mycobionts may adapt or acclimate to local environmental conditions either by selecting algae from regional pools or by regulating algal cell numbers (chlorophyll content) within the thallus.

  15. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  16. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens.

  17. Characterization of enzymatic antioxidants in the lichen Ramalina lacera and their response to rehydration.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Lior; Garty, Jacob; Hochman, Ayala

    2005-11-01

    Lichens are slow-growing associations of fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. This symbiotic association forms a common thallus that does not possess roots or a waxy cuticle and depends mainly on atmospheric input of mineral nutrients. The lifestyle of most lichens is composed of alternating periods of desiccation with low metabolic activity and hydration that induces increase in their metabolism. We have previously shown that rehydration of the naturally desiccated lichen Ramalina lacera resulted in a rapid increase in photosynthesis and was accompanied by a burst of intracellular production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, as well as a transient decrease in water-soluble antioxidant capacity. We report here on enzymatic antioxidants of R. lacera and their response to rehydration. Native gel electrophoresis of crude extracts of R. lacera stained for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity revealed four Fe-SOD and four Mn-SOD electromorphs that are synthesized by the alga, a Cu/Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD that are the product of the fungus, and two catalases synthesized one by the fungus and the other by the algae. In addition, we detected glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in crude extracts of R. lacera. Rehydration of the thalli resulted in a decrease in SOD activity of all forms, and a transient decrease in total catalase activity, as well as a decrease in the antioxidant auxiliary enzymes glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  18. Plant-type N-glycans containing fucose and xylose in Bryophyta (mosses) and Tracheophyta (ferns).

    PubMed

    Mega, Tomohiro

    2007-12-01

    The presence of typical plant-type N-glycans (eg, M3FX, Gn2M3FX, and Le(a)2M3FX) in mosses, ferns, and other organisms was examined to determine which plant initially acquired glycosyltransferases to produce plant-type N-glycans during organic evolution. No M3FX-type N-glycan was detected in lichens (Cladonia humilis) or in any one of the three preland plants Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, and Chara braunii Gmelin. In Bryophyta, M3FX-type N-glycan was detected at trace amounts in Anthocerotopsida (hornworts) and at certain amounts in Bryopsida (mosses), but not in Hepaticopsida (liverworts). Le(a)2M3FX was detected in some Bryopsida of relatively high M3FX content. Most Tracheophyta (ferns and higher plants) contained the three typical M3FX-type glycans as the main N-glycans in different ratios. These results suggest that organisms acquired xylosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase during the development of mosses from liverworts, and that later all plants retained both enzymes. Bryopsida have also obtained galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase to synthesize the Le(a) antigen.

  19. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lichens (fungi living with an alga or cyanobacterium) absorb substances, including trace elements through dry and wet deposition, often to very high concentrations, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous lichens (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) collected in 2004-2006 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Arkhangelsk Region of NW Russia. 31 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher, in order to exclude any contamination of trace metals. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack). Major element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. For instance, these elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens and EF by these elements were registered in Lovozersky Tundry (Kola Peninsula) and in Paanayarvi area (NW Karelia). Lichens here are polluted by Monchegorsk and Nickel Cu-Ni smelters. In the vicinity of Kostomukshsky Ore-dressing Mill lichens

  20. Lichen sclerosus and lichen planus in women and girls.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Bethanee J; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2015-03-01

    Lichen planus and lichen sclerosus are common, chronic inflammatory vulvar dermatoses with significant morbidity. The course may wax and wane but disease often persists for decades. These autoimmune diseases have varied clinical presentations that extend beyond the genitalia. Management is best undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach and active patient involvement. The first-line treatment of both conditions is superpotent topical corticosteroids. Supportive measures and adjunct therapies can optimize patient outcomes. Patients who fail to improve despite correct medication use should be re-evaluated, and clinicians should be vigilant in detecting concomitant contact dermatitis, secondary infection, and malignancy.

  1. Xanthones of Lichen Source: A 2016 Update.

    PubMed

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Boustie, Joël

    2016-03-02

    An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data) as reported since 1996.

  2. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens

    PubMed Central

    Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  3. Strong tolerance of blue-green alga Microcystis flos-aquae to very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Nishihira, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Yamazaki, D.; Ito, E.

    2015-09-01

    It was shown in our previous reports that a few spores of moss Venturiella could tolerate the very high pressure of 20 GPa for 30 min and germinated a protonema to the length of 30 μm. However, these spores did not grow any further, and disappeared at around 30 days of incubation after seeded. On the other hand, colonies of blue-green alga Microcystis flos-aquae came to appear about 76 days after the moss spores were seeded. Many of these colonies appeared at the places where the moss spores had disappeared. These colonies were formed by the algae that had adhered to the spore cases of the moss and survived after exposure to the very high pressure of 20 GPa. Though the appearance of the colonies of high pressure exposed algae was delayed by about 50 days compared with that of the control group which was not exposed to high pressure, there seems no difference in their shape and color from those of the control group. The pressure tolerance of blue-green alga is found to be enormously strong, and it can survive after exposure to the high pressure which corresponds to the depth of about 550-600 km from the surface of the Earth, just above the lower mantle.

  4. Polyamine biosynthetic diversity in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Fuell, Christine; Elliott, Katherine A; Hanfrey, Colin C; Franceschetti, Marina; Michael, Anthony J

    2010-07-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis in plants differs from other eukaryotes because of the contribution of genes from the cyanobacterial ancestor of the chloroplast. Plants possess an additional biosynthetic route for putrescine formation from arginine, consisting of the enzymes arginine decarboxylase, agmatine iminohydrolase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase, derived from the cyanobacterial ancestor. They also synthesize an unusual tetraamine, thermospermine, that has important developmental roles and which is evolutionarily more ancient than spermine in plants and algae. Single-celled green algae have lost the arginine route and are dependent, like other eukaryotes, on putrescine biosynthesis from the ornithine. Some plants like Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens have lost ornithine decarboxylase and are thus dependent on the arginine route. With its dependence on the arginine route, and the pivotal role of thermospermine in growth and development, Arabidopsis represents the most specifically plant mode of polyamine biosynthesis amongst eukaryotes. A number of plants and algae are also able to synthesize unusual polyamines such as norspermidine, norspermine and longer polyamines, and biosynthesis of these amines likely depends on novel aminopropyltransferases similar to thermospermine synthase, with relaxed substrate specificity. Plants have a rich repertoire of polyamine-based secondary metabolites, including alkaloids and hydroxycinnamic amides, and a number of polyamine-acylating enzymes have been recently characterised. With the genetic tools available for Arabidopsis and other model plants and algae, and the increasing capabilities of comparative genomics, the biological roles of polyamines can now be addressed across the plant evolutionary lineage.

  5. Clinical recommendation: pediatric lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Boardman, Lori A; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2014-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the anogenital region that may present in the prepubertal or adolescent patient. Clinical presentations include significant pruritus, labial adhesions, and loss of pigmentation. Treatment includes topical anti-inflammatory agents and long-term follow-up as there is a high risk of recurrence and an increased risk of vulvar cancer in adult women with history of lichen sclerosus. These recommendations are intended for pediatricians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and others who care for pediatric/adolescent girls in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Slow molecular evolution in 18S rDNA, rbcL and nad5 genes of mosses compared with higher plants.

    PubMed

    Stenøien, H K

    2008-03-01

    The evolutionary potential of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) has been debated for decades. Fossil record and biogeographical distribution patterns suggest very slow morphological evolution and the retainment of several ancient traits since the split with vascular plants some 450 million years ago. Many have argued that bryophytes may evolve as rapidly as higher plants on the molecular level, but this hypothesis has not been tested so far. Here, it is shown that mosses have experienced significantly lower rates of molecular evolution than higher plants within 18S rDNA (nuclear), rbcL (chloroplast) and nad5 (mitochondrial) genes. Mosses are on an average evolving 2-3 times slower than ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; and also green algae seem to be evolving faster than nonvascular plants. These results support the observation of a general correlation between morphological and molecular evolutionary rates in plants and also show that mosses are 'evolutionary sphinxes' regarding both morphological and molecular evolutionary potential.

  7. Recognition and management of vulvar dermatologic conditions: lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, and lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Thorstensen, Katrina Alef; Birenbaum, Debra L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, and lichen simplex chronicus are dermatologic conditions that can affect the vulva. Symptoms include vulvar itching, irritation, burning, and pain, which may be chronic or recurrent and can lead to significant physical discomfort and emotional distress that can affect mood and sexual relationships. With symptoms similar to common vaginal infections, women often seek care from gynecological providers and may be treated for vaginal infections without relief. Recognition and treatment of these vulvar conditions is important for symptom relief, sexual function, prevention of progressive vulvar scarring, and to provide surveillance for associated vulvar cancer. This article reviews these conditions including signs and symptoms, the process of evaluation, treatment, and follow-up, with attention to education and guidelines for vulvar care and hygiene.

  8. Solute Transport in Unsaturated Sphagnum Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. S.; Faux, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    Natural Sphagnum cushions develop an upwardly increasing concentration of dissolved solutes during periods of sustained upward capillary flow of solutes, and become enriched by evaporative loss of water. The transport process is poorly documented as a consequence of poor parameterization of unsaturated flow parameters, and the lack of transport parameters such as dispersivity and solute retardation coefficients for flow in unsaturated mosses. Sphagnum mosses contain hyaline cells and dead-end pores that can store but not transmit water and solute. Since these spaces do not drain at moderate (negative) pressures (ψ), the ratio of fluid actively flowing in films in the unsaturated moss to that which is stored decreases as the moss drains. Solutes can pass by diffusion from the film of flowing water into these closed spaces resulting in increased dispersion of the flowing solute, and retardation of even conservative solutes like chloride. These processes were demonstrated in unsaturated Sphagnum mosses using a step input solute (NaCl) source from a constant head device for undecomposed near-surface moss (~5 cm depth), and slightly more decomposed deeper moss (~25 cm depth). Smaller water retention in the undecomposed upper moss sample resulted in lower unsaturated hydraulic conductivity thus lower flow rates. When the sample was initially drained (ψ = ~ 4 cm of water) it was determined that the solute breakthrough expressed as relative concentration (C/C0 = 0.5) occurred at a cumulative discharge of 91.5 ml and at 5.8 minutes in the upper moss, compared to 233.2 ml after 2.8 minutes in the lower (more decomposed) sample. In a drier state (ψ = ~ 16 cm of water), C/C0 = 0.5 was reached after 67.9 ml of discharge at 37.9 minutes in the upper moss compared to 109.2 ml and at 22.4 minutes in the lower sample. Thus less solute flow is required for breakthrough in less decomposed mosses, and in mosses that are relatively dry. Dispersivity was determined on the basis of

  9. 78 FR 41397 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 28, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC (Moss Bluff) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) pursuant to sections 284.123 and 284.224 of the Commission's regulations, (18 CFR 284.123 and 284.224). Moss...

  10. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  11. Bioweathering of a basalt from Etna (Sicily) by the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and mosses, as pioneer plants, firstly colonize rocky surfaces enhancing biogeophysical and biogeochemical degradation of their substrates. Indeed, the contact area between the lithological substrates and the cryptogams is considered a simplified environment for studying the mechanisms of bioweathering, which, in many cases, characterize the initial stages of pedogenesis. In this paper we report the results of a study conducted for the recognition and characterization of the bioweathering processes of a basaltic lava present on the slopes of Mt Etna (western Sicily) at an altitude of 1550 m above sea level, associated with the growth of the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. The Etnean rock, characterised by a porphiric structure, is mainly made by a microcrystalline groundmass in which are immersed abundant phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite and rare olivine crystals. The groundmass shows the same mineral assemblage. With the use of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, we determined the chemical composition of the fresh rock, of the materials collected at the rock-moss interface and of the plant tissues. The X-ray diffraction has allowed to have detailed information on the mineralogy of the bioaltered rocky and interface materials. Scanning electron microscope observations and microanalytical investigations carried out on fragments of rock colonized by moss showed a significant disintegration of the rock and the presence of crystals with tabular habit, containing Cu and Fe, aligned tangentially to the surface of Grimmia pulvinata rhizoids. The weathered material covered by the moss cushion has the chemical and physical characteristics of low pedogenized soils. The high value of the C/N ratio has to be referred to the presence of plant residues with high resistance to mineralize. The significant amount of plant available phosphorus, as assessed by Olsen extraction, confirmed the possibility that the bryophytes constitute important reserves of phosphorus

  12. Dissipation of excess excitation energy by drought-induced nonphotochemical quenching in two species of drought-tolerant moss: desiccation-induced acceleration of photosystem II fluorescence decay.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Hisanori; Itoh, Shigeru

    2013-07-02

    Drought-tolerant mosses survive with their green color intact even after long periods of dehydration that would kill ordinary plants. The mechanism of dissipation of excitation energy under drought stress was studied in two species of drought-tolerant moss, Rhytidium rugosum and Ceratodon purpureus. They showed severe quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence (PSII) after being dehydrated in the dark. Quenching was induced by the acceleration of the fluorescence decay rate. This drought-induced nonphotochemical quenching (designated d-NPQ) was fully reversed by rehydration. Global analysis of fluorescence decay at 77 K indicated rapid 46 ps transfer of excitation energy from the 680-690 nm PSII bands to a 710 nm band, and to 740-760 nm bands. The latter bands decayed to the ground state with the same time constant showing the rapid dissipation of excitation energy into heat. The quenching by d-NPQ in dry moss was stronger than that by PSII charge separation or nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), which operates under hydrating conditions. Drought-tolerant mosses, thus, dissipate excess excitation energy into heat. The d-NPQ mechanism in moss resembles that reported in lichens, suggesting their common origin.

  13. [Lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus following gold therapy--case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Ingber, A; Weissmann-Katzenelson, V; David, M; Bialowons, M; Feuerman, E J

    1986-03-01

    We report on two typical cases of lichen planus and lichen pigmentosus appearing after gold therapy. The characteristics of lichen planus induced by drugs are emphasized, and the literature is reviewed.

  14. [Linear lichen planopilaris of the face].

    PubMed

    Cañadas, Nadia G; Luna, Paula C; Etcheverry, Mauro D; Nocito, Mabel J; Castellanos Posse, Maria L; Marchesi, Carolina; Garuti, Romina A; Carmona Cuello, Lucía E; Carabajal, Graciela; Mazzini, Miguel A

    2010-07-15

    Linear lichen planopilaris of the face is a rare variant of lichen plano- pilaris. Asymptomatic follicular papules in a linear configuration are the characteristic clinical features. The incidence is still unknown, but there are a few cases reported exclusively in male adults. We present the case of a fourteen-year-old girl with linear lichen planopilaris of the face. Improvement was obtained with the use of tacrolimus 0.03 percent ointment.

  15. Segmental lichen planus pigmentosus: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Y Hari Kishan; Babu, Anagha Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population. It is considered a variant of lichen planus (LP). A 40-year-old male presented with asymptomatic hyperpigmented macules in a segmental distribution since 10 years that were clinically and histopathologically suggestive of LPP. We propose the terminology “segmental lichen planus pigmentosus” and report this unusual presentation. PMID:24860750

  16. Cloning and characterization of chalcone synthase from the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenguang; Schommer, Clark K; Kim, Sun Young; Suh, Dae-Yeon

    2006-12-01

    Since the early evolution of land plants from primitive green algae, flavonoids have played an important role as UV protective pigments in plants. Flavonoids occur in liverworts and mosses, and the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthesis is catalyzed by chalcone synthase (CHS). Although higher plant CHSs have been extensively studied, little information is available on the enzymes from bryophytes. Here we report the cloning and characterization of CHS from the moss, Physcomitrella patens. Taking advantage of the available P. patens EST sequences, a CHS (PpCHS) was cloned from the gametophores of P. patens, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. PpCHS exhibited similar kinetic properties and substrate preference profile to those of higher plant CHS. p-Coumaroyl-CoA was the most preferred substrate, suggesting that PpCHS is a naringenin chalcone producing CHS. Consistent with the evolutionary position of the moss, phylogenetic analysis placed PpCHS at the base of the plant CHS clade, next to the microorganism CHS-like gene products. Therefore, PpCHS likely represents a modern day version of one of the oldest CHSs that appeared on earth. Further, sequence analysis of the P. patens EST and genome databases revealed the presence of a CHS multigene family in the moss as well as the 3'-end heterogeneity of a CHS gene. Of the 19 putative CHS genes, 10 genes are expressed and have corresponding ESTs in the databases. A possibility of the functional divergence of the multiple CHS genes in the moss is discussed.

  17. Tolerance to environmental desiccation in moss sperm.

    PubMed

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    • Sexual reproduction in mosses requires that sperm be released freely into the environment before finding and fertilizing a receptive female. After release from the male plant, moss sperm may experience a range of abiotic stresses; however, few data are available examining stress tolerance of moss sperm and whether there is genetic variation for stress tolerance in this important life stage. • Here, we investigated the effects of environmental desiccation and recovery on the sperm cells of three moss species (Bryum argenteum, Campylopus introflexus, and Ceratodon purpureus). • We found that a fraction of sperm cells were tolerant to environmental desiccation for extended periods (d) and that tolerance did not vary among species. We found that this tolerance occurs irrespective of ambient dehydration conditions, and that the addition of sucrose during dry-down improved cell recovery. Although we observed no interspecific variation, significant variation among individuals within species in sperm cell tolerance to environmental desiccation was observed, suggesting selection could potentially act on this basic reproductive trait. • The observation of desiccation-tolerant sperm in multiple moss species has important implications for understanding bryophyte reproduction, suggesting the presence of a significant, uncharacterized complexity in the ecology of moss mating systems.

  18. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P; Johnson, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  19. Cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susan; Channa, Prabjot

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus. Methods: Case report. Results: To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus. A 73-year-old woman had persistent cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Histopathologic studies of the buccal mucosa biopsy specimen revealed lichen planus. Conclusion: Lichen planus is a possible cause of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Topical cyclosporine may stabilize the ocular surface, and additional systemic immunosuppression may be needed in severe cases. A correct diagnosis through biopsy is essential to start aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment to avoid vision loss. PMID:27625952

  20. Linear lichen planus in children - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Marcia Raquel; Vidal, Marcela de Lima; Resende, Manuela Oliveira; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; de Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is an uncommon disease in children, and only 2 to 3% of affected patients are under twenty years of age. This dermatosis may appear in several clinical forms, which vary according to the morphology and distribution of lesions. In less than 0.2% of all lichen planus cases, the lesions are distributed along the lines of Blaschko, and is a variant called linear lichen planus. This is a case report of a patient aged two years and eight months, who presented keratotic violaceous papules, affecting the abdomen, buttocks and right thigh, distributed along the lines of Blaschko. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of linear lichen planus. PMID:24346902

  1. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  2. Polyextremotolerant black fungi: oligotrophism, adaptive potential, and a link to lichen symbioses.

    PubMed

    Gostinčar, Cene; Muggia, Lucia; Grube, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Black meristematic fungi can survive high doses of radiation and are resistant to desiccation. These adaptations help them to colonize harsh oligotrophic habitats, e.g., on the surface and subsurface of rocks. One of their most characteristic stress-resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of melanin in the cell walls. This, production of other protective molecules and a plastic morphology further contribute to ecological flexibility of black fungi. Increased growth rates of some species after exposure to ionizing radiation even suggest yet unknown mechanisms of energy production. Other unusual metabolic strategies may include harvesting UV or visible light or gaining energy by forming facultative lichen-like associations with algae or cyanobacteria. The latter is not entirely surprising, since certain black fungal lineages are phylogenetically related to clades of lichen-forming fungi. Similar to black fungi, lichen-forming fungi are adapted to growth on exposed surfaces with low availability of nutrients. They also efficiently use protective molecules to tolerate frequent periods of extreme stress. Traits shared by both groups of fungi may have been important in facilitating the evolution and radiation of lichen-symbioses.

  3. Polyextremotolerant black fungi: oligotrophism, adaptive potential, and a link to lichen symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Gostinčar, Cene; Muggia, Lucia; Grube, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Black meristematic fungi can survive high doses of radiation and are resistant to desiccation. These adaptations help them to colonize harsh oligotrophic habitats, e.g., on the surface and subsurface of rocks. One of their most characteristic stress-resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of melanin in the cell walls. This, production of other protective molecules and a plastic morphology further contribute to ecological flexibility of black fungi. Increased growth rates of some species after exposure to ionizing radiation even suggest yet unknown mechanisms of energy production. Other unusual metabolic strategies may include harvesting UV or visible light or gaining energy by forming facultative lichen-like associations with algae or cyanobacteria. The latter is not entirely surprising, since certain black fungal lineages are phylogenetically related to clades of lichen-forming fungi. Similar to black fungi, lichen-forming fungi are adapted to growth on exposed surfaces with low availability of nutrients. They also efficiently use protective molecules to tolerate frequent periods of extreme stress. Traits shared by both groups of fungi may have been important in facilitating the evolution and radiation of lichen-symbioses. PMID:23162543

  4. Magnetic separation of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  5. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution.

  6. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus.

    PubMed

    Pock, L; Jelínková, L; Drlík, L; Abrhámová, S; Vojtechovská, S; Sezemská, D; Borodácová, I; Hercogová, J

    2001-09-01

    We examined seven patients with lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) clinically and microscopically. Clinically, all patients had a striking predominance of lesions in an intertriginous location, with most of them in the axillae. Microscopically, two biopsies were of significance. Except for the regressive lichen planus, which is usual in LPP, the active inflammatory phase was also present. In these biopsies the very intensive hydropic degeneration of basal keratinocytes was combined with the absence of compensatory increased proliferation of keratinocytes, i.e. without acanthosis. The short duration of this process probably led to the quick transformation into a long noninflammatory regressive phase with incontinence of the pigment. These specific morphogenetic dynamics are possibly why most of the morphs of LPP present as brown, non-pruritic, small inflammatory macules. Because of the highly characteristic inverse location of the lesions in our patients we propose the designation LPP-inversus for this variant of the disease.

  7. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  8. Alectorioid Morphologies in Paleogene Lichens: New Evidence and Re-Evaluation of the Fossil Alectoria succini Mägdefrau.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Heinrichs, Jochen; Krings, Michael; Myllys, Leena; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon.

  9. Simulated Space Radiation: Impact of Four Different Types of High-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Lichen Xanthoria elegans.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Annette; Meeßen, Joachim; Jänicke, Reiner U; Raguse, Marina; Ott, Sieglinde

    2017-02-01

    This study addresses the viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans after high-dose ionizing irradiation in the frame of the STARLIFE campaign. The first set of experiments was intended to resemble several types of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) as present beyond the magnetic shield of Earth. In the second set of experiments, γ radiation up to 113 kGy was applied to test the limit of lichen resistance to ionizing radiation. Entire thalli of Xanthoria elegans were irradiated in the anhydrobiotic state. After STARLIFE 1, the metabolic activity of both symbionts was quantified by live/dead staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The photosynthetic activity was measured after the respective irradiation to assess the ability of the symbiotic green algae to restore photosynthesis after irradiation. The STARLIFE campaign complements the results of the LIFE experiments at the EXPOSE-E facility on the International Space Station by testing the model organism Xanthoria elegans on its resistance to hazardous radiation that might be accumulated during long-term space exposure. In addition, the photosynthetic activity of metabolically active lichen was investigated after X-ray irradiation up to 100 Gy (3.3 Gy/min). Since previous astrobiological experiments were mostly performed with anhydrobiotic lichen, these experiments will broaden our knowledge on the correlation of physiological state and astrobiological stressors. Key Words: Astrobiology-Extremotolerance-Gamma rays-Ionizing radiation-Lichens-Viability. Astrobiology 17, 136-144.

  10. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  11. Early molecular investigations of lichen-forming symbionts: 1986-2001*.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Paula T

    2004-01-01

    From the mid-1980s the symbionts in lichen associations, heterotrophic fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria, were the subject of increasing numbers of molecular investigations. Many of the studies examined the phylogenetic placement of the individual symbiotic partners with their free-living relatives, refining their nomenclature and classification. Resulting phylogenies permitted the mapping of transitions to and from lichenization and stimulated discussion of the relative ease of gaining and losing symbiotic lifestyles. Comparing symbiont phylogenies both rejected strict cospeciation and mirrored phylogenies and hinted at more complex forces of coevolution, including symbiont switching and selection. Studies at the species and population levels examined patterns of species delimitation and geographic dispersion and processes such as gene flow, self-fertilization, and founder effect. Significant genetic variation often was associated with mobile elements, group I and spliceosomal introns. This review examines the influence of molecular investigation on lichenology during this first 15 years.

  12. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts.

    PubMed

    Aptroot, A; van Herk, C M

    2007-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronounced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming.

  13. Ferns, mosses and liverworts as model systems for light-mediated chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-11-17

    Light-induced chloroplast movement is found in most plant species, including algae and land plants. In land plants with multiple small chloroplasts, under weak light conditions, the chloroplasts move towards the light and accumulate on the periclinal cell walls to efficiently perceive light for photosynthesis (the accumulation response). Under strong light conditions, chloroplasts escape from light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). In most plant species, blue light induces chloroplast movement, and phototropin receptor kinases are the blue light receptors. Molecular mechanisms for photoreceptors, signal transduction and chloroplast motility systems are being studied using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, to further understand the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary history of chloroplast movement in green plants, analyses using other plant systems are required. Here, we review recent works on chloroplast movement in green algae, liverwort, mosses and ferns that provide new insights on chloroplast movement.

  14. Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Oubre, Matthieu; Whitehouse, Martin J; Wardle, David A; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-10-01

    The mechanistic basis of feather moss-cyanobacteria associations, a main driver of nitrogen (N) input into boreal forests, remains unknown. Here, we studied colonization by Nostoc sp. on two feather mosses that form these associations (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) and two acrocarpous mosses that do not (Dicranum polysetum and Polytrichum commune). We also determined how N availability and moss reproductive stage affects colonization, and measured N transfer from cyanobacteria to mosses. The ability of mosses to induce differentiation of cyanobacterial hormogonia, and of hormogonia to then colonize mosses and re-establish a functional symbiosis was determined through microcosm experiments, microscopy and acetylene reduction assays. Nitrogen transfer between cyanobacteria and Pleurozium schreberi was monitored by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). All mosses induced hormogonia differentiation but only feather mosses were subsequently colonized. Colonization on Pleurozium schreberi was enhanced during the moss reproductive phase but impaired by elevated N. Transfer of N from cyanobacteria to their host moss was observed. Our results reveal that feather mosses likely secrete species-specific chemo-attractants when N-limited, which guide cyanobacteria towards them and from which they gain N. We conclude that this signalling is regulated by N demands of mosses, and serves as a control of N input into boreal forests.

  15. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  16. Verrucous Lichen Planus: A Rare Presentation of a Common Condition

    PubMed Central

    Audhya, Moutusi; Varughese, Jenny S.; Nakhwa, Yuti C.

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic papulosquamous dermatoses in which both skin and mucosae are involved. There are various morphological forms of lichen planus. Hypertrophic lichen planus is one of the rare clinical variants. Herein, we report a very unusual presentation of hypertrophic lichen planus. A similar presentation has not been reported in literature yet, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:25386324

  17. Level and origin of 129I and 137Cs in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Holm, E; Pinto-Gómez, A R

    2011-02-01

    Lichen is a symbiosis between algae and fungi. They have for decades been used as bioindicators for atmospheric deposition of heavy metals, organic compounds and radioactive elements. Especially the species Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina are important for the food chain lichen-reindeer-man. The concentration of (129)I was determined in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at Lake Rogen District (62.3°N, 12.4°E) in central Sweden in the periods 1961-1975 and 1987-1998, and analysed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at CNA (Seville) to study its distribution in different layers. Data on the (137)Cs activity measured previously were also included in this study. The (129)I concentration ranged from (0.95 ± 0.13) × 10(8) at g(-1) in 1961 in the uppermost layer to (14.2 ± 0.5) × 10(8) at g(-1) in 1987 in deepest layer. The (129)I/(137)Cs atom ratio ranged between 0.12 and 0.27 for lichen samples collected in the period 1961-1975, indicating weapons tests fallout. For lichen samples collected between 1987 and 1998 the behaviour of (137)Cs concentrations reflected Chernobyl fallout. The concentrations of the two radionuclides followed each other quite well in the profile, reflecting the same origin for both. From the point of view of the spatial distribution in the lichen, it appears that (129)I was predominantly accumulated in the lowest layer, the opposite to (137)Cs for which the highest amounts were detected systematically in the topmost layer of lichen. This vertical distribution is important for radioecology because lichen is the initial link in the food chain lichen-reindeer-man, and reindeer only graze the upper parts of lichen carpets.

  18. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  19. Unilateral Blaschkoid lichen planus in successive pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shiva; Okade, Rajendra; Rahman, Yasmin Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A number of genetic, congenital and acquired dermatoses have been known to follow Blaschko's lines. A common disorder like lichen planus can very rarely present with pruritic lesions in atypical patterns such as unilateral distribution, painful eruptions and along Blaschko's lines. Various triggering factors varying from viral infections and vaccinations to trauma have been implicated in lichen planus. We describe a female patient in the second trimester of her second pregnancy who developed unilateral lichen planus along Blaschko's lines during both pregnancies. No case of lichen planus along Blaschko's lines recurring during pregnancy is reported so far. Could pregnancy itself be a contributory factor towards onset of lichen planus in this case? PMID:25386287

  20. [Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  1. Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  2. Tip-growing cells of the moss Ceratodon purpureus Are gravitropic in high-density media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, Jochen Michael; Kern, Volker Dieter; Sack, Fred David

    2002-01-01

    Gravity sensing in plants and algae is hypothesized to rely upon either the mass of the entire cell or that of sedimenting organelles (statoliths). Protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus show upward gravitropism and contain amyloplasts that sediment. If moss sensing were whole-cell based, then media denser than the cell should prevent gravitropism or reverse its direction. Cells that were inverted or reoriented to the horizontal displayed distinct negative gravitropism in solutions of iodixanol with densities of 1.052 to 1.320 as well as in bovine serum albumin solutions with densities of 1.037 to 1.184 g cm(-3). Studies using tagged molecules of different sizes and calculations of diffusion times suggest that both types of media penetrate through the apical cell wall. Estimates of the density of the apical cell range from 1.004 to 1.085. Because protonemata grow upward when the cells have a density that is lower than the surrounding medium, gravitropic sensing probably utilizes an intracellular mass in moss protonemata. These data provide additional support for the idea that sedimenting amyloplasts function as statoliths in gravitropism.

  3. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-23

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  4. The potential of the lichen symbiosis to cope with the extreme conditions of outer space II: germination capacity of lichen ascospores in response to simulated space conditions.

    PubMed

    de Vera, J-P; Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Ott, S

    2004-01-01

    Complementary to the already well-studied microorganisms, lichens, symbiotic organisms of the mycobiont (fungi) and the photobiont (algae), were used as "model systems" in which to examine the ecological potential to resist to extreme environments of outer space. Ascospores (sexual propagules of the mycobiont) of the lichens Fulgensia bracteata, Xanthoria elegans and Xanthoria parietina were exposed to selected space-simulating conditions (up to 16 h of space vacuum at 10(-3) Pa and UV radiation at 160 nm < or = lambda < or = 400 nm), while embedded in the lichen fruiting bodies. After exposure, the ascospores were discharged and their viability was tested as germination capacity on different culture media including those containing Mars regolith simulant. It was found that (i) the germination rate on media containing Mars regolith simulant was as high as on other mineral-containing media, (ii) if enclosed in the ascocarps, the ascospores survived the vacuum exposure, the UV-irradiation as well as the combined treatment of vacuum and UV to a high degree. In general, 50 % or more viable spores were recovered, with ascospores of X. elegans showing the highest survival. It is suggested that ascospores inside the ascocarps are well protected by the anatomical structure, the gelatinous layer and the pigments (parietin and carotene) against the space parameters tested.

  5. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications.

  6. Translocation in the nonpolytrichaceous moss grimmia laevigata

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A superficially rhizomatous habit suggested that the moss Grimmia laevigata might function as a clonal, rhizomatous plant and translocate photoassimilates to below ground organs, even though the species is outside the order Polytrichales, which includes the only mosses known to posses sieve cells. Labelling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} indicated that at least 10% of newly assimilated carbon was translocated out of leafy shoot portions within 26 hr. Of this carbon, approximately 75% was apparently moved into leafless, basal shoot portions and 25% into below ground stems. Infrared gas analysis of net CO{sup 2} flux was used to check that labelling gave a realistic measure of photosynthesis. Physiological integration and clonal spread may account for the unusual ability of this moss to colonize extremely xeric microsites.

  7. Trouble with lichen: the re-evaluation and re-interpretation of thallus form and fruit body types in the molecular era.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Hawksworth, David L

    2007-09-01

    Following discussions of the definition of the terms 'lichen' and 'thallus', the role of lichenization in the evolution of asco- and basidiomycetes, and divergence and convergence in fruit body types, the morphogenetic interpretation of types of thallus form in lichens is reviewed. Attention is drawn to the various morphogenetic hypotheses proposed to explain the lichen thallus, but it is concluded that it is best interpreted as a novel phenotype with no exact homologue. Similar ascomatal and thallus types are found in lichen-forming fungi of different orders and families, as now revealed by molecular phylogenetic studies. These are interpreted as examples of convergent evolution, strategies by which unrelated fungi either display captured algae to maximize photosynthetic opportunities, or to attach themselves to a substratum. Phenotypic evolution of fruit body and thallus types in the major orders and clades is summarized, and the thallus types known in each order are tabulated. An hypothesis relating the evolution of these structures to hygroscopic movements is proposed, and the critical position of lichens in developing an integrated approach to ascomycete evolution is emphasized.

  8. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.; Strelkova, L.; Yurukova, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  9. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  14. 77 FR 70431 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC, (Moss Bluff) filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC)...

  15. Case for diagnosis. Lichen myxedematosus*

    PubMed Central

    Rebellato, Priscila Regina Orso; Carbonar, Mauren Beatriz Frazon; Tabuti, Nicole Iasmin Magario; Rastelli, Graziela Junges Crescente

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxedema or lichen myxedematosus is a rare papular mucinosis of chronic and progressive course and unknown etiology. It is commonly associated with monoclonal gammopathy and may show extracutaneous manifestations, affecting the heart, lung, kidney, and nerves. The diagnosis is based on four criteria: generalized papular and sclerodermoid lesions; mucin deposition, fibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis in the histopathology; monoclonal gammopathy; and no thyroid disorders. This article reports the case of a scleromyxedema patient with a recent history of acute myocardial infarction and monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:28099617

  16. Interaction of metal ions with acid sites of biosorbents peat moss and Vaucheria and model substances alginic and humic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Martin, J.R.; Crist, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    The interaction between added metal ions and acid sites of two biosorbents, peat moss and the alga Vaucheria, was studied. Results were interpreted in terms of two model substances, alginic acid, a copolymer of guluronic and mannuronic acids present in marine algae, and humic acid in peat moss. For peat moss and Vaucheria at pH 4--6, two protons were displaced per Cd sorbed, after correction for sorbed metals also displaced by the heavy metal. The frequent neglect of exchange of heavy metals for metals either sorbed on the native material or added for pH adjustment leads to erroneous conclusions about proton displacement stoichiometry. Proton displacement constants K{sub ex}{sup H} decreased logarithmically with pH and had similar slopes for alginic acid and biosorbents. This pH effect was interpreted as an electrostatic effect of increasing anionic charge making proton removal less favorable. The maximum number of exchangeable acid sites (capacity C{sub H}) decreased with pH for alginic acid but increased with pH for biosorbents. Consistent with titration behavior, this difference was explained in terms of more weak acid sites in the biosorbents.

  17. Three different mechanisms of energy dissipation of a desiccation-tolerant moss serve one common purpose: to protect reaction centres against photo-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Hisanori; Fukushima, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Shigeru; Heber, Ulrich

    2012-06-01

    Three different types of non-photochemical de-excitation of absorbed light energy protect photosystem II of the sun- and desiccation-tolerant moss Rhytidium rugosum against photo-oxidation. The first mechanism, which is light-induced in hydrated thalli, is sensitive to inhibition by dithiothreitol. It is controlled by the protonation of a thylakoid protein. Other mechanisms are activated by desiccation. One of them permits exciton migration towards a far-red band in the antenna pigments where fast thermal deactivation takes place. This mechanism appears to be similar to a mechanism detected before in desiccated lichens. A third mechanism is based on the reversible photo-accumulation of a radical that acts as a quencher of excitation energy in reaction centres of photosystem II. On the basis of absorption changes around 800 nm, the quencher is suggested to be an oxidized chlorophyll. The data show that desiccated moss is better protected against photo-oxidative damage than hydrated moss. Slow drying of moss thalli in the light increases photo-protection more than slow drying in darkness.

  18. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  19. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Lake, Moss Point, MS, on April 28- 29, 2012. This action is necessary for the safeguarding...

  20. The Effect of High-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Isolated Photobiont of the Astrobiological Model Lichen Circinaria gyrosa.

    PubMed

    Meeßen, Joachim; Backhaus, Theresa; Brandt, Annette; Raguse, Marina; Böttger, Ute; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de la Torre, Rosa

    2017-02-01

    Lichen symbioses between fungi and algae represent successful life strategies to colonize the most extreme terrestrial habitats. Consequently, space exposure and simulation experiments have demonstrated lichens' high capacity for survival, and thus, they have become models in astrobiological research with which to discern the limits and limitations of terrestrial life. In a series of ground-based irradiation experiments, the STARLIFE campaign investigated the resistance of astrobiological model organisms to galactic cosmic radiation, which is one of the lethal stressors of extraterrestrial environments. Since previous studies have identified that the alga is the more sensitive lichen symbiont, we chose the isolated photobiont Trebouxia sp. of the astrobiological model Circinaria gyrosa as a subject in the campaign. Therein, γ radiation was used to exemplify the deleterious effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation at extremely high doses up to 113 kGy in the context of astrobiology. The effects were analyzed by chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PSII), cultivation assays, live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and Raman laser spectroscopy (RLS). The results demonstrate dose-dependent impairment of photosynthesis, the cessation of cell proliferation, cellular damage, a decrease in metabolic activity, and degradation of photosynthetic pigments. While previous investigations on other extraterrestrial stressors have demonstrated a high potential of resistance, results of this study reveal the limits of photobiont resistance to ionizing radiation and characterize γ radiation-induced damages. This study also supports parallel STARLIFE studies on the lichens Circinaria gyrosa and Xanthoria elegans, both of which harbor a Trebouxia sp. photobiont. Key Words: Astrobiology-Gamma rays-Extremotolerance-Ionizing radiation-Lichens-Photobiont. Astrobiology 17, 154-162.

  1. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  2. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  3. EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM MOSSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emission has been documented and characterized from species in all major groups of vascular plants. We report in our survey that isoprene emission is much more common in mosses and ferns than later divergent land plants but is absent in liverworts and hornworts. The li...

  4. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  5. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry).

    PubMed

    Klavina, Laura; Springe, Gunta; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Martsinkevich, Illia; Nakurte, Ilva; Dzabijeva, Diana; Steinberga, Iveta

    2015-09-18

    Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol) and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids), but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts-including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others-and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms.

  6. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    Lichens are dependent on atmospheric deposition for much of their water and nutrients, and due to their sensitivity to pollutants, are commonly used as bioindicators for air quality. While studies have focused on epiphytic (tree dwelling) lichens as bioindicators, virtually nothing is known about crustose (rock dwelling) lichens. The atmospheric pollutants ozone (O 3) and nitric acid (HNO3) are two major pollutants found within the Los Angeles Basin. While recent O3 research suggests it does not significantly affect lichen growth, HNO3 appears to be phytotoxic to some lichens. As both of these pollutants are deposited downwind from the L.A. basin into Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), lichen species located in the park may provide a sensitive indicator of pollution effects. This research studied two lichen species of particular interest from Joshua Tree National Park, Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner, and Acarospora socialis H. Magn., both of which are crustose species with unknown sensitivities to O3, as well as hypothesized and unknown sensitivities to nitrogen compounds, respectively. Little research exists for either species, possibly because of the difficulty in working with crustose lichens. This research attempted to expand the background knowledge of these species by exposing them to varying levels of O3 and HNO3, to ascertain their physiological responses. Physiological measures of chlorophyll fluorescence, dark respiration, microscopic imaging, and lichen washes (as a proxy for membrane leakage), were measured throughout the exposure period. Results indicated that both species had similar sensitivities to O3 and HNO3. Both species registered physical damage during the O3 fumigation, as well as a decrease in respiration. Neither species showed major physical damage to HNO3, but both manifested a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting damage to the photosynthetic systems of the algae symbiont. These results suggest that both of these

  7. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-­-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  8. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  9. Lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Ruocco, Eleonora; Pettinato, Guido; Ciancia, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces. PMID:25386298

  10. Lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Ruocco, Eleonora; Pettinato, Guido; Ciancia, Giuseppe

    2011-10-05

    Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosus-like ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces.

  11. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  12. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  13. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy. PMID:26918163

  14. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy.

  15. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  16. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  17. From Alaska to Antarctica: Species boundaries and genetic diversity of Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae), a foliose chlorophyte associated with the bipolar lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Benavent, Isaac; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Symbiotic associations between green algae (Chlorophyta) and fungi give rise to morphologically and eco-physiologically distinct entities, or so-called, lichens. In one of the most peculiar of these associations, the partners are species of the macroscopic genus Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae) and the ascomycete Mastodia tessellata (Verrucariaceae). This is the only known case of a lichen symbiosis involving a foliose green alga. Despite intense research targeted at understanding the biology of this particular association, little is known about the genetic variability of its symbionts. This study focuses on the photobiont partner of this lichen and was designed to explore and compare its genetic diversity along a latitudinal axis from Alaska to Antarctica. Molecular sequence data were generated for three loci: two nuclear markers (nrITS, RPL10A) and one plastid-encoded marker (tufA). The usefulness of the Prasiola nrITS and RPL10A data was examined at the species and intraspecific levels. We used the population assignment tests implemented in BAPS and STRUCTURE and two algorithmic species delimitation procedures (ABGD, GMYC) to generate species boundary discovery hypotheses, which were subsequently tested using Bayes factors. Population genetic differentiation and structure were also assessed through fixation indices, polymorphism statistics and haplotype networks. Based on the results of the species validation method, we propose that at least two species of Prasiola associate with the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata. Of these, P. borealis is broadly distributed in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, whereas the second, undescribed, species is restricted to the Antarctic Peninsula. We detected significant phylogeographic substructure in P. borealis, including greater haplotype diversity in the Tierra del Fuego populations. Our findings provide new data that will be useful to unravel the cryptic diversity and phylogeographic patterns of the

  18. A multistate outbreak of sporotrichosis associated with sphagnum moss.

    PubMed

    Coles, F B; Schuchat, A; Hibbs, J R; Kondracki, S F; Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Chang, H G; Duncan, R A; Hurd, N J; Morse, D L

    1992-08-15

    In the spring of 1988, the largest documented US outbreak of cutaneous sporotrichosis to date occurred, with 84 cases among persons from 15 states who were exposed to Wisconsin-grown sphagnum moss used in packing evergreen tree seedlings. In New York State, 13 cases occurred among 109 forestry workers. All 13 cases occurred among 76 workers who had handled evergreen seedlings and moss (attack rate = 17%). For those exposed to evergreens and moss, the risk of infection increased as worktime exposure to moss increased (attack rates: less than 10 hours, 8%; 10-19 hours, 12%; greater than 19 hours, 33%). While environmental samples of moss from the Wisconsin supplier were negative, Sporothrix schenckii was cultured from multiple samples of the sphagnum moss obtained from one of six Pennsylvania tree nurseries, representing the nursery that was identified as the source for 79 (94%) of the moss-associated cases. Differences in tree-handling procedures at this nursery--including the use of 1- to 3-year-old moss to pack seedlings, use of a pond water source to wet the moss, use of an organic polymer gel on the seedling root system, and underground storage and longer storage of moss-packed seedlings before shipping--suggested possible explanations for the association. Efforts to prevent sporotrichosis among persons handling evergreen seedlings should include the use of alternate types of packing material (e.g., cedar wood chips or shredded paper) and protective clothing such as gloves and long-sleeved shirts.

  19. Dechloranes in lichens from the southeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence of long-range atmospheric transport.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Xinghong; Luo, Dongxia; Jing, Chuanyong

    2016-02-01

    Dechloranes (Decs) have been recently found to occur widely in the environment even in the remote polar regions. However, the understanding of their environmental fate is rather limited. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) may be an important indicator region to study the long-range atmospheric transport and their fates of these emerging contaminants since it has very limited local sources. In the present study, Dechlorane plus (DP), Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), Dechlorane 603 (Dec 603) and Dechlorane 604 (Dec 604) were analyzed in lichen samples from the southeast TP. The results showed that only DP and Dec 602 were detected, with a detection frequency of 89% and 100%, respectively. The average concentrations (dry weight) of ΣDP and Dec 602 were 318 pg g(-1) (20-1132 pg g(-1)) and 167 pg g(-1) (27-843 pg g(-1)), respectively. The DP concentration in this study was much higher than those in moss from the remote Ny-Ålesund, Arctic. The concentrations of Dec 602 were found to generally increase with increasing altitude, while DP concentrations seemingly showed an opposite altitudinal trend along the mountain slopes. No stereoselective accumulation or transformation of anti-DP and syn-DP was observed in lichens and the altitudinal behavior of the two isomers was similar. This research documented that Decs are prone to undergo LRAT and cold-trapping by the mountains in the southeast TP.

  20. Simulated Space Radiation: Impact of Four Different Types of High-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Lichen Xanthoria elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Annette; Meeßen, Joachim; Jänicke, Reiner U.; Raguse, Marina; Ott, Sieglinde

    2017-02-01

    This study addresses the viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans after high-dose ionizing irradiation in the frame of the STARLIFE campaign. The first set of experiments was intended to resemble several types of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) as present beyond the magnetic shield of Earth. In the second set of experiments, γ radiation up to 113 kGy was applied to test the limit of lichen resistance to ionizing radiation. Entire thalli of Xanthoria elegans were irradiated in the anhydrobiotic state. After STARLIFE 1, the metabolic activity of both symbionts was quantified by live/dead staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The photosynthetic activity was measured after the respective irradiation to assess the ability of the symbiotic green algae to restore photosynthesis after irradiation. The STARLIFE campaign complements the results of the LIFE experiments at the EXPOSE-E facility on the International Space Station by testing the model organism Xanthoria elegans on its resistance to hazardous radiation that might be accumulated during long-term space exposure. In addition, the photosynthetic activity of metabolically active lichen was investigated after X-ray irradiation up to 100 Gy (3.3 Gy/min). Since previous astrobiological experiments were mostly performed with anhydrobiotic lichen, these experiments will broaden our knowledge on the correlation of physiological state and astrobiological stressors.

  1. Long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotopes in lichen species from western Hubei Province: implication for geological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianyu; Xue, Jiantao; Guo, Shouyu

    2012-03-01

    Five coticolous lichen samples were collected from western Hubei Province of China to analyze the long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotope compositions. The n-alkanes range in carbon number from C17 to C33 with strong odd-over-even predominance between C21 and C33. Lichens are dominated by n-C29 in the samples of Dajiuhu, Shennongjia Mountain, but by both n-C23 and n-C29 at Qizimei Mountain. This difference may result from the different environmental conditions in these two sites. The δ 13C values of long chain n-alkanes in lichen samples show the signature of C3 plants. Based on compoundspecific carbon isotopic values and previous results, we state that alkane homologs >C23 mainly originate from the symbiotic fungi, while symbiotic algae only contribute trace amount of long chain alkanes. Of great interesting is the occurrence of long chain 3-methylalkanes in the Qizimei samples. These anteiso compounds range from C24 to C32, displaying obvious even-over-odd predominance. This study reveals that the association of long chain 3-methylalkanes with n-C23 alkane might be used as proxies to reconstruct the paleoecological implications of lichens in Earth history.

  2. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  3. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  4. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  5. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  6. The meteorite Moss - a rare carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilet, M.; Roaldset, E.

    2014-07-01

    On July 14, 2006, at about 10:20 a.m. local daylight time (UTC+2), a bright fireball travelling SSE-NNV was witnessed from the Baltic Sea to SE Norway. On the east side of the Oslo fiord, around Moss, an explosion and a rumbling sound was heard, and pieces were observed falling. Rapid recovery of meteorite stones gave an opportunity for detailed petrological and geochemical investigations, including analyses of indigenous organic species, and short lived isotopes. The meteorite is a chondritic stone meteorite, with some carbon (0.21-0.25 wt% C). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age is 14 Ma, i.e. when Moss was ejected from its parent body. Gas retention ages are approximately 3.95x10^9 yr (U/Th/He) and 4.43x10^9 yr (K/Ar), respectively. The meteorite has the official name Moss, and is classified as carbonaceous chondrite type CO3.6. It was the first witnessed fall of a CO3 chondrite since Kainsaz in Russia in 1937.

  7. Treatment modalities of palmoplantar lichen planus: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus. PMID:28035216

  8. Treatment modalities of palmoplantar lichen planus: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Feily, Amir; Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus.

  9. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:21423858

  10. Lichen planus pigmentosus associated with acrokeratosis of Bazex.

    PubMed

    Sassolas, B; Zagnoli, A; Leroy, J P; Guillet, G

    1994-01-01

    A patient with an acquired pigmentation related to lichen planus pigmentosus is described. Features of acrokeratosis of Bazex were associated, related to a head and neck carcinoma. Both cutaneous conditions disappeared after treatment of the neoplasia. Diagnostic criteria of lichen planus pigmentosus are reviewed. The paraneoplastic nature of this original observation of lichen planus pigmentosus is discussed.

  11. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  12. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    PubMed

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  13. Element accumulation in boreal bryophytes, lichens and vascular plants exposed to heavy metal and sulfur deposition in Finland.

    PubMed

    Salemaa, Maija; Derome, John; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Nieminen, Tiina; Vanha-Majamaa, Ilkka

    2004-05-25

    Macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca), heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb) and Al concentrations in understorey bryophytes, lichens and vascular plant species growing in Scots pine forests at four distances from the Harjavalta Cu-Ni smelter (0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km) were compared to those at two background sites in Finland. The aim was to study the relationship between element accumulation and the distribution of the species along a pollution gradient. Elevated sulfur, nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations were found in all species groups near the pollution source. Macronutrient concentrations tended to decrease in the order: vascular plants>bryophytes>lichens, when all the species groups grew on the same plot. Heavy metal concentrations (except Mn) were the highest in bryophytes, followed by lichens, and were the lowest in vascular plants. In general, vascular plants, being capable of restricting the uptake of toxic elements, grew closer to the smelter than lichens, while bryophytes began to increase in the understorey vegetation at further distances from the smelter. A pioneer moss (Pohlia nutans) was an exception, because it accumulated considerably higher amounts of Cu and Ni than the other species and still survived close to the smelter. The abundance of most of the species decreased with increasing Cu and Ni concentrations in their tissues. Cetraria islandica, instead, showed a positive relationship between the abundance and Cu, Ni and S concentrations of the thallus. It is probable that, in addition to heavy metals, sporadically high SO(2) emissions have also affected the distribution of the plant species.

  14. Vulvovaginal-gingival Lichen Planus: Association with Lichen Planopilaris and Stratified Epithelium-specific Antinuclear Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p < 0.05). In conclusion, VVG-LP is frequently associated with lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  16. The Effect of High-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Isolated Photobiont of the Astrobiological Model Lichen Circinaria gyrosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, Joachim; Backhaus, Theresa; Brandt, Annette; Raguse, Marina; Böttger, Ute; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; de la Torre, Rosa

    2017-02-01

    Lichen symbioses between fungi and algae represent successful life strategies to colonize the most extreme terrestrial habitats. Consequently, space exposure and simulation experiments have demonstrated lichens' high capacity for survival, and thus, they have become models in astrobiological research with which to discern the limits and limitations of terrestrial life. In a series of ground-based irradiation experiments, the STARLIFE campaign investigated the resistance of astrobiological model organisms to galactic cosmic radiation, which is one of the lethal stressors of extraterrestrial environments. Since previous studies have identified that the alga is the more sensitive lichen symbiont, we chose the isolated photobiont Trebouxia sp. of the astrobiological model Circinaria gyrosa as a subject in the campaign. Therein, γ radiation was used to exemplify the deleterious effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation at extremely high doses up to 113 kGy in the context of astrobiology. The effects were analyzed by chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PSII), cultivation assays, live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and Raman laser spectroscopy (RLS). The results demonstrate dose-dependent impairment of photosynthesis, the cessation of cell proliferation, cellular damage, a decrease in metabolic activity, and degradation of photosynthetic pigments. While previous investigations on other extraterrestrial stressors have demonstrated a high potential of resistance, results of this study reveal the limits of photobiont resistance to ionizing radiation and characterize γ radiation-induced damages. This study also supports parallel STARLIFE studies on the lichens Circinaria gyrosa and Xanthoria elegans, both of which harbor a Trebouxia sp. photobiont.

  17. Purification and partial characterization of haloperoxidase from fresh water algae Cladophora glomerata.

    PubMed

    Verdel, E F; Kline, P C; Wani, S; Woods, A E

    2000-02-01

    Many haloperoxidases have been purified from diverse organisms, including lichen, fungi, bacteria, and marine algae. In this study a haloperoxidase was purified from the fresh water algae, Cladophora glomerata, by homogenization and centrifugation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular weight was determined by SDS-PAGE and by size exclusion HPLC and found to be approximately 43 kDa. The isoelectric point was determined to be approximately 8.1 by isoelectric focusing. The UV spectrum of the peroxidase showed a strong absorbance in the Soret band indicating a heme protein, unlike vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases from marine algae. Fresh water algal haloperoxidase catalyzed the iodination of tyrosine at a pH of 3.1. This haloperoxidase also catalyzes the oxidation of guaiacol and oxidation of iodide as well as catalyzing a peroxide-dependent reaction in both the presence and absence of chloride and bromide ions.

  18. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  19. Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

    2001-10-01

    Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness.

  20. Bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Raquel Sucupira Andrade; Maquiné, Gustavo Ávila; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually located in the genital area. The etiology of lichen sclerosus is multifactorial, with participation of genetic, autoimmune, infectious and hormonal factors. Bullous clinical form stems from hydropic degeneration of the basal membrane, constituting a less frequent variant of the disease. In this work, we report the case of a female patient, 55 years old, who in the last three years presented whitish plaques, with horny spikes, located on back and arms. Some of these lesions evolved with hemorrhagic blisters, which after histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus. The patient was treated with high-potency topical corticosteroid for two months, resulting in remission of bullous and hemorrhagic lesions. PMID:26312692

  1. Arctic mosses govern below-ground environment and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Gornall, J L; Jónsdóttir, I S; Woodin, S J; Van der Wal, R

    2007-10-01

    Mosses dominate many northern ecosystems and their presence is integral to soil thermal and hydrological regimes which, in turn, dictate important ecological processes. Drivers, such as climate change and increasing herbivore pressure, affect the moss layer thus, assessment of the functional role of mosses in determining soil characteristics is essential. Field manipulations conducted in high arctic Spitsbergen (78 degrees N), creating shallow (3 cm), intermediate (6 cm) and deep (12 cm) moss layers over the soil surface, had an immediate impact on soil temperature in terms of both average temperatures and amplitude of fluctuations. In soil under deep moss, temperature was substantially lower and organic layer thaw occurred 4 weeks later than in other treatment plots; the growing season for vascular plants was thereby reduced by 40%. Soil moisture was also reduced under deep moss, reflecting the influence of local heterogeneity in moss depth, over and above the landscape-scale topographic control of soil moisture. Data from field and laboratory experiments show that moss-mediated effects on the soil environment influenced microbial biomass and activity, resulting in warmer and wetter soil under thinner moss layers containing more plant-available nitrogen. In arctic ecosystems, which are limited by soil temperature, growing season length and nutrient availability, spatial and temporal variation in the depth of the moss layer has significant repercussions for ecosystem function. Evidence from our mesic tundra site shows that any disturbance causing reduction in the depth of the moss layer will alleviate temperature and moisture constraints and therefore profoundly influence a wide range of ecosystem processes, including nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

  2. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective.

  3. Palmoplantar lichen planus successfully treated with acitretin.

    PubMed

    Solak, Berna; Kara, Rabia Oztas; Kosem, Mustafa

    2015-09-07

    Palmoplantar lichen planus (PPL) is an uncommon type of lichen planus (LP) that exclusively affects the palms and soles. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who had palmoplantar hyperkeratotic papules and plaques. The patient was diagnosed as a case of PPL by skin biopsy, and treated with acitretin. He showed a good response to acitretin within 2 months. Clinical appearance and some features of PPL may differ from classic LP. Acitretin may be a favourable treatment option for PPL.

  4. Alterations to throughfall water and solute flux by Tillandsias usneoides L. (Spanish moss) cover in a maritime live oak forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, T. E.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Reichard, J. S.; Moore, L. D.; Lewis, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Alterations to forest canopy structures can have a direct effect on hydrological and biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems. Epiphytes act as additional canopy biomass intercepting water, effecting pathways under different micrometeorological conditions and alternating nutrient uptake/releases. Most studies on epiphyte cover have focused on non-vascular epiphytes (e.g., lichen and bryophyte mosses), leaving vascular epiphytes like Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) relatively understudied. To fill this gap, we characterized alterations to throughfall water and dissolved ion enrichment/flux to soils by T. usneoides in a Quercus Virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) stand on St. Catherine's Island. Specifically, we compare throughfall generated from heavy T. usneoides coverage, bare canopy, and a continuum of T. usneoides cover percentages (~400 water & 210 chemistry observations over ~40 storms for each canopy cover category). Findings show T.usneoides acts as a significant water storage agent, significantly reducing throughfall. However, under certain meteorological conditions T. usneoides can become saturated and act as a funneling "hotspot." Tillandsia usneoides coverage enriched throughfall with primarily dry deposited ions (Na+,Cl-, SO42-, Li+), leached greater Mg2+, Ca2+, reduced NO3- and increased NH4+ concentrations. Dry deposited ion enrichment is likely a result of the moss' greater surface roughness. It has been shown that epiphytes prefer to leach Mg2+ and Ca2+. Increased NH4+ suggests that the saturated T. usneoides mat likely hosts microbial decomposition of leaf, branch, and bark biomass ensnared in the plant itself. K-means cluster analysis on the storms revealed 4 storm types of the differing meteorological conditions (windy/calm, dry/wet [high/low VPD], high/low intensity, intermittent/consistent), and these throughfall dynamics varied between these storm types. Discussion of future research questions regarding how these throughfall

  5. How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Wardle, David A

    2016-10-11

    Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth's land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes. We start by assessing characteristics that vary among lichens and that may be important in determining their ecological role; these include their growth form, the types of photobionts that they contain, their key functional traits, their water-holding capacity, their colour, and the levels of secondary compounds in their thalli. We then assess how these differences among lichens influence their impacts on ecosystem and community processes. As such, we consider the consequences of these differences for determining the impacts of lichens on ecosystem nutrient inputs and fluxes, on the loss of mass and nutrients during lichen thallus decomposition, and on the role of lichenivorous invertebrates in moderating decomposition. We then consider how differences among lichens impact on their interactions with consumer organisms that utilize lichen thalli, and that range in size from microfauna (for which the primary role of lichens is habitat provision) to large mammals (for which lichens are primarily a food source). We then address how differences among lichens impact on plants, through for example increasing nutrient inputs and availability during primary succession, and serving as a filter for plant seedling establishment. Finally we identify areas in need of further work for better understanding the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. These include

  6. Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

  7. Moss on a Roof, and What Lives in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbet, Sarah; Lan, Oey Biauw

    1974-01-01

    Based on the assumption that even city dwellers have access to clumps of moss growing on buildings and on pavements, information concerning some of the inhabitants of these mosses and some aspects of the environment in which they live is presented. (PEB)

  8. 78 FR 21930 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions to modify Sections 3.4.4,...

  9. 76 FR 10581 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 11, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of General Terms and Standard Operating Conditions...

  10. Life in extreme environments: survival strategy of the endolithic desert lichen Verrucaria rubrocincta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Knauth, L. Paul; Bungartz, Frank; Klonowski, Stan; Nash, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    Verrucaria rubrocincta Breuss is an endolithic lichen that inhabits caliche plates exposed on the surface of the Sonoran Desert. Caliche surface temperatures are regularly in excess of 60°C during the summer and approach 0°C in the winter. Incident light intensities are high, with photosynthetically active radiation levels typically to 2,600 μmol/m2 s-1 during the summer. A cross-section of rock inhabited by V. rubrocincta shows an anatomical zonation comprising an upper micrite layer, a photobiont layer containing clusters of algal cells, and a pseudomedulla embedded in the caliche. Hyphae of the pseudomedulla become less numerous with depth below the rock surface. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic data for the caliche and micrite fall into two sloping, well-separated arrays on a δ13C δ18O plot. The δ13CPDB of the micrite ranges from 2.1 to 8.1 and δ18OSMOW from 25.4 to 28.9, whereas δ13CPDB of the caliche ranges from -4.7 to 0.7 and δ18OSMOW from 23.7 to 29.2. The isotopic data of the micrite can be explained by preferential fixing of 12C into the alga, leaving local 13C enrichment and evaporative enrichment of 18O in the water. The 14C dates of the micrite range from recent to 884 years b.p., indicating that “dead” carbon from the caliche is not a significant source for the lichen-precipitated micrite. The endolithic growth is an adaptation to the environmental extremes of exposed rock surfaces in the hot desert. The micrite layer is highly reflective and reduces light intensity to the algae below and acts as an efficient sunscreen that blocks harmful UV radiation. The micrite also acts as a cap to the lichen and helps trap moisture. The lichen survives by the combined effects of biodeterioration and biomineralization. Biodeterioration of the caliche concomitant with biomineralization of a protective surface coating of micrite results in the distinctive anatomy of V. rubrocincta.

  11. Moss systems biology en route: phytohormones in Physcomitrella development.

    PubMed

    Decker, E L; Frank, W; Sarnighausen, E; Reski, R

    2006-05-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens has become a powerful model system in modern plant biology. Highly standardized cell culture techniques, as well as the necessary tools for computational biology, functional genomics and proteomics have been established. Large EST collections are available and the complete moss genome will be released soon. A simple body plan and the small number of different cell types in Physcomitrella facilitate the study of developmental processes. In the filamentous juvenile moss tissue, developmental decisions rely on the differentiation of single cells. Developmental steps are controlled by distinct phytohormones and integration of environmental signals. Especially the phytohormones auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid have distinct effects on early moss development. In this article, we review current knowledge about phytohormone influences on early moss development in an attempt to fully unravel the complex regulatory signal transduction networks underlying the developmental decisions of single plant cells in a holistic systems biology approach.

  12. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes.

  13. Monitoring nitrogen accumulation in mosses in central European forests.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther; Genssler, Lutz

    2008-10-01

    In order to assess whether nitrogen (N) loads in mosses reflect different land uses, 143 sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, the Weser-Ems Region and the Euro Region Nissa were sampled between 2000 and 2005. The data were analysed statistically with available surface information on land use and forest conditions. N bioaccumulation in mosses in the Weser-Ems Region with high densities of agricultural land use and livestock exceeded the concentrations in the more industrialised Euro Region Nissa. In all three study areas agricultural and livestock spatial densities were found to be positively correlated with N bioaccumulation in mosses. In North Rhine-Westphalia, the N concentrations in mosses was also moderately correlated with N concentrations in leaves and needles of forest trees. The moss method proved useful to assess the spatial patterns of N bioaccumulation due to land use.

  14. Capture of algae promotes growth and propagation in aquatic Utricularia

    PubMed Central

    Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas; Watzka, Margarete; Adlassnig, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Some carnivorous plants trap not only small animals but also algae and pollen grains. However, it remains unclear if these trapped particles are useless bycatch or whether they provide nutrients for the plant. The present study examines this question in Utricularia, which forms the largest and most widely spread genus of carnivorous plants, and which captures prey by means of sophisticated suction traps. Methods Utricularia plants of three different species (U. australis, U. vulgaris and U. minor) were collected in eight different water bodies including peat bogs, lakes and artificial ponds in three regions of Austria. The prey spectrum of each population was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, and correlated with data on growth and propagation, C/N ratio and δ15N. Key Results More than 50 % of the prey of the Utricularia populations investigated consisted of algae and pollen, and U. vulgaris in particular was found to capture large amounts of gymnosperm pollen. The capture of algae and pollen grains was strongly correlated with most growth parameters, including weight, length, budding and elongation of internodes. The C/N ratio, however, was less well correlated. Other prey, such as moss leaflets, fungal hyphae and mineral particles, were negatively correlated with most growth parameters. δ15N was positively correlated with prey capture, but in situations where algae were the main prey objects it was found that the standard formula for calculation of prey-derived N was no longer applicable. Conclusions The mass capture of immotile particles confirms the ecological importance of autonomous firing of the traps. Although the C/N ratio was little influenced by algae, they clearly provide other nutrients, possibly including phosphorus and trace elements. By contrast, mosses, fungi and mineral particles appear to be useless bycatch. Correlations with chemical parameters indicate that Utricularia benefits from nutrient-rich waters by uptake

  15. [Morphogenesis of proximal branch leaves in mosses].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, M S; Spirina, U N

    2012-01-01

    The formation of deeply dissected and compound leaves at the bases of branches, their homology between different groups of mosses, and probable factors responsible for their development are considered. Previous authors differ in the interpretation of such leaves and in most cases describe them as special morphological structures named pseudoparaphyllia. It is shown, however, that this term has been applied both to whole leaves and to separate leaf parts. Among the patterns of leaf formation deviating from the basic type, a special place belongs to the Hampeella variant, where deeply dissected and compound leaves are formed due to the delayed development of branch primordia. The families representing this variant occupy a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of pleurocarpous mosses. The Leucodon variant, where splitting of leaves into lobes is apparently explained by strong stem extension, is not specific for any definite phylogenetic group and manifests itself in different families. The Hypnum variant is also not associated with certain phylogenetic lineages, but it provides an example of more profound specialization.

  16. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  17. Lichen planus secondary to rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    An, Isa; Demir, Vasfiye; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Akdeniz, Sedat

    2017-03-15

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous disease withdistinctive clinical manifestations. The etiology of LPremains unknown. Recently, numerous cases of LPdeveloping after hepatitis B, influenza, and combinedDTaP-IPV-MMR vaccine have been described. In thisreport, we present the second case of LP after rabiesvaccination.

  18. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  19. Fungal-algal association patterns in lichen symbiosis linked to macroclimate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Crespo, Ana; Schmitt, Imke

    2017-04-01

    Both macroclimate and evolutionary events may influence symbiont association and diversity patterns. Here we assess how climatic factors and evolutionary events shape fungal-algal association patterns in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia. Multilocus phylogenies of fungal and algal partners were generated using 174 specimens. Coalescent-based species delimitation analysis suggested that 23 fungal hosts are associating with 20 algal species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to infer how fungal-algal association patterns varied with climate. Fungi associated with one to three algal partners whereas algae accepted one to five fungal partners. Both fungi and algae were more specific, associating with fewer partners, in the warmer climates. Interaction with more than one partner was more frequent in cooler climates for both the partners. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest congruent fungal-algal phylogenies. Host switch was a more common event in warm climates, whereas failure of the photobiont to diverge with its fungal host was more frequent in cooler climates. We conclude that both environmental factors and evolutionary events drive fungal and algal evolution in Protoparmelia. The processes leading to phylogenetic congruence of fungi and algae are different in different macrohabitats in our study system. Hence, closely related species inhabiting diverse habitats may follow different evolutionary pathways.

  20. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  1. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    PubMed

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area.

  2. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    PubMed

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  3. Clinical Features, Complications and Autoimmunity in Male Lichen Sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kantere, Despina; Alvergren, Gunilla; Gillstedt, Martin; Pujol-Calderon, Fani; Tunbäck, Petra

    2017-03-10

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with substantial morbidity. Knowledge of the aetiology and progression of lichen sclerosus is therefore needed. In this cross-sectional study, 100 male patients diagnosed with lichen sclerosus were interviewed and examined. Since there is a possible link between lichen sclerosus and autoimmunity, blood tests were analysed for thyroid disease, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to extracellular matrix protein 1, but autoimmunity was found to be infrequent. In 72 participants active genital lichen sclerosis was observed and complications were common; 27 patients had preputial constriction and 12 meatal engagement. In total, 13 patients needed a referral to the Department of Urology, including 1 patient with suspected penile cancer. In conclusion, despite available treatment with ultra-potent steroids and circumcision, lichen sclerosus in males is frequently complicated by phimosis and meatal stenosis. However, the disease can also go into remission, as seen in 27% of our patients.

  4. Lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution*

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Cabral, Fernanda; Corrêa, Mariana César; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis. PMID:27579757

  5. Lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Cabral, Fernanda; Corrêa, Mariana César; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. The extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. The coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. We report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagnosis.

  6. Comparative phylogenomics of the CBL-CIPK calcium-decoding network in the moss Physcomitrella, Arabidopsis, and other green lineages.

    PubMed

    Kleist, Thomas J; Spencley, Andrew L; Luan, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Land plants have evolved a host of anatomical and molecular adaptations for terrestrial growth. Many of these adaptations are believed to be elaborations of features that were present in their algal-like progenitors. In the model plant Arabidopsis, 10 Calcineurin B-Like proteins (CBLs) function as calcium sensors and modulate the activity of 26 CBL-Interacting Protein Kinases (CIPKs). The CBL-CIPK network coordinates environmental responses and helps maintain proper ion balances, especially during abiotic stress. We identified and analyzed CBL and CIPK homologs in green lineages, including CBLs and CIPKs from charophyte green algae, the closest living relatives of land plants. Phylogenomic evidence suggests that the network expanded from a small module, likely a single CBL-CIPK pair, present in the ancestor of modern plants and algae. Extreme conservation of the NAF motif, which mediates CBL-CIPK physical interactions, among all identified CIPKs supports the interpretation of CBL and CIPK homologs in green algae and early diverging land plants as functionally linked network components. We identified the full complement of CBL and CIPK loci in the genome of Physcomitrella, a model moss. These analyses demonstrate the strong effects of a recent moss whole genome duplication: CBL and CIPK loci appear in cognate pairs, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, with high sequence similarity. We cloned all full-length transcripts from these loci and performed yeast two-hybrid analyses to demonstrate CBL-CIPK interactions and identify specific connections within the network. Using phylogenomics, we have identified three ancient types of CBLs that are discernible by N-terminal localization motifs and a "green algal-type" clade of CIPKs with members from Physcomitrella and Arabidopsis.

  7. Oxidative stress induces distinct physiological responses in the two Trebouxia phycobionts of the lichen Ramalina farinacea

    PubMed Central

    del Hoyo, Alicia; Álvarez, Raquel; del Campo, Eva M.; Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva; Casano, Leonardo M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most lichens form associations with Trebouxia phycobionts and some of them simultaneously include genetically different algal lineages. In other symbiotic systems involving algae (e.g. reef corals), the relative abundances of different endosymbiotic algal clades may change over time. This process seems to provide a mechanism allowing the organism to respond to environmental stress. A similar mechanism may operate in lichens with more than one algal lineage, likewise protecting them against environmental stresses. Here, the physiological responses to oxidative stress of two distinct Trebouxia phycobionts (provisionally named TR1 and TR9) that coexist within the lichen Ramalina farinacea were analysed. Methods Isolated phycobionts were exposed to oxidative stress through the reactive oxygen species propagator cumene hydroperoxide (CuHP). Photosynthetic pigments and proteins, photosynthesis (through modulated chlorophyll fluorescence), the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR), and the stress-related protein HSP70 were analysed. Key Results Photosynthetic performance was severely impaired by CuHP in phycobionts, as indicated by decreases in the maximal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the non-photochemical dissipation of energy (NPQ). However, the CuHP-dependent decay in photosynthesis was significantly more severe in TR1, which also showed a lower NPQ and a reduced ability to preserve chlorophyll a, carotenoids and D1 protein. Additionally, differences were observed in the capacities of the two phycobionts to modulate antioxidant activities and HPS70 levels when exposed to oxidative stress. In TR1, CuHP significantly diminished HSP70 and GR but did not change SOD activities. In contrast, in TR9 the levels of both antioxidant enzymes and those of HSP70 increased in response to CuHP. Conclusions The better physiological performance of TR9 under oxidative

  8. New moss species with gravitropic protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachevska, O. V.

    Gravitropism of 30 moss species was analysed at different stages of development: germination of spores, protonemata, gametophore and sporophyte formation. Spores were sowed in sterile conditions from the closed capsules on 1 % bactoagar with 0,2 % glucose and cultivated in the dark in vertically oriented petri dishes. In the same conditions fragments of protonemata and gametophores were grown being transferred aseptically from sterile cultures of spores germinated in controled light conditions. To assess gravity sensitivity the dishes were kept upright for 7 10 days in darkness and then 90o turned. After 20 h gravistimulation the angles of apical cell gravity bending were determined. The amount of amyloplasts and their distribution during growth and spatial reorientation of sporophytes selected from nature samples on different stages of species-specific capsule formation were analyzed after JK2J staining. The gravitropic sensing was established in 7 new moss species only. The general traits of all such species were the ark-like cygneous seta bending and inclined, to pendulous, capsules. JK2J staining of young isolated sporophytes has shown, that twisting and bending of seta as well as the spatial capsule reorientation result from the changes of distribution of amyloplasts in the direction of gravitropic growth or caused by their lateral sedimentation. In the dark protonemata of investigated mosses grew upwards on agar surface giving rise to bundles of negatively gravitropic stolons in 7-10 days. During germination at first negatively gravitropic primary chloronema and then positively gravitropic primary rizoid appeared. In 3 days, however, the growth of all primary filaments was negatively gravitropic. In Dicranella cerviculata majority of primary filaments were negatively gravitropic from the very beginning. After 20 h gravistimulation of protonemata of different moss species the following mean values of gravity bending (degrees) were established: Leptobryum

  9. Comparison of heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils amended with peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Seul-Ji; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Chung, Jae Woo

    2016-04-01

    There have been contradictory viewpoints whether soil amendments immobilize or mobilize heavy metals. Therefore, this study evaluated the mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd in contaminated soil (1218 mg Pb per kg, 63.2 mg Cu per kg, 2.8 mg Cd per kg) amended with peat moss (0.22, 0.43, and 1.29% carbon ratio) and peat moss-derived biochar (0.38, 0.75, and 2.26% carbon ratio) at 0.5, 1, 3% levels. The more peat moss added, the stronger both mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd would be. In contrast, the addition of peat moss-derived biochar significantly reduced both mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals through the coordination of metal electrons to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (π-electron) bonds and increased pH. Maximum immobilization was observed in 3% peat moss-derived biochar treatment after 10 days of incubation, which was measured at 97.8%, 100%, and 77.2% for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. Since peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar showed conflicting effectiveness in mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, soil amendments should be carefully applied to soils for remediation purposes.

  10. Distinguishing metal bioconcentration from particulate matter in moss tissue: testing methods of removing particles attached to the moss surface.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S; Pérez-Llamazares, A; Ares, A; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2013-10-01

    Accurate differentiation of the proportion of bioconcentrated metals (i.e. incorporated into cells) and the proportion that is not bioconcentrated (i.e. adsorbed at the surface) would lead to a better understanding of the uptake processes and would represent an advance in the use of mosses as biomonitors. Traditionally the methods used to remove contaminants that are not bioconcentrated were to wash the plant material with water or to apply the sequential elution technique, but nowadays both options are considered inaccurate for these purposes. The remaining possibilities are to clean the moss samples with a nitrogen jet or by power ultrasound. Samples of terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hewd.) Fleisch. were collected from five sampling stations. Different nitrogen jet cleaning procedures and ultrasound cleaning procedures were applied to the mosses. To determine whether any of the treatments altered the membrane integrity of the moss samples, the concentrations of K were determined. The shoots were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the size and number of particles were determined. Nitrogen jet cleaning was determined to be unacceptable because it damaged the phyllids and/or altered the membrane permeability and did not eliminate the particles from the moss surface. Moreover, ultrasound cleaning treatment should also discarded because of the loss of extracellular metals that are transferred to the water in which the moss is cleaned.

  11. Post-Fire Moss Recovery in Northern Peatlands: Separating the Effects of Species and Water Content on Moss Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Paul; Lukenbach, Max; Waddington, James Michael

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, where northern peat reserves are becoming increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change is projected to enhance the length and severity of the fire season. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e., Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands has been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate effects of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a drying experiment in the lab where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes as well as for unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ~3 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by combustion. Based on field GWC, we show that there are significant differences in the frequency distribution of near-surface GWC between moss type and burn severity. The differences in the distributions of field GWC are related to characteristic moisture retention curves of unburned samples measured in the lab, as well as morphological differences between moss type.

  12. Ice encapsulation protects rather than disturbs the freezing lichen.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, J W

    2009-03-01

    Arctic and alpine terricolous lichens are adapted to harsh environments and are tolerant to extremely low temperatures when metabolically inactive. However, there are reports indicating that freezing can be lethal to metabolically active lichens. With a projected warmer and more unstable climate, winter precipitation at high latitudes will fall more frequently as rain, causing snowmelt and encapsulating terricolous lichens in ice or exposing them to large temperature fluctuations. Lichens are a major winter food source for reindeer in most parts of the circumpolar region. A laboratory experiment tested how three hydrated reindeer forage lichen species covered by snow, encapsulated in ice, or uncovered responded to storage at freezing temperatures and subsequent warming. Photosynthetic performance (maximal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples and net photosynthetic rates) was significantly lower in lichens not insulated by snow or ice, whereas there were few differences between the snow and ice treatments. It is suggested that snow and ice provide sufficiently moist environments to improve extracellular and reduce intracellular ice nucleation activity. Ice encapsulation, which is often lethal to vascular plants, did not have any negative effects on the studied lichens. The results indicate that complete snow and ice melt followed by refreezing can be detrimental to terricolous lichen ecosystems. Reduced lichen biomass will have a negative effect both on reindeer winter survival and the indigenous peoples who herd reindeer.

  13. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus induced by carbamazepine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pranteda, G; Muscianese, M; Grimaldi, M; Fidanza, L; Pranteda, G; Narcisi, A; Nistico, S; Bottoni, U

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Lichen Sclerosus in a 73-year-old man who had been treated for epilepsy with carbamazepine. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA), also called lichen sclerosus (LS), is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous condition characterized by white plaques with epidermal atrophy and scarring. To date no cases of LSA has been linked to carbamazepine, although in a few cases lichenoid eruptions but without sclero-atrophy have been described after exposure to this drug. Therefore, to our knowledge, this is the first report of a Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus induced by carbamazepine.

  14. A Unique Ocular Presentation of Extragenital Lichen Sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Radke, Phillip M; Maltry, Amanda C; Mokhtarzadeh, Ali; Harrison, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, debilitating, and recurring disease that is most commonly seen affecting the anogenital region. Extragenital locations of lichen sclerosus has been well documented, frequently seen in the shoulders, neck, trunk, breasts, and arms, however, infrequently of the face. Specifically, extragenital lichen sclerosus has been reported in several cases to be involving the infraorbital region, but to our knowledge it has never been found affecting the adnexa of the eye. To our understanding, this is the first documented report of a patient with extragenital lichen sclerosus of an eyelid.

  15. Mechanism of strong quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence under drought stress in a lichen, Physciella melanchla, studied by subpicosecond fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Komura, Masayuki; Yamagishi, Atsushi; Shibata, Yutaka; Iwasaki, Ikuko; Itoh, Shigeru

    2010-03-01

    The mechanism of the severe quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence under drought stress was studied in a lichen Physciella melanchla, which contains a photobiont green alga, Trebouxia sp., using a streak camera and a reflection-mode fluorescence up-conversion system. We detected a large 0.31 ps rise of fluorescence at 715 and 740 nm in the dry lichen suggesting the rapid energy influx to the 715-740 nm bands from the shorter-wavelength Chls with a small contribution from the internal conversion from Soret bands. The fluorescence, then, decayed with time constants of 23 and 112 ps, suggesting the rapid dissipation into heat through the quencher. The result confirms the accelerated 40 ps decay of fluorescence reported in another lichen (Veerman et al., 2007 [36]) and gives a direct evidence for the rapid energy transfer from bulk Chls to the longer-wavelength quencher. We simulated the entire PS II fluorescence kinetics by a global analysis and estimated the 20.2 ns(-1) or 55.0 ns(-1) energy transfer rate to the quencher that is connected either to the LHC II or to the PS II core antenna. The strong quenching with the 3-12 times higher rate compared to the reported NPQ rate, suggests the operation of a new type of quenching, such as the extreme case of Chl-aggregation in LHCII or a new type of quenching in PS II core antenna in dry lichens.

  16. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  17. Secreted arginases from phylogenetically farrelated lichen species act as cross-recognition factors for two different algal cells.

    PubMed

    Legaz, María-Estrella; Fontaniella, Blanca; Millanes, Ana-María; Carlos, Vicente

    2004-08-01

    Purified arginases secreted from Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina thalli hydrolyze arginine in a Mn2+ -dependent reaction. Ca2+ cannot replace Mn2+, but its addition to reaction mixtures in the presence of Mn2+ significantly inhibited arginase activity. Arginases from both lichen species also show lectin function, binding to the cell wall of both homologous and heterologous algae. Such binding is enhanced by both Ca2+ and Mn2+ and results in cytoagglutination, which is counteracted by alpha-D-galactose. A putative ligand for these lectins consists of a glycosylated urease, the polysaccharide moiety of which is uniquely composed of alpha-D-galactose. Binding of lectins inhibits its enzymatic activity, which is recovered after desorption of the lectin with alpha-D-galactose. Urease is also eluted from arginase-agarose columns by using alpha-D-galactose as eluent. Data demonstrate ligand-dependent retention of the fungal lectin on the algal cell surface and this is consistent with a model of recognition of compatible algae, through which algal cells would form a lichen with a lectin-secreting fungus only when these cells contain the specific ligand for the lectin in their cell walls. This is, lectin binding is used as a mechanism for ensuring specificity in the association.

  18. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Abollino, Ornella; Conca, Raffaele; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using mosses as environmental indicators of metal pollution has been investigated. Mosses of the species Bryum argenteum were collected from different parts of Piedmont (Italy), ranging from highly polluted areas to nearly uncontaminated mountain areas. Periodical samplings were planned in every site on a monthly base, in order to check variations of metal uptake throughout one year; correlations with pluviometric and thermal patterns were investigated for all sampling stations. On every moss sample 20 elements, ranging from major (K, P, Al, Ca, Fe and Mg) to minor (Mn, Na, Ti and Zn) and trace (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb and Sr), were quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the needed sensitivity. Statistical analyses, carried out with principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods, revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and pollution degree in the areas sampled.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of lichen sclerosus*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Bicca, Eduardo de Barros Coelho; Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; Rocha, Nara Moreira; Silva, Ricardo Marques e

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is an acquired inflammatory condition characterized by whitish fibrotic plaques, with a predilection for the genital skin. We performed scanning electron microscopy of the dermis from a lesion of lichen sclerosus. Normal collagen fibers could be easily found in deeper layers of the specimen, as well as the transition to pathologic area, which seems homogenized. With higher magnifications in this transitional area collagen fibers are adherent to each other, and with very high magnifications a pearl chain aspect became evident along the collagen fibers. In the superficial dermis this homogenization is even more evident, collagen fibers are packed together and round structures are also observed. Rupture of collagen fibers and inflammatory cells were not found. These autoimmune changes of the extracellular matrix lead to the aggregation of immune complexes and/or changed matrix proteins along the collagen fibers, the reason why they seem hyalinized when examined by light microscopy. PMID:23739707

  20. Oral lichen planus: study of 21 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Juliana Tristão; Costa, Taiara de Oliveira; Stibich, Christian Abreu; Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is considered to be the most common dermatological disease involving the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, clinical features, and the presence of dysplasia and candidiasis in patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A total of 21 patients were selected from 258 patients at risk for oral cancer development. RESULTS: Most of the patients were white (76,2%), female (66,6%), with mean age of 58.8 years. Eight were smokers and seven were alcohol consumers. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site, followed by the tongue and the gingiva. The reticular pattern was the most common appearance. Histopathology depicted dysplasia in nine cases and cytopathology was positive for Candida in eight cases in the first appointment. CONCLUSION: Our data are similar to the literature. Cytopathology was important for the diagnosis of candidiasis. Although the presence of dysplasia was verified, further studies are necessary to clarify the importance of this finding. PMID:26131860

  1. [Zosteriform lichen aureus. Pediatric clinical case].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Álvaro; Hernández Ostiz, Sergio; Morales-Moya, Ana L; Prieto-Torres, Lucía; Álvarez-Salafranca, Marcial; Ara Martín, Mariano

    2017-04-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare pigmented purpuric dermatosis. We present an unusual case because of the pediatric age and the great number of lesions with zosteriform distribution. He is a 10-yearold boy, with a brownish, smaller than 1 cm, sharp edges, lichenified surface, asymptomatic macule, over the inner aspect of the left leg with a zosteriform distribution. The histology showed a band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial dermis, composed of lymphocytes, histiocytes, erythrocytes and haemosiderin. He was diagnosed with zosteriform lichen aureus and was treated with topical mometasone furoate during 3 weeks resulting in partial lightening of the macules. Lesions have remained 2 years later, and new ones have appeared in the ipsilateral ankle. We must consider differential diagnosis with other pigmented purpuric dermatitis and pigmented purpuric mycosis fungoides. There are many therapeutic options and it tends to disappear spontaneously, so new studies are necessary.

  2. Lichen planus pigmentosus presenting in zosteriform pattern.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Whang, K K

    1997-03-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) has thus far been described as a condition of unknown etiology which clinically differs from the classical lichen planus (LP) by exhibiting dark brown macules and/or papules mostly in exposed areas and flexural folds and a longer clinical course without pruritus or scalp, nail or mucosal involvement. Histopathologically, LPP shows the typical changes seen in LP, but with thinning of epidermis. We report a case of LPP that developed in a unilateral, zosteriform pattern on the left flank of a 49-year-old man. This case seems to lie in the middle of the spectrum between classical LP and ashy dermatosis, and, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of LPP presenting in the zosteriform pattern.

  3. A case of linear lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Keun; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Deborah; Choi, Joon Hee; Sung, Ho-Suck

    2010-08-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is chronic pigmentary disorder that shows diffuse or reticulated hyperpigmented, dark brown macules on the sun-exposed areas such as the face, neck and other flexural folds. Clinically, it is different from classical lichen planus because LPP has a longer clinical course and it manifests with dark brown macules. In case of LPP, involvement of the scalp, nail or mucosal area is rare. The histopathological findings of the lesions show an atrophic epidermis, the presence of melanophages and a vacuolar alteration of the basal cell layer with a sparse lymphohistiocytic lichenoid infiltration. Although there have been a few reports of LPP, there have only 3 cases of linear LPP along the lines of Blaschko in the Korean dermatologic literature. Our patient had lesions on the neck and chin with a linear pattern. In this report, we describe a very rare case of LPP with a linear distribution related to Blaschko's lines on the neck and chin areas.

  4. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus*

    PubMed Central

    Vukicevic, Jelica

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by atrophic and sclerotic plaques in both genital and extragenital regions. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (BLSA) is a severe variant of the disease with no widely accepted treatment. We present a 63-year-old woman with extensive extragenital, ivory-colored, atrophic plaques on her trunk and extremities and disseminated hemorrhagic bullae. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with standard topical corticosteroid therapy, doxycycline and chloroquine. According to the literature, there is little evidence of the efficacy of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of BLSA. We report a rare case of extensive BLSA that is unresponsive to these drugs. PMID:28300903

  5. Lichen planus: an update and review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Białynicki-Birula, Rafał; Schwartz, Robert A; Janniger, Camila K

    2012-07-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a papulosquamous eruption of the skin, scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. Although LP is more common in adults, it has become an established pediatric disorder. Its classic presentation is characterized by 4 p's: purple, polygonal, pruritic papules. Histopathologic examination reveals characteristic interface dermatitis. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, there is evidence that an imbalance of immunologic cellular reactivity is central. Lichen planus usually resolves within a few months. Treatment that primarily consists of topical and/or oral steroids will expedite recovery and alleviate symptoms. Resolution of this cutaneous disease often is accompanied by postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Long-term sequelae of LP in the pediatric population are rare, but cutaneous atrophy and pterygium unguis may occur.

  6. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions.

  7. [Erosive oral lichen planus: case report].

    PubMed

    Belinga, L Essama Eno; Njifou, A; Noa, S Ananga; Ateba, G R; Ngan, W Bell

    2013-09-01

    Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. Rare among Blacks and Asian subjects, it is at the origin of symptoms ranging from burning pain during meals up to the inability to absorb solid foods or to ensure adequate oral hygiene. Its diagnosis is before all clinical, then confirmed by histopathological examination. Chronic and recurrent forms developments can cause malignant transformation where the importance of being known by any clinicians compared to other oral diseases. Treatment is difficult and aimed at palliation rather than cure. We report the only case of erosive oral lichen planus received and supported in the service of Stomatology of General Hospital in Douala during the last ten years and whose etiology is discussed.

  8. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  9. Active region moss. Basic physical parameters and their temporal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Mason, H. E.; Del Zanna, G.; Young, P. R.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Active region moss are transition region phenomena, first noted in the images recorded by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in λ171. Moss regions are thought to be the footpoints of hot loops (3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions. These hot loops appear “fuzzy” (unresolved). Therefore, it is difficult to study the physical plasma parameters in individual hot core loops and hence their heating mechanisms. Moss regions provide an excellent opportunity to study the physics of hot loops. In addition, they allow us to study the transition region dynamics in the footpoint regions. Aims: To derive the physical plasma parameters such as temperature, electron density, and filling factors in moss regions and to study their variation over a short (an hour) and a long time period (5 consecutive days). Methods: Primarily, we have analyzed spectroscopic observations recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. In addition we have used supplementary observations taken from TRACE and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode. Results: The moss emission is strongest in the Fe XII and Fe XIII lines. Based on analyses using line ratios and emission measure we found that moss regions have a characteristic temperature of log T[K] = 6.2. The temperature structure in moss region remains almost identical from one region to another and it does not change with time. The electron densities measured at different locations in the moss regions using Fe XII ratios are about 1-3 × 1010 cm-3 and about 2-4 × 109 cm-3 using Fe XIII and Fe XIV. The densities in the moss regions are similar in different places and show very little variation over short and long time scales. The derived electron density substantially increased (by a factor of about 3-4 or even more in some cases) when a background subtraction was performed. The filling factor of the moss plasma can vary between 0.1-1 and the path length along which the emission

  10. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women.

  11. Thermal dissipation of light energy is regulated differently and by different mechanisms in lichens and higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kopecky, J; Azarkovich, M; Pfündel, E E; Shuvalov, V A; Heber, U

    2005-03-01

    Modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was used to compare dissipation of light energy as heat in photosystem II of homoiohydric and poikilohydric photosynthetic organisms which were either hydrated or dehydrated. In hydrated chlorolichens with an alga as the photobiont, fluorescence quenching revealed a dominant mechanism of energy dissipation which was based on a protonation reaction when zeaxanthin was present. CO2 was effective as a weak protonating agent and actinic light was not necessary. In a hydrated cyanobacterial lichen, protonation by CO2 was ineffective to initiate energy dissipation. This was also true for leaves of higher plants. Thus, regulation of zeaxanthin-dependent energy dissipation by protonation was different in leaves and in chlorolichens. A mechanism of energy dissipation different from that based on zeaxanthin became apparent on dehydration of both lichens and leaves. Quenching of maximum or Fm fluorescence increased strongly during dehydration. In lichens, this was also true for so-called basal or Fo fluorescence. In contrast to zeaxanthin-dependent quenching, dehydration-induced quenching could not be inhibited by dithiothreitol. Both zeaxanthin-dependent and dehydration-induced quenching cooperated in chlorolichens to increase thermal dissipation of light energy if desiccation occurred in the light. In cyanolichens, which do not possess a zeaxanthin cycle, only desiccation-induced thermal energy dissipation was active in the dry state. Fluorescence emission spectra of chlorolichens revealed stronger desiccation-induced suppression of 685-nm fluorescence than of 720-nm fluorescence. In agreement with earlier reports of , fluorescence excitation data showed that desiccation reduced flow of excitation energy from chlorophyll b of the light harvesting complex II to emitting centres more than flow from chlorophyll a of core pigments. The data are discussed in relation to regulation and localization of thermal energy dissipation mechanisms. It is

  12. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  13. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes.

  14. Moss-made pharmaceuticals: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Reski, Ralf; Parsons, Juliana; Decker, Eva L

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, the moss Physcomitrella patens has been developed from scratch to a model species in basic research and in biotechnology. A fully sequenced genome, outstanding possibilities for precise genome-engineering via homologous recombination (knockout moss), a certified GMP production in moss bioreactors, successful upscaling to 500 L wave reactors, excellent homogeneity of protein glycosylation, remarkable batch-to-batch stability and a safe cryopreservation for master cell banking are some of the key features of the moss system. Several human proteins are being produced in this system as potential biopharmaceuticals. Among the products are tumour-directed monoclonal antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor H (FH), keratinocyte growth factor (FGF7/KGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO, AEPO), alpha-galactosidase (aGal) and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Further, an Env-derived multi-epitope HIV protein as a candidate vaccine was produced, and first steps for a metabolic engineering of P. patens have been made. Some of the recombinant biopharmaceuticals from moss bioreactors are not only similar to those produced in mammalian systems such as CHO cells, but are of superior quality (biobetters). The first moss-made pharmaceutical, aGal to treat Morbus Fabry, is in clinical trials.

  15. [Distribution patterns of moss species in Shanghai city].

    PubMed

    Cao, Tong; Chen, Yi; Yu, Jing; Song, Guoyuan

    2004-10-01

    The mosses on the floor of 22 sites at 20 main parks and 2 chemical plants in Shanghai city were investigated and sampled. Based on 75 recorded moss species and their coverage, Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used to analyze their distribution patterns. The results showed that the study sites could be identified as three groups. Group 1 included two chemical plants and two parks at the center of the city, with 23 moss species and the smallest total coverage of 21.29%; group 2 included part of the parks at the center of the city and surrounding areas, with 44 moss species and total coverage of 37.94%; and group 3 mainly included the parks at surrounding areas and suburbs of the city, with 49 moss species and total coverage of 49.66%. The results reflected a certain correlation of the distribution of moss species with different habitats and polluted and disturbed environments in the city.

  16. Differentiation and Tropisms in Space-Grown Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.; Kern, Volker

    1999-01-01

    This grant supported a Space Shuttle experiment on the effects of microgravity on moss cells. Moss provides a rich system for gravitational and spaceflight research. The early phase of the moss life cycle consists of chains of cells that only grow only at their tips. In the moss Ceratodon purpureus these filaments (protonemata) grow away from gravity in the dark, in a process called gravitropism. The tipmost cells, the apical cells, contain heavy starch-filled bodies called amyloplasts that probably function in g-sensing and that sediment within the apical cell. The SPM-A (Space Moss aka SPAM) experiment flew in November - December, 1997 on STS-87 as part of the Collaborative US Ukrainian Experiment (CLTE). The experiment was accommodated in hardware purpose-built by NASA KSC and Bionetics and included Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU) and BRIC-LEDs. Together, this hardware allowed for the culture of the moss on agar in commercial petri dishes, for unilateral illumination with red light of varying intensity, and for chemical fixation in situ. The key findings of the spaceflight were quite unexpected. Neither the orientation of tip-growth nor the distribution of amyloplasts was random in microgravity.

  17. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Z. Nathan; Rice, Danny W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution. PMID:26618775

  18. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Z Nathan; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution.

  19. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some lichens and their constituents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata (many-forked Cladonia), Hypogymnia physodes (puffed lichen), and Umbilicaria polyphylla (manyleaf navel lichen) and the antimicrobial activity of fumarprotocetraric acid, gyrophoric acid, and physodic acid isolated from the respective lichen species. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five different methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. U. polyphyla exhibited more powerful antioxidant activities than the other lichen species examined: methanol extracts of U. polyphyla showed 90.08% free radical scavenging activities (the ratio was greater than those of standard antioxidants). Moreover, the extracts tested had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total contents of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents and as rutin equivalents, respectively. A significant strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. In general, the lichen extracts tested and their respective acids had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested. The present study shows that the lichen species tested demonstrated strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results suggest that lichens may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating various diseases.

  1. Palmoplantar hyperkeratotic lesions: a rare presentation of lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Almodovar-Real, Ana; Aneiros-Fernández, Jose; Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Fernandez-Pugnaire, Ma Antonia

    2015-03-15

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and rare subtype of lichen planus (LP) often underdiagnosed. Several morphological types of palmoplantar lesions have been defined in LP. We present an unusual case of the palmoplantar kyperkeratotic variant of LP. Histopathology examination confirmed our diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of this rare entity in the differential diagnosis of palmoplantar dermatoses.

  2. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  3. Lichen planus pigmentosus presenting as diffuse facial melanosis.

    PubMed

    Namazi, M R

    2004-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmmentosus (LPP), an uncommon variant of lichen planus, has been characterized by hyperpigmented, dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. In this paper, an unusual case of LPP showing diffuse darkening of the face without the presence of any lichenoid or macular lesion is presented.

  4. [Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus: about a case].

    PubMed

    Zemmez, Youssef; Amraoui, Mohammed El; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; Azhari, Jaouad El; Ismaili, Nadia; Benzekri, Laila; Meziane, Mariame; Hassam, Badreddine; Senouci, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis, characterized by a specific external genital mucosal tissue tropism. Isolated cutaneous manifestation is rare. We report a case of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in a woman with purely cutaneous involvement, in order to highlight the importance of evoking this diagnosis in the absence of obvious genital involvement.

  5. Topical Tacrolimus and Oral Dapsone Combination Regimen in Lichen Planus Pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a well-recognized variant of lichen planus; however, its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. An effective and safe treatment for lichen planus pigmentosus is needed; therefore, the authors examined a series of five patients with lichen planus pigmentosus with successful response to a combination of topical tacrolimus and oral dapsone.

  6. Biomonitoring air pollution with the desert lichen Ramalina maciformis.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Levin, Tal; Cohen, Yehudit; Lehr, Haya

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the environmental impact of anthropogenic activity in the Negev Desert, we monitored the following in order to determine the physiological integrity of the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis: (1) production of ethylene; (2) potential quantum yield of photosystem II expressed as chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm; and (3) electrolyte leakage of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. The degree of pollution was assessed by measuring the amounts of B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in the lichen thallus. Some of the lichen-carrying stones collected in the relatively unpolluted control site were relocated on the same hill, to test the possible impact of relocation. An additional amount of lichen-carrying stones was marked as controls. The greater part of the lichen-carrying stones was transferred to 10 biomonitoring sites in and around Ramat Hovav, an industrial area in the Negev Desert, Israel. Transplanted lichen in polluted sites contained higher amounts of mineral elements than lichens in the control site after an exposure period of 7 months. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlation of ethylene production and Ni content, negative correlation of Fv/Fm ratios and B, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn, and positive correlation of electric conductivity and B, Mn, Ni and Sr. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transferred samples of R. maciformis point to a high degree of contamination in Ramat Hovav. The present study suggests that the lichen R. maciformis should be classified as a sensitive species endangered by anthropogenic activity in the desert. Furthermore, this lichen species is likely to be suitable as a bioindicator of pollution in other parts of the Negev Desert. Ethylene production and electric conductivity as parameters of lichen-vitality, indicated stress in 5 of the 12 biomonitoring sites (42%) and may therefore be considered as more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio, which

  7. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  8. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  9. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Ridgway, Hayley J.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic

  10. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Hannah L; Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D; Cruickshank, Robert H; Ridgway, Hayley J; Paterson, Adrian M

    2014-01-01

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence

  11. Characterizing oxygen isotope variability and host water relation of modern and subfossil aquatic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiayun; Lücke, Andreas; Wissel, Holger; Mayr, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    A field survey in southern Patagonia has shown a highly significant linear correlation between δ18O values of cellulose extracted from modern submerged aquatic mosses and their respective host waters. The amount of aquatic moss remains preserved in lake sediments is, however, often not sufficient for cellulose extraction for oxygen isotope analysis. By comparison, the δ18O analysis of bulk organic matter of aquatic mosses requires much less material, but further pretreatment due to inorganic contamination is needed. In this study we extend the cellulose δ18O approach to aquatic moss organic matter and aquatic vascular plants in order to explore the relation between δ18O values of aquatic plants and host waters. Furthermore, we focus on a comparison between cellulose and pretreated organic matter of subfossil aquatic mosses and vascular plants with regard to their δ18O and δ13C values from Laguna Potrok Aike, a southern Patagonian maar lake. Subfossil remains of two representative submerged aquatic moss species and different moss parts (branches and leaves) are handpicked and an investigation on moss organic matter, moss cellulose and cellulose from coarse plant debris is performed in pairs within a moss-rich sediment section. Our results show that, similar to moss cellulose, a significant linear correlation exists between δ18O values of purified moss organic matter and their respective host waters. Past lake water δ18O values can thus be inferred from moss cellulose as well as from purified moss organic matter with comparable precision. Only a marginal 18O enrichment (ca. 1‰) is observed for δ18O values of cellulose from aquatic vascular plants compared to that of aquatic mosses, whereas δ13C values of aquatic vascular plant cellulose show a pronounced 13C enrichment (ca. 20‰) relative to aquatic mosses. Noticeable differences in δ18O values of organic matter from different moss species suggest a monospecific analysis for the reconstruction of lake

  12. Metal adsorption on mosses: Toward a universal adsorption model.

    PubMed

    González, A G; Pokrovsky, O S

    2014-02-01

    This study quantifies the adsorption of heavy metals on 4 typical moss species used for environmental monitoring in the moss bag technique. The adsorption of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) onto Hypnum sp., Sphagnum sp., Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachytecium rutabulum has been investigated using a batch reactor in a wide range of pH (1.3-11.0) and metal concentrations in solution (1.6μM-3.8mM). A Linear Programming Model (LPM) was applied for the experimental data to derive equilibrium constants and the number of surface binding sites. The surface acid-base titration performed for 4 mosses at a pH range of 3-10 in 0.1M NaNO3 demonstrated that Sphagnum sp. is the most efficient adsorbent as it has the maximal number of proton-binding sites on the surface (0.65mmol g(-1)). The pKa computed for all the moss species suggested the presence of 5 major functional groups: phosphodiester, carboxyl, phosphoryl, amine and polyphenols. The results of pH-edge experiments demonstrated that B. rutabulum exhibits the highest percentage of metal adsorption and has the highest number of available sites for most of the metals studied. However, according to the results of the constant pH "Langmuirian" isotherm, Sphagnum sp. can be considered as the strongest adsorbent, although the relative difference from other mosses is within 20%. The LPM was found to satisfactorily fit the experimental data in the full range of the studied solution parameters. The results of this study demonstrate a rather similar pattern of five metal adsorptions on mosses, both as a function of pH and as a metal concentration, which is further corroborated by similar values of adsorption constants. Therefore, despite the species and geographic differences between the mosses, a universal adsorption edge and constant pH adsorption isotherm can be recommended for 4 studied mosses. The quantitative comparison of metal adsorption with other common natural organic and inorganic materials demonstrates

  13. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  14. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  15. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Surrogates for macrofungi and mosses in reservation planning.

    PubMed

    McMullan-Fisher, Sapphire J M; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; May, Tom W; Pharo, Emma J

    2010-06-01

    Our knowledge of cryptogam taxonomy and species distributions is currently too poor to directly plan for their conservation. We used inventory data from four distinct vegetation types, near Hobart Tasmania, to address the proposition that vegetation type, vascular plant taxon composition, and environmental variables can act as surrogates for mosses and macrofungi in reservation planning. The four vegetation types proved distinct in their taxon composition for all macrofungi, mosses, and vascular plants. We tested the strength of the relationships between the composition of cryptogam taxonomic groups and vascular plant composition and between the environmental variables and canopy cover. Taxon composition of woody vascular plants and vascular plants was the best predictor of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. Combinations of environmental variables and canopy cover were also strong predictors of the taxon composition of mosses and macrofungi. We used an optimization routine for vascular plant taxa and woody plant species and determined the representation of cryptogam taxa in these selections. We identified sites with approximately 10% and 30% of the greatest proportions of vascular plants and woody vascular plants and calculated representation of mosses and macrofungi at these sites. We compared the results of these site selections with random site selections and random selections stratified by vegetation type. Random selection of sites by vegetation type generally captured more cryptogams than site selection by vascular plants at the 10% level. Vascular plant and woody plant taxon composition, vegetation type, and environmental and structural characteristics, all showed promise as surrogates for capturing common cryptogams in reserve systems.

  17. Detoxification of Dissolved SO2 (Bisulfite) by Terricolous Mosses

    PubMed Central

    BHARALI, BHAGAWAN; BATES, JEFFREY W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The widespread calcifuge moss Pleurozium schreberi is moderately tolerant of SO2, whereas Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus is limited to calcareous soils in regions of the UK that were strongly affected by SO2 pollution in the 20th century. The proposition that tolerance of SO2 by these terricolous mosses depends on metabolic detoxification of dissolved bisulfite was investigated. • Methods The capacities of the two mosses to accelerate loss of bisulfite from aqueous solutions of NaHSO3 were studied using DTNB [5, 5-dithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] to assay bisulfite, and HPLC to assay sulfate in the incubation solutions. Incubations were performed for different durations, in the presence and absence of light, at a range of solution pH values, in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and with altered moss apoplastic Ca2+ and Fe3+ levels. • Key Results Bisulfite disappearance was markedly stimulated in the light and twice as great for R. triquetrus as for P. schreberi. DCMU, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron chain transport, significantly reduced bisufite loss. • Conclusions Bisulfite (SO2) tolerance in these terricolous mosses involves extracellular oxidation using metabolic (photo-oxidative) energy, passive oxidation by adsorbed Fe3+ (only available to the calcifuge) and probably also internal metabolic detoxification. PMID:16319108

  18. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum.

  19. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital.

  20. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-02

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities.

  1. [Lichen sclerosus--clinical and therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Manolova, G; Pehlivanov, G; Bakardzhiev, I; Saleva, M; Yungareva, I; Lozanova, P; Prisadashka, K; Karagiozova, Zh

    2014-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory dermatosis with a characteristic location (85-98%) in the anogenital region. The authors point out the main features in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of the disease and the possible approach to neoplastic development. Expanded differential diagnosis of LS sparked not only dermatologists but also gynecologists, urologists and GPs. Points are the chronic course of the disease and resistance to therapy. Discuss the results of the treatment of LS with less potent topical corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy and photodynamic therapy, surgery.

  2. [Lichen sclerosus--a neglected disease].

    PubMed

    Sander, Bente Braad; Damsgaard, Knud

    2011-11-14

    We present a small review of lichen sclerosus in women and an update on the newest knowledge, e.g. on calcineurin inhibitors as a choice of treatment. The goal is to put more focus on the disease in Denmark because it is so often diagnosed only with a great delay. We further emphasize the importance of follow-up on these patients, due to the risk of cancer, the great influence of the disease on quality of life and the risk of structural changes in the vulva region.

  3. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  4. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation.

  5. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pKa1 values of these lichen substances.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK(a1)) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK(a1) values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK(a1) values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens.

  6. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production.

  7. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere.

  8. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    The detrimental influence which airborne contaminants has on vegetation in many parts of the world has become of increasing interest and concern in recent years. The use of suitable plants such as epiphytes (vegetation which grows on another plant) for measuring concentrations of airborne materials provides the advantages of (a) an integration of the periodic fluctuations in amounts of these materials that occur over relatively long periods of time and (b) economy in sampling. This class of plants, which are mosses and lichens, are somewhat less dependent on their substrates and may act more purely as air indicators. The epiphytes do not derive nutrients from soil, but depend on airborne moisture and particulates for elemental sources. The way with which they absorb nutrients from these external sources gives rise to an uncommon sensitivity to the harmful effects of air pollution. Also in addition, plants of this class absorb constituents of airborne particulates which may not be directly toxic to the plant but of environmental concern to humans. In particular, trace element accumulation in epiphytic Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) common in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains has been used in air pollution studies. Recent studies have also evaluated Spanish moss as an indicator of contamination of pesticides and other organic aromatic compounds. Two hundred and six samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected from over its geographic range in Florida for this study. The samples were analyzed for a variety of major and minor elements, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed for pertinent geochemical associations. Three statistical methods have been used on the geochemical data of Spanish moss to evaluate the nature of probable sources for each of the elements. This kind of work is being done because the exact nature and location of each specimen is unknown. So, the three different statistical methods have been used to classify or

  9. A potential peptide pathway from viruses to oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta

    2015-06-01

    Oral lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of oral mucous membranes, characterized by an autoimmune epidermis attack by T cells. It remains unknown, however, how such aggressive T cells are activated in vivo to cause epidermal damage. This study analyzes the relationship at the peptide level between viruses and oral lichen planus disease. Four potentially immunogenic peptides (SSSSSSS, QEQLEKA, LLLLLLA, and MLSGNAG) are found to be shared between HCV, EBV, HHV-7, HSV-1, and CMV and three human proteins (namely pinin, desmoglein-3, and plectin). The described peptide sharing might be of help in deciphering the still unexplained immunopathogenic pathway that leads to oral lichen planus.

  10. Fractional carbon dioxide laser in recalcitrant vulval lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew; Lim, Adrian; Fischer, Gayle

    2016-02-01

    Vulval lichen sclerosus is an uncommon skin condition that can usually be managed with topical corticosteroids to maintain remission. However, there is a subset of patients in whom it remains recalcitrant despite treatment with super-potent topical corticosteroids. We report a case series of four patients undergoing fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing and one with ablative carbon dioxide laser for severe, hyperkeratotic vulval lichen sclerosus not responding to super-potent topical corticosteroids. In these patients, carbon dioxide laser was successful in achieving remission. Their vulval lichen sclerosus was subsequently able to be maintained with topical corticosteroid treatment.

  11. 75 FR 3219 - Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation January 12, 2010. On January 31, 2008, Richard Moss, licensee for the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project..., notice is hereby given that an annual license for Project No. 6885 is issued to Richard Moss for a...

  12. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  13. A Case of Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong Keun; Lee, Hyun Jae; Choi, Joon Hee; Sung, Ho-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is chronic pigmentary disorder that shows diffuse or reticulated hyperpigmented, dark brown macules on the sun-exposed areas such as the face, neck and other flexural folds. Clinically, it is different from classical lichen planus because LPP has a longer clinical course and it manifests with dark brown macules. In case of LPP, involvement of the scalp, nail or mucosal area is rare. The histopathological findings of the lesions show an atrophic epidermis, the presence of melanophages and a vacuolar alteration of the basal cell layer with a sparse lymphohistiocytic lichenoid infiltration. Although there have been a few reports of LPP, there have only 3 cases of linear LPP along the lines of Blaschko in the Korean dermatologic literature. Our patient had lesions on the neck and chin with a linear pattern. In this report, we describe a very rare case of LPP with a linear distribution related to Blaschko's lines on the neck and chin areas. PMID:20711271

  14. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation.

  15. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  16. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  17. UV-C tolerance of symbiotic Trebouxia sp. in the space-tested lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Circinaria gyrosa: role of the hydration state and cortex/screening substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Meeßen, Joachim; del Carmen Ruiz, M.; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Ott, Sieglinde; Vílchez, Carlos; Horneck, Gerda; Sadowsky, Andres; de la Torre, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the survival capacity of extremotolerant lichens when facing harsh conditions, including those of outer space or of simulated Martian environment. For further progress, a deeper study on the physiological mechanisms is needed that confer the unexpected levels of resistance detected on these symbiotic organisms. In this work, the response of the lichenized green algae Trebouxia sp. (a predominant lichen photobiont) to increasing doses of UV-C radiation is studied. UV-C (one of the most lethal factors to be found in space together with vacuum and cosmic-ionizing radiation with high atomic number and energy (HZE) particles) has been applied in the present experiments up to a maximum dose analogue to 67 days in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For that purpose we selected two extremotolerant and space-tested lichen species in which Trebouxia sp. is the photosynthetic partner: the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum and the fruticose lichen Circinaria gyrosa. In order to evaluate the effect of the physiological state of the lichen thallus (active when wet and dormant when dry) and of protective structures (cortex and photoprotective pigments) on the resistance of the photobiont to UV-C, four different experimental conditions were tested: (1) dry intact samples, (2) wet intact samples, (3) dry samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed and (4) wet samples without cortex/acetone-rinsed. After irradiation and a 72 hours period of recovery, the influence of UV-C on the two lichen's photobiont under each experimental approach was assessed by two complimentary methods: (1) By determining the photosystem II (PSII) activity in three successive 24 hours intervals (Mini-PAM fluorometer) to investigate the overall state of the photosynthetic process and the resilience of Trebouxia sp. (2) By performing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-quantification of four essential photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,

  18. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  19. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  20. Atmospheric particulate matter intercepted by moss-bags: Relations to moss trace element uptake and land use.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Anna; Capozzi, Fiore; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Particulate matter has to be constantly monitored because it is an important atmospheric transport form of potentially harmful contaminants. The cost-effective method of the moss-bags can be employed to evaluate both loads and chemical composition of PM. PM entrapped by the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum exposed in bags in 9 European sites was characterized for number, size and chemical composition by SEM/EDX. Moreover, moss elemental uptake of 53 elements including rare earth elements was estimated by ICP-MS analysis. All above was aimed to find possible relations between PM profile and moss uptake and to find out eventual element markers of the different land use (i.e. agricultural, urban, industrial) of the selected sites. After exposure, about 12,000 particles, mostly within the inhalable fraction, were counted on P. purum leaves; their number generally increased from the agricultural sites to the urban and industrial ones. ICP analysis indicated that twenty-three elements were significantly accumulated by mosses with different element profile according to the various land uses. The PM from agricultural sites were mainly made of natural/crustal elements or derived from rural activities. Industrial-related PM covered a wider range of sources, from those linked to specific industrial activities, to those related to manufacturing processes or use of heavy-duty vehicles. This study indicates a close association between PM amount and moss element-uptake, which increases in parallel with PM amount. Precious metals and REEs may constitute novel markers of air pollution in urban and agricultural sites, respectively.

  1. Extra Genital Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus With Cutaneous Distribution and Morphology Simulating Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhumi; Gupta, Rajat; Vora, V Rita

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) also known as Csillag's disease, characterized by small, porcelain white, sclerotic areas occur at any site on the skin including mucosa. There is strong association of autoimmune disorders with LSA. Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory, papulosquamous disorder characterized by erythematous to violaceous, flat topped, polygonal, pruritic papules distributed mainly on flexural aspects like wrist, around ankles, lumbar region, trunk and neck and also involves mucous membranes, hair, and nail. LP and LSA share similar clinical and pathological features. There have been a few reported cases in the literature of the coexistence of LP and LSA. We reported a case of 39-years-old female having LSA with cutaneous distribution and morphologically simulating LP. PMID:25657434

  2. Extra genital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus with cutaneous distribution and morphology simulating lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhumi; Gupta, Rajat; Vora, V Rita

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) also known as Csillag's disease, characterized by small, porcelain white, sclerotic areas occur at any site on the skin including mucosa. There is strong association of autoimmune disorders with LSA. Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory, papulosquamous disorder characterized by erythematous to violaceous, flat topped, polygonal, pruritic papules distributed mainly on flexural aspects like wrist, around ankles, lumbar region, trunk and neck and also involves mucous membranes, hair, and nail. LP and LSA share similar clinical and pathological features. There have been a few reported cases in the literature of the coexistence of LP and LSA. We reported a case of 39-years-old female having LSA with cutaneous distribution and morphologically simulating LP.

  3. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post

  4. Herbivore impacts to the moss layer determine tundra ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Van der Wal, Rene

    2009-10-01

    Herbivory and climate are key environmental drivers, shaping ecosystems at high latitudes. Here, we focus on how these two drivers act in concert, influencing the high arctic tundra. We aim to investigate mechanisms through which herbivory by geese influences vegetation and soil processes in tundra ecosystems under ambient and warmed conditions. To achieve this, two grazing treatments, clipping plus faecal additions and moss removal, were implemented in conjunction with passive warming. Our key finding was that, in many cases, the tundra ecosystem response was determined by treatment impacts on the moss layer. Moss removal reduced the remaining moss layer depth by 30% and increased peak grass biomass by 27%. These impacts were probably due to observed higher soil temperatures and decomposition rates associated with moss removal. The positive impact of moss removal on grass biomass was even greater with warming, further supporting this conclusion. In contrast, moss removal reduced dwarf shrub biomass possibly resulting from increased exposure to desiccating winds. An intact moss layer buffered the soil to increased air temperature and as a result there was no response of vascular plant productivity to warming over the course of this study. In fact, moss removal impacts on soil temperature were nearly double those of warming, suggesting that the moss layer is a key component in controlling soil conditions. The moss layer also absorbed nutrients from faeces, promoting moss growth. We conclude that both herbivory and warming influence this high arctic ecosystem but that herbivory is the stronger driver of the two. Disturbance to the moss layer resulted in a shift towards a more grass-dominated system with less abundant mosses and shrubs, a trend that was further enhanced by warming. Thus herbivore impacts to the moss layer are key to understanding arctic ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

  5. Biological importance of marine algae.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  6. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  7. Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

    2015-03-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation.

  8. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  9. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes. PMID:24832808

  10. Antarctic epilithic lichens as niches for black meristematic fungi.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-05-17

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  11. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  12. An Exercise Using Lichens as Indicators of Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Jeffry

    1978-01-01

    High school students learned to monitor air quality using lichens in a National Science Foundation sponsored program. In this article, monitoring procedures are discussed briefly along with means to adapt the exercise to your own area. (MA)

  13. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Strelkova, L. P.; Steinnes, E.

    2007-11-26

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd.

  14. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting < 0.4% of the area) lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  15. Oral bullous lichen planus: Case report and review of management

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Archana; Prasad, Shiva; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient with the chief complaint of burning sensation in the oral cavity associated with generalized pruritis, scalp and skin lesions diagnosed as Bullous lichen planus and treated with systemic prednisolone, levamisole, benzydamine oral rinse. Patient is in follow up since 1 year and free of lesions. Here we report the case and review current modalities in the management of oral lichen planus. PMID:23293497

  16. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  17. Two cases of lichen striatus with prolonged active phase.

    PubMed

    Feely, Meghan A; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Lichen striatus is a localized, eczematous disorder distributed along the lines of Blaschko, primarily affecting children. In the literature, lesions have been described as having an active phase of inflamed lesions for 6 to 12 months followed by flattening and persistent pigmentary alteration. We describe two girls who had prolonged active-phase lesions for 2.5 and 3.5 years, respectively. Practitioners should be aware that lesions of lichen striatus may have a prolonged active phase.

  18. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  19. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei.

  20. Metal accumulation capacity of five species of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1985-10-01

    The present paper describes the first experimental evidence of the species-specific differences in the cation accumulation properties in Sphagnum mosses. Manganese was chosen for the object of the experiments because this element appears to show the greatest variability under natural conditions.

  1. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.

  2. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2016-05-05

    The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05-0.06 mmolg(dry)(-1) and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93-1.25 mmolg(dry)(-1) for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu(2+) yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu-S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu(2+).

  3. Reversible Photoinhibition in Antarctic Moss during Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, C. E.; Jackson, A. E.; Melick, D. R.; Seppelt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Tolerance of antarctic moss to freezing and thawing stress was investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Freezing in darkness caused reductions in Fv/Fm (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and Fo (initial fluorescence) that were reversible upon thawing. Reductions in Fv/Fm and Fo during freezing in darkness indicate a reduction in the potential efficiency of photosystem II that may be due to conformational changes in pigment-protein complexes due to desiccation associated with freezing. The absorption of light during freezing further reduced Fv/Fm and Fo but was also reversible. Using dithiothreitol (DTT), which inhibits the formation of the carotenoid zeaxanthin, we found reduced flurorescence quenching during freezing and reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin after freezing in DTT-treated moss. Reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in DTT-treated moss were partially associated with reductions in nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The reversible photoinhibition observed in antarctic moss during freezing indicates the existence of processes that protect from photoinhibitory damage in environments where freezing temperatures occur in conjunction with high solar radiation levels. These processes may limit the need for repair cycles that require temperatures favorable for enzyme activity. PMID:12228644

  4. Nitrogen accumulation in forests. Exposure monitoring by mosses.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther

    2007-03-21

    At present, there is still little information on nitrogen (N) accumulation in forests contrasting with the crucial importance of N in forest ecosystems. This work analyzes the N bioaccumulation in mosses from forested areas from Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia (two of 16 federal states of Germany), the Weser Ems Region (part of Lower Saxony), and the Euro Region Nissa (covering the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland). The studies involved samples collected from 190 sites between 1998 and 2005. Different spatial scales and regional differences in land use were chosen to assess the factors affecting N bioaccumulation in forested areas. A continuous reduction of N bioaccumulation was found from Lower Saxony (a region where agriculture is most predominant) to North Rhine-Westphalia (mostly urban). The Weser Ems Region (an agricultural region) showed a higher N concentration in mosses than the Euroregion Nissa (a former industrial region). Statistical analyses performed at the different spatial scales revealed that the areas showing greater agricultural and livestock spatial densities favor N bioaccumulation in mosses. N concentration in mosses was moderately correlated with the N concentration in the leaves and needles of the surrounding trees. No significant relationships were found regarding the crown density of forest trees or N deposition estimations from a combination of atmospheric models and deposition measurements.

  5. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  6. Entropic interpretation of the Hawking-Moss bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the Hawking-Moss transition rate. Using the static coordinates, we show that the Euclidean action is entirely determined by the contribution of the entropy of de Sitter space that is proportional to the surface area of the horizon. This holographic feature is common to any static spacetime with a horizon on which the shift vector vanishes.

  7. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  8. The Cyanobacterial Role in the Resistance of Feather Mosses to Decomposition—Toward a New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Rousk, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria-plant symbioses play an important role in many ecosystems due to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by the cyanobacterial symbiont. The ubiquitous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. is colonized by cyanobacteria in boreal systems with low N deposition. Here, cyanobacteria fix substantial amounts of N2 and represent a potential N source. The feather moss appears to be resistant to decomposition, which could be partly a result of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. To assess how cyanobacteria modulated the toxicity of moss, we measured inhibition of bacterial growth. Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. Moss could universally inhibit bacterial growth, but moss toxicity did not increase with N2 fixation rates (numbers of cyanobacteria). Instead, we see evidence for a negative relationship between moss toxicity to bacteria and N2 fixation, which could be related to the ecological mechanisms that govern the cyanobacteria – moss relationship. We conclude that cyanobacteria associated with moss do not contribute to the resistance to decomposition of moss, and from our results emerges the question as to what type of relationship the moss and cyanobacteria share. PMID:23614013

  9. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  10. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  11. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  12. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  13. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  14. Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Brănişteanu, Daniel Constantin; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Ferariu, Dan; Voicu, Cătălina Maria; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Căruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina Mihaela; Dimitriu, Andreea; Radu, Cezar Doru

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. The characteristic histopathological picture of lichen sclerosus includes a thin epidermis, with orthohyperkeratosis and vascular degeneration in the basal layer, loss of elastic fibers, and band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, while systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the dermis, accompanied by reduction in adnexal structures and their entrapment in collagen, and the presence of perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with systemic scleroderma and lichen sclerosus involving the genital mucosa. Physical examination in conjunction with laboratory findings (elevated antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anti-SSA antibodies and immunogram) induced the supposition of the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and systemic scleroderma, fact confirmed by pathological examination. Systemic therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and phlebotropic drugs, peripheral vasodilators and other tropic adjuvants and topically potent topical corticosteroids was initiated. The course was favorable under therapy, the hardened skin slightly regaining elasticity, relief of itching and disappearance of lichen sclerosus lesions. Our case reaffirms the uncommon association of these two disorders. The importance of history, physical and laboratory examinations in making a diagnosis of certainty in emphasized.

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  16. Response of stable carbon isotope in epilithic mosses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, You-Yi; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li

    2010-06-01

    Epilithic mosses are characterized by insulation from substratum N and hence meet their N demand only by deposited N. This study investigated tissue C, total Chl and delta13C of epilithic mosses along 2 transects across Guiyang urban (SW China), aiming at testing their responses to N deposition. Tissue C and total Chl decreased from the urban to rural, but delta13C(moss) became less negative. With measurements of atmospheric CO2 and delta13CO2, elevated N deposition was inferred as a primary factor for changes in moss C and isotopic signatures. Correlations between total Chl, tissue C and N signals indicated a nutritional effect on C fixation of epilithic mosses, but the response of delta13C(moss) to N deposition could not be clearly differentiated from effects of other factors. Collective evidences suggest that C signals of epilithic mosses are useful proxies for N deposition but further works on physiological mechanisms are still needed.

  17. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    PubMed

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels.

  18. Two Cases of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus Arising from Long-standing Lichen Planus-inversus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Duck; Chi, Seong Geun; Ko, Hyun Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2008-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus (LPP-inversus) is an extremely rare variant of lichen planus (LP), and only a few cases have been reported. Its course is characterized by exacerbations and remissions, and it is known to be more chronic than classical LP is. We report two cases of LPP-inversus and offer the suggestion that LPP-inversus may originate from LP of flexural areas. PMID:27303206

  19. Two Cases of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus Arising from Long-standing Lichen Planus-inversus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Kyung Duck; Chi, Seong Geun; Ko, Hyun Chang; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2008-12-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus (LPP-inversus) is an extremely rare variant of lichen planus (LP), and only a few cases have been reported. Its course is characterized by exacerbations and remissions, and it is known to be more chronic than classical LP is. We report two cases of LPP-inversus and offer the suggestion that LPP-inversus may originate from LP of flexural areas.

  20. Evolution of photoprotection mechanisms upon land colonization: evidence of PSBS-dependent NPQ in late Streptophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Gerotto, Caterina; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Light is the energy source for photosynthetic organisms but, if absorbed in excess, it can drive to the formation of reactive oxygen species and photoinhibition. One major mechanism to avoid oxidative damage in plants and algae is the dissipation of excess excitation energy as heat, called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Eukaryotic algae and plants, however, rely on two different proteins for NPQ activation, the former mainly depending on LHCSR (Lhc-like protein Stress Related; previously called Li818, Light Induced protein 818), whereas in the latter the major role is played by a distinct protein, PSBS (photosystem II subunit S). In the moss Physcomitrella patens, which diverged from vascular plants early after land colonization, both these proteins were found to be present and active in inducing NPQ, suggesting that during plants evolution both mechanisms co-existed. In order to investigate in more detail NPQ adaptation toward land colonization, we analyzed Streptophyte algae, the latest organisms to diverge from the land plants ancestors. Among them we found evidence of a PSBS-dependent NPQ in species belonging to Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, the latest groups to diverge from land plants ancestors. On the contrary earlier diverging algae, as Mesostigmatales and Klebsormidiales, likely rely on LHCSR for their NPQ activation. Presented evidence thus suggests that PSBS-dependent NPQ, although possibly present in some Chlorophyta, was stably acquired in the Cambrian period about 500 million years ago, before late Streptophyte algae diverged from plants ancestors.

  1. Which factors are responsible for the changing lichen floras of London?

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Chimonides, J; Din, V; Erotokritou, L; Jeffries, T; Jones, G C; Louwhoff, S; Read, H; Spiro, B

    2003-07-01

    SO(2) is no longer the principal factor influencing the vitality and composition of lichen assemblages in London. We provide direct evidence for an impact on lichen growth during episodic high exhaust emissions coupled with unusual climatic conditions. This suggests a combination of particles and nitrogen plays a major role in influencing lichen growth. Nitrogen from traffic emissions may be at least as important as agriculture in influencing the composition of lichen assemblages.

  2. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Thadanipon, Kunlawat

    2010-09-11

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition.

  3. Bilateral Linear Lichen Planus Pigmentosus Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Thadanipon, Kunlawat

    2010-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. We report a first case of lichen planus pigmentosus with bilateral linear distribution associated with hepatitis C virus infection. The lesion was improved after sun avoidance and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with a combination of interferon and ribavirin. This case stresses the importance of screening for hepatitis C virus infection as lichen planus pigmentosus can be an associated condition. PMID:21060775

  4. Moss as bio-indicator of long term pollution spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, S.; Leblond, S.; Losno, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, C.; Costes, S.; Colin, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    Bio indicators are very interesting to track atmospheric pollution on large time and space scale because of the very low cost of the sampling system. As a replicate of a similar campaign made in France during the year 1996, moss field sampling was carried out during the summer 2000 (July-September). Moss samples were collected on 528 sites, located in a 33x33 km grid, leading to a density of 1 site per 1000 square kilometer. Samples sites were located as far as possible from local contamination. Five moss species were collected: Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. (56% of all the samples collected), Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. (18%), Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. (18%), Thuidium tamariscinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. (4.5%), and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (3.5%). All the sampling and analytical procedures were carried out with ultra-trace measurement standards. Beside the geographical distribution of the elements, we will compare here the temporal evolution of measured moss concentration for more than 25 elements. This comparison is not evident because of many possible artifacts, and we will discuss here their relative importance. This includes: 1/ The analytical comparison between the two laboratories implicated in the year respectively 1996 and 2000. 2/ The behaviour of the elements between the different species. 3/ The behaviour of the elements between different parts of the moss (green apical or brown basal part) used for deposition monitoring. 4/ The residence time of the elements in the living moss. Concerning the last point, we have chosen a rural site where we continuously monitor atmospheric deposition by classical method. There we have sprayed diluted solution containing spikes of dissolved metals to provide a transient signal sharper and stronger than the atmospheric fluxes. We have followed the evolution of these metal concentrations during 6 months showing large differences between elements especially after a rain event. The usage of bio indicator

  5. Active moss biomonitoring for extensive screening of urban air pollution: Magnetic and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Goryainova, Zoya; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Samson, Roeland; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-07-15

    In this study, active magnetic biomonitoring of moss for particulate air pollution and an assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the entire metropolitan area of Belgrade. Two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring moss genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (a common moss in the study area), were used. During the summer of 2013, moss bags were exposed at 153 sampling sites, forming a dense network of sites. A type II regression model was applied to test the interchangeable use of the two moss species. Significantly higher levels of all measured pollutants were recorded by S. girgensohnii in comparison with H. cupressiforme. Based on the results, the mosses could not be interchangeably used in urban areas, except for the biomonitoring of Cu. Nevertheless, according to the relative accumulation factors obtained for both moss species, similar city zones related to high, moderate and low levels of air pollution were distinguished. Moreover, new pollution hotspots, omitted by regulatory monitoring, were identified. The results demonstrate that moss magnetic analysis represents an effective first step for obtaining an overview of particulate air pollution before more expensive chemical analyses. Active moss biomonitoring could be applied as a pragmatic approach for optimizing the representativeness of regulatory monitoring networks.

  6. Active biomonitoring with the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum: Comparison between different types of transplants and bulk deposition.

    PubMed

    Ares, A; Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2015-10-01

    Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses can be used to complement traditional air pollution monitoring techniques. Several studies have been carried out to compare the uptake capacity of different types of moss transplants. However, until now the relationship between the uptake of elements in devitalized moss bags and in irrigated transplants has not been explored. In this study, the final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were determined in irrigated and devitalized moss transplants in the surroundings of a steelworks. The concentrations were also compared with those of the same elements in the bulk deposition to determine which type of moss transplant yields the closest correlations. Devitalized moss retained higher concentrations of all of the elements (except Hg) than the irrigated moss. Both irrigated and devitalized moss transplants appear to detect the same type of contamination (i.e. particulate matter and dissolved metals rather than gaseous forms) as significant correlations were found for Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, whereas, neither type of the moss transplant was sensitive enough to detect changes in the soluble fraction load of bulk deposition. Further studies will be needed to a better understanding of the correlation between the concentrations of elements in moss transplants with the particulate fraction of the bulk deposition. This will enable the establishment of a more robust and accurate biomonitoring tool.

  7. Lichen planus pigmentosus of the oral mucosa: a rare clinical variety.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G C; Papavasiliou, S S; Bovopoulou, O D; Nicolis, G D

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of lichen planus of the mouth with intense melanosis, in a middle-aged white male. Due to its unusual clinical characteristics, we believe that this case represents a rare variant of lichen planus of the oral mucosa. The histopathologic findings, differential diagnosis and its possible connection with lichen planus pigmentosus of the skin are discussed.

  8. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  10. First description of a laccase-like enzyme in soil algae.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Schlosser, Dietmar; Reisser, Werner

    2010-09-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are versatile multi-copper oxidases so far found in higher plants, fungi, insects, prokaryotes and lichens. In the present study, the production of an extracellular laccase-like enzyme by the coccoid green soil alga Tetracystis aeria was investigated and the enzyme was partly characterized, thereby providing the first description of a laccase-like enzyme in soil algae. Enzyme production in algae cultures was considerably increased by addition of the fungal laccase inducer copper sulphate. Maximal enzyme production was observed during the stationary growth phase. Peroxidase or tyrosinase activity was not detected. The native enzyme exhibits an apparent molecular mass of about 212 kDa as observed with size exclusion chromatography and about 210-260 kDa as estimated by zymograms. The enzyme efficiently oxidizes 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), syringaldazine (SGZ) and the anthraquinone dye Acid Blue 62, while guaiacol and Remazol Brilliant Blue R are only poorly oxidized. The apparent kinetic parameters obtained for ABTS, 2,6-DMP and SGZ oxidation are within the range reported for fungal laccases. Oxidation of the phenolic substrate 2,6-DMP displays a remarkably high pH optimum (pH 8.0-8.5), which is interesting with respect to potential biotechnological applications.

  11. [Annual production of moss layer in dark coniferous forests of Ket-Chulym Forest District (by the example of Moss Hylocomium splendens)].

    PubMed

    Koshurnikova, N N

    2007-01-01

    The biological production of the moss layer was analyzed in dark coniferous stands in progressive succession in the southern taiga in West Siberia. The rate of organic matter production by mosses changed from 15-22.2 g/(m2 y) in 50-90-year-old fir forests to 51.6 g/(m2 y) in 170-year-old mixed Siberian pine-spruce-fir stands. In forest phytocenosis that were formed with species replacement (after cuttings with understory clearing), the annual moss production (net primary production) ranged from 2.8 to 20.6 g/(m2 y). The annual moss cover production amounted to 35-36% of the moss photosynthetic biomass irrespective of the type of native stand progressive succession and the stand age.

  12. Do mosses exist outside of Europe? A biomonitoring reflection.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2017-03-27

    The passive moss biomonitoring technique has been proved a useful environmental tool for the study of the air quality. However, after more than 40years of its discovery, it has not been used yet in decision making when dealing with atmospheric pollution. Scientific efforts and funding are wasted when these sort of findings do not have a meaningful impact on society. Thus, the aim of this review is to showcase the reasons preventing the worldwide application of the moss technique. The results showed that the possible reasons underlying this problem are the lack of standardization of the technique, transmission of a false idea of robustness, and the lack of a theoretical background. Knowing and accepting these problems is the first step to encourage scientists and funding bodies to invest their efforts in really improving the technique for its application in environmental policies and not only in scientific circles.

  13. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  14. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  15. Caulonemal gravitropism and amyloplast sedimentation in the moss Funaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J. M.; Kim, D.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Caulonemata of the moss Funaria were examined to determine whether they are gravitropic. Funaria and Physcomitrella were also evaluated to compare amyloplast sedimentation with that of Ceratodon. Protonemata were either chemically fixed in place or examined alive using infrared timelapse videomicroscopy. Funaria caulonemata were found to be negatively gravitropic, i.e., they grew upwards in the dark. Upward curvature reversed temporarily before cytokinesis in Funaria, a phenomenon already known for Ceratodon and Physcomitrella. Most horizontal and upward-curving Funaria tip cells contained a broad subapical zone where plastid sedimentation occurred. In dark-grown Physcomitrella caulonemata, sedimentation was detected by the presence of a thin, amyloplast-free strip of cytoplasm at the top of the cell. These results suggest that gravitropism and subapical amyloplast sedimentation may be relatively common in moss caulonemata.

  16. BOREAS HYD-6 Moss/Humus Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Carroll, Thomas; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-6 team collected several data sets related to the moisture content of soil and overlying humus layers. This data set contains water content measurements of the moss/humus layer, where it existed. These data were collected along various flight lines in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA) during 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-06 moss/humus moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Yifu; Wang Yi E-mail: wangyi@itp.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    The quantum behavior of non-commutative eternal inflation is quite different from the usual scenario. Unlike the usual eternal inflation, non-commutative eternal inflation has quantum fluctuation suppressed by the Hubble parameter. Because of this, we need to reconsider many conceptions of eternal inflation. In this paper we study the Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation using the stochastic approach. We obtain a brand new form of tunneling probability for this process and find that the Hawking-Moss tunneling is more unlikely to take place in the non-commutative case than in the usual one. We also conclude that the lifetime of a metastable de Sitter vacuum in the non-commutative spacetime is longer than that in the commutative case.

  18. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  19. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  20. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  1. A study of 124 Indian patients with lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, A J; Dogra, S; Handa, S; Parsad, D; Radotra, B D

    2003-09-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a fairly common disorder of pigmentation in Indians, but reports comprising a sizeable number of patients are lacking in the literature. We now describe the clinical and epidemiological features and histopathological findings for 124 lichen planus pigmentosus patients. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients attending our centre during the past 12 years was undertaken. Of the 124 patients (56 male, 68 female), the majority (48.4%) had the disease for 6 months to 3 years. The face and neck were the commonest sites affected with pigmentation varying from slate grey to brownish-black. The pattern of pigmentation was mostly diffuse (77.4%), followed by reticular (9.7%), blotchy (7.3%) and perifollicular (5.6%). Lichen planus was noted in 19 patients with typical histopathological changes of the disorder. Lichen planus pigmentosus, a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population, should be considered in the spectrum of lichenoid disorders as a variant of lichen planus.

  2. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  3. Two sisters resembling Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Teresa; Passalacqua, Cristóbal; Pizarro, Oscar; Aracena, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    The Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS), was describe initially by Gorlin et al. [Gorlin et al. (1960)] in two sisters with craniosynostosis, hypertrichosis, hypoplastic labia majora, dental defects, eye anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, and normal intelligence. Two other sporadic instances have been documented. Here, we report on two sisters with a condition with some similarities to GCMS as well as some differences, which could represent either previously unreported variability in GCMS, or it may represent a novel disorder.

  4. [Heavy metal concentrations in mosses from Qiyi Glacier region].

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan-Juan; Li, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Heavy metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) concentrations were measured in 17 moss samples which were collected at Qiyi Glacier Region in July, August and September, 2009 in a preliminary investigation of heavy metal pollution situation in this area. The results indicated that heavy metal concentrations in mosses were relatively high and concentrations of Fe were at the highest level (varied between 15 160.00 and 34 960.00 microg x g(-1)), followed by Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, As, with average concentrations of 169.56, 134.81, 34.52, 26.16, 9.15 microg x g(-1). Enrichment factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Fe and Cr in mosses mainly stemmed from crustal dust, and concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were influenced by human activities; As was moderately enriched which means As in mosses was mainly originated from anthropogenic pollution. According to the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of 2009 and the simulation of the HYSPLIT v4.9 Model on 3-dimension back trajectories of air mass at Qiyi glacier district, several trajectories reflecting the main characteristics of air flow were obtained based on the classification of cluster analysis on the hundreds of back trajectories. The back trajectories revealed that atmospheric transport characteristics in the study area changed obviously by season. Compared to Spring and Autumn, atmospheric transmission sources were relatively more in Winter and Summer. The main sources of atmospheric pollutants in Qiyi Glacier region were transported from Jiuquan and Jiayuguan regions.

  5. Gravi- and photostimuli in moss protonema growth movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kordyum, E. L.; Khorkavtsiv, Ya D.; Kardash, O. R.; Chaban, Ch. I.

    Moss protonemal growth direction is controlled by at least three factors, photo-, gravi- and autotropism. It is possible to experimentally separate these factors and to control selectively their morphological appearance. In darkness protonema grow negatively gravitropically, and unilateral illumination initiated positive phototropism. Red light suppressed auto- and gravitropism, blue light suppressed only gravitropism. Green light allowed both gravi- and autotropism. The effect of light on gravitropism might involve changes in starch synthesis.

  6. Metal accumulation in mosses across national boundaries: uncovering and ranking causes of spatial variation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Englert, Cordula; Harmens, Harry; Suchara, Ivan; Zechmeister, Harald G; Thöni, Lotti; Mankovská, Blanka; Jeran, Zvonka; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Alber, Renate

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at cross-border mapping metal loads in mosses in eight European countries in 1990, 1995, and 2000 and at investigating confounding factors. Geostatistics was used for mapping, indicating high local variances but clear spatial autocorrelations. Inference statistics identified differences of metal concentrations in mosses on both sides of the national borders. However, geostatistical analyses did not ascertain discontinuities of metal concentrations in mosses at national borders due to sample analysis in different laboratories applying a range of analytical techniques. Applying Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to the German moss data as an example, the local variation in metal concentrations in mosses were proved to depend mostly on different moss species, potential local emission sources, canopy drip and precipitation.

  7. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Cooper, D M; Mills, G; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Thöni, L; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Carballeira, A; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Frolova, M; González-Miqueo, L; Jeran, Z; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Maňkovská, B; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Simonèiè, P; Schröder, W; Suchara, I; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2011-10-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations (≥ 1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km × 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r(2) = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution.

  8. Cutaneous sporotrichosis in forestry workers. Epidemic due to contaminated Sphagnum moss.

    PubMed

    Powell, K E; Taylor, A; Phillips, B J; Blakey, D L; Campbell, G D; Kaufman, L; Kaplan, W

    1978-07-21

    In December 1975 and January and February 1976, an epidemic of cutaneous sporotrichosis occurred in Mississippi among forestry workers and other persons exposed to sphagnum moss used in packing pine seedlings. Seventeen cases were identified, 15 of which were from patients who had been exposed to sphagnum moss from a single source. Attack rates were significantly higher among workers exposed to this moss than among those not exposed. Sporothrix schenckii was cultured from the implicated batch of sphagnum moss but not from other batches. The source of contamination of the sphagnum moss that caused this epidemic and sphagnum moss associated with similar epidemics is unknown. One worker without cutaneous sporotrichosis may have had asymptomatic pulmonary sporotrichosis.

  9. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  10. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  11. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Eva L.; Parsons, Juliana; Reski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins) is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely Chinese hamster ovary cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production. The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety, and efficacy of the products. The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss) has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin). Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken. Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors. PMID:25071817

  12. Biosynthesis of C9-aldehydes in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Stumpe, Michael; Bode, Julia; Göbel, Cornelia; Wichard, Thomas; Schaaf, Andreas; Frank, Wolfgang; Frank, Markus; Reski, Ralf; Pohnert, Georg; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-03-01

    After wounding, the moss Physcomitrella patens emits fatty acid derived volatiles like octenal, octenols and (2E)-nonenal. Flowering plants produce nonenal from C18-fatty acids via lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase reactions, but the moss exploits the C20 precursor arachidonic acid for the formation of these oxylipins. We describe the isolation of the first cDNA (PpHPL) encoding a hydroperoxide lyase from a lower eukaryotic organism. The physiological pathway allocation and characterization of a downstream enal-isomerase gives a new picture for the formation of fatty acid derived volatiles from lower plants. Expression of a fusion protein with a yellow fluorescent protein in moss protoplasts showed that PpHPL was found in clusters in membranes of plastids. PpHPL can be classified as an unspecific hydroperoxide lyase having a substrate preference for 9-hydroperoxides of C18-fatty acids but also the predominant substrate 12-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid is accepted. Feeding experiments using arachidonic acid show an increase in the 12-hydroperoxide being metabolized to C8-aldehydes/alcohols and (3Z)-nonenal, which is rapidly isomerized to (2E)-nonenal. PpHPL knock out lines failed to emit (2E)-nonenal while formation of C8-volatiles was not affected indicating that in contrast to flowering plants, PpHPL is only involved in formation of a specific subset of volatiles.

  13. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Nishihira, N.; Shindo, A.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 25°C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  14. Exposure to Asulox Inhibits the Growth of Mosses

    PubMed Central

    ROWNTREE, J. K.; LAWTON, K. F.; RUMSEY, F. J.; SHEFFIELD, E.

    2003-01-01

    Asulox is a herbicide used to control bracken. Its effects on mosses were investigated to ascertain whether exposure proved as detrimental as found in parallel studies on pteridophytes. Mature gametophytes of 18 mosses were exposed to a range of concentrations of Asulox under standard conditions and the effects on growth monitored. Plants were cut to a standard length, exposed to Asulox solution for 24 h, grown for 3 weeks and total elongation (main stem and branches) measured. EC50 values were calculated and species ranked according to sensitivity. The effects of exposure on total elongation were compared with those on main stem elongation alone. Under the conditions tested, the total elongation of all species was inhibited after exposure to Asulox. The amount of elongation observed after exposure was different for different species and inhibition of elongation occurred at different exposure concentrations. A single regression equation was not adequate to describe the dose response curves of all species tested. An ability to produce secondary branches may confer increased tolerance to Asulox exposure. It is concluded that mosses suffer detrimental effects after exposure to Asulox at concentrations similar to those that affect fern gametophytes such as bracken. PMID:12933364

  15. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  16. BOREAS HYD-8 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1994 and at Joey Lake, Manitoba, to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. The data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from June to September 1994. A nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-08 1994 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface.

  18. Development of Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensors (MOSS) for space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of space plasma sensors is high for several reasons: (1) Most are one-of-a-kind and state-of-the-art, (2) the cost of launch to orbit is high, (3) ruggedness and reliability requirements lead to costly development and test programs, and (4) overhead is added by overly elaborate or generalized spacecraft interface requirements. Possible approaches to reducing costs include development of small 'sensors' (defined as including all necessary optics, detectors, and related electronics) that will ultimately lead to cheaper missions by reducing (2), improving (3), and, through work with spacecraft designers, reducing (4). Despite this logical approach, there is no guarantee that smaller sensors are necessarily either better or cheaper. We have previously advocated applying analytical 'quality factors' to plasma sensors (and spacecraft) and have begun to develop miniaturized particle optical systems by applying quantitative optimization criteria. We are currently designing a Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensor (MOSS) in which miniaturized electronics (e.g., employing new power supply topology and extensive us of gate arrays and hybrid circuits) are fully integrated with newly developed particle optics to give significant savings in volume and mass. The goal of the SwRI MOSS program is development of a fully self-contained and functional plasma sensor weighing 1 lb and requiring 1 W. MOSS will require only a typical spacecraft DC power source (e.g., 30 V) and command/data interfaces in order to be fully functional, and will provide measurement capabilities comparable in most ways to current sensors.

  19. BOREAS HYD-8 1996 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the southern study area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1996 to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from July to August 1996. To collect these data, a nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 1996 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  20. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  1. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus in a Korean Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Sung-Yul

    2011-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is a rare variant of lichen planus pigmentosus. The eruption of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus occurs mainly in the flexural regions and presents with brownish macules and patches. Here we describe the case of a 31-year-old Korean woman who presented with hyperpigmented lesions over her antecubital and popliteal area and groin. Physical examination revealed multiple brownish macules and patches on the intertriginous area without pruritis, and histologic findings showed a regressive pattern of lichen planus. These clinical and histological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus. PMID:21738364

  12. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus in a Korean Patient.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus is a rare variant of lichen planus pigmentosus. The eruption of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus occurs mainly in the flexural regions and presents with brownish macules and patches. Here we describe the case of a 31-year-old Korean woman who presented with hyperpigmented lesions over her antecubital and popliteal area and groin. Physical examination revealed multiple brownish macules and patches on the intertriginous area without pruritis, and histologic findings showed a regressive pattern of lichen planus. These clinical and histological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus.

  13. Balancing positive and negative plant interactions: how mosses structure vascular plant communities.

    PubMed

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjorg S; van der Wal, René

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of positive and negative plant interactions is primarily based on vascular plants, as is the prediction that facilitative effects dominate in harsh environments. It remains unclear whether this understanding is also applicable to moss-vascular plant interactions, which are likely to be influential in low-temperature environments with extensive moss ground cover such as boreal forest and arctic tundra. In a field experiment in high-arctic tundra, we investigated positive and negative impacts of the moss layer on vascular plants. Ramets of the shrub Salix polaris, herb Bistorta vivipara, grass Alopecurus borealis and rush Luzula confusa were transplanted into plots manipulated to contain bare soil, shallow moss (3 cm) and deep moss (6 cm) and harvested after three growing seasons. The moss layer had both positive and negative impacts upon vascular plant growth, the relative extent of which varied among vascular plant species. Deep moss cover reduced soil temperature and nitrogen availability, and this was reflected in reduced graminoid productivity. Shrub and herb biomass were greatest in shallow moss, where soil moisture also appeared to be highest. The relative importance of the mechanisms by which moss may influence vascular plants, through effects on soil temperature, moisture and nitrogen availability, was investigated in a phytotron growth experiment. Soil temperature, and not nutrient availability, determined Alopecurus growth, whereas Salix only responded to increased temperature if soil nitrogen was also increased. We propose a conceptual model showing the relative importance of positive and negative influences of the moss mat on vascular plants along a gradient of moss depth and illustrate species-specific outcomes. Our findings suggest that, through their strong influence on the soil environment, mat-forming mosses structure the composition of vascular plant communities. Thus, for plant interaction theory to be widely applicable to

  14. Pitfalls and new mechanisms in moss isotope biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki

    2012-11-20

    Moss N isotope (δ(15)N(bulk)) has been used to monitor N deposition, but it remains questionable whether inhibition of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) by reduced dissolved N (RDN) engenders overestimation of RDN in deposition when using moss δ(15)N(bulk). We tested this question by investigation of δ(15)N(bulk) and δ(15)NO(3)(-) in mosses under the dominance of RDN in N depositions of Guiyang, SW China. The δ(15)N(bulk) of mosses on bare rock (-7.9‰) was unable to integrate total dissolved N (TDN) (δ(15)N = -6.3‰), but it reflected δ(15)N-RDN (-7.5‰) exactly. Moreover, δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) in mosses (-1.7‰) resembled that of wet deposition (-1.9‰). These isotopic approximations, together with low isotopic enrichment with moss [NO(3)(-)] variations, suggest the inhibition of moss NRA by RDN. Moreover, isotopic mixing modeling indicated a negligible contribution from NO(3)(-) to moss δ(15)N(bulk) when the RDN/NO(3)(-) reaches 3.8, at which maximum overestimation (21%) of RDN in N deposition can be generated using moss δ(15)N(bulk) as δ(15)N-TDN. Moss δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) can indicate atmospheric NO(3)(-) under distinctly high RDN/NO(3)(-) in deposition, although moss δ(15)N(bulk) can reflect only the RDN therein. These results reveal pitfalls and new mechanisms associated with moss isotope monitoring of N deposition and underscore the importance of biotic N dynamics in biomonitoring studies.

  15. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  16. Oral lichen planus: focus on etiopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Payeras, Márcia Rodrigues; Cherubini, Karen; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease, which frequently affects the oral mucosa of white females over 40 years old. Its aetiology remains uncertain and the pathogenesis is still the object of much speculation. The present paper presents the most well known antigens, and describes the action of different cells and proteins associated with the development of that disease, as well as the possible agents involved with its malignant transformation. Different external agents, especially virus, and internal agents, like stress, and the heat shock protein antigen expression, associated or not, can alter the basal keratinocytes of the oral mucosa making them susceptible to apoptosis by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell as well as activate matrix metalloproteinase and mast cell degranulation, which produce a great range of inflammatory mediators and cytokines determining the clinical onset of the disease. Regarding carcinogenesis, since it is a complex process and presents multifactorial origin, it is believed that there may be a synergism between intrinsic, such as inflammation mediators, and extrinsic agents (tobacco, alcohol, viral infections) for the OLP malignant transformation to occur. However, further studies are needed to better understand the origin, pathogenesis and process of malignant transformation of OLP.

  17. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    PubMed

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  18. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  19. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  20. Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Gavaldá, Carmen; Carbonell, Enrique; Margaix, María; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the genital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even less frequent. Knowledge of such lesions is important in order to establish a differential diagnosis with other white oral lesions, and histological confirmation is required. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with a well delimited, pearly white lesion located in the upper gingival mucosa, lip mucosa and adjacent skin. The lesion had led to loss of periodontal attachment of the affected tooth, causing pain in response to tooth brushing. The biopsy confirmed lichen sclerosus, and treatment was provided in the form of intralesional corticoid injections, followed by improvement of the mucosal lesion, though without recovery of the periodontal loss.

  1. Bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus--Case report.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raquel Sucupira Andrade; Maquiné, Gustavo Ávila; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually located in the genital area. The etiology of lichen sclerosus is multifactorial, with participation of genetic, autoimmune, infectious and hormonal factors. Bullous clinical form stems from hydropic degeneration of the basal membrane, constituting a less frequent variant of the disease. In this work, we report the case of a female patient, 55 years old, who in the last three years presented whitish plaques, with horny spikes, located on back and arms. Some of these lesions evolved with hemorrhagic blisters, which after histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus. The patient was treated with high-potency topical corticosteroid for two months, resulting in remission of bullous and hemorrhagic lesions.

  2. Evidence-based (S3) Guideline on (anogenital) Lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kirtschig, G; Becker, K; Günthert, A; Jasaitiene, D; Cooper, S; Chi, C-C; Kreuter, A; Rall, K K; Aberer, W; Riechardt, S; Casabona, F; Powell, J; Brackenbury, F; Erdmann, R; Lazzeri, M; Barbagli, G; Wojnarowska, F

    2015-10-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory skin disease that usually involves the anogenital area. All patients with symptoms or signs suspicious of lichen sclerosus should be seen at least once initially by a physician with a special interest in the disease in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, as early treatment may cure the disease in some and reduce or prevent scarring. The diagnosis is made clinically in most cases. Biopsies should only be performed under certain circumstances. The gold standard for treatment remains potent to very potent topical steroids; however, mild and moderate disease in boys and men may be cured by circumcision. Certain triggers should be avoided. http://www.euroderm.org/images/stories/guidelines/2014/S3-Guideline-on-Lichen-sclerosus.pdf http://www.awmf.org/fachgesellschaften/mitgliedsgesellschaften/visitenkarte/fg/deutsche-gesellschaft-fuer-gynaekologie-und-geburtshilfe-dggg.html.

  3. Bioindication of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Southeastern US using the moss Thuidium delicatulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Lehman, Mary E.

    Ectohydric mosses are known accumulators of atmospheric heavy metals. Reliable bioindication of atmospheric heavy metals in the Southern Appalachians using moss has been limited by poor species distribution in moss used in analogous studies. In this study, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni concentrations were quantified in the tissue of fern moss Thuidium delicatulum in the central Blue Ridge of Virginia. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the suitability of fern moss for moss-monitoring studies in the Southern Appalachians, to compare local terrestrial metal concentrations, and to test the effects of several geographical and environmental variables on deposition. Fern moss was sampled over four mountains in Virginia following the standard protocol of the German moss-monitoring method. Sampling was standardized for monitoring in deciduous forests, and analysis was performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Overall concentrations of two metals were significantly different depending on the presence of Pinus spp. in the canopy. Positive and negative correlations of heavy metal concentrations with elevation were also observed, suggesting a need for comprehensive sampling at high and low elevations in mountainous areas. A role for similar moss-monitoring is suggested as a complement to current precipitation analysis techniques and as a compendium for landscape-scale metal monitoring projects. The applications of heavy metal bioindication with this particular species throughout the physiographic province of the Blue Ridge and the Appalachians in future heavy metal deposition studies are discussed.

  4. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients.

  5. Sphagnum mosses as methane traps in two northern mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Koponen, Hannu; Riutta, Terhi; Fritze, Hannu; Goodrich, Jordan; Varner, Ruth; Bubier, Jill; Juutinen, Sari; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    Sphagnum cuspidatum Hoffm. was recently shown to have methane (CH4) oxidation capacity due to inhabiting methanotrophic bacteria (Raghoebarsing et al. 2005). This is an significant finding as peatlands are a major natural source of CH4, an important greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are generally lower than those from Carex-dominated ones. One reason for this may be the CH4 oxidation associated with these mosses. According to this postulate the carbon released in decomposition would be efficiently refixed in moss photosynthesis and the moss layer would mitigate the release of CH4 and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. To study the importance of Sphagnum as a habitat for CH4 oxidizers, we addressed the following questions.1. Is the variation in CH4 oxidation in Sphagnum mainly regulated by the abiotic environment or by the hosting moss species? 2. What is the contribution of CH4 oxidation in Sphagnum to net CH4 flux from an entire mire to the atmosphere? The study was carried out at Siikaneva fen in Finland and at Sallie's Fen in New Hampshire, USA. These sites have several Sphagnum species in common but provide contrasting CH4 flux environments, as the flux is twofold at the latter site. To answer question 1, we collected the dominant coexisting Sphagnum species from hummock, lawn and flark habitats and determined the potential in mosses to oxidize CH4 using flask incubations and gas chromatography. To answer question 2, we removed Sphagnum from selected plots, measured CH4 flux using chamber technique and used stable carbon isotopes to determine associated processes. Water level was the key environmental control of methanotrophy in Sphagnum. Both sites showed similar response to water level, which was more important than species differences: the potential rate to oxidize CH4 in the top 10 cm of the moss layer was 0.01 to 0.5 mmol m-2 h-1 in different habitats along the moisture gradient, which is up to 95 % the net CH4 flux

  6. Lichen nitidus presenting with nail changes--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tay, Evelyn Yuxin; Ho, Madeline Sheun Ling; Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Heng, Yee Kiat

    2015-01-01

    Lichen nitidus of the nail is rare and can precede the onset of skin lesions. Delayed diagnosis is common. We present an unusual case of lichen nitidus-associated nail changes that preceded the onset of skin lesions in a 4-year-old Indian girl. We also conduct a review of six other cases of lichen nitidus with nail involvement from the English-language literature. Clues to the diagnosis of lichen nitidus include violaceous or pigmentary changes of the nail fold and subtle lichenoid papules on the affected digits. Lichen nitidus of the nails appears to be less severe than nail changes of lichen planus and is generally self-limiting. Understanding the natural history of lichen nitidus of the nails will help physicians better counsel patients and their families.

  7. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  8. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  9. Characterization of a PDK1 homologue from the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Anna C Nelson; Devarenne, Timothy P

    2012-02-01

    The serine/threonine protein kinase 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) is a highly conserved eukaryotic kinase that is a central regulator of many AGC kinase subfamily members. Through its regulation of AGC kinases, PDK1 controls many basic cellular processes, from translation to cell survival. While many of these PDK1-regulated processes are conserved across kingdoms, it is not well understood how PDK1 may have evolved within kingdoms. In order to better understand PDK1 evolution within plants, we have isolated and characterized the PDK1 gene from the moss Physcomitrella patens (PpPDK1), a nonvascular representative of early land plants. PpPDK1 is similar to other plant PDK1s in that it can functionally complement a yeast PDK1 knockout line. However, unlike PDK1 from other plants, the P. patens PDK1 protein does not bind phospholipids due to a lack of the lipid-binding pleckstrin homology domain, which is used for lipid-mediated regulation of PDK1 activity. Sequence analysis of several PDK1 proteins suggests that lipid regulation of PDK1 may not commonly occur in algae and nonvascular land plants. PpPDK1 can phosphorylate AGC kinase substrates from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and P. patens at the predicted PDK1 phosphorylation site, indicating that the PpPDK1 substrate phosphorylation site is conserved with higher plants. We have also identified residues within the PpPDK1 kinase domain that affect kinase activity and show that a mutant with highly reduced kinase activity can still confer cell viability in both yeast and P. patens. These studies lay the foundation for further analysis of the evolution of PDK1 within plants.

  10. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Becker, Kathrin; Karsten, Ulf; Remias, Daniel; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991) were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1%) and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%). Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as (E)-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)cyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene)amino) propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline. PMID:26473886

  11. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anja; Becker, Kathrin; Karsten, Ulf; Remias, Daniel; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-10-09

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R² > 0.9991) were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1%) and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%). Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as (E)-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)cyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene)amino) propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline.

  12. Glycolate Pathway in Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J. L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    No glycolate oxidase activity could be detected by manometric, isotopic, or spectrophotometric techniques in cell extracts from 5 strains of algae grown in the light with CO2. However, NADH:glyoxylate reductase, phosphoglycolate phosphatase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were detected in the cell extracts. The serine formed by Chlorella or Chlamydomonas after 12 seconds of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation contained 70 to 80% of its 14C in the carboxyl carbon. This distribution of label in serine was similar to that in phosphoglycerate from the same experiment. Thus, in algae serine is probably formed directly from phosphoglycerate. These results differ from those of higher plants which form uniformly labeled serine from glycolate in short time periods when phosphoglycerate is still carboxyl labeled. In glycolate formed by algae in 5 and 10 seconds of 14CO2 fixation, C2 was at least twice as radioactive as C1. A similar skewed labeling in C2 and C3 of 3-phosphoglycerate and serine suggests a common precursor for glycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate. Glycine formed by the algae, however, from the same experiments was uniformly labeled. Manganese deficient Chlorella incorporated only 2% of the total 14CO2 fixed in 10 minutes into glycolate, while in normal Chlorella 30% of the total 14C was found in glycolate. Manganese deficient Chlorella also accumulated more 14C in glycine and serine. Glycolate excretion by Chlorella was maximal in 10 mm bicarbonate and occurred only in the light, and was not influenced by the addition of glycolate. No time dependent uptake of significant amounts of either glycolate or phosphoglycolate was observed. When small amounts of glycolate-2-14C were fed to Chlorella or Scenedesmus, only 2 to 3% was metabolized after 30 to 60 minutes. The algae were not capable of significant glycolate metabolism as is the higher plant. The failure to detect glycolate oxidase, the low level glycolate-14C metabolism, and the formation of serine from phosphoglycerate

  13. Filling the interspace—restoring arid land mosses: source populations, organic matter, and overwintering govern success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Lea; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts contribute to ecosystem functions and occupy space that could be available to invasive annual grasses. Given disturbances in the semiarid shrub steppe communities, we embarked on a set of studies to investigate restoration potential of mosses in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. We examined establishment and growth of two moss species common to the Great Basin, USA: Bryum argenteum and Syntrichia ruralis from two environmental settings (warm dry vs. cool moist). Moss fragments were inoculated into a third warm dry setting, on bare soil in spring and fall, both with and without a jute net and with and without spring irrigation. Moss cover was monitored in spring seasons of three consecutive years. Both moss species increased in cover over the winter. When Bryum received spring irrigation that was out of sync with natural precipitation patterns, moss cover increased and then crashed, taking two seasons to recover. Syntrichia did not respond to the irrigation treatment. The addition of jute net increased moss cover under all conditions, except Syntrichia following fall inoculation, which required a second winter to increase in cover. The warm dry population of Bryum combined with jute achieved on average 60% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved only 28% cover by the end of the study. Differences were less pronounced for Syntrichia where moss from the warm dry population with jute achieved on average 51% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved 43% cover by the end of the study. Restoration of arid land mosses may quickly protect soils from erosion while occupying sites before invasive plants. We show that higher moss cover will be achieved quickly with the addition of organic matter and when moss fragments originate from sites with a climate that is similar to that of the restoration site.

  14. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  15. Direct Immunofluorescence in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, Nis; Thanakun, Supanee; Laothumthut, Titikarn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common immune-mediated oral mucosal disease. Diagnosis of OLP depends mainly on both clinical and histopathological features. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is a useful investigation method to distinguish between similar lesions and to confirm diagnosis in cases of uncharacterized features. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of DIF in a group of Thai patients with OLP. Materials and Methods Records of clinically and histologically diagnosed OLP patients attending the Oral Medicine Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand were consecutively reviewed for DIF results. The DIF patterns in these patients were analysed. Results There were 82 atrophic and/or erosive OLP patients with a mean age of 51.6 years. Male to female ratio was 1:5. Of these, 82.9% showed positive DIF. Buccal mucosa was superior to the gingiva and palate in terms of sensitivity for DIF. All specimens except one (98.5%) demonstrated deposition of fibrinogen at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in a shaggy pattern. The most common DIF pattern was shaggy fibrinogen at BMZ with IgM deposition on the colloid bodies (CB) (35.3%) followed by shaggy fibrinogen along BMZ (27.9%). Conclusion The prevalence of positive DIF in Thai OLP patients was 82.9%. The most common finding was shaggy fibrinogen at BMZ. The typical pattern was shaggy fibrinogen along BMZ with or without positive IgM at CB. DIF pattern could be evaluated for the diagnosis of OLP lacking clinical and/or histopathological characteristic features. PMID:26436043

  16. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons.

  17. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  18. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  19. Are patients with lichen planus really prone to urolithiasis? Lichen planus and urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Ural; Takci, Zennure; Oguz, Isil Deniz; Resorlu, Berkan; Balta, Ilknur; Unsal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose to investigate whether patients with lichen planus (LP) are really prone to urolithiasis or not. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective analysis of 40 patients diagnosed with lichen planus (LP) (group I), and 40 volunteers did not have LP before (group II). Participants were all checked for urolithiasis by radiological investigations. Blood samples were analyzed for biochemistry parameters including calcium and uric acid. 24-h urine samples were analyzed to investigate oxalate, citrate calcium, uric acid, magnesium, sodium and creatinine. Results Men/women ratio and mean age were similar between group I and II (p>0.05). A presence or history of urolithiasis was detected in 8 (20%) and 2 (%5) patients in group I and II, respectively (p<0.05). Hypocitraturia was the most common anomaly with 35% (n:14) in group I. The rate of hypocitraturia in group II was 12.5% (n:5) and the difference was statistically significantly different (p=0.036). In group I, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria followed with rates of 27.5% (n:11) and 25% (n:10), respectively. The rate of hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria were both 5% (n:2) in group II and the differences were significant (p<0.05). Hyperuricemia was another important finding in the patients with LP. It was detected in 13 (32.5%) patients in group I and in 1 (2.5%) participant in group II (p=0.001). Conclusion According to our results, metabolic disorders of urolithiasis were highly detected in the patients with LP. However, similar to the etiology of LP, the exact reasons for these metabolic abnormalities in LP remain a mystery. PMID:27286123

  20. Functional Characterization of UDP-apiose Synthases from Bryophytes and Green Algae Provides Insight into the Appearance of Apiose-containing Glycans during Plant Evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Yang, Yiwen; Levy, Shahar; Adelusi, Oluwatoyin Oluwayemi; Hahn, Michael G; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2016-10-07

    Apiose is a branched monosaccharide that is present in the cell wall pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and in numerous plant secondary metabolites. These apiose-containing glycans are synthesized using UDP-apiose as the donor. UDP-apiose (UDP-Api) together with UDP-xylose is formed from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by UDP-Api synthase (UAS). It was hypothesized that the ability to form Api distinguishes vascular plants from the avascular plants and green algae. UAS from several dicotyledonous plants has been characterized; however, it is not known if avascular plants or green algae produce this enzyme. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of UAS homologs from avascular plants (mosses, liverwort, and hornwort), from streptophyte green algae, and from a monocot (duckweed). The recombinant UAS homologs all form UDP-Api from UDP-glucuronic acid albeit in different amounts. Apiose was detected in aqueous methanolic extracts of these plants. Apiose was detected in duckweed cell walls but not in the walls of the avascular plants and algae. Overexpressing duckweed UAS in the moss Physcomitrella patens led to an increase in the amounts of aqueous methanol-acetonitrile-soluble apiose but did not result in discernible amounts of cell wall-associated apiose. Thus, bryophytes and algae likely lack the glycosyltransferase machinery required to synthesize apiose-containing cell wall glycans. Nevertheless, these plants may have the ability to form apiosylated secondary metabolites. Our data are the first to provide evidence that the ability to form apiose existed prior to the appearance of rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and provide new insights into the evolution of apiose-containing glycans.