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Sample records for algae red algae

  1. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-07

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs.

  2. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution.

  9. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins.

  10. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  11. Larvicidal algae.

    PubMed

    Marten, Gerald G

    2007-01-01

    Although most algae are nutritious food for mosquito larvae, some species kill the larvae when ingested in large quantities. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that kill larvae do so by virtue of toxicity. While blue-green algae toxins may offer possibilities for delivery as larvicides, the toxicity of live blue-green algae does not seem consistent enough for live algae to be useful for mosquito control. Certain species of green algae in the order Chlorococcales kill larvae primarily because they are indigestible. Where these algae are abundant in nature, larvae consume them to the exclusion of other food and then starve. Under the right circumstances, it is possible to introduce indigestible algae into a breeding habitat so they become abundant enough to render it unsuitable for mosquito production. The algae can persist for years, even if the habitat dries periodically. The main limitation of indigestible algae lies in the fact that, under certain conditions, they may not replace all the nutritious algae in the habitat. More research on techniques to ensure complete replacement will be necessary before indigestible algae can go into operational use for mosquito control.

  12. Hydroxyl radical generation by red tide algae.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Akaike, T; Sato, K; Ishimatsu, A; Takeshita, S; Muramatsu, T; Maeda, H

    1992-04-01

    The unicellular marine phytoplankton Chattonella marina is known to have toxic effects against various living marine organisms, especially fishes. However, details of the mechanism of the toxicity of this plankton remain obscure. Here we demonstrate the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from a red tide unicellular organism, C. marina, by using ESR spectroscopy with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), and by using the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence response. The spin-trapping assay revealed productions of spin adduct of superoxide anion (O2-) (DMPO-OOH) and that of hydroxyl radical (.OH) (DMPO-OH) in the algal suspension, which was not observed in the ultrasonic-ruptured suspension. The addition of superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) almost completely inhibited the formation of both DMPO-OOH and DMPO-OH, and carbon-centered radicals were generated with the disappearance of DMPO-OH after addition of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and 5% ethanol. Furthermore, the generation of methyl and methoxyl radicals, which are thought to be produced by the reaction of hydroxyl radical and Me2SO under aerobic condition, was identified using spin trapping with a combination of PBN and Me2SO. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay also supported the above observations. These results clearly indicate that C. marina generates and releases the superoxide radical followed by the production of hydroxyl radical to the surrounding environment. The velocity of superoxide generation by C. marina was about 100 times faster than that by mammalian phagocytes per cell basis. The generation of oxygen radical is suggested to be a pathogenic principle in the toxication of red tide to susceptible aquaculture fishes and may be directly correlated with the coastal pollution by red tide.

  13. Antibacterial Neurymenolides from the Fijian Red Alga Neurymenia fraxinifolia

    PubMed Central

    Stout, E. Paige; Hasemeyer, Adam P.; Lane, Amy L.; Davenport, Theresa M.; Engel, Sebastian; Hay, Mark E.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine; Aalbersberg, William

    2009-01-01

    Two novel α-pyrone macrolides, neurymenolides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the Fijian red alga Neurymenia fraxinifolia and characterized using a combination of NMR and mass spectral analyses. These molecules represent only the second example of α-pyrone macrolides, with 1 existing as interchanging atropisomers due to restricted rotation about the α-pyrone ring system. Neurymenolide A (1) displayed moderately potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). PMID:19053716

  14. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  15. The Study of Algae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  16. New bromoditerpenes from the red alga Sphaerococcus coronopifolius.

    PubMed

    Etahiri, S; Bultel-Poncé, V; Caux, C; Guyot, M

    2001-08-01

    The organic extract of the red alga Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, collected along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, was tested for biological activities and exhibited antibiotic and antimalarial activities. Two new bromoditerpenes have been isolated from S. coronopifolius, sphaerolabdadiene-3,14-diol (1) and bromosphaerone (2), along with the known compounds 12S-hydroxybromosphaerodiol (3) and sphaerococcenol A (4). Bromosphaerone and 12S-hydroxybromosphaerodiol showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium species Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.104 and 0.146 microM, respectively. Sphaerococcenol A (4) was responsible for the antimalarial activity of the extract, against the chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falsciparum FCB1 strains with an IC(50) of 1 microM. Their structures have been assigned using 1 and 2 D NMR and HRMS.

  17. Phycobilisome Mobility and Its Role in the Regulation of Light Harvesting in Red Algae.

    PubMed

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Lukeš, Martin; Papáček, Stěpán; Matonoha, Ctirad; Liu, Lu-Ning; Prášil, Ondřej; Mullineaux, Conrad W

    2014-08-01

    Red algae represent an evolutionarily important group that gave rise to the whole red clade of photosynthetic organisms. They contain a unique combination of light-harvesting systems represented by a membrane-bound antenna and by phycobilisomes situated on thylakoid membrane surfaces. So far, very little has been revealed about the mobility of their phycobilisomes and the regulation of their light-harvesting system in general. Therefore, we carried out a detailed analysis of phycobilisome dynamics in several red alga strains and compared these results with the presence (or absence) of photoprotective mechanisms. Our data conclusively prove phycobilisome mobility in two model mesophilic red alga strains, Porphyridium cruentum and Rhodella violacea. In contrast, there was almost no phycobilisome mobility in the thermophilic red alga Cyanidium caldarium that was not caused by a decrease in lipid desaturation in this extremophile. Experimental data attributed this immobility to the strong phycobilisome-photosystem interaction that highly restricted phycobilisome movement. Variations in phycobilisome mobility reflect the different ways in which light-harvesting antennae can be regulated in mesophilic and thermophilic red algae. Fluorescence changes attributed in cyanobacteria to state transitions were observed only in mesophilic P. cruentum with mobile phycobilisomes, and they were absent in the extremophilic C. caldarium with immobile phycobilisomes. We suggest that state transitions have an important regulatory function in mesophilic red algae; however, in thermophilic red algae, this process is replaced by nonphotochemical quenching.

  18. Red coralline algae assessed as marine pH proxies using 11B MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Kamenos, N. A.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tricot, G.

    2015-02-01

    Reconstructing pH from biogenic carbonates using boron isotopic compositions relies on the assumption that only borate, and no boric acid, is present. Red coralline algae are frequently used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction due to their widespread distribution and regular banding frequency. Prior to undertaking pH reconstructions using red coralline algae we tested the boron composition of the red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale using high field NMR. In bulk analysed samples, thirty percent of boron was present as boric acid. We suggest that prior to reconstructing pH using coralline algae 1) species-specific boron compositions and 2) within-skeleton special distributions of boron are determined for multiple species. This will enable site selective boron analyses to be conducted validating coralline algae as palaeo-pH proxies based on boron isotopic compositions.

  19. Algae Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  20. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  1. Phycobilisomes from Blue-Green and Red Algae

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Elisabeth; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Grabowski, Joseph; Zimmerman, Burke K.

    1979-01-01

    A general procedure for the isolation of functionally intact phycobilisomes was devised, based on modifications of previously used procedures. It has been successful with numerous species of red and blue-green algae (Anabaena variabilis, Anacystis nidulans, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Fremyella diplosiphon, Glaucosphaera vacuolata, Griffithsia pacifica, Nemalion multifidum, Nostoc sp., Phormidium persicinum, Porphyridium cruentum, P. sordidum, P. aerugineum, Rhodosorus marinus). Isolation was carried out in 0.75 molar K-phosphate (pH 6.8 to 7.0) at 20 to 23 C on sucrose step gradients. Lower temperature (4 to 10 C) was usually unfavorable resulting in uncoupling of energy transfer and partial dissociation of the phycobilisomes, sometimes with complete loss of allophycocyanin. Intact phycobilisomes were characterized by fluorescence emission peaks of 670 to 675 nanometers at room temperature, and 678 to 685 nanometers at liquid nitrogen temperature. Uncoupling and subsequent dissociation of phycobilisomes, in lowered ionic conditions, varied with the species and the degree of dissociation but occurred preferentially between phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, or between phycocyanin and phycoerythrin. PMID:16660778

  2. [Bacterial communities of brown and red algae from Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan].

    PubMed

    Beleneva, I A; Zhukova, N V

    2006-01-01

    The structure of microbial communities of brown algae, red algae, and of the red alga Gracilaria verrucosa, healthy and affected with rotten thallus, were comparatively investigated; 61 strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Most of them were identified to the genus level, some Vibrio spp., to the species level according to their phenotypic properties and the fatty acid composition of cellular lipids. The composition of the microflora of two species of brown algae was different. In Chordaria flagelliformis, Pseudomonas spp. prevailed, and in Desmarestia viridis, Bacillus spp. The composition of the microflora of two red algae, G. verrucosa and Camphylaephora hyphaeoides, differed mainly in the ratio of prevailing groups of bacteria. The most abundant were bacteria of the CFB cluster and pseudoalteromonads. In addition, the following bacteria were found on the surface of the algae: Sulfitobacter spp., Halomonas spp., Acinetobacter sp., Planococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Agromyces sp. From tissues of the affected G. verrucosa, only vibrios were isolated, both agarolytic and nonagarolytic. The existence of specific bacterial communities characteristic of different species of algae is suggested and the relation of Vibrio sp. to the pathological process in the tissues of G. verrucosa is supposed.

  3. Phycobilisome Heterogeneity in the Red Alga Porphyra umbilicalis1

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, Patricia; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Mousseau, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Phycobilisomes were isolated from Rhodophyceae brought from the field (Porphyra umbilicalis) or grown in culture under laboratory conditions (Antithamnion glanduliferum). In P. umbilicalis two kinds of well-coupled (ellipsoidal and hemidiscoidal) phycobilisomes were detected, in contrast to A. glanduliferum cultured algae in which only one kind of well-coupled, ellipsoidaltype phycobilisome appeared. The new phycobilisome-type particle detected in P. umbilicalis is characterized by an impoverishment in R-phycoerythrin and by sedimentation at lower density. The comparison between both phycobilisomes of P. umbilicalis allows determination of the presence of one colorless linker polypeptide (30 kilodaltons) associated with R-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin and two (40 and 38 kilodaltons) associated to R-phycoerythrin. The percentage of linker polypeptides associated with this pigment is low in the new phycobilisome-like particle detected. This suggests that part of the R-phycoerythrin is less strongly bound to the phycobilisome than the other pigments. This feature could probably explain the existence of two kinds of phycobilisomes as intermediary steps of phycobilisome organization in algae exposed to rapid changes in environmental factors. In contrast, algae growing in culture and adapted to specific conditions do not present intermediary organization steps. Polypeptide composition and identification are given for this phycobilisome-like particle. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667317

  4. Genomics of the thermo-acidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Guillaume G.; Zimmermann, Marc; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2005-09-01

    Extremophilic organisms dwell in environments that are characterized by high or low temperatures (thermophiles or psychrophiles), very low or high pH-values (acidophiles or alkalophiles), high salt concentrations (halophiles), high pressure (barophiles), or extreme drought (xerophiles). Many extremophiles are microbes, and many also belong to the prokaryota. Galdieria sulphuraria, however, is a member of a group of extremophilic eukaryotes that are named Cyanidiales. Cyanidiales are unicellular red micro-algae that occur worldwide in hot acidic waters, volcanic calderas, and in human-made acidic environments such as acidic mine drainage. G. sulphuraria has a unique position within the Cyanidiales because, in contrast to the other obligate photoautotrophic members of this group, it is able to grow photoautotrophically, mixotrophically, and heterotrophically. It is not only resistant to acid (pH 0) and heat (56oC), but also to high salt (1.5 M NaCl), toxic metals, and many other abiotic stressors. This unusual combination of features such as thermophily, acidophily, resistance to a wide array of abiotic stressors, and an extraordinary metabolic plasticity make G. sulphuraria highly interesting model organism to study adaptation to extreme environments. We have started a genomics approach to gain insight into the biology of G. sulphuraria and to identify genes and gene products critical for survival under extreme conditions. To this end, we pursue a whole-genome, shotgun sequencing approach towards unraveling the genome sequence of G. sulphuraria. We report here on the status quo of the genome-sequencing project and we summarize what we have learned to date from the genome sequence about the biology of this truly unique extremophile.

  5. Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales): a Mediterranean red alga with potential and applications in restoration.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Filippo; Rivière, Catherine; Santamaria, Ulderico

    2016-04-25

    Experimental studies conducted on some species of Mediterranean red algae allowed to identify Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse as a valid alternative to the Pacific alga Gloiopeltis furcata (Postels & Ruprecht) J. Agardh, for the extraction of a material usable as natural consolidant and adhesive in the field of restoration. Promising results have been observed by comparing the extracts obtained from these two algae after the same extraction procedure. Chemical analysis (FTIR) revealed that S. coronopifolius has qualities similar to G. furcata. Even more promising results for S. coronopifolius compared to G. furcata were observed after the analysis of pH and conductivity, and the adhesion tests carried out on both extracts.

  6. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  7. Dynamic photoinhibition exhibited by red coralline algae in the red sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Red coralline algae are critical components of tropical reef systems, and their success and development is, at least in part, dependent on photosynthesis. However, natural variability in the photosynthetic characteristics of red coralline algae is poorly understood. This study investigated diurnal variability in encrusting Porolithon sp. and free-living Lithophyllum kotschyanum. Measured parameters included: photosynthetic characteristics, pigment composition, thallus reflectance and intracellular concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), an algal antioxidant that is derived from methionine, an indirect product of photosynthesis. L. kotschyanum thalli were characterised by a bleached topside and a pigmented underside. Results Minimum saturation intensity and intracellular DMSP concentrations in Porolithon sp. were characterised by significant diurnal patterns in response to the high-light regime. A smaller diurnal pattern in minimum saturation intensity in the topside of L. kotschyanum was also evident. The overall reflectance of the topside of L. kotschyanum also exhibited a diurnal pattern, becoming increasingly reflective with increasing ambient irradiance. The underside of L. kotschyanum, which is shaded from ambient light exposure, exhibited a much smaller diurnal variability. Conclusions This study highlights a number of dynamic photoinhibition strategies adopted by coralline algae, enabling them to tolerate, rather than be inhibited by, the naturally high irradiance of tropical reef systems; a factor that may become more important in the future under global change projections. In this context, this research has significant implications for tropical reef management planning and conservation monitoring, which, if natural variability is not taken into account, may become flawed. The information provided by this research may be used to inform future investigations into the contribution of coralline algae to reef accretion, ecosystem

  8. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-Llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A; Aref, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances.

  9. Bioethanol production from Gracilaria verrucosa, a red alga, in a biorefinery approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Savindra; Gupta, Rishi; Kumar, Gaurav; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-05-01

    In this study, Gracilaria verrucosa, red seaweed has been used for production of agar and bioethanol. The algae harvested at various time durations resulted in extraction of ~27-33% agar. The leftover pulp was found to contain ~62-68% holocellulose, which on enzymatic hydrolysis yielded 0.87 g sugars/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysate on fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced ethanol with an ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g sugars. The mass balance evaluation of the complete process demonstrates that developing biorefinery approach for exploiting Gracilaria verrucosa, a red alga, could be commercially viable.

  10. New antitumour natural products from marine red algae: covering the period from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Jovanovic, Katarina K; Savic, Aleksandar G

    2015-01-01

    This review covers the 2003-2012 literature data published for natural products originating from marine red algae. The focus is on new antitumour substances, together with details related to the organism sourced. It emphasises 14 promising compounds (isolated from 13 species) whose chemical structures are briefly discussed.

  11. Automatic cell object extraction of red tide algae in microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Ji, Guangrong; Zheng, Haiyong

    2016-05-01

    Extracting the cell objects of red tide algae is the most important step in the construction of an automatic microscopic image recognition system for harmful algal blooms. This paper describes a set of composite methods for the automatic segmentation of cells of red tide algae from microscopic images. Depending on the existence of setae, we classify the common marine red tide algae into non-setae algae species and Chaetoceros, and design segmentation strategies for these two categories according to their morphological characteristics. In view of the varied forms and fuzzy edges of non-setae algae, we propose a new multi-scale detection algorithm for algal cell regions based on border- correlation, and further combine this with morphological operations and an improved GrabCut algorithm to segment single-cell and multicell objects. In this process, similarity detection is introduced to eliminate the pseudo cellular regions. For Chaetoceros, owing to the weak grayscale information of their setae and the low contrast between the setae and background, we propose a cell extraction method based on a gray surface orientation angle model. This method constructs a gray surface vector model, and executes the gray mapping of the orientation angles. The obtained gray values are then reconstructed and linearly stretched. Finally, appropriate morphological processing is conducted to preserve the orientation information and tiny features of the setae. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can eff ectively remove noise and accurately extract both categories of algae cell objects possessing a complete shape, regular contour, and clear edge. Compared with other advanced segmentation techniques, our methods are more robust when considering images with different appearances and achieve more satisfactory segmentation eff ects.

  12. Automatic cell object extraction of red tide algae in microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Ji, Guangrong; Zheng, Haiyong

    2017-03-01

    Extracting the cell objects of red tide algae is the most important step in the construction of an automatic microscopic image recognition system for harmful algal blooms. This paper describes a set of composite methods for the automatic segmentation of cells of red tide algae from microscopic images. Depending on the existence of setae, we classify the common marine red tide algae into non-setae algae species and Chaetoceros, and design segmentation strategies for these two categories according to their morphological characteristics. In view of the varied forms and fuzzy edges of non-setae algae, we propose a new multi-scale detection algorithm for algal cell regions based on border- correlation, and further combine this with morphological operations and an improved GrabCut algorithm to segment single-cell and multicell objects. In this process, similarity detection is introduced to eliminate the pseudo cellular regions. For Chaetoceros, owing to the weak grayscale information of their setae and the low contrast between the setae and background, we propose a cell extraction method based on a gray surface orientation angle model. This method constructs a gray surface vector model, and executes the gray mapping of the orientation angles. The obtained gray values are then reconstructed and linearly stretched. Finally, appropriate morphological processing is conducted to preserve the orientation information and tiny features of the setae. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively remove noise and accurately extract both categories of algae cell objects possessing a complete shape, regular contour, and clear edge. Compared with other advanced segmentation techniques, our methods are more robust when considering images with different appearances and achieve more satisfactory segmentation effects.

  13. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively.

  14. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Göran M; Enge, Swantje; Pavia, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  15. Phylomineralogy of the coralline red algae: correlation of skeletal mineralogy with molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Sutherland, J E; Kregting, L; Farr, T J; Winter, D J

    2012-09-01

    The coralline algae in the orders Corallinales and Sporolithales (subclass Corallinophycidae), with their high degree of mineralogical variability, pose a challenge to projections regarding mineralogy and response to ocean acidification. Here we relate skeletal carbonate mineralogy to a well-established phylogenetic framework and draw inferences about the effects of future changes in sea-water chemistry on these calcified red algae. A collection of 191 coralline algal specimens from New Zealand, representing 13 genera and 28 species, included members of three families: Corallinaceae, Hapalidiaceae, and Sporolithaceae. While most skeletal specimens were entirely calcitic (range: 73-100 wt.% calcite, mean 97 wt.% calcite, std dev=5, n=172), a considerable number contained at least some aragonite. Mg in calcite ranged from 10.5 to 16.4 wt.% MgCO(3), with a mean of 13.1 wt.% MgCO(3) (std dev=1.1, n=172). The genera Mesophyllum and Lithophyllum were especially variable. Growth habit, too, was related to mineralogy: geniculate coralline algae do not generally contain any aragonite. Mg content varied among coralline families: the Corallinaceae had the highest Mg content, followed by the Sporolithaceae and the Hapalidiaceae. Despite the significant differences among families, variation and overlap prevent the use of carbonate mineralogy as a taxonomic character in the coralline algae. Latitude (as a proxy for water temperature) had only a slight relationship to Mg content in coralline algae, contrary to trends observed in other biomineralising taxa. Temperate magnesium calcites, like those produced by coralline algae, are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Changes in biomineralisation or species distribution may occur over the next few decades, particularly to species producing high-Mg calcite, as pH and CO(2) dynamics change in coastal temperate oceans.

  16. Seasonal monitoring of coral-algae interactions in fringing reefs of the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, A.; El-Zibdah, M.; Wild, C.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents seasonal in situ monitoring data on benthic coverage and coral -algae interactions in high-latitude fringing reefs of the Northern Red Sea over a period of 19 months. More than 30% of all hermatypic corals were involved in interaction with benthic reef algae during winter compared to 17% during summer, but significant correlation between the occurrence of coral -algae interactions and monitored environmental factors such as temperature and inorganic nutrient availability was not detected. Between 5 and 10-m water depth, the macroalgae Caulerpa serrulata, Peyssonnelia capensis and filamentous turf algae represented almost 100% of the benthic algae involved in interaction with corals. Turf algae were most frequently (between 77 and 90% of all interactions) involved in interactions with hermatypic corals and caused most tissue damage to them. Maximum coral tissue loss of 0.75% day-1 was observed for Acropora-turf algae interaction during fall, while an equilibrium between both groups of organisms appeared during summer. Slow-growing massive corals were more resistant against negative algal influence than fast-growing branching corals. Branching corals of the genus Acropora partly exhibited a newly observed phenotypic plasticity mechanism, by development of a bulge towards the competing organism, when in interaction with algae. These findings may contribute to understand the dynamics of phase shifts in coral reefs by providing seasonally resolved in situ monitoring data on the abundance and the competitive dynamic of coral -algae interactions.

  17. Characterization of the heterooligomeric red-type rubisco activase from red algae.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Nitin; Tsai, Yi-Chin Candace; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver

    2016-12-06

    The photosynthetic CO2-fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) is inhibited by nonproductive binding of its substrate ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and other sugar phosphates. Reactivation requires ATP-hydrolysis-powered remodeling of the inhibited complexes by diverse molecular chaperones known as rubisco activases (Rcas). Eukaryotic phytoplankton of the red plastid lineage contain so-called red-type rubiscos, some of which have been shown to possess superior kinetic properties to green-type rubiscos found in higher plants. These organisms are known to encode multiple homologs of CbbX, the α-proteobacterial red-type activase. Here we show that the gene products of two cbbX genes encoded by the nuclear and plastid genomes of the red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae are nonfunctional in isolation, but together form a thermostable heterooligomeric Rca that can use both α-proteobacterial and red algal-inhibited rubisco complexes as a substrate. The mechanism of rubisco activation appears conserved between the bacterial and the algal systems and involves threading of the rubisco large subunit C terminus. Whereas binding of the allosteric regulator RuBP induces oligomeric transitions to the bacterial activase, it merely enhances the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the algal enzyme. Mutational analysis of nuclear and plastid isoforms demonstrates strong coordination between the subunits and implicates the nuclear-encoded subunit as being functionally dominant. The plastid-encoded subunit may be catalytically inert. Efforts to enhance crop photosynthesis by transplanting red algal rubiscos with enhanced kinetics will need to take into account the requirement for a compatible Rca.

  18. Magnetic separation of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  19. Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Masoumeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Mashinchian-Moradi, Ali; Gohari, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Two of the important algae from Persian Gulf are Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flageliformis (Rhodophyta). Antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of the mentioned algae have been presented in the previous studies. Aim: In this study, the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from these algae are reported. Materials and Methods: The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out with silica gel, sephadex LH20 column chromatography (CC) and HPLC to obtain six pure compounds 1-6. The structural elucidation of the constituents was based on the data obtained from H-NMR,13C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, DEPT, and EI-MS. Results: The isolated compounds from G. salicornia were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), oleic acid (3), and stigmasterol (4), and the isolated constituents from H. flagelliformis were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), oleic acid (3), cholesterol oleate (5), and (22E)-cholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol-7-one (6) based on the spectral data compared to those reported in the literature. Conclusion: Red algae are enriched with cholesterol polysaccharides. We first reported the presence of cholesteryl oleate and (22E)-cholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol-7-one in H. flagelliformis. PMID:21716930

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagano, Celso S.; Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Cavada, Benildo S.; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago Do; Nunes, Eudismar Vale; Sampaio, Alexandre H.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2005-11-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a red marine alga lectin isolated from H. musciformis is reported. HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis, defines a novel lectin family. Orthorhombic crystals of HML belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} grew within three weeks at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected at 2.4 Å resolution. HML is the first marine alga lectin to be crystallized.

  1. Efficient enzymatic degradation process for hydrolysis activity of the Carrageenan from red algae in marine biomass.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae Hee; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; You, Seung Kyou; Kim, Seung Wook; Han, Sung Ok

    2014-12-20

    Carrageenan is a generic name for a family of polysaccharides obtained from certain species of red algae. New methods to produce useful cost-efficiently materials from red algae are needed to convert enzymatic processes into fermentable sugars. In this study, we constructed chimeric genes cCgkA and cCglA containing the catalytic domain of κ-carrageenase CgkA and λ-carrageenase CglA from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora fused with a dockerin domain. Recombinant strains expressing the chimeric carrageenase resulted in a halo formation on the carrageenan plate by alcian blue staining. The recombinant cCgkA and cCglA were assembled with scaffoldin miniCbpA via cohesin and dockerin interaction. Carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in scaffoldin was used as a tag for cellulose affinity purification using cellulose as a support. The hydrolysis process was monitored by the amount of reducing sugar released from carrageenan. Interestingly, these results indicated that miniCbpA, cCgkA and cCglA assembled into a complex and that the dockerin-fused enzymes on the scaffoldin had synergistic activity in the degradation of carrageenan. The observed enhancement of activity by carrageenolytic complex was 3.1-fold-higher compared with the corresponding enzymes alone. Thus, the assemblies of advancement of active enzyme complexes will facilitate the commercial production of useful products from red algae biomass which represents inexpensive and sustainable feed-stocks.

  2. Divergence time estimates and the evolution of major lineages in the florideophyte red algae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Chan; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Saunders, Gary W.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Graf, Louis; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The Florideophyceae is the most abundant and taxonomically diverse class of red algae (Rhodophyta). However, many aspects of the systematics and divergence times of the group remain unresolved. Using a seven-gene concatenated dataset (nuclear EF2, LSU and SSU rRNAs, mitochondrial cox1, and plastid rbcL, psaA and psbA genes), we generated a robust phylogeny of red algae to provide an evolutionary timeline for florideophyte diversification. Our relaxed molecular clock analysis suggests that the Florideophyceae diverged approximately 943 (817–1,049) million years ago (Ma). The major divergences in this class involved the emergence of Hildenbrandiophycidae [ca. 781 (681–879) Ma], Nemaliophycidae [ca. 661 (597–736) Ma], Corallinophycidae [ca. 579 (543–617) Ma], and the split of Ahnfeltiophycidae and Rhodymeniophycidae [ca. 508 (442–580) Ma]. Within these clades, extant diversity reflects largely Phanerozoic diversification. Divergences within Florideophyceae were accompanied by evolutionary changes in the carposporophyte stage, leading to a successful strategy for maximizing spore production from each fertilization event. Our research provides robust estimates for the divergence times of major lineages within the Florideophyceae. This timeline was used to interpret the emergence of key morphological innovations that characterize these multicellular red algae. PMID:26892537

  3. Bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated aqueous solution by using red algae Porphyra leucosticta.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Xiao, Henglin; Xiao, Benlin; Xu, Weisheng; Gao, Linxia; Lin, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this study, red algae Porphyra leucosticta was examined to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from wastewater through biological enrichment and biological precipitation. The experimental parameters that affect the bioremediation process such as pH, contact time and biomass dosage were studied. The maximum bioremediation capacity of metal ions was 31.45 mg/g for Cd(II) and 36.63 mg/g for Pb(II) at biomass dosage 15 g/L, pH 8.0 and contact time 120 minutes containing initial 10.0 mg/L of Cd(II) and 10.0 mg/L of Pb(II) solution. Red algae Porphyra leucosticta biomass was efficient at removing metal ions of 10.0 mg/L of Cd(II) and 10.0 mg/L of Pb(II) solution with bioremediation efficiency of 70% for Cd(II) and 90% for Pb(II) in optimal conditions. At the same time, the removal capacity for real industrial effluent was gained at 75% for 7.6 mg/L Cd(II) and 95% for 8.9 mg/L Pb(II). In conclusion, it is demonstrated that red algae Porphyra leucosticta is a promising, efficient, cheap and biodegradable sorbent biomaterial for reducing heavy metal pollution in the environment and wastewater.

  4. Brown algae (Phaeophyta) for monitoring heavy metals at the Sudanese Red Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abuagla Y. A.; Idris, Abubakr M.; Ebrahim, Ammar M.; Eltayeb, Mohmaed A. H.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at monitoring some heavy metals at the Sudanese Red Sea coast using Brown algae (Phaeophyta) as biomonitor. The total contents of heavy metals in four species (Turbinaria sp., Sargassum sp., Cystoseira sp. and Padina sp.) as well as seawater were examined. Twenty-six algae samples were collected from seven locations. The ranges of concentrations (µg/g, dry wt.) of heavy metals in algae were 4.95-16.95 for Cr, 2.93-257.32 for Mn, 1.35-7.43 for Ni, 0.83-14.10 for Cu, 4.13-19.13 for Zn, 0.03-0.15 for Cd and 0.45-2.18 for Pb. The ranges of the pH and the salinity of seawater from the same locations were 8.11-8.82 and 38.00-41.00 PSU, respectively. The ranges of concentrations (µg/L) of heavy metals in seawater were 7.00-11.00 for Cr, 2.90-10.20 for Mn, 6.70-10.10 for Ni, 1.70-5.00 for Cu, 0.94-5.70 for Zn, 0.09-0.14 for Cd and 0.93-1.80 for Pb. No significant correlations between metal concentrations in algae and seawater were observed. Some locations in the study area recorded relatively high levels of heavy metals in algae indicating possible contribution from manmade activities. Cr recorded higher levels in the study area than those in other coastal areas in the word. Padina sp. and Cystoseira sp. were better bioindicator than Turbinaria sp., Sargassum sp. for their high metal uptake.

  5. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of sodium pump genes in the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Uji, Toshiki; Hirata, Ryo; Mikami, Koji; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Saga, Naotsune

    2012-08-01

    Sodium pumps (EC 3.6.3.9, Na(+)-ATPase), which mediate excretion of Na(+) from the cell, play a crucial role in Na(+) homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. The objective of this study is to understand the Na(+) efflux system in a marine red alga. We identified a novel sodium pump gene, PyKPA2, from the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis. The amino acid sequence of PyKPA2 shares 65 % identity with PyKPA1, a previously identified P. yezoensis sodium pump. Similar to PyKPA1, PyKPA2 contains conserved sequences for functions such as phosphorylation, ATP binding, and cation binding. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two genes cluster with sodium pumps from algae. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that PyKPA1 is expressed preferentially in sporophytes, whereas PyKPA2 is expressed specifically in gametophytes. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that PyKPA1 and PyKPA2 transcripts were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in gametophytes during exposure to alkali stress. In addition, transcription of both genes in gametophytes was also induced by cold stress. These results suggest that PyKPA1 and PyKPA2 play an important role in alkali and cold stress tolerance.

  6. Effects of DCMU on chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in marine red, brown and green algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-Gan; Zuo, Dong-Mei; Zang, Ru-Bo

    1996-03-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in vivo can be a useful indicator for stress detection in higher plants and seaweeds. DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea] treatment influences this ratio. The effets of DCMU on F685/F735 of marine red, brown and green algae under excitation light of different wavelengths were investigated. In the brown algae, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, DCMU did not increase this ratio under blue light excitation but increased the ratio slightly under excitation by green light. For the red algae, Halymenia sinensis, DCMU increased the ratio markedly under both blue and green light excitation. The percentage increase could reach 50% (under green light excitation) and was due to unequal enhancement at the two emission maxima by DCMU. A fraction of chlorophyll which contributed to fluorescence in the 735 nm region was less sensitive to DCMU and was likely from photosystem I of red algae. In the green alga, Ulva pertusa, DCMU caused a slight increase in F685/F735 value under blue, green and red light. Green light excitation during DCMU treatment increased the ratio most (16%) but induced the lowest ratio in the control (without DCMU). It is proposed that a considerable fraction of fluorescence from the 735 nm region at room temperature may be emitted by the chlorophyll of photosystem I in red algae.

  7. [Applications of three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of dissolved organic matter to identification of red tide algae].

    PubMed

    Lü, Gui-Cai; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Wang, Jiang-Tao

    2011-01-01

    The identification techniques for 10 species of red tide algae often found in the coastal areas of China were developed by combining the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of fluorescence dissolved organic matter (FDOM) from the cultured red tide algae with principal component analysis. Based on the results of principal component analysis, the first principal component loading spectrum of three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum was chosen as the identification characteristic spectrum for red tide algae, and the phytoplankton fluorescence characteristic spectrum band was established. Then the 10 algae species were tested using Bayesian discriminant analysis with a correct identification rate of more than 92% for Pyrrophyta on the level of species, and that of more than 75% for Bacillariophyta on the level of genus in which the correct identification rates were more than 90% for the phaeodactylum and chaetoceros. The results showed that the identification techniques for 10 species of red tide algae based on the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of FDOM from the cultured red tide algae and principal component analysis could work well.

  8. Biological importance of marine algae.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Ali A

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  9. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  10. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Göran M; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  11. Bromophycoic acids: Bioactive natural products from a Fijian red alga Callophycus sp

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Margaret E.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Engel, Sebastian; Alexander, Troy S.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Torres, Manuel; Le Roch, Karine; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from a Fijian red alga in the genus Callophycus resulted in the isolation of five new compounds of the diterpene-benzoate class. Bromophycoic acids A-E (1–5) were characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses and represent two novel carbon skeletons, one with an unusual proposed biosynthesis. These compounds display a range of activities against human tumor cell lines, malarial parasite, and bacterial pathogens including low micromolar suppression of MRSA and VREF. PMID:22920243

  12. [Povidone-iodine and isothiozolone for removing red tide algae Phaeoecystis globosa].

    PubMed

    Hong, Aihua; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Yunfeng; Qi, Yuzao; Xie, Longchu

    2003-07-01

    Studies on the removal and control of red tide algae Phaeoecystis globosa by povidone-iodine and isothiozolone algaecide showed that Phaeoecystis globosa could be killed and controlled by povidone-iodine and isothiozolone. The effective concentration of povidone-iodine was 30 mg.L-1, and that of isothiozolone was 0.30 mg.L-1. Using povidone-iodine and isothiozolone together could improve the effect, and the ideal composite ratio of povidone-iodine and isothiozolone was 1.0:0.15.

  13. Photorespiratory glycolate oxidase is essential for the survival of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under ambient CO2 conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Nadine; Kern, Ramona; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Hagemann, Martin; Eisenhut, Marion; Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Photorespiration is essential for all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. The evolution of photorespiratory metabolism began among cyanobacteria and led to a highly compartmented pathway in plants. A molecular understanding of photorespiration in eukaryotic algae, such as glaucophytes, rhodophytes, and chlorophytes, is essential to unravel the evolution of this pathway. However, mechanistic detail of the photorespiratory pathway in red algae is scarce. The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae represents a model for the red lineage. Its genome is fully sequenced, and tools for targeted gene engineering are available. To study the function and importance of photorespiration in red algae, we chose glycolate oxidase (GOX) as the target. GOX catalyses the conversion of glycolate into glyoxylate, while hydrogen peroxide is generated as a side-product. The function of the candidate GOX from C. merolae was verified by the fact that recombinant GOX preferred glycolate over L-lactate as a substrate. Yellow fluorescent protein-GOX fusion proteins showed that GOX is targeted to peroxisomes in C. merolae. The GOX knockout mutant lines showed a high-carbon-requiring phenotype with decreased growth and reduced photosynthetic activity compared to the wild type under ambient air conditions. Metabolite analyses revealed glycolate and glycine accumulation in the mutant cells after a shift from high CO2 conditions to ambient air. In summary, or results demonstrate that photorespiratory metabolism is essential for red algae. The use of a peroxisomal GOX points to a high photorespiratory flux as an ancestral feature of all photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:26994474

  14. Photorespiratory glycolate oxidase is essential for the survival of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under ambient CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nadine; Kern, Ramona; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Hagemann, Martin; Eisenhut, Marion; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-05-01

    Photorespiration is essential for all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. The evolution of photorespiratory metabolism began among cyanobacteria and led to a highly compartmented pathway in plants. A molecular understanding of photorespiration in eukaryotic algae, such as glaucophytes, rhodophytes, and chlorophytes, is essential to unravel the evolution of this pathway. However, mechanistic detail of the photorespiratory pathway in red algae is scarce. The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae represents a model for the red lineage. Its genome is fully sequenced, and tools for targeted gene engineering are available. To study the function and importance of photorespiration in red algae, we chose glycolate oxidase (GOX) as the target. GOX catalyses the conversion of glycolate into glyoxylate, while hydrogen peroxide is generated as a side-product. The function of the candidate GOX from C. merolae was verified by the fact that recombinant GOX preferred glycolate over L-lactate as a substrate. Yellow fluorescent protein-GOX fusion proteins showed that GOX is targeted to peroxisomes in C. merolae The GOX knockout mutant lines showed a high-carbon-requiring phenotype with decreased growth and reduced photosynthetic activity compared to the wild type under ambient air conditions. Metabolite analyses revealed glycolate and glycine accumulation in the mutant cells after a shift from high CO2 conditions to ambient air. In summary, or results demonstrate that photorespiratory metabolism is essential for red algae. The use of a peroxisomal GOX points to a high photorespiratory flux as an ancestral feature of all photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  15. Identification of genes for sulfolipid synthesis in primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Norihiro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Aoki, Motohide; Umemura, Tomonari; Kobayashi, Isao; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2016-01-29

    Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol is one of the lipids that construct thylakoid membranes, and is distributed from cyanobacteria to plastids in plants including a red lineage. One of the most primitive red algae, Cyanidioschyzon melorae, similar to cyanobacteria and green plants, possesses homologs of the SQD1 and SQD2 genes that code for UDP-sulfoquinovose and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol synthases, respectively, for the synthesis of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. We here revealed the structural properties of SQD1 and SQD2 homologs in C. melorae intrinsic to those of the authentic proteins, and verified their enzymatic functions through heterologous expression in cyanobacterial disruptants as to the corresponding genes. The results demonstrated that the system of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol synthesis could have been conserved through evolution of cyanobacteria to plastids in a red lineage, which is compatible with the monophyletic origin of plastids.

  16. Photochemical Performance of the Acidophilic Red Alga Cyanidium sp. in a pH Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvíderová, Jana

    2012-06-01

    The acidophilic red alga Cyanidium sp. is one of the dominant mat-forming species in the highly acidic waters of Río Tinto, Spain. The culture of Cyanidium sp., isolated from a microbial mat sample collected at Río Tinto, was exposed to 9 different pH conditions in a gradient from 0.5 to 5 for 24 h and its physiological status evaluated by variable chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics measurements. Maximum quantum yield was determined after 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 24 h of exposure after 15 min dark adaptation. The effect of pH on photochemical activity of Cyanidium sp. was observable as early as 30 min after exposure and the pattern remained stable or with only minor modifications for 24 h. The optimum pH ranged from 1.5 to 2.5. A steep decrease of the photochemical activity was observed at pH below 1 even after 30 min of exposure. Although the alga had tolerated the exposure to pH = 1 for at least 6 h, longer (24 h) exposure resulted in reduction of the photochemical activity. At pH above 2.5, the decline was more moderate and its negative effect on photochemistry was less severe. According to the fluorescence measurements, the red alga Cyanidium sp. is well-adapted to prevailing pH at its original locality at Río Tinto, i.e. pH of 1 to 3. The short-term survival in pH < 1.5 may be adaptation to rare exposures to such low pH in the field. The tolerance of pH above 3 could be caused by adaptation to the microenvironment of the inner parts of microbial mats in which Cyanidium sp. usually dominates and where higher pH could occur due to photosynthetic oxygen production.

  17. Visualization of nuclear localization of transcription factors with cyan and green fluorescent proteins in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Uji, Toshiki; Takahashi, Megumu; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2010-04-01

    Transcription factors play a central role in expression of genomic information in all organisms. The objective of our study is to analyze the function of transcription factors in red algae. One way to analyze transcription factors in eukaryotic cells is to study their nuclear localization, as reported for land plants and green algae using fluorescent proteins. There is, however, no report documenting subcellular localization of transcription factors from red algae. In the present study, using the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we confirmed for the first time successful expression of humanized fluorescent proteins (ZsGFP and ZsYFP) from a reef coral Zoanthus sp. and land plant-adapted sGFP(S65T) in gametophytic cells comparable to expression of AmCFP. Following molecular cloning and characterization of transcription factors DP-E2F-like 1 (PyDEL1), transcription elongation factor 1 (PyElf1) and multiprotein bridging factor 1 (PyMBF1), we then demonstrated that ZsGFP and AmCFP can be used to visualize nuclear localization of PyElf1 and PyMBF1. This is the first report to perform visualization of subcellular localization of transcription factors as genome-encoded proteins in red algae.

  18. Characterization of the nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial aconitase in the marine red alga Gracilaria verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y H; Ragan, M A

    1995-07-01

    We have cloned a nuclear gene from the marine red alga Gracilaria verrucosa that encodes the complete 779 amino-acid mitochondrial aconitase (m-ACN), the first characterized from a photosynthetic organism. The N-terminal 28 deduced amino acids are predicted to constitute the mitochondrial transit peptide, the first described from a red alga. Putative transcriptional cis-acting elements were identified in the upstream untranslated region. The G. verrucosa m-ACN gene (m-ACN) is present in a single copy and is located ca. 1.5 kb upstream from the single-copy polyubiquitin gene. The single spliceosomal intron is located near the 5' end of the region encoding the mature m-ACN in precisely the same location and phase as intron 2 in Caenorhabditis elegans m-ACN; sequences at its 3' and 5' splice junctions and at the predicted lariat branch point conform well to the eukaryote consensus sequences. Multiple protein-sequence alignment of m-ACN, bacterial aconitase (b-ACN) and iron-responsive element-binding protein (IRE-BP), and phylogenetic analyses, revealed that m-ACN does not share a recent common ancestry with either b-ACN or IRE-BP.

  19. CHROMATOPHORE DEVELOPMENT, PITS, AND OTHER FINE STRUCTURE IN THE RED ALGA, LOMENTARIA BAILEYANA (HARV.) FARLOW

    PubMed Central

    Bouck, G. Benjamin

    1962-01-01

    Thin sections of the red alga, Lomentaria baileyana, a tubular member of the Rhodymeniales, were examined after permanganate fixation and Araldite embedding. Many of the cellular structures in Lomentaria were found to be similar to analogous structures in animals and higher plants. However, in the walls between cells are modified areas generally known as pits which are unique to the higher orders of red algae (Florideae). In this study the pits were found to consist of a plug-like structure surrounded by an uninterrupted membrane apparently continuous with the plasma membrane. Examination of the chromatophore revealed a characteristic limiting membrane, a relatively sparse distribution of plates, no grana, and a single disc apparently oriented parallel to the limiting membrane. In addition to their origin from non-lamellate proplastids, chromatophores were found capable of division by simple constriction. Floridean starch grains were observed outside the chromatophore and the possibility of an association of the first formed grains with portions of the endoplasmic reticulum is considered. Gland cells seem to have a high proportion of Golgi components (dictyosomes), and are believed to have some kind of secretory function. Many of the Golgi vesicles seem to open on the wall and presumably discharge their contents. PMID:19866599

  20. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  1. Different speciation for bromine in brown and red algae, revealed by in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample. The results highlight a diversity of fundamentally different bromine storage modes: while most of the stramenopile representatives and the dinoflagellate store mostly bromide, there is evidence for Br incorporated in nonaromatic hydrocarbons in Thalassiosira. Red algae operate various organic bromine stores - including a possible precursor (by the haloform reaction) for bromoform in Asparagopsis and aromatically bound Br in Polysiphonia and Corallina. Large fractions of the bromine in the red algae G. dura and C. crispus and the brown alga F. serratus are present as Br(-) defects in solid KCl, similar to what was reported earlier for Laminaria parts. These results are discussed according to different defensive strategies that are used within algal taxa to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses.

  2. Associations Between Macroinvertebrates and Paralemanea mexicana, an Endemic Freshwater Red Alga from a Mountain River in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Caro-Borrero, A; Carmona-Jiménez, J

    2016-12-01

    Macrophytes are common inhabitants of lotic environments and, depending on their morphological traits, possess adaptations that provide shelter to aquatic invertebrates against strong river flow and predators. They may also be used as a food source by macroinvertebrates. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the red alga Paralemanea mexicana and its role as a shelter and/or food source for lotic macroinvertebrates. We also conducted research on the role of microhabitat and morphological variations of the alga in determining macroinvertebrate taxon abundance, diversity, and functional group composition in a high-current velocity river. Results showed that changes in cover and morphology of P. mexicana were mostly correlated with river current velocity, irradiance, and seasonal variation. In turn, these were related to changes in abundance and diversity of the associated macroinvertebrate community. In addition, six macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups were evaluated for associations with the red alga: filtering and gathering collectors, piercers, scrapers, herbivore shredders, and predators. The results showed that the Trichoptera Hydroptilidae genera Ochrotrichia and Metrichia use P. mexicana as a food source and case-building material. The Trichoptera Glossosomatidae Mortoniella uses the alga as a substrate. The biotic interactions between P. mexicana and associated macroinvertebrates reveal the importance of macrophytes as purveyors of substrate, as food and shelter for macroinvertebrates, and also as promoters of macroinvertebrate community diversity. In addition, it was shown that macroinvertebrate herbivory likely facilitates vegetative propagation of the red alga through increased release and germination of carpospores and new gametophytes.

  3. Phosphatized multicellular algae in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China, and the early evolution of florideophyte red algae.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuhai; Knoll, Andrew H; Yuan, Xunlai; Pueschel, Curt M

    2004-02-01

    Phosphatic sediments of the Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 million years old [Myr]) Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an, South China, contain fossils of multicellular algae preserved in anatomical detail. As revealed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, these fossils include both simple pseudoparenchymatous thalli with apical growth but no cortex-medulla differentiation and more complex thalli characterized by cortex-medulla differentiation and structures interpretable as carposporophytes, suggesting a multiphasic life cycle. Simple pseudoparenchymatous thalli, represented by Wengania, Gremiphyca, and Thallophycoides, are interpreted as stem group florideophytes. In contrast, complex pseudoparenchymatous thalli, such as Thallophyca and Paramecia, compare more closely to fossil and living corallinaleans than to other florideophyte orders, although they also differ in some important aspects (e.g., lack of biocalcification). These more complex thalli are interpreted as early stem group corallinaleans that diverged before Paleozoic stem groups such as Arenigiphyllum, Petrophyton, Graticula, and Archaeolithophyllum. This phylogenetic interpretation implies that (1) the phylogenetic divergence between the Florideophyceae and its sister group, the Bangiales, must have taken place before Doushantuo time-an inference supported by the occurrence of bangialean fossils in Mesoproterozoic rocks; (2) the initial diversification of the florideophytes occurred no later than the Doushantuo time; and (3) the corallinalean clade had a "soft" (uncalcified) evolutionary history in the Neoproterozoic before evolving biocalcification in the Paleozoic and undergoing crown group diversification in the Mesozoic.

  4. Biological activity and chemical constituents of red and brown algae from the persian gulf.

    PubMed

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses.

  5. Regulation of photosynthesis in the unicellular acidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria.

    PubMed

    Oesterhelt, Christine; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Schmitt, Jürgen M; Lokstein, Heiko

    2007-08-01

    Extremophilic organisms are gaining increasing interest because of their unique metabolic capacities and great biotechnological potential. The unicellular acidophilic and mesothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria (074G) can grow autotrophically in light as well as heterotrophically in the dark. In this paper, the effects of externally added glucose on primary and secondary photosynthetic reactions are assessed to elucidate mixotrophic capacities of the alga. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was quantified in an open system with a constant supply of CO2 to avoid rapid volatilization of dissolved inorganic carbon at low pH levels. In the presence of glucose, O2 evolution was repressed even in illuminated cells. Ratios of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and 77 K fluorescence spectra indicated a reduced photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results were corroborated by strongly reduced levels of the photosystem II reaction centre protein D1. The downregulation of primary photosynthetic reactions was accompanied by reduced levels of the Calvin Cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Both effects depended on functional sugar uptake and are thus initiated by intracellular rather than extracellular glucose. Following glucose depletion, photosynthetic O2 evolution of illuminated cells commenced after 15 h and Rubisco levels again reached the levels of autotrophic cells. It is concluded that true mixotrophy, involving electron transport across both photosystems, does not occur in G. sulphuraria 074G, and that heterotrophic growth is favoured over autotrophic growth if sufficient organic carbon is available.

  6. Biological Activity and Chemical Constituents of Red and Brown Algae from the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses. PMID:24250640

  7. The Edible Red Alga Porphyra yezoensis Promotes Neuronal Survival and Cytoarchitecture in Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohibbullah, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Hannan, Md Abdul; Getachew, Paulos; Hong, Yong-Ki; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2016-07-01

    The edible red alga Porphyra yezoensis is among the most popular marine algae and is of economic and medicinal importance. In the present study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities of the ethanol extract of P. yezoensis (PYE) were investigated in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Results revealed that PYE significantly increased neurite outgrowth at an optimal concentration of 15 µg/mL. PYE dose-dependently increased viable cells, significantly accelerated the rate of neuronal differentiation in cultures, promoted axodendritic arborization, and eventually induced synaptogenesis. In addition to morphological development, PYE also promoted functional maturation as indicated by the staining of live cultures with FM 1-43. Moreover, PYE increased neuronal survivability, which was attributed to reduced apoptosis and its ROS scavenging activity. Taurine, a major organic acid in PYE (2.584/100 mg of dry PYE) promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner, and this promotion was suppressed by the taurine antagonist isethionic acid. The study indicates that PYE and its active component, taurine, facilitate neuronal development and maturation and have a neuroprotective effect.

  8. The Antimicrobial Properties of Red Algae. The Fight of Your Life: Battling Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.; Warner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research project in which a professor and a student collaborated in the screening of macroscopic algae for antimicrobial properties. Includes background information, materials and methods, results, and a discussion of the experiment. (SAH)

  9. The antitumor activity of a red alga polysaccharide complexes carrying 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhongshan

    2014-08-01

    Porphyran is a sulfated galactan isolated from red algae Porphyra haitanensis, and have been reported to have many kinds of biological activities such as antitumor activity. In order to provide a water-soluble macromolecule prodrug of 5-Fu showing slow release of 5-Fu and reducing side-effect, we carried out fixation of 5-Fu to porphyran at 6-position. In this study, the antitumor and immunomodulation activities of low MW porphyran carrying 5-Fu on transplanted S180 tumor mice were studied. Weight of immune organ, proliferation ratio of lymphocyte concentration of TNF-α and NO from the transplanted S180 tumor mice were also determined. Results indicated that the conjugate could enhance antitumor activity of 5-Fu and improve immunocompetence damaged by 5-Fu.

  10. Optimization of cryopreservation conditions for the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Mio; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Tanaka, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation is essential for maintaining stable stocks of organisms. We report the development of a method for cryopreservation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a model organism for the investigation of the basic architecture of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol were examined for their ability to protect the cell from cryoinjury and/or cytotoxicity. It was found that methanol was the most effective as a cryoprotectant for C. merolae. After the optimized setting of parameters such as working concentration of cryoprotectant and the period of slow cooling, cultures were supplemented with 5% (v/v) methanol and frozen by slow cooling using a passive-freezing unit, followed by plunging into liquid nitrogen. We found C. merolae cells retained greater than 80% viability for at least 83 days in storage.

  11. Antitumor activity of palmitic acid found as a selective cytotoxic substance in a marine red alga.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hideki; Yamashita, Uki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Fukushi, Eri; Kawabata, Jun; Kamei, Yuto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous report, we discussed an extract from a marine red alga, Amphiroa zonata, which shows selective cytotoxic activity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells in vitro. In this study, we identified palmitic acid, a selective cytotoxic substance from the marine algal extract, and investigated its biological activities. At concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 micrograms/ml, palmitic acid shows selective cytotoxicity to human leukemic cells, but no cytotoxicity to normal HDF cells. Furthermore, palmitic acid induces apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line MOLT-4 at 50 micrograms/ml. Palmitic acid also shows in vivo antitumor activity in mice. One molecular target of palmitic acid in tumor cells is DNA topoisomerase I, however, interestingly, it does not affect DNA topoisomerase II, suggesting that palmitic acid may be a lead compound of anticancer drugs.

  12. Optimization of dynamic headspace extraction of the edible red algae Palmaria palmata and identification of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Marie-Annick; Grua-Priol, Joëlle; Prost, Carole; Demaimay, Michel

    2004-02-11

    A new extraction method was applied to the volatile compounds of Palmaria palmata. Dynamic headspace was optimized according to an experimental design, and descriptive sensory analysis and intensity and similarity tests were performed for each extract to assess their respective representativeness. Results showed that extract obtained with crushed algae after a 30 min purge was the most representative. GC-MS analysis was then performed on this extract to identify the volatile components. Seven halogenated compounds, seven aldehydes, two ketones, three alcohols, and four miscellaneous compounds were identified. Among them, halogenated compounds were the most characteristic of red algae, and more particularly, iodoethane and iodopentane, which had yet been found in other seaweeds.

  13. Light adaptation of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms change the quantity and/or quality of their pigment-protein complexes and the interactions among these complexes in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed light adaptation of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, whose pigment composition is similar to that of cyanobacteria because its phycobilisomes (PBS) lack phycoerythrin. C. merolae were grown under different light qualities, and their responses were measured by steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Cells were cultivated under four monochromatic light-emitting diodes (blue, green, yellow, and red), and changes in pigment composition and energy transfer were observed. Cells grown under blue and green light increased their relative phycocyanin levels compared with cells cultured under white light. Energy-transfer processes to photosystem I (PSI) were sensitive to yellow and red light. The contribution of direct energy transfer from PBS to PSI increased only under yellow light, while red light induced a reduction in energy transfer from photosystem II to PSI and an increase in energy transfer from light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex I to PSI. Differences in pigment composition, growth, and energy transfer under different light qualities are discussed.

  14. In vivo photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, vitamins, Ginkgo biloba and red algae extracts.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, D G; Wagemaker, T A L; Alves, V M; Benevenuto, C G; Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, red algae, Porphyra umbilicalis, extracts and combinations of the extract with vitamins and Ginkgo biloba through the use of in vivo preclinical studies. For this study, 4 groups of 4 hairless mice each were treated with topical formulations applied on the dorsum for 5 days as follows: group 1 - control (no treatment); group 2 - application of the formulation F (sunscreen formulation containing only UV filters); group 3 - application of the formulation FA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract); and group 4 - application of the formulation FVGA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract, G. biloba and vitamins A, C and E). The effects of these formulations were evaluated by determining the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index. Apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemical staining with anti-p53 and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The results showed that the formulations protected the skin from erythema when exposed to UV radiation. The group that received the formulation FVGA presented a greater TEWL than did the other groups, suggesting that this formulation was involved in cell renewal. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that UV radiation caused an increase in the expression of p53 and active caspase-3, confirming that the damage caused by UV radiation exposure led to apoptosis. The application of all formulations studied resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the expression of p53 and caspase-3, with a more pronounced effect observed following treatment with FA. In conclusion, extracts from the red algae P. umbilicalis could be considered effective ingredients to be used in sunscreen formulations. The combination of vitamins A, E, C and G. biloba along with red algae extracts can improve significantly the performance of the sunscreens, preventing UV-induced DNA damage and inflammation. Thus, they should be considered

  15. Microbial modulation in the biomass and toxin production of a red-tide causing alga.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T L; Su, J Q; Maskaoui, K; Yu, Z M; Hu, Z; Xu, J S; Hong, H S

    2005-01-01

    The effect of S10, a strain of marine bacteria isolated from sediment in the Western Xiamen Sea, on the growth and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) production in the alga Alexandrium tamarense (A. tamarense) was studied under controlled experimental conditions. The results of these experiments have shown that the growth of A. tamarense is obviously inhibited by S10 at high concentrations, however no evident effect on its growth was observed at low concentrations. Its PSP production was also inhibited by S10 at different concentrations, especially at low concentrations. The toxicity of this strain of A. tamarense is about (0.95-12.14) x 10(-6) MU/cell, a peak toxicity value of 12.14 x 10(-6) MU/cell appeared on the 14th day, after which levels decreased gradually. The alga grew well in conditions of pH 6-8 and salinities of 20-34 per thousand. The toxicity of the alga varied markedly at different pH and salinity levels. Toxicity decreased as pH increased, while it increased with salinity and reached a peak value at a salinity of 30 per thousand, after which it declined gradually. S10 at a concentration of 1.02 x 10(9) cells/ml inhibited growth and the PSP production of A. tamarense at different pH and salinity levels. S10 had the strongest inhibitory function on the growth of A. tamarense under conditions of pH 7 and a salinity of 34 per thousand. The best inhibitory effect on PSP production by A. tamarense was at pH 7, this inhibitory effect on PSP production did not relate to salinity. Interactions between marine bacteria and A. tamarense were also investigated using the flow cytometer technique (FCM) as well as direct microscope counting. S10 was identified as being a member of the genus Bacillus, the difference in 16S rDNA between S10 and Bacillus halmapalus was only 2%. The mechanism involved in the inhibition of growth and PSP production of A. tamarense by this strain of marine bacteria, and the prospect of using it and other marine bacteria in the bio

  16. Construction of Global Acyl Lipid Metabolic Map by Comparative Genomics and Subcellular Localization Analysis in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Natsumi; Moriyama, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pathways of lipid metabolism have been established in land plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but the information on exact pathways is still under study in microalgae. In contrast with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is currently studied extensively, the pathway information in red algae is still in the state in which enzymes and pathways are estimated by analogy with the knowledge in plants. Here we attempt to construct the entire acyl lipid metabolic pathways in a model red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, as an initial basis for future genetic and biochemical studies, by exploiting comparative genomics and localization analysis. First, the data of whole genome clustering by Gclust were used to identify 121 acyl lipid-related enzymes. Then, the localization of 113 of these enzymes was analyzed by GFP-based techniques. We found that most of the predictions on the subcellular localization by existing tools gave erroneous results, probably because these tools had been tuned for plants or green algae. The experimental data in the present study as well as the data reported before in our laboratory will constitute a good training set for tuning these tools. The lipid metabolic map thus constructed show that the lipid metabolic pathways in the red alga are essentially similar to those in A. thaliana, except that the number of enzymes catalyzing individual reactions is quite limited. The absence of fatty acid desaturation to produce oleic and linoleic acids within the plastid, however, highlights the central importance of desaturation and acyl editing in the endoplasmic reticulum, for the synthesis of plastid lipids as well as other cellular lipids. Additionally, some notable characteristics of lipid metabolism in C. merolae were found. For example, phosphatidylcholine is synthesized by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine as in yeasts. It is possible that a single 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase is involved in the condensation reactions of fatty acid

  17. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  18. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  19. Genome Analysis of Planctomycetes Inhabiting Blades of the Red Alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jay W.; Brawley, Susan H.; Prochnik, Simon; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; LaButti, Kurt; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Nolan, Matt; Zane, Matthew; Schmutz, Jeremy; Stiller, John W.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyra is a macrophytic red alga of the Bangiales that is important ecologically and economically. We describe the genomes of three bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes (designated P1, P2 and P3) that were isolated from blades of Porphyra umbilicalis (P.um.1). These three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belong to distinct genera; P2 belongs to the genus Rhodopirellula, while P1 and P3 represent undescribed genera within the Planctomycetes. Comparative analyses of the P1, P2 and P3 genomes show large expansions of distinct gene families, which can be widespread throughout the Planctomycetes (e.g., protein kinases, sensors/response regulators) and may relate to specific habitat (e.g., sulfatase gene expansions in marine Planctomycetes) or phylogenetic position. Notably, there are major differences among the Planctomycetes in the numbers and sub-functional diversity of enzymes (e.g., sulfatases, glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases) that allow these bacteria to access a range of sulfated polysaccharides in macroalgal cell walls. These differences suggest that the microbes have varied capacities for feeding on fixed carbon in the cell walls of P.um.1 and other macrophytic algae, although the activities among the various bacteria might be functionally complementary in situ. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses indicate augmentation of gene functions through expansions arising from gene duplications and horizontal gene transfers; examples include genes involved in cell wall degradation (e.g., κ-carrageenase, alginate lyase, fucosidase) and stress responses (e.g., efflux pump, amino acid transporter). Finally P1 and P2 contain various genes encoding selenoproteins, many of which are enzymes that ameliorate the impact of environmental stresses that occur in the intertidal habitat. PMID:27015628

  20. Genome Analysis of Planctomycetes Inhabiting Blades of the Red Alga Porphyra umbilicalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jay W; Brawley, Susan H; Prochnik, Simon; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; LaButti, Kurt; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Nolan, Matt; Zane, Matthew; Schmutz, Jeremy; Stiller, John W; Grossman, Arthur R

    2016-01-01

    Porphyra is a macrophytic red alga of the Bangiales that is important ecologically and economically. We describe the genomes of three bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes (designated P1, P2 and P3) that were isolated from blades of Porphyra umbilicalis (P.um.1). These three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belong to distinct genera; P2 belongs to the genus Rhodopirellula, while P1 and P3 represent undescribed genera within the Planctomycetes. Comparative analyses of the P1, P2 and P3 genomes show large expansions of distinct gene families, which can be widespread throughout the Planctomycetes (e.g., protein kinases, sensors/response regulators) and may relate to specific habitat (e.g., sulfatase gene expansions in marine Planctomycetes) or phylogenetic position. Notably, there are major differences among the Planctomycetes in the numbers and sub-functional diversity of enzymes (e.g., sulfatases, glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases) that allow these bacteria to access a range of sulfated polysaccharides in macroalgal cell walls. These differences suggest that the microbes have varied capacities for feeding on fixed carbon in the cell walls of P.um.1 and other macrophytic algae, although the activities among the various bacteria might be functionally complementary in situ. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses indicate augmentation of gene functions through expansions arising from gene duplications and horizontal gene transfers; examples include genes involved in cell wall degradation (e.g., κ-carrageenase, alginate lyase, fucosidase) and stress responses (e.g., efflux pump, amino acid transporter). Finally P1 and P2 contain various genes encoding selenoproteins, many of which are enzymes that ameliorate the impact of environmental stresses that occur in the intertidal habitat.

  1. Two different clades of copia-like retrotransposons in the red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Peddigari, Suresh; Zhang, Wenbo; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Takio, Susumu

    2008-11-15

    A copia-like retrotransposon referred to as PyRE1G1 was isolated from the genome of the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. PyRE1G1 is 4807 bp in length, with 204 bp long terminal repeats (LTRs) at both ends. PyRE1G1 has an open reading frame of 1401 residues encoding gag, protease, integrase, reverse transcriptase (RT), and RNase H. From the order of gene arrangement of proteins, PyRE1G1 appears to be a copia-like retrotransposon. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that PyRE1G1 consists of a small gene family. From the phylogenetic tree of RT sequences, PyRE1G1 is grouped in the clade of usual copia elements and distinct from the previously isolated red algal copia-like gene PyRE10G in that the latter is closely related to a new clade of aquatic animal-specific copia-like retrotransposons.

  2. [Illumination's effect on the growth and nitrate reductase activity of typical red-tide algae in the East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-mei; Shi, Xiao-yong; Ding, Yan-yan; Tang, Hong-jie

    2013-09-01

    Two typical red-tide algae, Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense were selected as studied objects. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and the growth of the two algae under different illuminations through incubation experiment were studied. The illumination condition was consistent with in situ. Results showed that P. donghaiense and S. costatum could grow normally in the solar radiation ranged from 30-60 W x m(-2), and the growth curve was "S" type. However, when solar radiation was below 9 W x m(-2), the two alga could hardly grow. In the range of 0-60 W x m(-2), three parameters (NRAmax, micro(max), Bf) increased with the increasing of light intensity, indicating that the light intensity can influence the grow of alga indirectly through influencing the nitrate reductase activity. The micro(max) and NRAmax in unite volume of Skeletonema costatum were higher than those of Prorocentrum donghaiense, indicating that Skeletonema costatum can better utilize the nitrate than Prorocentrum donghaiense.

  3. A novel type of light-harvesting antenna protein of red algal origin in algae with secondary plastids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Light, the driving force of photosynthesis, can be harmful when present in excess; therefore, any light harvesting system requires photoprotection. Members of the extended light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein superfamily are involved in light harvesting as well as in photoprotection and are found in the red and green plant lineages, with a complex distribution pattern of subfamilies in the different algal lineages. Results Here, we demonstrate that the recently discovered “red lineage chlorophyll a/b-binding-like proteins” (RedCAPs) form a monophyletic family within this protein superfamily. The occurrence of RedCAPs was found to be restricted to the red algal lineage, including red algae (with primary plastids) as well as cryptophytes, haptophytes and heterokontophytes (with secondary plastids of red algal origin). Expression of a full-length RedCAP:GFP fusion construct in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum confirmed the predicted plastid localisation of RedCAPs. Furthermore, we observed that similarly to the fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding light-harvesting antenna proteins also RedCAP transcripts in diatoms were regulated in a diurnal way at standard light conditions and strongly repressed at high light intensities. Conclusions The absence of RedCAPs from the green lineage implies that RedCAPs evolved in the red lineage after separation from the the green lineage. During the evolution of secondary plastids, RedCAP genes therefore must have been transferred from the nucleus of the endocytobiotic alga to the nucleus of the host cell, a process that involved complementation with pre-sequences allowing import of the gene product into the secondary plastid bound by four membranes. Based on light-dependent transcription and on localisation data, we propose that RedCAPs might participate in the light (intensity and quality)-dependent structural or functional reorganisation of the light-harvesting antennae of the photosystems upon dark to light

  4. Structure and Biological Evaluation of Novel Cytotoxic Sterol Glycosides from the Marine Red Alga Peyssonnelia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, An-Shen; Engel, Sebastian; Smith, Benjamin A.; Fairchild, Craig R.; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E.; Kubanek, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract from a Fijian red alga Peyssonnelia sp. led to the isolation of two novel sterol glycosides 19-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-19-hydroxy-cholest-4-en-3-one (1) and 19-O-β-d-N-acetyl-2-aminoglucopyranosyl-19-hydroxy-cholest-4-en-3-one (2), and two known alkaloids indole-3-carboxaldehyde (3) and 3-(hydroxyacetyl)indole (4). Their structures were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectral analysis. The sterol glycosides inhibited cancer cell growth with mean IC50 values (for 11 human cancer cell lines) of 1.63 and 1.41 µM for 1 and 2, respectively. The most sensitive cancer cell lines were MDA-MB-468 (breast) and A549 (lung), with IC50s in of 0.71–0.97 µM for 1 and 2. Modification of the sterol glycoside structures revealed that the α,β-unsaturated ketone at C-3 and oxygenation at C-19 of 1 and 2 are crucial for anticancer activity, whereas the glucosidic group was not essential but contributed to enhanced activity against the most sensitive cell lines. PMID:21036050

  5. ORIGIN OF APOMICTIC RED ALGAE: OUTCROSSING STUDIES OF DIFFERENT STRAINS IN CALOGLOSSA MONOSTICHA (CERAMIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Mitsunobu; West, John A

    2008-08-01

    Various red algae lack sexual reproduction and propagate by spore recycling, but it is still unknown how apomixis originates. In previous crossing experiments, we obtained an unusual hybrid of Caloglossa monosticha M. Kamiya through the outcrossing between a male from Australia and a female from Indonesia. This hybrid was morphologically identical to a normal tetrasporophyte, but its tetraspores grew into tetrasporophytes and repeated tetraspore recycling. During 5 years of culture, no sexual reproductive structures have formed on the tetrasporelings from this hybrid or its progenies. Further hybridization experiments revealed that all the five female strains from Indonesia successfully crossed with the male strain from the East Alligator River, Australia, and most of the F1 sporophytes demonstrated tetraspore recycling, though the germination rates of these tetraspores were quite low. The ploidy level of the hybrid tetrasporophyte was similar to the normal tetrasporophyte, rather than the parental gametophyte, based on the comparison of relative DNA contents of their nuclei. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region indicated that the alleles from both parents were present in all the hybrid tetrasporophytes examined. These results suggest that this hybrid does not carry out meiosis during sporogenesis, and heterozygous diploid sporophytes arose from tetraspores. Therefore, we believe that obligate apomixis was generated through outcrossing between genetically different entities of C. monosticha.

  6. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tian-Jun; Huang, Xing-Qi; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhuang, Zhong; Deng, Yin-Yin; Lu, Shan

    2017-04-11

    Lycopene cyclases cyclize the open ends of acyclic lycopene (ψ,ψ-carotene) into β- or ε-ionone rings in the crucial bifurcation step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Among all carotenoid constituents, β-carotene (β,β-carotene) is found in all photosynthetic organisms, except for purple bacteria and heliobacteria, suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of lycopene β-cyclase activity in these organisms. In this work, we isolated a gene (BfLCYB) encoding a lycopene β-cyclase from Bangia fuscopurpurea, a red alga that is considered to be one of the primitive multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and accumulates carotenoid constituents with both β- and ε-rings, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin, α-carotene (β,ε-carotene) and lutein. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli demonstrated that BfLCYB is able to catalyze cyclization of lycopene into monocyclic γ-carotene (β,ψ-carotene) and bicyclic β-carotene, and cyclization of the open end of monocyclic δ-carotene (ε,ψ-carotene) to produce α-carotene. No ε-cyclization activity was identified for BfLCYB. Sequence comparison showed that BfLCYB shares conserved domains with other functionally characterized lycopene cyclases from different organisms and belongs to a group of ancient lycopene cyclases. Although B. fuscopurpurea also synthesizes α-carotene and lutein, its enzyme-catalyzing ε-cyclization is still unknown.

  7. The marine red alga Ceramium strictum as a test organism in toxicological bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.

    1995-12-31

    The test method uses the red macroalga Ceramium strictum (Harv.) and measures the effect on the reproduction. Female and male gametophytes are exposed together for 24 hrs in increasing concentrations of the toxic substance. The test endpoint is the number of cystocarps formed, which can be detected after a recovery period of six days in fresh media of the female plants. Thus, the duration of the test is seven days. The alga is constantly fertile and is easily cultured in the laboratory with a low need for space and a minimum of cost for equipment and time. The sample volume needed to perform a complete test with 4 replicates and 10 concentrations is only 150 mi. The repeatability is good. Five tests on Zn{sup 2+} ,gave an EC50 at 99.1 {+-} 6.7 {micro}g/l. Both organic (phenol, 3,5-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol) and inorganic (CU{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, chlorate) chemicals as well as complex effluents have been tested and the test show high sensitivity. The macroalga represent an important part of the coast shore ecosystems and ought to be represented in many test batteries.

  8. Conversion of red-algae Gracilaria verrucosa to sugars, levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Ra, Chae Hun; Hong, Yong-Ki; Kim, Joong Kyun; Kong, In-Soo; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2015-02-01

    This study employed a statistical methodology to investigate the optimization of conversion conditions and evaluate the reciprocal interaction of reaction factors related to the process of red-algae Gracilaria verrucosa conversion to sugars (glucose, galactose), levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by acidic hydrolysis. Overall, the conditions optimized for glucose formation included a higher catalyst concentration than did those for galactose, and these conditions for galactose were similar to those for 5-HMF. Levulinic acid production, meanwhile, was optimized at a higher reaction temperature, a higher catalyst concentration, and a longer reaction time than was glucose, galactose or 5-HMF production. By this approach, the optimal yields (and reaction conditions) for glucose, galactose, levulinic acid, and 5-HMF were as follows: glucose 5.29 g/L (8.46 wt%) (reaction temperature 160 °C, catalyst concentration 1.92%, reaction time 20 min), galactose 18.38 g/L (29.4 wt%) (160 °C, 1.03%, 20 min), levulinic acid 14.65 g/L (18.64 wt%) (180.9 °C, 2.85%, 50 min), and 5-HMF 3.74 g/L (5.98 wt%) (160.5 °C, 1%, 20 min).

  9. Synthesis of three bromophenols from red algae as PTP1B inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuju; Li, Jing; Li, Ting; Shi, Dayong; Han, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Bromophenols are a set of natural products widely distributed in seaweed, most of which exhibit interesting and useful biological activities. To develop a reliable and efficient synthetic route to these natural bromophenols, three of them, 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-3',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxymethyl-benzyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (compound 9), 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-6'-ethoxy methyl-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (compound 10), and 3-bromo-4-(3'-bromo-4',5'-dihydroxy benzyl)-5-(ethoxymethyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (compound 14), isolated from red marine algae, have been synthesized in eight steps with an overall yield of 14.4%, 14.4%, and 18.2% respectively, via a practical approach employing bromination, Wolff-Kishner-Huang reduction and a Friedel-Crafts reaction as key steps. The protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of the synthetic compounds were evaluated by the colorimetric assay. The results show that these compounds are moderate PTP1B inhibitors. The synthesis of these bromophenol derivatives makes in vivo studies of their structure-activity relationships and inhibition activity against PTP1B possible.

  10. Phycobilisomes from blue-green and red algae: isolation criteria and dissociation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gantt, E; Lipschultz, C A; Grabowski, J; Zimmerman, B K

    1979-04-01

    A general procedure for the isolation of functionally intact phycobilisomes was devised, based on modifications of previously used procedures. It has been successful with numerous species of red and blue-green algae (Anabaena variabilis, Anacystis nidulans, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Fremyella diplosiphon, Glaucosphaera vacuolata, Griffithsia pacifica, Nemalion multifidum, Nostoc sp., Phormidium persicinum, Porphyridium cruentum, P. sordidum, P. aerugineum, Rhodosorus marinus). Isolation was carried out in 0.75 molar K-phosphate (pH 6.8 to 7.0) at 20 to 23 C on sucrose step gradients. Lower temperature (4 to 10 C) was usually unfavorable resulting in uncoupling of energy transfer and partial dissociation of the phycobilisomes, sometimes with complete loss of allophycocyanin. Intact phycobilisomes were characterized by fluorescence emission peaks of 670 to 675 nanometers at room temperature, and 678 to 685 nanometers at liquid nitrogen temperature. Uncoupling and subsequent dissociation of phycobilisomes, in lowered ionic conditions, varied with the species and the degree of dissociation but occurred preferentially between phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, or between phycocyanin and phycoerythrin.

  11. Fermentation properties of low-quality red alga Susabinori Porphyra yezoensis by intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Toshihiko; Ishihara, Kenji; Oyamada, Chiaki; Kunitake, Hiromi; Hirayama, Izumi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2008-07-01

    Susabinori (Porphyra yezoensis), a red alga, is cultured and processed into a sheet-style dried food, nori, in Japan. But significant amounts of cultured susabinori, which has a low protein content is discarded because of its low quality. The protein content of nori has been reported to be correlated inversely with the carbohydrate content. In this study, we examined the relationship between the protein content and the fermentation of nori by means of bfidobacteria. nori with a low protein content (25% on dry base) was strongly fermented by bifidobacteria, whereas nori with a high protein content (41% on dry base) was not. nori with a low protein content contained large amounts of glycerol galactoside (GG, floridoside: 2-O-glycerol-alpha-D-galactoside, isofloridoside: 1-O-glycerol-alpha-D-galactoside), more than 10% w/w in the dried condition, and GG was the main substrate for fermentation by bifidobacteria. GG was not digested by digestive enzymes, and was not absorbed in the small intestine. These results suggest that GG can be used as a substrate for fermentation by bifidobacteria, and possibility of GG as a prebiotic.

  12. Identification and characterization of a DnaJ gene from red alga Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiao; Li, Xianchao; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Members of the DnaJ family are proteins that play a pivotal role in various cellular processes, such as protein folding, protein transport and cellular responses to stress. In the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length DnaJ cDNA sequence from expressed sequence tags of Pyropia yezoensis ( PyDnaJ) via rapid identification of cDNA ends. This cDNA encoded a protein of 429 amino acids, which shared high sequence similarity with other identified DnaJ proteins, such as a heat shock protein 40/DnaJ from Pyropia haitanensis. The relative mRNA expression level of PyDnaJ was investigated using real-time PCR to determine its specific expression during the algal life cycle and during desiccation. The relative mRNA expression level in sporophytes was higher than that in gametophytes and significantly increased during the whole desiccation process. These results indicate that PyDnaJ is an authentic member of the DnaJ family in plants and red algae and might play a pivotal role in mitigating damage to P. yezoensis during desiccation.

  13. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino.

  14. Recovery of rare earth elements from the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria using aqueous acid.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Ayumi; Sawada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Sonoe; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Takaiku; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically in recent years because of their numerous industrial applications, and considerable research efforts have consequently been directed toward recycling these materials. The accumulation of metals in microorganisms is a low-cost and environmentally friendly method for the recovery of metals present in the environment at low levels. Numerous metals, including rare earth elements, can be readily dissolved in aqueous acid, but the efficiency of metal biosorption is usually decreased under the acidic conditions. In this report, we have investigated the use of the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria for the recovery of metals, with particular emphasis on the recovery of rare earth metals. Of the five different growth conditions investigated where G. sulphuraria could undergo an adaptation process, Nd(III), Dy(III), and Cu(II) were efficiently recovered from a solution containing a mixture of different metals under semi-anaerobic heterotrophic condition at a pH of 2.5. G. sulphuraria also recovered Nd(III), Dy(III), La(III), and Cu(II) with greater than 90% efficiency at a concentration of 0.5 ppm. The efficiency remained unchanged at pH values in the range of 1.5-2.5. Furthermore, at pH values in the range of 1.0-1.5, the lanthanoid ions were collected much more efficiently into the cell fractions than Cu(II) and therefore successfully separated from the Cu(II) dissolved in the aqueous acid. Microscope observation of the cells using alizarin red suggested that the metals were accumulating inside of the cells. Experiments using dead cells suggested that this phenomenon was a biological process involving specific activities within the cells.

  15. Novel Features of Eukaryotic Photosystem II Revealed by Its Crystal Structure Analysis from a Red Alga.

    PubMed

    Ago, Hideo; Adachi, Hideyuki; Umena, Yasufumi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo; Tian, Lirong; Han, Guangye; Kuang, Tingyun; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Fangjun; Zou, Hanfa; Enami, Isao; Miyano, Masashi; Shen, Jian-Ren

    2016-03-11

    Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes light-induced water splitting, leading to the evolution of molecular oxygen indispensible for life on the earth. The crystal structure of PSII from cyanobacteria has been solved at an atomic level, but the structure of eukaryotic PSII has not been analyzed. Because eukaryotic PSII possesses additional subunits not found in cyanobacterial PSII, it is important to solve the structure of eukaryotic PSII to elucidate their detailed functions, as well as evolutionary relationships. Here we report the structure of PSII from a red alga Cyanidium caldarium at 2.76 Å resolution, which revealed the structure and interaction sites of PsbQ', a unique, fourth extrinsic protein required for stabilizing the oxygen-evolving complex in the lumenal surface of PSII. The PsbQ' subunit was found to be located underneath CP43 in the vicinity of PsbV, and its structure is characterized by a bundle of four up-down helices arranged in a similar way to those of cyanobacterial and higher plant PsbQ, although helices I and II of PsbQ' were kinked relative to its higher plant counterpart because of its interactions with CP43. Furthermore, two novel transmembrane helices were found in the red algal PSII that are not present in cyanobacterial PSII; one of these helices may correspond to PsbW found only in eukaryotic PSII. The present results represent the first crystal structure of PSII from eukaryotic oxygenic organisms, which were discussed in comparison with the structure of cyanobacterial PSII.

  16. Isolation and purification of antialgal compounds from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis for activity against common harmful red tide microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Meng, Kun; Su, Zhen-Xia; Guo, Gan-Lin; Pu, Yin-Fang; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Seven antialgal compounds (1-7) were successfully isolated from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis through a combination of silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the spectral data, the compounds were identified as gossonorol (1), 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2), glycerol monopalmitate (3), stigmasterol (4), 15-hydroxymethyl-2, 6, 10, 18, 22, 26, 30-heptamethyl-14-methylene-17-hentriacontene (5), 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (6), and margaric acid (7). These seven compounds were isolated from G. lemaneiformis for the first time, while the compounds 4, 6, and 7 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the inhibition of algal growth and the concentration of each antialgal compound was determined and important parameters for future practical HAB control, e.g., EC50-96h, were also obtained. The results indicated that isolated compounds 1-7 possess selective antialgal activity against the growth of several red tide microalgae (including Amphidinium carterae, Heterosigma akashiwo, Karenia mikimitoi, Phaeocystis globsa, Prorocentrum donghaiense, and Skeletonema costatum). Their antialgal activity against test red tide microalgae has not been previously reported. Furthermore, the EC50-96h of one or more of the compounds towards the tested red microalgae was not only significantly less than 10 μg/mL but also was smaller than that of the characteristic antialgal agent potassium dichromate. The study demonstrates that compounds 1-7 possess significant application potential as antialgal agents against several harmful red tide microalgae.

  17. Growth under Red Light Enhances Photosystem II Relative to Photosystem I and Phycobilisomes in the Red Alga Porphyridium cruentum1

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Francis X.; Dennenberg, Ronald J.; Jursinic, Paul A.; Gantt, Elisabeth

    1990-01-01

    Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to light absorbed primarily by photosystem I (PSI) or by photosystem II (PSII) was studied in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum (ATCC 50161). Cultures grown under green light of 15 microeinsteins per square meter per second (PSII light; absorbed predominantly by the phycobilisomes) exhibited a PSII/PSI ratio of 0.26 ± 0.05. Under red light (PSI light; absorbed primarily by chlorophyll) of comparable quantum flux, cells contained nearly five times as many PSII per PSI (1.21 ± 0.10), and three times as many PSII per cell. About 12% of the chlorophyll was attributed to PSII in green light, 22% in white light, and 39% in red light-grown cultures. Chlorophyll antenna sizes appeared to remain constant at about 75 chlorophyll per PSII and 140 per PSI. Spectral quality had little effect on cell content or composition of the phycobilisomes, thus the number of PSII per phycobilisome was substantially greater in red light-grown cultures (4.2 ± 0.6) than in those grown under green (1.6 ± 0.3) or white light (2.9 ± 0.1). Total photosystems (PSI + PSII) per phycobilisome remained at about eight in each case. Carotenoid content and composition was little affected by the spectral composition of the growth light. Zeaxanthin comprised more than 50% (mole/mole), β-carotene about 40%, and cryptoxanthin about 4% of the carotenoid pigment. Despite marked changes in the light-harvesting apparatus, red and green light-grown cultures have generation times equal to that of cultures grown under white light of only one-third the quantum flux. PMID:16667597

  18. Abscisic Acid Participates in the Control of Cell Cycle Initiation Through Heme Homeostasis in the Unicellular Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Ando, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-05-01

    ABA is a phytohormone that is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses and other environmental changes, inducing various physiological responses. While ABA has been found in unicellular photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae, its function in these organisms is poorly understood. Here, we found that ABA accumulated in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under conditions of salt stress and that the cell cycle G1/S transition was inhibited when ABA was added to the culture medium. A gene encoding heme-scavenging tryptophan-rich sensory protein-related protein (CmTSPO; CMS231C) was positively regulated by ABA, as in Arabidopsis, and CmTSPO bound heme in vitro. The intracellular content of total heme was increased by addition of ABA, but unfettered heme decreased, presumably due to scavenging by CmTSPO. The inhibition of DNA replication by ABA was negated by addition of heme to the culture medium. Thus, we propose a regulatory role for ABA and heme in algal cell cycle initiation. Finally, we found that a C. merolae mutant that is defective in ABA production was more susceptible to salt stress, indicating the importance of ABA to stress resistance in red algae.

  19. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  20. Isolation, antimicrobial activity, and metabolites of fungus Cladosporium sp. associated with red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; Qin, Song; Li, Fuchao; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Cladosporium sp. isolate N5 was isolated as a dominant fungus from the healthy conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis. In the re-infection test, it did not cause any pathogenic symptoms in the alga. Twenty-one cultural conditions were chosen to test its antimicrobial activity in order to obtain the best condition for large-scale fermentation. Phenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol, and L-beta-phenyllactic acid were isolated from the crude extract as strong antimicrobial compounds and they are the first reported secondary metabolites for the genus Cladosporium. In addition, the Cladosporium sp. produced the reported Porphyra yezoensis growth regulators phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. No cytotoxicity was found in the brine shrimp lethality test, which indicated that the environmental-friendly Cladosporium sp. could be used as a potential biocontrol agent to protect the alga from pathogens.

  1. Enzymic Transformation of Biliverdin to Phycocyanobilin by Extracts of the Unicellular Red Alga Cyanidium caldarium1

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Samuel I.; Cornejo, Juan

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium catalyze the transformation of biliverdin to a product indistinguishable from phycocyanobilin, the free bilin derived from phycocyanin by methanolysis. Crude cell-free extract requires biliverdin as the only substrate, but after removal of low molecular weight components by gel filtration, the reaction shows an additional requirement for a reduced pyridine nucleotide. Boiled extract is enzymically inactive, activity is not sedimented by high-speed centrifugation, and mesobiliverdin cannot serve as a substrate. Incubation of cell extracts with biliverdin yields two products with very similar spectrophotometric properties in acidic methanol, but which are separable by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The same two products are formed by methanolysis of protein-bound phycocyanin chromophore, with the late-eluting one predominating. The two products derived from either phycocyanin methanolysis or cell extract incubation with biliverdin are partially interconvertible and they form the same ethylidine-free isomeric derivative, mesobiliverdin. Their absorption spectra correspond to those of the Z- and E-ethylidine isomers of phycocyanobilin. Based on previous work showing that the major methanolysis product has the E-ethylidine configuration, the other product of methanolysis and enzymic biliverdin transformation is therefore the Z-ethylidine isomer. The time course for formation of the two products during incubation suggests that the early-eluting product is the precursor of the late-eluting one. These results suggest that Z-ethylidine phycocyanobilin is the precursor of the E-ethylidine isomer, and that the latter may be a normal cellular precursor to protein-bound phycocyanin chromophore. PMID:16663825

  2. High-mannose N-glycan-specific lectin from the red alga Kappaphycus striatum (Carrageenophyte).

    PubMed

    Hung, Le Dinh; Sato, Yuichiro; Hori, Kanji

    2011-06-01

    From a fresh sample (1 kg) of cultivated red alga Kappaphycus striatum, three isolectins, KSA-1 (15.1 mg), KSA-2 (58.0 mg) and KSA-3 (6.9 mg), were isolated by a combination of extraction with aqueous ethanol, ethanol precipitation, and ion exchange chromatography. Isolated KSAs were monomeric proteins of about 28kDa having identical 20N-terminal amino acid sequences to each other. Their hemagglutination activities were not inhibited by monosaccharides, but inhibited by glycoproteins bearing high-mannose N-glycans. In a binding experiment with pyridylaminated oligosaccharides by centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC assay, the isolectin KSA-2 was exclusively bound to high-mannose type N-glycans, but not to other glycans. Including complex types and a pentasaccharide core of N-glycans, indicating that it recognized branched oligomannosides. The binding activity of KSA-2 was slightly different among high-mannose N-glycans examined, indicating that the lectin has a higher affinity for those having the exposed (α1-3) Man in the D2 arm. On the other hand, KSA-2 did not bind to a free oligomannose that is a constituent of the branched oligomannosides, implying that the portion of the core GlcNAc residue(s) of the N-glycans is also essential for binding. Thus, KSA-2 appears to recognize the extended carbohydrate structure with a minimal length of a tetrasaccharide, Man(α1-3)Man(α1-6)Man(β1-4)GlcNAc. This study indicates that K. striatum, which has extensively been cultivated as a source of carrageenan, is a good source of a valuable lectin(s) that is strictly specific for high-mannose N-glycans.

  3. Defense mechanisms of sargassacean species against the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noboru; Ohki, Kaori; Kamiya, Mitsunobu

    2015-08-01

    Flora diversity and abundance of epiphytes are specific to their basiphyte species and may relate to variations in the defensive abilities of basiphytes. Thus, investigating the interactions between epiphytes and basiphytes is useful for a better understanding of the biological impact of epiphytism and the survival strategies of basiphytes. We examined the epiphyte density on five sargassacean species at six locations between two study sites, which showed that the epiphytic red alga Neosiphonia harveyi was remarkably less abundant on Sargassum siliquastrum at all locations. To assess its defense mechanism against N. harveyi, we performed bioassays of phlorotannins, which are considered effective in deterring fouling, by culturing sargassacean blades with N. harveyi carpospores and observed the process by which sargassacean blades remove epiphytes. When the carpospores were incubated with various concentrations of dissolved phlorotannins, settlement and germination were inhibited only at the highest concentrations (>0.1 g · L(-1) ), and this effect did not significantly differ among the five sargassacean species. When the carpospores were combined with blades from the five species, many of the spores attached and germinated on every blade. Because N. harveyi penetrated rhizoids into basiphyte tissues, cuticle peeling observed in all five sargassacean species could not remove this epiphyte after germination. However, in S. siliquastrum, the blade tissues around the germlings became swollen and disintegrative, and were removed together with the germlings. The spores normally grew on the dead blades, suggesting that the tissue degradation of S. siliquastrum is triggered by the infection of N. harveyi.

  4. Extraction and PTP1B inhibitory activity of bromophenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Xiaoming; Gao, Lixin; Cui, Chuanming; Li, Chunshun; Li, Jia; Wang, Bingui

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we had characterized several structurally interesting brominated phenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula collected from various sites. However, Phytochemical investigations on this species collected from the Weihai coastline of Shandong Province remains blank. Therefore, we characterized the chemical constituents of individuals of this species collected from the region. Eight bromophenols were isolated and identified. Using detailed spectroscopic techniques and comparisons with published data, these compounds were identified as 2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 1), 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxymethylbenzene ( 3), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde ( 4), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 5), bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)methane ( 6), 1,2-bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethane ( 7), and 1-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-pyrrolidin-2-one ( 8). Among these compounds, 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from S. latiuscula. Each compound was evaluated on the ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bromophenols 5, 6, and 7 showed strong activities with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.3, and 3.5 μmol/L, respectively. This study provides further evidence that bromophenols are predominant among the chemical constituents of Symphyocladia, and that some of these compounds may be candidates for the development of anti-diabetes drugs.

  5. Sulfitobacter porphyrae sp. nov., isolated from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Youhei; Abe, Mahiko; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Shimada, Yushi; Saito, Hiroaki; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2014-02-01

    Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, halophilic bacteria, designated SCM-1(T), LCM10-1 and CTBL-B-147, were isolated from modified half-strength SWM-III medium, PES medium and thalli after laboratory cultivation of a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolates were affiliated to the genus Sulfitobacter of the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the new isolates with the closest related species, Sulfitobacter mediterraneus CH-B427(T), was 98.8%. The DNA G+C contents of the new isolates were in the range of 61.4-62.3 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain SCM-1(T) with other type strains of the genus Sulfitobacter were less than 15.9%. The new isolates contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified amino lipid and an unidentified lipid as the main polar lipids, and C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(19 : 1)ω7c and C(16 : 0) as the major fatty acids (>10% of the total). Strain SCM-1(T) could be differentiated from Sulfitobacter mediterraneus JCM 21792(T) by 35 morphological and phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of the phylogenetic, genetic and phenotypic properties of the new isolates, the name Sulfitobacter porphyrae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain SCM-1(T) ( = LMG 27110(T) = NBRC 109054(T)) as the type strain.

  6. The remote sensing of algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    State agencies need rapid, synoptic and inexpensive methods for lake assessment to comply with the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Low altitude aerial photography may be useful in providing information on algal type and quantity. Photography must be calibrated properly to remove sources of error including airlight, surface reflectance and scene-to-scene illumination differences. A 550-nm narrow wavelength band black and white photographic exposure provided a better correlation to algal biomass than either red or infrared photographic exposure. Of all the biomass parameters tested, depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration correlated best to remote sensing data. Laboratory-measured reflectance of selected algae indicate that different taxonomic classes of algae may be discriminated on the basis of their reflectance spectra.

  7. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  8. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  9. Enzymatic heme oxygenase activity in soluble extracts of the unicellular red alga, Cyanidium caldarium.

    PubMed

    Beale, S I; Cornejo, J

    1984-12-01

    Extracts of the phycocyanin-containing unicellular red alga, Cyanidium caldarium, catalyzed enzymatic cleavage of the heme macrocycle to form the linear tetrapyrrole bilin structure. This is the key first step in the branch of the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway leading to phycobilin photosynthetic accessory pigments. A mixed-function oxidase mechanism, similar to the biliverdin-forming reaction catalyzed by animal cell-derived microsomal heme oxygenase, was indicated by requirements for O2 and a reduced pyridine nucleotide. To avoid enzymatic conversion of the bilin product to phycocyanobilins and subsequent degradation during incubation, mesoheme IX was substituted for the normal physiological substrate, protoheme IX. Mesobiliverdin IX alpha was identified as the primary incubation product by comparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and absorption spectrophotometry. The enzymatic nature of the reaction was indicated by the requirement for cell extract, absence of activity in boiled cell extract, high specificity for NADPH as cosubstrate, formation of the physiologically relevant IX alpha bilin isomer, and over 75% inhibition by 1 microM Sn-protoporphyrin, which has been reported to be a competitive inhibitor of animal microsomal heme oxygenase. On the other hand, coupled oxidation of mesoheme, catalyzed by ascorbate plus pyridine or myoglobin, yielded a mixture of ring-opening mesobiliverdin IX isomers, was not inhibited by Sn-protoporphyrin, and could not use NADPH as the reductant. Unlike the animal microsomal heme oxygenase, the algal reaction appeared to be catalyzed by a soluble enzyme that was not sedimentable by centrifugation for 1 h at 200,000g. Although NADPH was the preferred reductant, small amounts of activity were obtained with NADH or ascorbate. A portion of the activity was retained after gel filtration of the cell extract to remove low-molecular-weight components. Considerable stimulation of activity, particularly in

  10. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  11. Up-regulation of lipoxygenase, phospholipase, and oxylipin-production in the induced chemical defense of the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Florian; Lion, Ulrich; Delage, Ludovic; Kloareg, Bernard; Potin, Philippe; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-07-01

    The red alga Gracilaria chilensis is commercially farmed for the production of agar hydrocolloids, but some susceptible algae in farms suffer from intense epiphyte growth. We investigated the induced chemical defense response of G. chilensis against epiphytes and demonstrated that an extract of an epiphyte-challenged alga can trigger a defense response. The hormonally active metabolites were purified by RP-HPLC. Treatment with the extract or the purified fraction changed the chemical profile of the alga and increased resistance against epiphyte spores. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme assays demonstrated that this metabolic response occurs after an increase in lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activity. Although this suggests the involvement of regulatory oxylipins, neither jasmonic acid nor the algal metabolite prostaglandin E2 triggers comparable defense responses.

  12. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Multicellular Green, Red and Brown Algae: Phylogenetic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    KAPRAUN, DONALD F.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae. • Methods The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and RBC (chicken erythrocyte) standard were used to estimate 2C values with static microspectrophotometry. • Key Results 2C DNA contents for 85 species of Chlorophyta range from 0·2–6·1 pg, excluding the highly polyploidy Charales and Desmidiales with DNA contents of up to 39·2 and 20·7 pg, respectively. 2C DNA contents for 111 species of Rhodophyta range from 0·1–2·8 pg, and for 44 species of Phaeophyta range from 0·2–1·8 pg. • Conclusions New availability of consensus higher-level molecular phylogenies provides a framework for viewing C-value data in a phylogenetic context. Both DNA content ranges and mean values are greater in taxa considered to be basal. It is proposed that the basal, ancestral genome in each algal group was quite small. Both mechanistic and ecological processes are discussed that could have produced the observed C-value ranges. PMID:15596456

  13. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  14. Miocene Coralline algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  15. [Control of chlorophyll a synthesis by phytochrome and cryptochrome in the red alga Corallina elongata Ellis et Soland].

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, F; Niell, F X

    1988-09-01

    Chlorophyll a synthesis in the red alga Corallina elongata is controlled by phytochrome and by a specific blue light photoreceptor. Although the estimated photoequilibrium of phytochrome is similar in blue and red light, the amount of chlorophyll accumulated is greater in blue light, which implies the action of cryptochrome, according to the criteria for the specific blue light photoreceptor involvement. The amount of chlorophyll synthesized is greater when the level of photoequilibrium approaches 65% (in blue and red light) than with higher levels (72.7% in white light and 70.8% in green light). The action of phytochrome is demonstrated by the induction of chlorophyll synthesis after red pulses and the reversion after far red pulses. The reversion is not complete but the percentage of reversibility is high (85-90%). The amount of chlorophyll accumulated is greater in darkness after the application of red light pulses than in white light after the same light pulses. The induction of chlorophyll synthesis is greater after red pulses than after continuous red light. The existence of a fast destruction of chlorophyll in continuous light is observed. This destruction is greater in the high photoequilibrium of phytochrome (70-72%). The turnover times and the induction mechanism of chlorophyll synthesis must be very fast. This indicates the existence of a possible rapid adaptation to the change in light quality and intensity in the marine system.

  16. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ-carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (Ik) of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption. PMID:24380080

  17. Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov., a new marine polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from a Pacific red alga.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Balabanova, Larissa A; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, So-Jeong; Bakunina, Irina Y; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain 10Alg 130(T), that displayed the ability to destroy polysaccharides of red and brown algae, was isolated from the red alga Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the novel strain within the genus Flavobacterium, the type genus of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the phylum Bacteroidetes, with sequence similarities of 96.2 and 95.7 % to Flavobacterium jumunjiense KCTC 23618(T) and Flavobacterium ponti CCUG 58402(T), and 95.3-92.5 % to other recognized Flavobacterium species. The prevalent fatty acids of strain 10Alg 130(T) were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:0 and iso-C17:1ω9c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.3 mol%. The new isolate and the type strains of recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium could strongly be distinguished by a number of phenotypic characteristics. A combination of the genotypic and phenotypic data showed that the algal isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ahnfeltiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10Alg 130(T) (=KCTC 32467(T) = KMM 6686(T)).

  18. Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and their implications for light adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k) of this algal species was less than 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increased on the fourth day. Under high light, yield II retained a stable value. These results indicate that K. alvarezii is a low-light-adapted species but possesses regulative mechanisms in response to both excessive and deficient light. Based on the PBP gene sequences, K. alvarezii, together with other red algae, assembled faster and showed a closer relationship with LL-Prochlorococcus compared to HL-Prochlorococcus. Many amino acid loci in PBP sequences of K. alvarezii were conserved with those of LL-Prochlorococcus. However, loci conserved with HL-Prochlorococcus but divergent with LL-Prochlorococcus were also found. The diversities of PE and PC are proposed to have played some roles during the algal evolution and divergence of light adaption.

  19. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  20. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-27

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  1. Structural Characterization of a Hybrid Carrageenan-Like Sulfated Galactan from a Marine Red Alga Furcellaria lumbricalis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Youjing; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Junzeng; Yu, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated galactan isolated from marine red algae with different disaccharide forms. There are also some hybrid carrageenan-like oligomers, which are reported to possess a number of bioactivities. Here, we describe a method to study the structural characterization of a carrageenan-like sulfated galactan FB1 extracted from the red seaweed Furcellaria lumbricalis. We show the process of the general analysis of FB1, including the molecular weight, sulfate content, total sugar content, protein content, and 3,6-anhydrogalactose (3,6-AnG) content analyses. The fine structure identification methods, including desulfation and methylation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ES-CID-MS/MS), are also described in detail.

  2. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Becker, Kathrin; Karsten, Ulf; Remias, Daniel; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991) were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1%) and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%). Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as (E)-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)cyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene)amino) propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline. PMID:26473886

  3. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Anja; Becker, Kathrin; Karsten, Ulf; Remias, Daniel; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-10-09

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R² > 0.9991) were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1%) and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%). Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as (E)-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)cyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene)amino) propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline.

  4. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae.

  5. Composition and biosynthesis of thylakoid membrane polypeptides in the red alga Cyanidium caldarium: Comparison with the thylakoid polypeptide composition of higher plants and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yurina, N P; Karakashev, G V; Karapetyan, N V; Odintsova, M S

    1991-10-01

    The polypeptide composition of thylakoid membranes of the red alga Cyanidium caldarium was studied by PAGE in the presence of lithium dodecyl sulfate. The thylakoid membranes were shown to contain 65 polypeptides with mol wt from 110 to 10 kDa. PS I isolated from C. caldarium cells is composed of at least 5 components, one of which is the chlorophyll-protein complex with mol wt of 110 kDa typical of higher plants. Cyt f, c 552, b 6 and b 559 were identified. Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis with norflurazon caused no changes in the polypeptide composition of thylakoid membranes of the algae grown in dark. The suppression of the biosynthesis rate of some thylakoid polypeptides in the algae grown with norflurazon in light is a result of membrane photodestruction. Thylakoid membranes from C. caldarium cells are more similar in the number of protein components to thylakoid membranes from cells of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans than to those of higher plants (Pisum sativum), which was proved by immune-blotting assays: Thylakoid membranes of the red alga and cyanobacteria contain 28 homologous polypeptides, while thylakoid membranes of the alga and pea, only 15.

  6. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  7. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  8. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  9. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-En; Huang, Xing-Qi; Hang, Yu; Deng, Yin-Yin; Lu, Qin-Qin; Lu, Shan

    2014-09-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of α- and β-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, β-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxylase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from β-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumulation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a β-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible ϵ-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection.

  10. In-Situ Effects of Simulated Overfishing and Eutrophication on Benthic Coral Reef Algae Growth, Succession, and Composition in the Central Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Christian; Roder, Cornelia; Villa Lizcano, Javier Felipe; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Overfishing and land-derived eutrophication are major local threats to coral reefs and may affect benthic communities, moving them from coral dominated reefs to algal dominated ones. The Central Red Sea is a highly under-investigated area, where healthy coral reefs are contending against intense coastal development. This in-situ study investigated both the independent and combined effects of manipulated inorganic nutrient enrichment (simulation of eutrophication) and herbivore exclosure (simulation of overfishing) on benthic algae development. Light-exposed and shaded terracotta tiles were positioned at an offshore patch reef close to Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and sampled over a period of 4 months. Findings revealed that nutrient enrichment alone affected neither algal dry mass nor algae-derived C or N production. In contrast, herbivore exclusion significantly increased algal dry mass up to 300-fold, and in conjunction with nutrient enrichment, this total increased to 500-fold. Though the increase in dry mass led to a 7 and 8-fold increase in organic C and N content, respectively, the algal C/N ratio (18±1) was significantly lowered in the combined treatment relative to controls (26±2). Furthermore, exclusion of herbivores significantly increased the relative abundance of filamentous algae on the light-exposed tiles and reduced crustose coralline algae and non-coralline red crusts on the shaded tiles. The combination of the herbivore exclusion and nutrient enrichment treatments pronounced these effects. The results of our study suggest that herbivore reduction, particularly when coupled with nutrient enrichment, favors non-calcifying, filamentous algae growth with high biomass production, which thoroughly outcompetes the encrusting (calcifying) algae that dominates in undisturbed conditions. These results suggest that the healthy reefs of the Central Red Sea may experience rapid shifts in benthic community composition with ensuing effects for biogeochemical cycles if

  11. In-Situ Effects of Simulated Overfishing and Eutrophication on Benthic Coral Reef Algae Growth, Succession, and Composition in the Central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Christian; Roder, Cornelia; Villa Lizcano, Javier Felipe; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Overfishing and land-derived eutrophication are major local threats to coral reefs and may affect benthic communities, moving them from coral dominated reefs to algal dominated ones. The Central Red Sea is a highly under-investigated area, where healthy coral reefs are contending against intense coastal development. This in-situ study investigated both the independent and combined effects of manipulated inorganic nutrient enrichment (simulation of eutrophication) and herbivore exclosure (simulation of overfishing) on benthic algae development. Light-exposed and shaded terracotta tiles were positioned at an offshore patch reef close to Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and sampled over a period of 4 months. Findings revealed that nutrient enrichment alone affected neither algal dry mass nor algae-derived C or N production. In contrast, herbivore exclusion significantly increased algal dry mass up to 300-fold, and in conjunction with nutrient enrichment, this total increased to 500-fold. Though the increase in dry mass led to a 7 and 8-fold increase in organic C and N content, respectively, the algal C/N ratio (18±1) was significantly lowered in the combined treatment relative to controls (26±2). Furthermore, exclusion of herbivores significantly increased the relative abundance of filamentous algae on the light-exposed tiles and reduced crustose coralline algae and non-coralline red crusts on the shaded tiles. The combination of the herbivore exclusion and nutrient enrichment treatments pronounced these effects. The results of our study suggest that herbivore reduction, particularly when coupled with nutrient enrichment, favors non-calcifying, filamentous algae growth with high biomass production, which thoroughly outcompetes the encrusting (calcifying) algae that dominates in undisturbed conditions. These results suggest that the healthy reefs of the Central Red Sea may experience rapid shifts in benthic community composition with ensuing effects for biogeochemical cycles if

  12. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution.

  13. Effective and selective recovery of gold and palladium ions from metal wastewater using a sulfothermophilic red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaohui; Igarashi, Kensuke; Miyashita, Shin-Ichi; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Inagaki, Kazumi; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Sawada, Hitomi; Kuwabara, Tomohiko; Minoda, Ayumi

    2016-07-01

    The demand for precious metals has increased in recent years. However, low concentrations of precious metals dissolved in wastewater are yet to be recovered because of high operation costs and technical problems. The unicellular red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria, efficiently absorbs precious metals through biosorption. In this study, over 90% of gold and palladium could be selectively recovered from aqua regia-based metal wastewater by using G. sulphuraria. These metals were eluted from the cells into ammonium solutions containing 0.2M ammonium salts without other contaminating metals. The use of G. sulphuraria is an eco-friendly and cost-effective way of recovering low concentrations of gold and palladium discarded in metal wastewater.

  14. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis and detoxification of red alga Pterocladiella capillacea for bioethanol fermentation with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hui; Chien, Wei-Chen; Chou, Han-Kai; Yang, Jungwoo; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor

    2014-09-01

    One-step sulfuric acid saccharification of the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea was optimized, and various detoxification methods (neutralization, overliming, and electrodialysis) of the acid hydrolysate were evaluated for fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A proximate composition analysis indicated that P. capillacea was rich in carbohydrates. A significant galactose recovery of 81.1 ± 5% was also achieved under the conditions of a 12% (w/v) biomass load, 5% (v/v) sulfuric acid, 121°C, and hydrolysis for 30 min. Among the various detoxification methods, electrodialysis was identified as the most suitable for fermentable sugar recovery and organic acid removal (100% reduction of formic and levulinic acids), even though it failed to reduce the amount of the inhibitor 5-HMF. As a result, K. marxianus fermentation with the electrodialyzed acid hydrolysate of P. capillacea resulted in the best ethanol levels and fermentation efficiency.

  15. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  16. The effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and respiration in the estuarine red alga Bostrychia radicans mont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, Ulf; Kirst, Gunter O.

    1989-03-01

    The estuarine red alga, Bostrychia radicans, was subjected to osmotic stresses ranging from hypo-osmotic (9.9‰) to hyperosmotic conditions (37.4‰). The growth rate decreased with increasing salinities and showed a maximum in a mesohaline medium, while the photosynthetic rate and the chlorophyll a content increased under hyper-osmotic conditions. The rate of respiration remained constant over the salinity range tested. B. radicans revealed typical characteristics of “shade plants” having a low light compensation point at 3 4 μE m-2 s-1 correlated with a low photon flux density of 70 100 μE m-2 s-1 for saturation of photosynthesis. These physiological properties may explain the success of B. radicans in estuarine habitats.

  17. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  18. Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

    2015-03-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation.

  19. Abundance and Diversity of CO2-Assimilating Bacteria and Algae Within Red Agricultural Soils Are Modulated by Changing Management Practice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Xiangbi; Liu, Shoulong; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Wenxue; Whiteley, Andrew Steven; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the biodiversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacterial and algal communities in soils is important for obtaining a mechanistic view of terrestrial carbon sinks operating at global scales. "Red" acidic soils (Orthic Acrisols) cover large geographic areas and are subject to a range of management practices, which may alter the balance between carbon dioxide production and assimilation through changes in microbial CO(2)-assimilating populations. Here, we determined the abundance and diversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacteria and algae in acidic soils using quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the cbbL gene, which encodes the key CO(2) assimilation enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in the Calvin cycle. Within the framework of a long-term experiment (Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem, subtropical China), paddy rice fields were converted in 1995 to four alternative land management regimes: natural forest (NF), paddy rice (PR), maize crops (CL), and tea plantations (TP). In 2012 (17 years after land use transformation), we collected and analyzed the soils from fields under the original and converted land management regimes. Our results indicated that fields under the PR soil management system harbored the greatest abundance of cbbL copies (4.33 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil). More than a decade after converting PR soils to natural, rotation, and perennial management systems, a decline in both the diversity and abundance of cbbL-harboring bacteria and algae was recorded. The lowest abundance of bacteria (0.98 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil) and algae (0.23 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil) was observed for TP soils. When converting PR soil management to alternative management systems (i.e., NF, CL, and TP), soil edaphic factors (soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were the major determinants of bacterial autotrophic cbbL gene diversity. In contrast, soil phosphorus concentration was the major regulator

  20. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  1. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  2. Comparative Genomics of Two Closely Related Unicellular Thermo-Acidophilic Red Algae, Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Reveals the Molecular Basis of the Metabolic Flexibility of Galdieria sulphuraria and Significant Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Both Algae1

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Guillaume; Oesterhelt, Christine; Larson, Matthew D.; Halgren, Robert G.; Wilkerson, Curtis; Garavito, R. Michael; Benning, Christoph; Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Unicellular algae serve as models for the study and discovery of metabolic pathways, for the functional dissection of cell biological processes such as organellar division and cell motility, and for the identification of novel genes and gene functions. The recent completion of several algal genome sequences and expressed sequence tag collections and the establishment of nuclear and organellar transformation methods has opened the way for functional genomics approaches using algal model systems. The thermo-acidophilic unicellular red alga Galdieria sulphuraria represents a particularly interesting species for a genomics approach owing to its extraordinary metabolic versatility such as heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth on more than 50 different carbon sources and its adaptation to hot acidic environments. However, the ab initio prediction of genes required for unknown metabolic pathways from genome sequences is not trivial. A compelling strategy for gene identification is the comparison of similarly sized genomes of related organisms with different physiologies. Using this approach, candidate genes were identified that are critical to the metabolic versatility of Galdieria. Expressed sequence tags and high-throughput genomic sequence reads covering >70% of the G. sulphuraria genome were compared to the genome of the unicellular, obligate photoautotrophic red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. More than 30% of the Galdieria sequences did not relate to any of the Cyanidioschyzon genes. A closer inspection of these sequences revealed a large number of membrane transporters and enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism that are unique to Galdieria. Based on these data, it is proposed that genes involved in the uptake of reduced carbon compounds and enzymes involved in their metabolism are crucial to the metabolic flexibility of G. sulphuraria. PMID:15710685

  3. Isolation and Identification of a Flavone Apigenin from Marine Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera with Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    El Shoubaky, Gihan A.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Mansour, Mohamed H.; Salem, Essam A.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2) solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift reagents (NaOMe, NaOAc, NaOAc + H3BO3, AlCl3, and AlCl3 + HCl) were used for the identification and elucidation of the structure of the flavone compound (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonoids). The flavone compound was identified as apigenin bycomparing its physicochemical data with those in the literature. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin were evaluated. Apigenin showed promising analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the hot plate test and writhing test in mice as well as tail-immersion tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. It is concluded that apigenin possesses potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities, which might be due to the inhibition of PGE2 as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. PMID:26917974

  4. Mitogenomes from type specimens, a genotyping tool for morphologically simple species: ten genomes of agar-producing red algae

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Ga Hun; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequences from type specimens provide independent, objective characters that enhance the value of type specimens and permit the correct application of species names to phylogenetic clades and specimens. We provide mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from archival type specimens of ten species in agar-producing red algal genera Gelidium and Pterocladiella. The genomes contain 43–44 genes, ranging in size from 24,910 to 24,970 bp with highly conserved gene synteny. Low Ka/Ks ratios of apocytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase genes support their utility as markers. Phylogenies of mitogenomes and cox1+rbcL sequences clarified classification at the genus and species levels. Three species formerly in Gelidium and Pterocladia are transferred to Pterocladiella: P. media comb. nov., P. musciformis comb. nov., and P. luxurians comb. and stat. nov. Gelidium sinicola is merged with G. coulteri because they share identical cox1 and rbcL sequences. We describe a new species, Gelidium millariana sp. nov., previously identified as G. isabelae from Australia. We demonstrate that mitogenomes from type specimens provide a new tool for typifying species in the Gelidiales and that there is an urgent need for analyzing mitogenomes from type specimens of red algae and other morphologically simple organisms for insight into their nomenclature, taxonomy and evolution. PMID:27739454

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  6. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  7. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  8. Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentall, Gena B.; Rosen, Barry H.; Kunz, Jessica M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Saunders, Gary W.; LaRoche, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations between epibionts (organisms that live on the surface of another living organism) and vertebrates have been documented in both marine and terrestrial environments, and may be opportunistic, commensal, or symbiotic (Lewin et al. 1981, Holmes 1985, Allen et al. 1993, Bledsoe et al. 2006, Pfaller et al. 2008, Suutari et al. 2010). Although epibiont proliferation is frequently reported on slow-moving, sparsely haired organisms such as manatees and sloths, reports from densely furred, highly mobile mammals are much less common. There are reports of epizoic algae for several species of pinnipeds (Kenyon and Rice 1959, Scheffer 1962, Baldridge 1977, Allen et al. 1993), which rely to varying degrees on both pelage and blubber for thermoregulation, but the phenomenon has not been widely described. Scheffer (1962) noted that red algae was fairly common on the pelage of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), pinnipeds for which fur likely makes a comparatively high contribution to thermoregulation (Donohue et al. 2000). For species with pelage that plays a critical role of thermal insulation, it seems implausible that an epibiont would persist on healthy individuals that devote significant energy resources toward grooming and actively maintaining their coat. Biological characteristics of epibiont settlement and attachment, and physiological requirements of epizoic species play key roles in their successful colonization and potential host impacts. To investigate this relationship, we explore a novel discovery of an epizoic alga from southern sea otters, including describing algal development on sea otter hair and molecular identification of the algae.

  9. Physiological function of bromoperoxidase in the red marine alga, Corallina pilulifera: production of bromoform as an allelochemical and the simultaneous elimination of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, N; Ogata, Y; Okada, N; Itoh, N

    2001-11-01

    The physiological function of vanadium-bromoperoxidase (BPO) in the marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera, has been characterized from the viewpoint of allelochemical formation. The algae emit bromoform (CHBr3) depending on the enzyme activity level in vivo (Itoh, N., Shinya, M., 1994. Seasonal evolution of bromomethanes from coralline algae and its effect on atmospheric ozone. Marine Chemistry 45, 95-103). We demonstrated that bromoform produced by C. pilulifera played an important role in eliminating epiphytic organisms, especially microalgae on the surface. Such data suggest a strong relationship between the coralline algae and the coralline flat (deforested area in the marine environment: called isoyake in Japanese). Lithophyllum yessoense, the main inhabitant of coralline flats in Japan, produced a lower level of CHBr3 than C. pilulifera, and showed BPO activity. On the other hand, the seasonal change of BPO activity in C. pilulifera in vivo was in proportion to superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and in inverse proportion to catalase activity. The phenomenon implies that BPO could be a potential substitute for catalase, because the enzyme catalyzes an efficient Br(-)-dependent catalase reaction.

  10. Coastal dunes with high content of rhodolith (coralline red algae) bioclasts: Pleistocene formations on Maio and São Nicolau in the Cape Verde archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Baarli, B. Gudveig; da Silva, Carlos M.; Cachão, Mário; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayoral, Eduardo J.; Santos, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Rhodoliths are spherical growths (coralline red algae) that contribute bioclasts to coastal dunes in the Gulf of California (Mexico) and the Canary Islands (North Atlantic). Pleistocene dunes on Maio and São Nicolau islands in the Cape Verde archipelago were studied to quantify rhodolith contribution relative to other sources. Near Pilão Cão on Maio, a transverse dune at Lomba Greija covers 0.3 km2, exposing stoss slopes that dip 8°-10° NE and leeward slip faces that dip 28°-32° SW and SE. Point counts on thin-section samples show that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 5%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided space (dissolved grains) account for 67%. Among remaining identifiable bioclasts (coralline red algae, mollusks, corals, foraminifera, and echinoderms), rhodolith grains with an average diameter of 0.5 mm account for 74%. Near Carriçal at Covoadinha de Chacina on the SE coast of São Nicolau, the stoss slope dips 8° SE for 70-80 m on narrow longitudinal dunes. Point counts on a thin-section sample taken 2.5 m above basement rock, reveal that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 10%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided spaces account for 60%. Among identifiable bioclasts from the remainder (coralline red algae, mollusks, echinoderms, and bryozoa), rhodolith grains ranging in size from 0.5 to 1 mm account for 96%. Potential enrichment from coralline red algae may be overlooked in coastal dunes, because content normally is described as dominated by mollusk shells, the tests from abundant foraminifera, and/or ooids.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. A multi-mineral natural product from red marine algae reduces colon polyp formation in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad N.; Bergin, Ingrid; Naik, Madhav; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hampton, Anna; Rehman, Muneeb; Dame, Michael K; Rush, Howard; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if a multi-mineral natural product derived from red marine algae, could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months either on a high-fat “Western-style” diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multi-mineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet, but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (p<0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (p=0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multi-mineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multi-mineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps. PMID:23035966

  17. Recent mobility of plastid encoded group II introns and twintrons in five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium.

    PubMed

    Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Price, Dana C; Mohr, Georg; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    Group II introns are closely linked to eukaryote evolution because nuclear spliceosomal introns and the small RNAs associated with the spliceosome are thought to trace their ancient origins to these mobile elements. Therefore, elucidating how group II introns move, and how they lose mobility can potentially shed light on fundamental aspects of eukaryote biology. To this end, we studied five strains of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that surprisingly contain 42 group II introns in their plastid genomes. We focused on a subset of these introns that encode mobility-conferring intron-encoded proteins (IEPs) and found them to be distributed among the strains in a lineage-specific manner. The reverse transcriptase and maturase domains were present in all lineages but the DNA endonuclease domain was deleted in vertically inherited introns, demonstrating a key step in the loss of mobility. P. purpureum plastid intron RNAs had a classic group IIB secondary structure despite variability in the DIII and DVI domains. We report for the first time the presence of twintrons (introns-within-introns, derived from the same mobile element) in Rhodophyta. The P. purpureum IEPs and their mobile introns provide a valuable model for the study of mobile retroelements in eukaryotes and offer promise for biotechnological applications.

  18. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  19. Extensive cryptic species diversity and fine-scale endemism in the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Payo, Dioli Ann; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; D'hondt, Sofie; Calumpong, Hilconida P.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We investigated species diversity and distribution patterns of the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippine archipelago. Species boundaries were tested based on mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear encoded loci, using a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model-based approach and a Bayesian multilocus species delimitation method. The outcome of the GMYC analysis of the mitochondrial encoded cox2-3 dataset was highly congruent with the multilocus analysis. In stark contrast with the current morphology-based assumption that the genus includes a single, widely distributed species in the Indo-West Pacific (Portieria hornemannii), DNA-based species delimitation resulted in the recognition of 21 species within the Philippines. Species distributions were found to be highly structured with most species restricted to island groups within the archipelago. These extremely narrow species ranges and high levels of intra-archipelagic endemism contrast with the wide-held belief that marine organisms generally have large geographical ranges and that endemism is at most restricted to the archipelagic level. Our results indicate that speciation in the marine environment may occur at spatial scales smaller than 100 km, comparable with some terrestrial systems. Our finding of fine-scale endemism has important consequences for marine conservation and management. PMID:23269854

  20. Effect of polyethylenimine, a cell permeabilizer, on the photosensitized destruction of algae by methylene blue and nuclear fast red.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Cathy; Robertson, Peter K J

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports the effect a cell permeabilizer, polyethylenimine (PEI) has on the photodynamic effect of methylene blue (MB) and nuclear fast red (NFR) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The photosensitized destruction of the algae Chlorella vulgaris under irradiation with visible light is examined. The photodynamic effect was investigated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The presence of a permeabilizer during the photosensitized destruction of C. vulgaris does not enhance the activity of the MB, MB/H2O2 system or the NFR, NFR/H2O2 system under aerobic conditions. However under anaerobic conditions we have determined that when a cell permeabilizer was added to the MB/H202 system, the photosensitized destruction of C. vulgaris proceeded via a combination of Type I and Type II mechanisms. The presence of PEI enforces MB/H2O2 to be active toward the destruction of C. vulgaris whether oxygen is present or absent. Under aerobic and anaerobic conditions the activity of NFR was suppressed in the presence of PEI as a result of electrostatic interactions between the photosensitizer and the cell permeabilizer. The decrease in fluorescence recorded is indicative of destruction of the chlorophyll a pigment.

  1. Characterization of Isoforms of the Lectin Isolated from the Red Algae Bryothamnion seaforthii and Its Pro-Healing Effect

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Carneiro, Romulo Farias; da Silva, Suzete Roberta; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda, Francisco; Carneiro, Victor Alves; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; da Silva Jr., Valdemiro Amaro; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Nagano, Celso Shiniti

    2012-01-01

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins that have specific binding sites for carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Because of their biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The present study aimed to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin isolated from the marine red alga Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL). The lectin was purified using ion exchange chromatography with DEAE cellulose and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry. For healing tests, skin wounds were induced in the dorsal thoracic region of mice. These animals were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to topical treatment for 12 days with BSL, bovine serum albumin and 150 mM NaCl. To evaluate the potential of each treatment, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 12, respectively. The parameters evaluated included the wound area, the proportion of wound closure and the histological diagnosis. The wound closure was more effective with BSL (Postoperative Day 7 and 12) than controls. The luminal epithelium was completely restructured; the presence of collagen in the dermis and the strongly active presence of young skin annexes demonstrate the potential of treatment with BSL compared with controls. Our findings suggest that BSL has pro-healing properties and can be a potential medical process in the treatment of acute wounds. PMID:23118713

  2. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

  3. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla.

  4. Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Red Algae Gracilaria caudata Protects Mice Gut Against Ethanol-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; de Souza Chaves, Luciano; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg−1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g−1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg−1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg−1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg−1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg−1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g−1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway. PMID:22163181

  5. Effect of dietary porphyran from the red alga, Porphyra yezoensis, on glucose metabolism in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Murazumi, Koki; Duan, Jingjing; Kurose, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Porphyran (POR) from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis is a water soluble dietary fiber. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary POR on glucose metabolism in KK-Ay mice (a model for type 2 diabetes). Mice were divided into 4 groups and fed a diet containing 5% cellulose (control), POR, POR Arg or POR K. After 3 wk of feeding, plasma insulin levels and the calculated homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were significantly lower in the POR group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly increased in the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups. These results suggest that dietary POR should improve glucose metabolism in diabetes via up-regulation of adiponectin levels. In addition, the amount of propionic acid in the cecum of the POR group was significantly higher than in the control group and the profile of bacterial flora was changed by dietary POR. In the cecum of the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups, Bacteroides was significantly increased and Clostridium coccoides was significantly decreased compared with in the control group. The effects of dietary POR on the hindgut environment might contribute to the improvement of glucose metabolism.

  6. Characterization of the sporophyte-preferential gene promoter from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis using transient gene expression.

    PubMed

    Uji, Toshiki; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Saga, Naotsune

    2013-04-01

    The life cycle of plants entails an alternation of generations, the diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stages. There is little information about the characteristics of gene expression during each phase of marine macroalgae. Promoter analysis is a useful method for understanding transcriptional regulation; however, there is no report of promoter analyses in marine macroalgae. In this study, with the aim of elucidating the differences in the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between the gametophyte and sporophyte stages in the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we isolated the promoter from the sporophyte preferentially expressed gene PyKPA1, which encodes a sodium pump, and analyzed its promoter using a transient gene expression system with a synthetic β-glucuronidase (PyGUS) reporter. The deletion of -1432 to -768 relative to the transcription start site resulted in decreased GUS activity in sporophytes. In contrast, deletion from -767 to -527 increased GUS activity in gametophytes. Gain-of-function analyses showed that the -1432 to -760 region enhanced the GUS activity of a heterologous promoter in sporophytes, whereas the -767 to -510 region repressed it in gametophytes. Further mutation and gain-of-function analyses of the -767 to -510 region revealed that a 20-bp GC-rich sequence (-633 to -614) is responsible for the gametophyte-specific repressed expression. These results showed that the sporophyte-specific positive regulatory region and gametophyte-specific negative regulatory sequence play a crucial role in the preferential expression of PyKPA1 in P. yezoensis sporophytes.

  7. Algimonas porphyrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Hyphomonadaceae, isolated from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Youhei; Abe, Mahiko; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Three Gram-negative, stalked, motile bacteria, designated 0C-2-2(T), 0C-17 and LNM-3, were isolated from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the three novel strains belonged to the family Hyphomonadaceae, and were closely related to Litorimonas taeanensis G5(T) (96.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Hellea balneolensis 26III/A02/215(T) (94.3 %). The DNA G+C contents of the novel isolates (58.5-60.2 mol%) were clearly distinguished from those of L. taeanensis G5(T) (47.1 mol%) and H. balneolensis DSM 19091(T) (47.9 mol%). The G+C content of L. taeanensis G5(T) obtained in this study was quite different from a previous report (63.6 mol%). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the novel strains constituted a single species. Eleven phenotypic features of the three isolates differed from those of both related genera. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 and the major fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the novel strains represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Algimonas porphyrae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Algimonas porphyrae is 0C-2-2(T) (= LMG 26424(T) = NBRC 108216(T)).

  8. Generation of 10,154 expressed sequence tags from a leafy gametophyte of a marine red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, I; Asamizu, E; Nakajima, M; Nakamura, Y; Saga, N; Tabata, S

    2000-06-30

    A total of 10,154 5'-end expressed sequence tags (EST) were established from the normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries of a marine red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Among the ESTs, 2140 were unique species, and the remaining 8014 were grouped into 1127 species. Database search of the 3267 non-redundant ESTs by BLAST algorithm showed that the sequences of 1080 species (33.1%) have similarity to those of registered genes from various organisms including higher plants, mammals, yeasts, and cyanobacteria, while 2187 (66.9%) are novel. Codon usage analysis in the coding regions of 101 non-redundant EST groups showing significant similarity to known genes indicated the higher GC contents at the third position of codons (79.4%) than the first (62.2%) and the second position (45.0%), suggesting that the genome has been exposed to high GC pressure during evolution. The sequence data of individual ESTs are available at the web site http://www.kazusa.or.jp/en/plant/porphyra/EST/.

  9. The covalent linkage of protein to carbohydrate in the extracellular protein-polysaccharide from the red alga Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed Central

    Heaney-Kieras, J; Rodén, L; Chapman, D J

    1977-01-01

    The extracellular anionic polysaccharide isolated from cultures of a unicellular red alga, Porphyridium cruentum, contains a small amount of protein after extensive purification. The polysaccharide and protein are recovered in the same fraction after isopycnic CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation in 4M-guanidinium chloride, under conditions designed to separate proteins from polysaccharide. The peptide portion of the protein-polysaccharide is released from the polysaccharide by alkali under conditions for beta-elimination. The released peptide is non-diffusible, but in can be separated from the polysaccharide by precipitation of the polysaccharide as the cetylpyridinium complex. Under conditions for beta-elimination of certain O-glycosidic carbohydrate-protein linkages, selective destruction of serine and threonine occurs. The addition of a reducing agent to the alkali mixture produces a selective increase in alanine and alpha-aminobutyric acid. Addition of a tritiated reducing agent to the alkali mixture produces radioactive alanine and alpha-aminobutyric acid, and xylitol as the only sugar alcohol. Similar results are obtained from glycopeptides isolated from partial acid hydrolysates. A macromolecular structure of the protein-polysaccharide is suggested by a comparison of the intrinsic viscosity of material before and after treatment with alkali and proteolytic enzymes. PMID:889565

  10. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Paul N.

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  11. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    PubMed

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  12. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  13. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  14. A study of the relationship between process conditions and mechanical strength of mineralized red algae in the preparation of a marine-derived bone void filler.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P J; Walker, G M; Maggs, C A; Buchanan, F J

    2011-06-01

    Bone void fillers that can enhance biological function to augment skeletal repair have significant therapeutic potential in bone replacement surgery. This work focuses on the development of a unique microporous (0.5-10 microm) marine-derived calcium phosphate bioceramic granule. It was prepared from Corallina officinalis, a mineralized red alga, using a novel manufacturing process. This involved thermal processing, followed by a low pressure-temperature chemical synthesis reaction. The study found that the ability to maintain the unique algal morphology was dependent on the thermal processing conditions. This study investigates the effect of thermal heat treatment on the physiochemical properties of the alga. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to monitor its thermal decomposition. The resultant thermograms indicated the presence of a residual organic phase at temperatures below 500 degrees C and an irreversible solid-state phase transition from mg-rich-calcite to calcium oxide at temperatures over 850 degrees C. Algae and synthetic calcite were evaluated following heat treatment in an air-circulating furnace at temperatures ranging from 400 to 800 degrees C. The highest levels of mass loss occurred between 400-500 degrees C and 700-800 degrees C, which were attributed to the organic and carbonate decomposition respectively. The changes in mechanical strength were quantified using a simple mechanical test, which measured the bulk compressive strength of the algae. The mechanical test used may provide a useful evaluation of the compressive properties of similar bone void fillers that are in granular form. The study concluded that soak temperatures in the range of 600 to 700 degrees C provided the optimum physiochemical properties as a precursor to conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA). At these temperatures, a partial phase transition to calcium oxide occurred and the original skeletal morphology of the alga remained intact.

  15. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter.

  16. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Stefan; Sallstedt, Therese; Belivanova, Veneta; Whitehouse, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ~1.6 Ga Tirohan Dolomite of the Lower Vindhyan in central India contains phosphatized stromatolitic microbialites. We report from there uniquely well-preserved fossils interpreted as probable crown-group rhodophytes (red algae). The filamentous form Rafatazmia chitrakootensis n. gen, n. sp. has uniserial rows of large cells and grows through diffusely distributed septation. Each cell has a centrally suspended, conspicuous rhomboidal disk interpreted as a pyrenoid. The septa between the cells have central structures that may represent pit connections and pit plugs. Another filamentous form, Denaricion mendax n. gen., n. sp., has coin-like cells reminiscent of those in large sulfur-oxidizing bacteria but much more recalcitrant than the liquid-vacuole-filled cells of the latter. There are also resemblances with oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, although cell volumes in the latter are much smaller. The wider affinities of Denaricion are uncertain. Ramathallus lobatus n. gen., n. sp. is a lobate sessile alga with pseudoparenchymatous thallus, “cell fountains,” and apical growth, suggesting florideophycean affinity. If these inferences are correct, Rafatazmia and Ramathallus represent crown-group multicellular rhodophytes, antedating the oldest previously accepted red alga in the fossil record by about 400 million years. PMID:28291791

  17. Glycolate Pathway in Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J. L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    No glycolate oxidase activity could be detected by manometric, isotopic, or spectrophotometric techniques in cell extracts from 5 strains of algae grown in the light with CO2. However, NADH:glyoxylate reductase, phosphoglycolate phosphatase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were detected in the cell extracts. The serine formed by Chlorella or Chlamydomonas after 12 seconds of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation contained 70 to 80% of its 14C in the carboxyl carbon. This distribution of label in serine was similar to that in phosphoglycerate from the same experiment. Thus, in algae serine is probably formed directly from phosphoglycerate. These results differ from those of higher plants which form uniformly labeled serine from glycolate in short time periods when phosphoglycerate is still carboxyl labeled. In glycolate formed by algae in 5 and 10 seconds of 14CO2 fixation, C2 was at least twice as radioactive as C1. A similar skewed labeling in C2 and C3 of 3-phosphoglycerate and serine suggests a common precursor for glycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate. Glycine formed by the algae, however, from the same experiments was uniformly labeled. Manganese deficient Chlorella incorporated only 2% of the total 14CO2 fixed in 10 minutes into glycolate, while in normal Chlorella 30% of the total 14C was found in glycolate. Manganese deficient Chlorella also accumulated more 14C in glycine and serine. Glycolate excretion by Chlorella was maximal in 10 mm bicarbonate and occurred only in the light, and was not influenced by the addition of glycolate. No time dependent uptake of significant amounts of either glycolate or phosphoglycolate was observed. When small amounts of glycolate-2-14C were fed to Chlorella or Scenedesmus, only 2 to 3% was metabolized after 30 to 60 minutes. The algae were not capable of significant glycolate metabolism as is the higher plant. The failure to detect glycolate oxidase, the low level glycolate-14C metabolism, and the formation of serine from phosphoglycerate

  18. Strict specificity for high-mannose type N-glycans and primary structure of a red alga Eucheuma serra lectin.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kanji; Sato, Yuichiro; Ito, Kaori; Fujiwara, Yoshifumi; Iwamoto, Yasumasa; Makino, Hiroyuki; Kawakubo, Akihiro

    2007-05-01

    We have elucidated the carbohydrate-binding profile of a non-monosaccharide-binding lectin named Eucheuma serra lectin (ESA)-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra using a lectin-immobilized column and a centrifugal ultrafiltration-high performance liquid chromatography method with a variety of fluorescence-labeled oligosaccharides. In both methods, ESA-2 exclusively bound with high-mannose type (HM) N-glycans, but not with any of other N-glycans including complex type, hybrid type and core pentasaccharides, and oligosaccharides from glycolipids. These findings indicate that ESA-2 recognizes the branched oligomannosides of the N-glycans. However, ESA-2 did not bind with any of the free oligomannoses examined that are constituents of the branched oligomannosides implying that the portion of the core N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residue(s) of the N-glycans is also essential for binding. Thus, the algal lectin was strictly specific for HM N-glycans and recognized the extended carbohydrate structure with a minimum size of the pentasaccharide, Man(alpha1-3)Man(alpha1-6)Man(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-4) GlcNAc. Kinetic analysis of binding with a HM heptasaccharide (M5) showed that ESA-2 has four carbohydrate-binding sites per polypeptide with a high association constant of 1.6x10(8) M-1. Sequence analysis, by a combination of Edman degradation and mass analyses of the intact protein and of peptides produced by its enzymic digestions, showed that ESA-2 is composed of 268 amino acids (molecular weight 27950) with four tandemly repeated domains of 67 amino acids. The number of repeats coincided with the number of carbohydrate-binding sites in the monomeric molecule. Surprisingly, the marine algal lectin was homologous to hemagglutinin from the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

  19. A direct CO2 control system for ocean acidification experiments: testing effects on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Laura; Santos, Rui; Reis, Joao; Shulika, Alona; Silva, Joao

    2016-01-01

    Most ocean acidification (OA) experimental systems rely on pH as an indirect way to control CO2. However, accurate pH measurements are difficult to obtain and shifts in temperature and/or salinity alter the relationship between pH and pCO2. Here we describe a system in which the target pCO2 is controlled via direct analysis of pCO2 in seawater. This direct type of control accommodates potential temperature and salinity shifts, as the target variable is directly measured instead of being estimated. Water in a header tank is permanently re-circulated through an air-water equilibrator. The equilibrated air is then routed to an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) that measures pCO2 and conveys this value to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands a solenoid valve that opens and closes the CO2 flush that is bubbled into the header tank. This low-cost control system allows the maintenance of stabilized levels of pCO2 for extended periods of time ensuring accurate experimental conditions. This system was used to study the long term effect of OA on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum. We found that after 11 months of high CO2 exposure, photosynthesis increased with CO2 as opposed to respiration, which was positively affected by temperature. Results showed that this system is adequate to run long-term OA experiments and can be easily adapted to test other relevant variables simultaneously with CO2, such as temperature, irradiance and nutrients.

  20. A direct CO2 control system for ocean acidification experiments: testing effects on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rui; Reis, Joao; Shulika, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Most ocean acidification (OA) experimental systems rely on pH as an indirect way to control CO2. However, accurate pH measurements are difficult to obtain and shifts in temperature and/or salinity alter the relationship between pH and pCO2. Here we describe a system in which the target pCO2 is controlled via direct analysis of pCO2 in seawater. This direct type of control accommodates potential temperature and salinity shifts, as the target variable is directly measured instead of being estimated. Water in a header tank is permanently re-circulated through an air-water equilibrator. The equilibrated air is then routed to an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) that measures pCO2 and conveys this value to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands a solenoid valve that opens and closes the CO2 flush that is bubbled into the header tank. This low-cost control system allows the maintenance of stabilized levels of pCO2 for extended periods of time ensuring accurate experimental conditions. This system was used to study the long term effect of OA on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum. We found that after 11 months of high CO2 exposure, photosynthesis increased with CO2 as opposed to respiration, which was positively affected by temperature. Results showed that this system is adequate to run long-term OA experiments and can be easily adapted to test other relevant variables simultaneously with CO2, such as temperature, irradiance and nutrients. PMID:27703853

  1. Expression of Cyanobacterial Acyl-ACP Reductase Elevates the Triacylglycerol Level in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Kawase, Yasuko; Hayakawa, Jumpei; Matsuda, Mami; Nakamura, Mami; Era, Atsuko; Tanaka, Kan; Kondo, Akihiko; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Imamura, Sousuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2015-10-01

    Nitrogen starvation is known to induce the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in many microalgae, and potential use of microalgae as a source of biofuel has been explored. However, nitrogen starvation also stops cellular growth. The expression of cyanobacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae chloroplasts resulted in an accumulation of TAG, which led to an increase in the number and size of lipid droplets while maintaining cellular growth. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses showed that the expression of acyl-ACP reductase altered the activities of several metabolic pathways. The activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis in chloroplasts, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, were up-regulated, while pyruvate decarboxylation in mitochondria and the subsequent consumption of acetyl-CoA by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were down-regulated. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, which oxidizes fatty aldehydes to fatty acids, was also up-regulated in the acyl-ACP reductase expresser. This activation was required for the lipid droplet accumulation and metabolic changes observed in the acyl-ACP reductase expresser. Nitrogen starvation also resulted in lipid droplet accumulation in C. merolae, while cell growth ceased as in the case of other algal species. The metabolic changes that occur upon the expression of acyl-ACP reductase are quite different from those caused by nitrogen starvation. Therefore, there should be a method for further increasing the storage lipid level while still maintaining cell growth that is different from the metabolic response to nitrogen starvation.

  2. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  3. Lacinutrix gracilariae sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the surface of a marine red alga Gracilaria sp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaobin; Li, Guizhen; Lai, Qiliang; Gu, Li; Shao, Zongze

    2015-11-09

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designated as strain Lxc1T, was isolated from the surface of a marine red alga, Gracilaria sp., which was collected from the coastal regions in Jinjiang, Fujian Province, China. The colony of the strain was orange-yellow, circular and smooth. The 16S rRNA gene of Lxc1T had maximum sequence similarity with Lacinutrix himadriensis E4-9aT (97.1%), followed by L. jangbogonensis PAMC 27137T, L. copepodicola DJ3T, L. algicola AKS293T, and L. mariniflava AKS 432T (similarities <96.4%). Phylogenetic analysis showed strain Lxc1T formed a tight cluster with L. himadriensis E4-9aT and L. copepodicola DJ3T, but represented a novel lineage belonging to the genus Lacinutrix. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:1 G (18.3%), iso-C15:0 (16.7%), iso-C17:0-3OH (10.6%), and iso-C15:0-3OH (8.6%). Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the only respiratory quinone present. The DNA G+C content of Lxc1T was 31.7 mol%. Combining the results above, it was ascertained that the strain Lxc1T represented a novel species of the genus Lacinutrix, for which the name Lacinutrix gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Lxc1T (=MCCC 1A01567T=KCTC 42808T).

  4. Method for large-scale isolation and purification of R-phycoerythrin from red alga Polysiphonia urceolata Grev.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Guang-Ce; Tseng, Cheng-Kui

    2006-09-01

    R-phycoerythrin was isolated and purified from a red alga, Polysiphonia urceolata Grev, using Streamline column combined with ion-exchange chromatography or hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purity of R-phycoerythrin isolated by Streamline column was up to 1.66 and the yield of R-phycoerythrin could be as high as 0.68 mg/g frozen P. urceolata. All the eluates from Streamline column were divided into two equivalent parts, respectively. One part was pumped into the ion-exchange column loaded with Q-Sepharose and the other was applied to the adsorption column loaded with hydroxyapatite. The purities of R-phycoerythrin purified using these two methods were both up to 3.26, more than 3.2 the commonly accepted criterion. The yield of purified R-phycoerythrin from the ion-exchange chromatography was 0.40 mg/g frozen P. urceolata and that from the hydroxyapatite chromatography could reach 0.34 mg/g frozen P. urceolata. The purified protein had three absorption peaks at 498, 535, and 565 nm and displayed a fluorescence maximum at 580 nm, which was consistent with the typical spectrum of R-phycoerythrin. The purified R-PE was also identified with electrophoresis. Only one single protein band appeared on native-PAGE with silver staining. SDS-PAGE demonstrated the presence of one 20 kDa major subunit, and one low intensity band corresponding to 33 kDa subunit. The results indicate that using the expanded bed adsorption combined with ion-exchange chromatography or hydroxyapatite chromatography, R-phycoerythrin can be purified from frozen P. urceolata on large scale.

  5. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  6. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  7. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

  8. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  9. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature.

  10. Halogenated compounds from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-08-09

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  11. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  12. Conserved and species-specific oxylipin pathways in the wound-activated chemical defense of the noninvasive red alga Gracilaria chilensis and the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Rempt, Martin; Weinberger, Florian; Grosser, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chemical defense of the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been studied and compared to that of the noninvasive but related Gracilaria chilensis. Both species rely on a wound-activated chemical defense that makes them less attractive to the herbivorous sea snail Echinolittorina peruviana. The chemical stress response of both species was monitored by LC–ESIMS-based metabolic profiling and revealed commonalities and differences. Both algae rely on a rapid lipoxygenase mediated transformation of arachidonic acid to known and novel oxylipins. Common products are 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and a novel eicosanoid with an unusual γ-lactone moiety. Several prostaglandins were predominantly formed by the invasive species. The role of some of these metabolites was investigated by surveying the attachment of E. peruviana on artificial food containing the respective oxylipins. Both algae species are defended against this general herbivore by 7,8-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, whereas the prostaglandins and the novel oxylipins were inactive at naturally occurring concentrations. The role of different oxylipins in the invasive potential of Gracilaria spp. is discussed. PMID:22423296

  13. NMR 13C-isotopic enrichment experiments to study carbon-partitioning into organic solutes in the red alga Grateloupia doryphora.

    PubMed

    Simon-Colin, Christelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Pichon, Roger; Deslandes, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The red alga Grateloupia doryphora Montagne (Howe) (Cryptonemiales, Halymeniaceae) was used as a model to investigate the effects of changes in seawater salinity on the intracellular low-molecular-weight organic compounds. Carbon-partitioning into major organic solutes was followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on living algae incubated in NaH13CO3-enriched seawater, and by high resolution 1H and 13C NMR experiments performed on 13C-enriched algal extracts. NMR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses both demonstrated that floridoside level was the most affected by changes in salinity: it rose under the hypersaline treatment and decreased under hyposaline one. Moreover, at low salinity, the high labeling of floridoside (45.3% 13C-enrichment for C1) together with its low concentrations both provided evidence of great increase in the de novo biosynthesis and turnover rate. Our experiments also demonstrated a high incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into amino acids, especially glutamate, under hypoosmotic conditions. On the other hand, isethionic acid and N-methyl-methionine sulfoxide were only partly labeled, which indicates they do not directly derive from carbon photoassimilation. In algae exposed to high salinity, elevated concentrations of floridoside coupled to a low labeling (9.4%) were observed. These results suggest that hyperosmotic conditions stimulated floridoside biosynthesis from endogen storage products rather than from carbon assimilation through photosynthesis.

  14. Expanding our Understanding of the Seaweed Holobiont: RNA Viruses of the Red Alga Delisea pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Lachnit, Tim; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Marine seaweeds are holobionts comprised of the macroalgal hosts and their associated microbiota. While the composition of the bacterial component of seaweed microbiomes is increasingly studied, almost nothing is known about the presence, diversity and composition of viruses in macroalgae in situ. In this study, we characterize for the first time the viruses associated with a red macroalga, Delisea pulchra. Using transmission electron microscopy we identified diverse morphotypes of virus-like particles in D. pulchra ranging from icosahedral to bacilliform to coiled pleomorphic as well as bacteriophages. Virome sequencing revealed the presence of a diverse group of dsRNA viruses affiliated to the genus Totivirus, known to infect plant pathogenic fungi. We further identified a ssRNA virus belonging to the order Picornavirales with a close phylogenetic relationship to a pathogenic virus infecting marine diatoms. The results of this study shed light on a so far neglected part of the seaweed holobiont, and suggest that some of the identified viruses may be possible pathogens for a host that is already known to be significantly impacted by bacterial infections. PMID:26779145

  15. The coralline red alga Lithophyllum kotschyanum f. affine as proxy of climate variability in the Yemen coast, Gulf of Aden (NW Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragnano, A.; Basso, D.; Jacob, D. E.; Storz, D.; Rodondi, G.; Benzoni, F.; Dutrieux, E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown the potential of red coralline algae as paleoclimatic archive. A previously unexplored subfamily of coralline algae, the Lithophylloideae, was investigated from the Gulf of Aden (Balhaf, Yemen). Seasonal changes in Mg/Ca, Li/Ca and Ba/Ca composition of Lithophyllum kotschyanum f. affine were investigated by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). For the first time in coralline algae, the Li/Ca composition was analyzed and showed a highly significant and positive correlation with Mg/Ca and SST. Monthly algal Mg/Ca and Li/Ca variations indicate a positive correlation with sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS), although low growth rates decrease the resolution of the algal record. Albeit no or weak positive correlation between monthly algal Ba/Ca and local SST was found, fluctuations in Ba/Ca suggest the seasonal influence of nutrient-rich deep waters introduced by upwelling, and record an increase of sedimentation at the sampling site likely due to an intensified land use in the area. The Mg/Ca age model shows an average algal extension rate of 1.15 mm yr-1, and reveals multiple intra-annual banding (previously unreported in the genus Lithophyllum) together with carposporangia formation in late February-early March, when temperature begins to increase. The concentration of MgCO3 in the thallus of L. kotschyanum f. affine is 20 mol% (1 SE), confirming that within the genus, the species sampled in warmer regions contain higher mol% MgCO3. The concentrations of LiCO3 and BaCO3 are 8 μmol% (0.7 SE) and 0.5 μmol% (0.03 SE), respectively. Despite the limitations from low-growth rate and species-specific vital effect, coralline algae confirm their utility in climate and oceanographic reconstruction.

  16. Effect of light quality on the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and mycosporine-like amino acids in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Korbee, Nathalie; Figueroa, Félix L; Aguilera, José

    2005-08-01

    The effect of different light qualities (white, blue, green, yellow and red light) on photosynthesis, measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, and the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and the UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) was studied in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta. Blue light promoted the highest accumulation of nitrogen metabolism derived compounds i.e., MAAs, phycoerythrin and proteins in previously N-starved algae after seven days culture in ammonium enriched medium. Similar results were observed in the culture under white light. In contrast, the lowest photosynthetic capacity i.e., lowest electron transport rate and lowest photosynthetic efficiency as well as the growth rate were found under blue light, while higher values were found in red and white lights. Blue light favored the accumulation of the MAAs porphyra-334, palythine and asterina-330 in P. leucosticta. However, white, green, yellow and red lights favored the accumulation of shinorine. The increase of porphyra-334, palythine and asterina-330 occurred in blue light simultaneous to a decrease in shinorine. The accumulation of MAAs and other nitrogenous compounds in P. leucosticta under blue light could not be attributed to photosynthesis and the action of a non-photosynthetic blue light photoreceptor is suggested. A non-photosynthetic photoreceptor could be also involved in the MAAs interconversion pathways in P. leucosticta.

  17. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  18. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  19. Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, C U; Aoyagi, H; Uchiyama, H

    2008-07-01

    Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the major factors that limits their practical application in algal mass cultures is mass transfer. Thus, a thorough understanding of mass transfer rates in photobioreactors is necessary for efficient operation of mass algal cultures. In this review article, various photobioreactors that are very promising for mass production of algae are discussed.

  20. Cytoplasmic reorganization accompanies the deposition of a bipolar cell wall in the large-celled red alga Anotrichium tenue.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, A W; Waaland, J R

    1992-01-01

    The filamentous red alga Anotrichium tenue C. Aghard (Naegeli) (formerly Griffithsia tenuis C. Aghard; Baldock, 1976, Aust. T. Bot. 24, 509-593) has large (1-2 mm long), cylindrical, multinucleate cells that exhibit a daily, cyclic redistribution of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts accumulate in the mid-region of each growing cell during the day; consequently, filaments appear banded with a light apical end-band, a dark mid-band and a light basal end-band in each growing cell. Chloroplasts disperse at night so that the bands are no longer visible and the cells appear evenly pigmented. Anotrichium tenue also has a type of cell elongation, known as bipolar band growth, in which new material is added to the microfibrillar part of the wall in bands located at the apical and basal poles of elongating cells. This site of wall growth corresponds to the position of the light-colored end-bands present during the day. Here we examine the structural relationship between the cytoplasmic bands and the wall-growth bands. Our results show that, in addition to the previously described bipolar wall bands, there is a non-microfibrillar wall band in the mid-region of the cell. This wall component apparently branches from near the top of the microfibrillar outer wall and terminates near but not at the bottom of the cell. It contains nodules of sulphated polysaccharide material secreted from a band of vesicles, which co-localize with the chloroplasts in the mid-band. The outer wall appears to enclose the entire cell. Nuclei do not redistribute with the chloroplasts or wall vesicles into the mid-band but remain evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Each wall component grows by a different mechanism. We show that two types of wall growth, diffuse and the bipolar-type of tip growth, occur in the same cell and we propose that the observed segregation of the cytoplasm supports localized growth of the unique inner wall component. Additionally, we show that A. tenue is an excellent model for

  1. Algimonas ampicilliniresistens sp. nov., isolated from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, and emended description of the genus Algimonas.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Youhei; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2013-12-01

    Three strains (14A-2-7(T), 14A-3-1 and 14A-3) of Gram-stain-negative, prosthecate, motile bacteria were isolated from an algal medium supplemented with 10 mg ampicillin l(-1) (w/v), in which the red alga Porphyra yezoensis had been cultured. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three isolates formed a cluster with the genus Algimonas of the family Hyphomonadaceae. The sequences of the three isolates had high similarity with those of Algimonas porphyrae 0C-2-2(T) (97.6 % similarity) and Litorimonas taeanensis G5(T) (95.6 % similarity). The DNA G+C contents of the three isolates ranged from 54.3 to 55.0 mol%, which were more similar to that of A. porphyrae 0C-2-2(T) (58.5 mol%) than to that of L. taeanensis G5(T) (47.1 mol%). The DNA-DNA relatedness showed that the three isolates were representatives of the same species (88.1-94.0 % relatedness) and that strain 14A-2-7(T) was a representative of a different species from A. porphyrae 0C-2-2(T) and L. taeanensis G5(T) (1.2-8.6 % relatedness). The phenotypic characteristics of strain 14A-2-7(T) differed by 20 results and 30 results from A. porphyrae 0C-2-2(T) and L. taeanensis G5(T), respectively. The three isolates contained ubiquinone-10 as the predominant quinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Algimonas, for which the name Algimonas ampicilliniresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 14A-2-7(T) ( = LMG 26421(T) = NBRC 108219(T)). An emended description of the genus Algimonas is also proposed.

  2. ["Depilation" by micro-algae?].

    PubMed

    Ditrich, H

    1996-01-01

    Itching, reddening and depilation of body hairs was reported by swimmers in the Attersee-lake in Austria. Initially, an environmental crime was suspected. However, further investigations showed that a biological cause was probably responsible for these symptoms. The accrustations found on body hairs turned out in the scanning electron microscope to be dried mucus containing numerous diatoms. The prevailing micro-algae were identified as Cyclotella comensis. Thus, although the phenomenon had a natural, harmless cause, it may happen again given the appropriate environmental conditions.

  3. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  4. SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

  5. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  6. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  7. Relative rates of evolution among the three genetic compartments of the red alga Porphyra differ from those of green plants and do not correlate with genome architecture.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Hua, Jimeng; Lee, Robert W; Keeling, Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    In photosynthetic eukaryotes, relative silent-site nucleotide substitution rates (which can be used to approximate relative mutation rates) among mitochondrial, plastid, and nuclear genomes (mtDNAs, ptDNAs, and nucDNAs) are estimated to be 1:3:10 respectively for seed plants and roughly equal for green algae. These estimates correlate with certain genome characteristics, such as size and coding density, and have therefore been taken to support a relationship between mutation rate and genome architecture. Plants and green algae, however, represent a small fraction of the major eukaryotic plastid-bearing lineages. Here, we investigate relative rates of mutation within the model red algal genus Porphyra. In contrast to plants, we find that the levels of silent-site divergence between the Porphyra purpurea and Porphyra umbilicalis mtDNAs are three times that of their ptDNAs and five times that of their nucDNAs. Moreover, relative mutation rates do not correlate with genome architecture: despite an estimated three-fold difference in their mutation rate, the mitochondrial and plastid genome coding densities are equivalent - an observation that extends to organisms with secondary red algal plastids. These findings are supported by within-species silent-site polymorphism data from P. purpurea.

  8. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    PubMed

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined.

  9. Flocculation of model algae under shear.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Flint; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the flocculation of model algae particles under shear. We study the evolution of the cluster size distribution as well as the steady-state distribution as a function of shear rates and algae interaction parameters. Algal interactions are modeled through a DLVO-type potential, a combination of a HS colloid potential (Everaers) and a yukawa/colloid electrostatic potential. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions on aggregation is explored. Cluster strucuture is determined from the algae-algae radial distribution function as well as the structure factor. DLVO parameters including size, salt concentration, surface potential, initial volume fraction, etc. are varied to model different species of algae under a variety of environmental conditions.

  10. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  11. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited.

  12. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  13. The edible red alga, Gracilaria verrucosa, inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production, but improves glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Woo, Mi-Seon; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2013-07-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa is a red alga that is widely distributed in seaside areas of many countries. We examined the effect of G. verrucosa extract on adipogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Oil red O staining and a nitroblue tetrazolium assay showed that G. verrucosa extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production, respectively. mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, as well as of their target gene, adipocyte protein 2, were reduced upon treatment with G. verrucosa extract. However, G. verrucosa extract increased glucose uptake, glucose transporter-4 expression, and AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα) phosphorylation compared to the control. Our results suggest that the anti-adipogenic and insulin-sensitive effects of G. verrucosa extract can be recapitulated to activation of AMPKα.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects of red algae Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii. Methods Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug. Results MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p < 0.05). This protective

  15. [Study on the sorption of 4-octylphenol by freshwater algae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang-e; Yang, Hai-zhen; Wang, Bei-bei; Deng, Nan-sheng

    2009-12-01

    The sorption of 4-octylphenol (4-OP) by two freshwater algae was investigated. Results showed that the sorption of 4-octylphenol by algae was obvious and quick, where 20% of initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and 46% initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Anabaena cylindrical (AC) after 5 min incubation. The sorption got equilibrium at 1 h after incubation. Langmuir sorption model was good appropriate type for this sorption. The effect of pH value on CV sorption was obvious than that on AC sorption. The sorption capacity of the biomass of two algae increased with the decrease of pH value. The analyzing of interaction between algae and 4-octylphenol was performed by fluorescence spectrum. Results showed that the algae could weaker the fluorescence spectrum intensity of 4-octylphenol and result in red shift of the maximum absorbance wavelength of mixture solution. Based on the results, it was speculated that algae bound with the contamination could use the near UV region of solar radiation and induced the contamination degradation.

  16. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  17. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  18. Genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the haploid-diploid red alga Gracilaria chilensis: how farming practices favor asexual reproduction and heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Viard, Frederique; Correa, Juan A; Valero, Myriam

    2008-06-01

    The extent of changes in genetic diversity and life-history traits associated with farming was investigated in the haploid-diploid red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, cultivated in Chile. This alga belongs to one of the most frequently cultivated seaweed genera around the world. Fifteen farmed populations, 11 wild populations, and two subspontaneous populations were sampled along the Chilean coast. The frequency of reproductive versus vegetative individuals and of haploid versus diploid individuals was checked in each population. In addition, the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations was analyzed using six microsatellite markers. Our results first demonstrated that farmed populations are maintained almost exclusively by vegetative propagation. Moreover, the predominance of diploid individuals in farms showed that farming practices had significantly modified life-history traits as compared to wild populations. Second, the expected reduction in genetic diversity due to a cultivation bottleneck and subsequent clonal propagation was detected in farms. Finally, our study suggested that cultural practices in the southern part of the country contributed to the spread of selected genotypes at a local scale. Altogether, these results document for the first time that involuntary selection could operate during the first step of domestication in a marine plant.

  19. A red tide alga grown under ocean acidification upregulates its tolerance to lower pH by increasing its photophysiological functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Beardall, J.; Gao, K.

    2014-09-01

    Phaeocystis globosa, a red tide alga, often forms blooms in or adjacent to coastal waters and experiences changes in pH and seawater carbonate chemistry caused by either diel/periodic fluctuation in biological activity, human activity or, in the longer term, ocean acidification due to atmospheric CO2 rise. We examined the photosynthetic physiology of this species while growing it under different pH levels induced by CO2 enrichment and investigated its acclimation to carbonate chemistry changes under different light levels. Short-term exposure to reduced pHnbs (7.70) decreased the alga's photosynthesis and light use efficiency. However, acclimation to the reduced pH level for 1-19 generations led to recovered photosynthetic activity, being equivalent to that of cells grown under pH 8.07 (control), though such acclimation required a different time span (number of generations) under different light regimes. The low-pH-grown cells increased their contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids with prolonged acclimation to the acidification, with increased photosynthetic quantum yield and decreased non-photochemical quenching. The specific growth rate of the low-pH-grown cells also increased to emulate that grown under the ambient pH level. This study clearly shows that {Phaeocystis globosa} is able to acclimate to seawater acidification by increasing its energy capture and decreasing its non-photochemical energy loss.

  20. The nuclear-encoded sigma factor SIG4 directly activates transcription of chloroplast psbA and ycf17 genes in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Gaku; Imamura, Sousuke; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-05-01

    The plant organelle chloroplast originated from the endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterial-like photosynthetic bacterium, and still retains its own genome derived from this ancestor. We have been focusing on a unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, as a model photosynthetic eukaryote. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional specificity of SIG4, which is one of four nuclear-encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase sigma factors in this alga. Accumulation of the SIG4 protein was observed in response to nitrogen depletion or high light conditions. By comparing the chloroplast transcriptomes under nitrogen depletion and SIG4-overexpressing conditions, we identified several candidate genes as SIG4 targets. Together with the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, the promoters of the psbA (encoding the D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center) and ycf17 (encoding a protein of the early light-inducible protein family) genes were shown to be direct activation targets. The phycobilisome (PBS) CpcB protein was decreased by SIG4 overexpression, which suggests the negative involvement of SIG4 in PBS accumulation.

  1. Optimized and standardized isolation and structural characterization of anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (Hudson) Lamouroux (Ceramiales, Delesseriaceae).

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

    2009-11-09

    The red seaweed Delesseria sanguinea dominantly populates a large artificial reef in the southwestern Baltic Sea. It contains sulfated polysaccharides (SPs), which exhibit a pharmacological profile indicating anti-inflammatory and anti-skin aging potencies. To establish and optimize an extraction procedure for these SPs and to evaluate the influence of several parameters on their quality, 23 algae batches were harvested over the period of four years and extracted by different methods, resulting in 56 SP batches. Extraction with water at 85 degrees C proved to be superior and led to highly reproducible products with average yields of 11.6 +/- 3.9%, reaching 18% in spring. Their quality was independent of generation form and vitality of the algae. The SPs were identified as sulfated branched xylogalactans (degree of sulfation 0.50 +/- 0.08, mean M(r) 142000). The coextraction of floridean starch turned out to be the only parameter causing any seasonal variability. However, by using water, this concerns solely the yields of the isolated products. Compared to NaOH extracts, the antielastase activity of H(2)O extracted SPs was about twice as strong (IC(50) 0.204 +/- 0.024 microg/mL) and the batch to batch variability was much lower (CV 11.8 vs 28.6%). In conclusion, SPs from Delesseria sanguinea can be isolated in reproducibly high quality by using a specific extraction procedure. Thus, an important prerequisite for a potential economical utilization is fulfilled.

  2. The evolution of photosynthesis in chromist algae through serial endosymbioses

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Schreiber, John; Yue, Jipei; Guo, Hui; Ding, Qin; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Chromist algae include diverse photosynthetic organisms of great ecological and social importance. Despite vigorous research efforts, a clear understanding of how various chromists acquired photosynthetic organelles has been complicated by conflicting phylogenetic results, along with an undetermined number and pattern of endosymbioses, and the horizontal movement of genes that accompany them. We apply novel statistical approaches to assess impacts of endosymbiotic gene transfer on three principal chromist groups at the heart of long-standing controversies. Our results provide robust support for acquisitions of photosynthesis through serial endosymbioses, beginning with the adoption of a red alga by cryptophytes, then a cryptophyte by the ancestor of ochrophytes, and finally an ochrophyte by the ancestor of haptophytes. Resolution of how chromist algae are related through endosymbioses provides a framework for unravelling the further reticulate history of red algal-derived plastids, and for clarifying evolutionary processes that gave rise to eukaryotic photosynthetic diversity. PMID:25493338

  3. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  4. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  5. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  6. Anti-photoaging activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) by marine red alga, Corallina pilulifera methanol extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Moon-Moo; Nam, Ki Wan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2009-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet A, appear to be increased by UV-irradiation-associated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the alga Corallina pilulifera methanol (CPM) extract has been shown to exert a potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UVA-induced oxidative stress of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell. Antioxidant evaluated by various antioxidant assays. These include reducing power, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and protective effect on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals generated. Further, the ROS level was detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on HT-1080 cells. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as α-tocopherol. In addition, the in vitro activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HDF cell were inhibited by C. pilulifera methanol extract dose dependently by using gelatin zymography method. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the C. pilulifera methanol extract may be a potential source of natural anti-photoaging.

  7. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2013-02-01

    Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-α and IL-1β levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10 mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4 h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration.

  8. Production of Bacillus subtilis-fermented red alga Porphyra dentata suspension with fibrinolytic and immune-enhancing activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Hwang, Pai-An; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Tsai, Guo-Jane

    2014-01-01

    The fermented marine alga Porphyra dentata suspension was tested for its fibrinolytic and immune-enhancing activities. An isolated Bacillus subtilis N2 strain was selected for its fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates. After investigating the effects of biomass amounts of P. dentata powder in water, various additives including sugars, nitrogen-containing substances, lipids and minerals, and cultural conditions of temperature and agitation in flask, the highest fibrinolytic activity in the cultural filtrate was obtained by cultivating N2 strain in 3% (w/v) P. dentata powder suspension containing 1% peanut oil at 37 °C, 150 rpm for 48 h. A fermentor system was further established using the same medium with controlled pH value of 7.0 at 37 °C, 150 rpm, 2.0 vvm for 48 h for the best fibrinolytic activity. The fermented product also showed its immune-enhancing activity by increasing cell proliferation and stimulating the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in J774.1 cells.

  9. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  10. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  11. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately.

  12. Gene sampling can bias multi-gene phylogenetic inferences: the relationship between red algae and green plants as a case study.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuji; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The monophyly of Plantae including glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants (green algae plus land plants) has been recovered in recent phylogenetic analyses of large multi-gene data sets (e.g., those including >30,000 amino acid [aa] positions). On the other hand, Plantae monophyly has not been stably reconstructed in inferences from multi-gene data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions. An analysis of 5,216 aa positions in Nozaki et al. (Nozaki H, Iseki M, Hasegawa M, Misawa K, Nakada T, Sasaki N, Watanabe M. 2007. Phylogeny of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes as deduced from slowly evolving nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1592-1595.) strongly rejected the monophyly of Plantae, whereas Hackett et al. (Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Li S, Reyes-Prieto A, Rummele SE, Bhattacharya D. 2007. Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolates. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1702-1713.) robustly recovered the Plantae clade in an analysis of 6,735 aa positions. We suspected that the significant incongruity observed between the two studies was attributable to a bias generally overlooked in multi-gene phylogenetic estimation, rather than data size, taxon sampling, or methods for tree reconstruction. Although glaucophytes were excluded from our analyses due to a shortage of sequence data, we found that the recovery of a sister-group relationship between red algae and green plants primarily depends on gene sampling in phylogenetic inferences from <10,000 aa positions. Phylogenetic analyses of data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions, which can be prepared without large-scale sequencing (e.g., expressed sequence tag analyses), are practical in challenging various unresolved issues in eukaryotic evolution. However, our results indicate that severe biases can arise from gene sampling in multi-gene inferences from <10,000 aa positions. We also address the validity of fast-evolving gene exclusion in multi

  13. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  14. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae.

  15. Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate-treated red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcelo P; Granbom, Malena; Colepicolo, Pio; Pedersén, Marianne

    2003-12-01

    Algal cells have developed different strategies to cope with the common environmentally promoted generation of H(2)O(2), which include induction of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), massive H(2)O(2) release in seawater, and synthesis of volatile halocarbons by specific peroxidases. The antioxidant adaptability of the economically important carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty (Gigartinales: Rhodophyta) was tested here against exposure to clofibrate (CFB), a known promoter of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in mammals and plants. Possibly as a consequence of CFB-induced H2O2 peroxisomal production, the maximum concentration of H(2)O(2) in the seawater of red algae cultures was found to occur (120+/-17 min) after the addition of CFB, which was followed by a significant decrease in the photosynthetic activity of PSII after 24 h. Interestingly, 4 h after the addition of CFB, the total SOD activity was about 2.5-fold higher than in the control, whereas no significant changes were observed in lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS) or in CAT and APX activities. The two H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes were only induced later (after 72 h), whereupon CAT showed a dose-dependent response with increasing concentrations of CFB. A more pronounced increase of TBARS concentration than in the controls was evidenced when a 50 microM Fe(2+/3+) solution (3:2 ratio) was added to CFB-treated cultures, suggesting that the combination of exacerbated H(2)O(2) levels in the seawater-in this work, caused by CFB exposure-and Fenton-reaction catalyst (ferric/ferrous ions), imposes harsh oxidative conditions on algal cultures. The bulk of data suggests that K. alvarezii possesses little ability to promptly induce CAT and APX compared to the immediately responsive antioxidant enzyme SOD and, to avoid harmful accumulation of H(2)O(2), the red alga presumably releases H(2)O(2) into the surrounding medium as an alternative mechanism.

  16. Visualization of phosphoinositides via the development of the transient expression system of a cyan fluorescent protein in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Koji; Uji, Toshiki; Li, Lin; Takahashi, Megumu; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) play important roles in signal transduction pathways and the regulation of cytoskeleton and membrane functions in eukaryotes. Subcellular localization of individual PI derivative is successfully visualized in yeast, animal, and green plant cells using PI derivative-specific pleckstrin homology (PH) domains fused with a variety of fluorescent proteins; however, expression of fluorescent proteins has not yet been reported in any red algal cells. In the present study, we developed the system to visualize these PIs using human PH domains fused with a humanized cyan fluorescent protein (AmCFP) in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. Plasma membrane localization of AmCFP fused with the PH domain from phospholipase Cdelta1 and Akt1, but not Bruton's tyrosine kinase, was observed in cell wall-free monospores, demonstrating the presence of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate in P. yezoensis cells. This is the first report of the successful expression of fluorescent protein and the monitoring of PI derivatives in red algal cells. Our system, based on transient expression of AmCFP, could be applicable for the analysis of subcellular localization of other proteins in P. yezoensis and other red algal cells.

  17. Effect of Interactions Among Algae on Nitrogen Fixation by Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) in Flooded Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John T.; Greene, Sarah; Alexander, Martin

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by algae in flooded soil was limited by interactions within the algal community. Nitrogen fixation by either indigenous algae or Tolypothrix tenuis was reduced severalfold by a dense suspension of the green alga Nephrocytium sp. Similarly, interactions between the nitrogen-fixing alga (cyanobacterium) Aulosira 68 and natural densities of indigenous algae limited nitrogen-fixing activity in one of two soils examined. This was demonstrated by developing a variant of Aulosira 68 that was resistant to the herbicide simetryne at concentrations that prevented development of indigenous algae. More nitrogen was fixed by the resistant variant in flooded soil containing herbicide than was fixed in herbicide-free soil by either the indigenous algae or indigenous algae plus the parent strain of Aulosira. Interference from indigenous algae may hamper the development of nitrogen-fixing algae introduced into rice fields in attempts to increase biological nitrogen fixation. PMID:16345463

  18. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Misevičius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35 ± 1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  20. Ocean acidification alleviates low-temperature effects on growth and photosynthesis of the red alga Neosiphonia harveyi (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Olischläger, Mark; Wiencke, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to examine interactive effects between ocean acidification and temperature on the photosynthetic and growth performance of Neosiphonia harveyi. N. harveyi was cultivated at 10 and 17.5 °C at present (~380 µatm), expected future (~800 µatm), and high (~1500 µatm) pCO2. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, net photosynthesis, and growth were measured. The state of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) was examined by pH-drift experiments (with algae cultivated at 10 °C only) using ethoxyzolamide, an inhibitor of external and internal carbonic anhydrases (exCA and intCA, respectively). Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide (an inhibitor of exCA) and Tris (an inhibitor of the acidification of the diffusive boundary layer) on net photosynthesis was measured at both temperatures. Temperature affected photosynthesis (in terms of photosynthetic efficiency, light saturation point, and net photosynthesis) and growth at present pCO2, but these effects decreased with increasing pCO2. The relevance of the CCM decreased at 10 °C. A pCO2 effect on the CCM could only be shown if intCA and exCA were inhibited. The experiments demonstrate for the first time interactions between ocean acidification and temperature on the performance of a non-calcifying macroalga and show that the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis can be alleviated by increasing pCO2. The findings indicate that the carbon acquisition mediated by exCA and acidification of the diffusive boundary layer decrease at low temperatures but are not affected by the cultivation level of pCO2, whereas the activity of intCA is affected by pCO2. Ecologically, the findings suggest that ocean acidification might affect the biogeographical distribution of N. harveyi.

  1. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens. PMID:21673886

  2. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-01-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal obbjects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charopyhte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorbance spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900 nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance in the wave band of 400-550 nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did not change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400 – 500 nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  4. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  5. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  6. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications.

  7. [Functional components in fish and algae oils].

    PubMed

    Conchillo, A; Valencia, I; Puente, A; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I

    2006-01-01

    An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio was lower than 0.4 in both oils. In the unsaponificable fraction, algae oil had a Mold lower cholesterol content and a higher proportion of squalene than fish oil. The phytosterol content was significantly higher in the algae oil.

  8. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  9. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements.

  10. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-05-29

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  11. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells. PMID:26035023

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the red alga Kappaphycus striatus ("Green Sacol" variety): complete nucleotide sequence, genome structure and organization, and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tablizo, Francis A; Lluisma, Arturo O

    2014-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence of the rhodophyte Kappaphycus striatus ("Green Sacol" variety) was determined. The mtDNA is circular, 25,242 bases long (A+T content: 69.94%), and contains 50 densely packed genes comprising 93.22% of the mitochondrial genome, with genes encoded on both strands. Through comparative analysis, the overall sequence, genome structure, and organization of K. striatus mtDNA were seen to be highly similar with other fully sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the class Florideophyceae. On the other hand, certain degrees of genome rearrangements and greater sequence dissimilarities were observed for the mtDNAs of other evolutionarily distant red algae, such as those from the class Bangiophyceae and Cyanidiophyceae, compared to that of K. striatus. Furthermore, a trend was observed wherein the red algal mtDNAs tend to encode lesser number of protein-coding genes, albeit not necessarily shorter, as the organism becomes more morphologically complex. This trend is supported by the phylogenetic tree inferred from the concatenated amino acid sequences of the deduced protein products of cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes (cox1, 2, and 3).

  13. The role of new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid and known eudesmane derivatives from the red alga Laurencia obtusa as potential antifungal-antitumour agents.

    PubMed

    Alarif, Walied M; Al-Footy, Khalid O; Zubair, Muhammad Sulaiman; Halid Ph, Mohamed; Ghandourah, Mohamed A; Basaif, Salim A; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Badria, Farid A

    2016-01-01

    A new eudesmane sesquiterpenoid, eudesma-4(15),7-diene-5,11-diol (1) along with the known trinor-sesquiterene, teuhetenone (2), and a seco-eudesmane sesquiterpene, chabrolidione B (3), have been isolated from the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the isolated metabolites were tested against several fungi, yeast and human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Compounds 1 and 3 showed a much better activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 2.9 μM] than that of amphotericin B (MIC: 4.6 μM). Interestingly, compound 2, the least active antifungal compound, retained the high anticancer activity against MCF-7 (22 μM) in comparison with cisplatin (59 μM), which was determined by employing lactate dehydrogenase assay. Compounds 1-3 are recorded here for the first time from algal flora. The chemotaxonomic importance of the isolated metabolites was discussed.

  14. Isolation, purification, and identification of antialgal substances in green alga Ulva prolifera for antialgal activity against the common harmful red tide microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-ying; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gan-lin; Pu, Yin-fang; Yan, Bin-lun; Wang, Chang-hai

    2016-01-01

    Ten compounds (1~10) were successfully isolated from green algae Ulva prolifera through the combination of silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. These ten compounds showed antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Among them, compounds 3, 6, and 7 showed stronger antialgal activity against red tide microalgae. Furthermore, their structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. There are three glycoglycerolipids: 1-O-octadecanoic acid-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (2), 1-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (4), and 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl glycerol (5); two monoglycerides: glycerol monopalmitate (1), 9-hexadecenoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (3); two terpenoids: loliolide (6) and lsololiolide (7); one lipid-soluble pigments: zeaxanthin (8); one sterol: cholest-5-en-3-ol (9); and one alkaloid: pyrrolopiperazine-2,5-dione (10). These compounds were isolated from U. prolifera for the first time, and compounds 2, 3, 5, and 8 were isolated from marine macroalgae for the first time.

  15. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  16. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  17. Lipids and lipid metabolism in eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Guschina, Irina A; Harwood, John L

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic algae are a very diverse group of organisms which inhabit a huge range of ecosystems from the Antarctic to deserts. They account for over half the primary productivity at the base of the food chain. In recent years studies on the lipid biochemistry of algae has shifted from experiments with a few model organisms to encompass a much larger number of, often unusual, algae. This has led to the discovery of new compounds, including major membrane components, as well as the elucidation of lipid signalling pathways. A major drive in recent research have been attempts to discover genes that code for expression of the various proteins involved in the production of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Such work is described here together with information about how environmental factors, such as light, temperature or minerals, can change algal lipid metabolism and how adaptation may take place.

  18. Algae control problems and practices workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Ghio, G.

    1996-09-01

    Western water resources are continuously facing increased demand from industry and the public. Consequently, many of these resources are required to perform multiple tasks as they cycle through the ecosystem. Many plants and animals depend upon these resources for growth. Algae are one group of plants associated with nutrient and energy cycles in many aquatic ecosystems. Although most freshwater algae are microscopic in size, they are capable of dominating and proliferating to the extent that the value of the water resource for both industrial and domestic needs is compromised. There is a great diversity of aquatic environments and systems in which algae may be found, and there are many varieties of treatment and control techniques available to reduce the impacts of excessive growth. This workshop was organized to exchange information about these control problems and practices.

  19. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores ( <10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  20. Rhodolith-forming coralline red algae from New Caledonia (SW Pacific) record half a century of sea-surface temperature variations and mining history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrenougue, N.; De Deckker, P.; Eggins, S. M.; Payri, C. E.; Fallon, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present a continuous, high-resolution tropical record of Mg/Ca and trace elements back to the 1960s, using laser ablation ICP-MS on rhodoliths (i.e. free living forms of coralline red algae) of the species Sporolithon durum. The analysed rhodoliths are composed entirely of branched system forming mostly spherical specimens of 8-10 cm in diameter. Chronology was constrained by 20 radiocarbon dates calibrated with the 1960s-70s atomic bomb-spike curve, in conjunction with commonly used growth band counting and Mg/Ca minima-maxima peaks. Mg/Ca variations are reproducible between different branches of a single specimen as well as between three distinct rhodoliths from the same site in the SW lagoon of New Caledonia. All records present a significant correlation with the local sea-surface temperatures at a monthly to inter-annual resolution (respectively, 0.59< r <0.70 and 0.62< r <0.72; p<0.0001), thus confirming the global potential of coralline red algae for palaeo-temperature reconstructions, as suggested by recent studies from the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans (e.g. Halfar et al. 2000, Kamenos et al. 2008, Hetzinger et al., 2009). Compared to the youngest part of the record, Mn/Ca, Fe/Ca and Ni/Ca ratios present significantly higher values for the period prior to 1980, which corresponds to the high production period of an open-air, Ni-extraction mine located in the water catchment area of the Coulée River, ~10km from the studied rhodolith bed. The mining production at the site ceased in 1981. After that date, Mn, Fe and Ni concentrations in the rhodoliths show a steady decline. Co/Ca, however, shows no such trend, indicating different behaviour and availability for these metals, all related to the weathering of exposed laterite formations. Average metal records corrected from the anthropogenic mining effect (except for Co/Ca) present significant correlations with the inter-annual local rainfall signal (r=0.62, r=0.60, r=0.48; p<0.0001 for Mn/Ca, Fe

  1. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  2. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  3. [Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paal'me, L P; Kukk, Kh A

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Käsmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  4. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  5. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  6. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  7. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  8. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum....

  9. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Wu, Jilong

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W, lambda(max) = 365 nm) was investigated. Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algae-water systems. The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration, and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution. Meanwhile, the cooperation action of algae and Fe(III), and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxacin. The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae. In addition, we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae. This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae, for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  10. Neonatal sepsis caused by Shewanella algae: A case report.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marie Victor Pravin; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Kali, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality among neonates, especially in developing countries. Most cases of neonatal sepsis are attributed to Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Shewanella algae (S. algae) is a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, commonly associated with the marine environment, which has been isolated from humans. Early onset neonatal sepsis caused by S. algae is uncommon. We report a case of S. algae blood stream infection in a newborn with early onset neonatal sepsis.

  11. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  12. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  15. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  16. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  17. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  18. Hepatitis C virus NS3-NS4A protease inhibitors from the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from the red alga Liagora viscida.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Halawany, Ali M; Ahmed, Eman F

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A protease is an attractive target for anti-HCV agents because of its important role in replication. In this work, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum exhibited a potent activity against HCV NS3-NS4A protease with an IC50 value of 20 microg/ml. The fungus was isolated from the red alga Liagora viscida and identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Large-scale fermentation of the fungus in Czapek's peptone liquid medium followed by chromatographic purification of the active extract from the liquid medium allowed the isolation of twelve known metabolites. The biological properties of the isolated compounds were explored for anti-HCV protease as well as antimicrobial and anticancer activities. A computational docking study of the active isolated compounds against HCV protease was used to formulate a hypothetical mechanism for the inhibitory activity of the active compounds on the tested enzymes.

  19. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

  20. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  1. Photosynthetic Performance of the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis During Emersion, With Special Reference to Effects of Solar UV Radiation, Dehydration and Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juntian; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae distributed in intertidal zones experience a series of environmental changes, such as periodical desiccation associated with tidal cycles, increasing CO2 concentration and solar UVB (280-315 nm) irradiance in the context of climate change. We investigated how the economic red macroalga, Pyropia haitanensis, perform its photosynthesis under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and in the presence of solar UV radiation (280-400 nm) during emersion. Our results showed that the elevated CO2 (800 ppmv) significantly increased the photosynthetic carbon fixation rate of P. haitanensis by about 100% when the alga was dehydrated. Solar UV radiation had insignificant effects on the net photosynthesis without desiccation stress and under low levels of sunlight, but significantly inhibited it with increased levels of desiccation and sunlight intensity, to the highest extent at the highest levels of water loss and solar radiation. Presence of UV radiation and the elevated CO2 acted synergistically to cause higher inhibition of the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which exacerbated at higher levels of desiccation and sunlight. While P. haitanensis can benefit from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during emersion under low and moderate levels of solar radiation, combined effects of elevated CO2 and UV radiation acted synergistically to reduce its photosynthesis under high solar radiation levels during noon periods.

  2. Two New Diphenylketones and a New Xanthone from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Lei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Hui; Meng, Ling-Hong; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Two new diphenylketones (1 and 2), a new xanthone (3), and a known xanthone analogue (4) were isolated and identified from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh collected marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The joint isolation of benzophenones and xanthones from the same fungal strain supports the biogenesis of xanthones via a benzophenone intermediate. It is worth mentioning that xanthones 3 and 4 have a methyl group at C-6 and C-2, respectively, which is uncommon compared with typical xanthones usually having a methyl group at C-8. Compounds 1–4 exhibited potent antioxidative activities against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radicals with IC50 values ranging from 0.58 to 6.92 μg/mL, which are stronger than that of the positive controls BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and ascorbic acid. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 also showed inhibitory activities against several pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27941601

  3. Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling are essential for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetrical distribution of F-actin directed by cell polarity has been observed during the migration of monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis. The significance of Ca2+ influx and phosphoinositide signalling during the formation of cell polarity in migrating monospores was analysed pharmacologically. The results indicate that the inhibition of the establishment of cell polarity, as judged by the ability of F-actin to localize asymmetrically, cell wall synthesis, and development into germlings, occurred when monospores were treated with inhibitors of the Ca2+ permeable channel, phospholipase C (PLC), diacylglycerol kinase, and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Moreover, it was also found that light triggered the establishment of cell polarity via photosynthetic activity but not its direction, indicating that the Ca2+ influx and PLC activation required for the establishment of cell polarity are light dependent. By contrast, inhibition of phospholipase D (PLD) prevented the migration of monospores but not the asymmetrical localization of F-actin. Taken together, these findings suggest that there is functional diversity between the PLC and PLD signalling systems in terms of the formation of cell polarity; the former being critical for the light-dependent establishment of cell polarity and the latter playing a role in the maintenance of established cell polarity.

  4. Purification of a lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata and its effect on the development of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Leite, Yáskara Fabíola Monteiro Marques; Silva, Luana Maria Castelo Melo; Amorim, Rodrigo César das Neves; Freire, Eder Almeida; de Melo Jorge, Daniel Macedo; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2005-06-20

    A lectin from the marine red alga Gracilaria ornata (Gracilariaceae, Rodophyta) was purified and characterized. The purification procedure consisted of extracting soluble proteins in 0.025 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (70% saturation), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on mucin-Sepharose 4B. The purified G. ornata lectin (GOL) showed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa when submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The native molecular mass of GOL determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column was 17.4 kDa and its carbohydrate content was estimated to be 2.9%. Therefore, GOL is a monomeric glycoprotein. The purified lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated erythrocytes from rabbit and chicken but not from human. Its activity was not inhibited by any of the mono- and disaccharides tested but by the complex glycoproteins porcine stomach mucin, lactotransferrin, asialofetuin and bovine and porcine thyroglobulins. Isoelectric focusing showed that GOL is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.4 with analysis of its amino acid composition revealing high contents of Asx, Glx, Ser, Glu, Ala and Cys. When incorporated in artificial seeds, GOL significantly affected the development of Callosobruchus maculatus larvae, indicating the possibility of using this lectin in a biotechnological strategy for insect management of stored cowpea seeds.

  5. Sterol chemotaxonomy of marine pelagophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Zhao, Hui; Boyer, Gregory L; Satchwell, Michael F; Andersen, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    Several marine algae of the class Pelagophyceae produce the unusual marine sterol 24-propylidenecholesterol, mainly as the (24E)-isomer. The (24Z)-isomer had previously been considered as a specific biomarker for Aureococcus anophagefferens, the 'brown tide' alga of the Northeast coast of the USA. To test this hypothesis and to generate chemotaxonomic information, the sterol compositions of 42 strains of pelagophyte algae including 17 strains of Aureococcus anophagefferens were determined by GC analysis. A more comprehensive sterol analysis by HPLC and (1)H-NMR was obtained for 17 selected pelagophyte strains. All strains analyzed contained 24-propylidenecholesterol. In all strains belonging to the order Sarcinochrysidales, this sterol was found only as the (E)-isomer, while all strains in the order Pelagomonadales contained the (Z)-isomer, either alone or together with the (E)-isomer. The occurrence of Delta(22) and 24alpha-sterols was limited to the Sarcinochrysidales. The first occurrence of Delta(22)-24-propylcholesterol in an alga, CCMP 1410, was reported. Traces of the rare sterol 26,26-dimethyl-24-methylenecholesterol were detected in Aureococcus anophagefferens, and the (25R)-configuration was proposed, based on biosynthetic considerations. Traces of a novel sterol, 24-propylidenecholesta-5,25-dien-3beta-ol, were detected in several species.

  6. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  7. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice.

  8. Polyamine biosynthetic diversity in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Fuell, Christine; Elliott, Katherine A; Hanfrey, Colin C; Franceschetti, Marina; Michael, Anthony J

    2010-07-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis in plants differs from other eukaryotes because of the contribution of genes from the cyanobacterial ancestor of the chloroplast. Plants possess an additional biosynthetic route for putrescine formation from arginine, consisting of the enzymes arginine decarboxylase, agmatine iminohydrolase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase, derived from the cyanobacterial ancestor. They also synthesize an unusual tetraamine, thermospermine, that has important developmental roles and which is evolutionarily more ancient than spermine in plants and algae. Single-celled green algae have lost the arginine route and are dependent, like other eukaryotes, on putrescine biosynthesis from the ornithine. Some plants like Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens have lost ornithine decarboxylase and are thus dependent on the arginine route. With its dependence on the arginine route, and the pivotal role of thermospermine in growth and development, Arabidopsis represents the most specifically plant mode of polyamine biosynthesis amongst eukaryotes. A number of plants and algae are also able to synthesize unusual polyamines such as norspermidine, norspermine and longer polyamines, and biosynthesis of these amines likely depends on novel aminopropyltransferases similar to thermospermine synthase, with relaxed substrate specificity. Plants have a rich repertoire of polyamine-based secondary metabolites, including alkaloids and hydroxycinnamic amides, and a number of polyamine-acylating enzymes have been recently characterised. With the genetic tools available for Arabidopsis and other model plants and algae, and the increasing capabilities of comparative genomics, the biological roles of polyamines can now be addressed across the plant evolutionary lineage.

  9. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals. PMID:21822416

  10. [Allelopathic effect of artemisinin on green algae].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Long-Yun

    2013-05-01

    To study the growth effects of differing concentrations of artemisinin on green algae and to evaluate the ecological risk. The effects of artemisinin on the growth and the content change of chlorophyll, protein, oxygen, conductivity, SOD, CAT, MDA in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus oblique were studied through 96 h toxicity tests. Artemisinin accelerated the growth of algae at a lower concentration ( <40 microg . L-1) with content increase of chlorophyll or protein and so on, and it inhibited the growth of algae at higher concentration ( >80 microg . L-1). The content of chlorophyll or protein in algae cells reduced with the increasing concentration of artemisinin, exhibiting the good concentration-effect relationship. SOD and CAT activity was stimulated at low concentrations ( <40 microg . L-1 ) and inhibited at high concentrations ( >80 microg . L- 1). However, MDA content increased significantly with the increase of concentration. According to the seven kinds of indicators changes, the time-response and dose-response suggested that the surfactant first hurt in Ch. pyrenoidosa was damaging membrane by changing membrane lipid molecules soluble. And primary mechanism on Chlorophyta cells might be related to the oxidation damage of lipid and other biological large molecules caused by artemisinin. The large-scale intensive planting of Artemisia annua may reduce the surrounding water productivity.

  11. Laser-fluorescence measurement of marine algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in remote sensing of algae by laser-induced fluorescence is subject of comprehensive report. Existing single-wavelength and four-wavelength systems are reviewed, and new expression for power received by airborne sensor is derived. Result differs by as much as factor of 10 from those previously reported. Detailed error analysis evluates factors affecting accuracy of laser-fluorosensor systems.

  12. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  13. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  14. Evolution and diversity of plant cell walls: from algae to flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Popper, Zoë A; Michel, Gurvan; Hervé, Cécile; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T; Tuohy, Maria G; Kloareg, Bernard; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-01-01

    All photosynthetic multicellular Eukaryotes, including land plants and algae, have cells that are surrounded by a dynamic, complex, carbohydrate-rich cell wall. The cell wall exerts considerable biological and biomechanical control over individual cells and organisms, thus playing a key role in their environmental interactions. This has resulted in compositional variation that is dependent on developmental stage, cell type, and season. Further variation is evident that has a phylogenetic basis. Plants and algae have a complex phylogenetic history, including acquisition of genes responsible for carbohydrate synthesis and modification through a series of primary (leading to red algae, green algae, and land plants) and secondary (generating brown algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) endosymbiotic events. Therefore, organisms that have the shared features of photosynthesis and possession of a cell wall do not form a monophyletic group. Yet they contain some common wall components that can be explained increasingly by genetic and biochemical evidence.

  15. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  16. Biosorption of Lead from Wastewater Using Fresh Water Algae Chlorella.

    PubMed

    Kanchana, S; Jeyanthi, J

    2014-04-01

    The potential use of fresh water algae Chlorella to sorb lead ions from wastewater was evaluated in this study. Fourier transform infra-red analysis of algal species revealed the presence of amino, carboxylic, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of lead ions. Batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the effects of contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH on the adsorption of Pb2+ ions. The optimum conditions of biosorbent dosage, pH and contact time were found to be l0 g/L, 5 and 100 min respectively. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for representation of the experimental data was investigated. The adsorption of lead ions on the algae Chlorella fitted well with Freundlich isotherm with a very high correlation coefficient.

  17. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality.

  18. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms are capable of absorbing light and storing up to 10-13% of its energy into the H-H bond of hydrogen gas. This process, which takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms to convert sunlight into chemical energy, could conceivably be harnessed for production of significant amounts of energy from a renewable resource, water. The harnessed energy could then be coupled to a fuel cell for electricity generation and recycling of water molecules. In this review, current biochemical understanding of this reaction in green algae, and some of the major challenges facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production have been discussed.

  19. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Beer, Laura L; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2009-06-01

    There is currently substantial interest in utilizing eukaryotic algae for the renewable production of several bioenergy carriers, including starches for alcohols, lipids for diesel fuel surrogates, and H2 for fuel cells. Relative to terrestrial biofuel feedstocks, algae can convert solar energy into fuels at higher photosynthetic efficiencies, and can thrive in salt water systems. Recently, there has been considerable progress in identifying relevant bioenergy genes and pathways in microalgae, and powerful genetic techniques have been developed to engineer some strains via the targeted disruption of endogenous genes and/or transgene expression. Collectively, the progress that has been realized in these areas is rapidly advancing our ability to genetically optimize the production of targeted biofuels.

  20. Biofuels from algae: challenges and potential

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Michael; Gimpel, Javier; Tran, Miller; Rasala, Beth; Mayfield, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Algae biofuels may provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels; however, this technology must overcome a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly deployed. These challenges include strain identification and improvement, both in terms of oil productivity and crop protection, nutrient and resource allocation and use, and the production of co-products to improve the economics of the entire system. Although there is much excitement about the potential of algae biofuels, much work is still required in the field. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the major challenges to economic algal biofuels at scale, and improve the focus of the scientific community to address these challenges and move algal biofuels from promise to reality. PMID:21833344

  1. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  2. A mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style diet.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT.

  3. Traffic of secondary metabolites to cell surface in the red alga Laurencia dendroidea depends on a two-step transport by the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Reis, Vanessa M; Oliveira, Louisi S; Passos, Raoni M F; Viana, Nathan B; Mermelstein, Cláudia; Sant'anna, Celso; Pereira, Renato C; Paradas, Wladimir C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Salgado, Leonardo T

    2013-01-01

    chemical defence of red algae.

  4. Traffic of Secondary Metabolites to Cell Surface in the Red Alga Laurencia dendroidea Depends on a Two-Step Transport by the Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Vanessa M.; Oliveira, Louisi S.; Passos, Raoni M. F.; Viana, Nathan B.; Mermelstein, Cláudia; Sant'Anna, Celso; Pereira, Renato C.; Paradas, Wladimir C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Salgado, Leonardo T.

    2013-01-01

    chemical defence of red algae. PMID:23704959

  5. Polaribacter porphyrae sp. nov., isolated from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, and emended descriptions of the genus Polaribacter and two Polaribacter species.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Youhei; Abe, Mahiko; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2013-05-01

    Three Gram-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic strains, designated LNM-20(T), LCM-1 and LAM-13, were isolated from thalli of the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were associated with the genus Polaribacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and were most closely related to Polaribacter dokdonensis DSW-5(T) (96.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Polaribacter gangjinensis K17-16(T) (95.0 %). The DNA G+C content of the isolates was 28.6-29.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed that the isolates belonged to a single species distinct from both of their closest relatives. The only isoprenoid quinone detected was menaquinone-6. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1ω10c and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. The phenotypic features of strain LNM-20(T) differed from those of their closest relatives in several regards (colony colour, growth with 1 % NaCl and on TSA plus 2.5 % NaCl, hydrolysis of Tweens 40 and 80, and oxidization of five carbon compounds). On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis, the isolates represent a novel species in the genus Polaribacter, for which the name Polaribacter porphyrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LNM-20(T) ( = LMG 26671(T)  = NBRC 108759(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Polaribacter and P. dokdonensis and P. gangjinensis are also proposed.

  6. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  7. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  8. Algae: America’s Pathway to Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    Bioenergy, Biofuel, Energy Policy CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The United States is dependent on foreign oil to meet 63% of its petroleum demand...source of bioenergy. ALGAE: AMERICA’S PATHWAY TO INDEPENDENCE Ensuring a secure supply of energy is a strategic challenge for...150 years,6 the U.S. will be competing with other nations to procure the 2 finite commodity. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that by the

  9. Algae as Reservoirs for Coral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS) in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD) in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively). Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is most likely a

  10. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

  11. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    PubMed

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  12. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  13. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops.

  14. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  15. Chemical composition and moisture-absorption/retention ability of polysaccharides extracted from five algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Hou, Yun; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we prepared seven polysaccharides extracted from five algae including one brown alga Saccharina japonica, one red alga Porphyra haitanensis and three green algae Codium fragile, Enteromorpha linza and Bryopsis plumose. The chemical composition and capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention were investigated in comparison with those of hyaluronic acid (HA). The low molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed exhibited the highest moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities of all of the polysaccharides studied and performed better than HA. The relationships between chemical composition (including sulfated groups, monosaccharide, and molecular weight) and the functions of polysaccharides were also studied. We found the sulfated group was a main active site for moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities. These abilities were also related to molecular weight; with the exception of the low molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed, lower molecular weight improved moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities.

  16. The effect of CO2 enrichment on net photosynthesis of the red alga Furcellaria lumbricalis in a brackish water environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Georg; Paalme, Tiina; Põllumäe, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June–July 2012 and 2013. Separate mesocosms were maintained at different pCO2 levels: ca. 2,000, ca. 1,000 and ca. 200 µatm. In parallel, different environmental factors were measured such as nutrients, light and water temperature. Thus, the current study also investigated whether elevated pCO2 and different environmental factors exerted interactive effects on the photosynthetic rate of F. lumbricalis. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the optimal temperature for photosynthesis of F. lumbricalis. The results of our field experiments demonstrated that elevated pCO2 levels may remarkably enhance the photosynthetic rate of F. lumbricalis. However, the magnitude of this effect is altered by different environmental factors, mainly by changes in water temperature. PMID:27761318

  17. The effect of CO2 enrichment on net photosynthesis of the red alga Furcellaria lumbricalis in a brackish water environment.

    PubMed

    Pajusalu, Liina; Martin, Georg; Paalme, Tiina; Põllumäe, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere are causing reduction in the global ocean pH, also known as ocean acidification. This change alters the equilibrium of different forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater that macroalgae use for their photosynthesis. In the Baltic Sea, benthic macroalgae live in a highly variable environment caused by seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. The effect of increasing water CO2 concentration on the net photosynthesis of the red macroalgae Furcellaria lumbricalis (Hudson) Lamouroux was tested in short-term mesocosm experiments conducted in Kõiguste Bay (N Gulf of Riga) in June-July 2012 and 2013. Separate mesocosms were maintained at different pCO2 levels: ca. 2,000, ca. 1,000 and ca. 200 µatm. In parallel, different environmental factors were measured such as nutrients, light and water temperature. Thus, the current study also investigated whether elevated pCO2 and different environmental factors exerted interactive effects on the photosynthetic rate of F. lumbricalis. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the optimal temperature for photosynthesis of F. lumbricalis. The results of our field experiments demonstrated that elevated pCO2 levels may remarkably enhance the photosynthetic rate of F. lumbricalis. However, the magnitude of this effect is altered by different environmental factors, mainly by changes in water temperature.

  18. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-06-01

    Algae are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, where heterotrophic bacteria grow on organics produced by algae and recycle nutrients. Ecological studies have identified the co-occurrence of particular species of algae and bacteria, suggesting the presence of their specific interactions. Algae/bacteria interactions are categorized into nutrient exchange, signal transduction and gene transfer. Studies have examined how these interactions shape aquatic communities and influence geochemical cycles in the natural environment. In parallel, efforts have been made to exploit algae for biotechnology processes, such as water treatment and bioenergy production, where bacteria influence algal activities in various ways. We suggest that better understanding of mechanisms underlying algae/bacteria interactions will facilitate the development of more efficient and/or as-yet-unexploited biotechnology processes.

  19. Clinical and pathologic findings of blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    DeVries, S E; Galey, F D; Namikoshi, M; Woo, J C

    1993-07-01

    A healthy dog developed signs of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting water from a tide pool containing blue-green algae. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred, and the dog was euthanized 52 hours later. At necropsy, the liver was large, friable, and discolored a dark red. Histopathology showed hepatocyte dissociation, degeneration, and necrosis. The alga was identified as Microcystis aeruginosa, a known hepatotoxin. The intraperitoneal administration of lyophilized cell material from the bloom caused hepatic necrosis in mice.

  20. Unveiling privacy: advances in microtomography of coralline algae.

    PubMed

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N; Ferreira, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Mariana C

    2015-05-01

    Marine calcareous algae are widespread in oceans of the world and known for their calcified cell walls and the generation of rhodolith beds that turn sandy bottoms into a complex structured ecosystem with high biodiversity. Rhodoliths are unattached, branching, crustose benthic marine red algae; they provide habitat for a rich variety of marine invertebrates. The resultant excavation is relevant to sediment production, while is common that the fragments or the whole specimens result in vast fossil deposits formed by rich material that can be "mined" for biological and geological data. Accordingly, microtomography (μCT) may enable a detailed investigation of biological and geological signatures preserved within the rhodolith structure in a non-destructive approach that is especially relevant when analyzing herbaria collections or rare samples. Therefore, we prepared coralline algae samples and submitted them to a range of capabilities provided by the SkyScan1176 micro-CT scanner, including reconstruction, virtual slicing, and pinpointing biological and geological signatures. To this end, polychaetes and mollusk shells, or their excavations, coral nucleation, sediment deposits and conceptacles were all observed. Although a similar technique has been applied previously to samples of living rhodoliths in Brazil, we show, for the first time, its successful application to fossil rhodoliths. We also provide a detailed working protocol and discuss the advantages and limitations of the microtomography within the rhodoliths.

  1. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Ingredients from Algae.

    PubMed

    Adalbjörnsson, Björn V; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are not only a rich source of dietary fibre, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but also contain a great variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Marine macroalgae are a rich source of various natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially phlorotannins (made of polyphloroglucinol units) derived from brown algae, which play an important role in preventing lipid peroxidation. In recent years, a number of potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated and identified from different types of edible seaweeds. Extraction methods commonly used for the isolation of antioxidants are based on conventional water or organic solvent extractions. However, recent advances have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis can achieve higher yield of bioactive compounds from algae. Here we describe a method based on enzymatic hydrolysis which both increases yield and decreases cost associated with organic solvents. This method achieves cell wall disruption and breakdown of internal storage components for more effective release of intracellular bioactive compounds. In addition, hydrolysis of proteins produces peptides which may have antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the algal extract. The method described can be used for production of extracts from red and brown macroalgal species.

  2. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  3. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Guoliang; Chi, Shan; Liu, Cui; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp) in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp), separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp). The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome. PMID:26426800

  4. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    ScienceCinema

    Elliott, Doug

    2016-07-12

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  5. Algae to Bio-Crude in Less Than 60 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Doug

    2013-12-17

    Engineers have created a chemical process that produces useful crude oil just minutes after engineers pour in harvested algae -- a verdant green paste with the consistency of pea soup. The PNNL team combined several chemical steps into one continuous process that starts with an algae slurry that contains as much as 80 to 90 percent water. Most current processes require the algae to be dried -- an expensive process that takes a lot of energy. The research has been licensed by Genifuel Corp.

  6. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  7. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae cr cyanobacteria . Although cyanobacteria are found in almost any environment ranging from hot...p ecst Available Copy ~’ COPy Ni AD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS:’ I ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION < DTIC ANNUAL/FINAL...AA I 78 11. TITLE (In•.ju . ’,curry Ci.si fication) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolatior and CharacteriZation 12. PERSONAL

  8. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  9. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  10. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  11. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  12. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in

  13. Genome analysis and its significance in four unicellular algae, Cyanidioschyzon [corrected] merolae, Ostreococcus tauri, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Osami; Yoshida, Yamato; Nishida, Keiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Sakajiri, Takayuki; Hirooka, Syunsuke; Nishimura, Yoshiki; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Algae play a more important role than land plants in the maintenance of the global environment and productivity. Progress in genome analyses of these organisms means that we can now obtain information on algal genomes, global annotation and gene expression. The full genome information for several algae has already been analyzed. Whole genomes of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon [corrected] merolae, the green algae Ostreococcus tauri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana have been sequenced. Genome composition and the features of cells among the four algae were compared. Each alga maintains basic genes as photosynthetic eukaryotes and possesses additional gene groups to represent their particular characteristics. This review discusses and introduces the latest research that makes the best use of the particular features of each organism and the significance of genome analysis to study biological phenomena. In particular, examples of post-genome studies of organelle multiplication in C. merolae based on analyzed genome information are presented.

  14. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO(2) and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  15. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  16. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  17. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  18. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  19. Combining micro-structures and micro-algae to increase lipid production for bio-fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyawahare, Saurabh; Zhu, Emilly; Mestler, Troy; Estévez-Torres, André.; Austin, Robert

    2011-03-01

    3rd generation bio-fuels like lipid producing micro-algae are a promising source of energy that could replace our dependence on petroleum. However, until there are improvements in algae oil yields, and a reduction in the energy needed for processing, algae bio-fuels are not economically competitive with petroleum. Here, we describe our work combining micro-fabricated devices with micro-algae Neochloris oleoabundans, a species first isolated on the sand dunes of Saudi Arabia. Inserting micro-algae of varying fitness into a landscape of micro-habitats allows us to evolve and select them based on a variety of conditions like specific gravity, starvation response and Nile Red fluorescence (which is a marker for lipid production). Hence, we can both estimate the production of lipids and generate conditions that allow the creation and isolation of algae which produce higher amounts of lipids, while discarding the rest. Finally, we can use micro-fabricated structures and flocculation to de-water these high lipid producing algae, reducing the need for expensive centrifugation and filtration.

  20. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  1. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  2. Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stuart A; Davey, Matthew P; Dennis, John S; Horst, Irmtraud; Howe, Christopher J; Lea-Smith, David J; Smith, Alison G

    2010-06-01

    Microalgae offer great potential for exploitation, including the production of biodiesel, but the process is still some way from being carbon neutral or commercially viable. Part of the problem is that there is little established background knowledge in the area. We should look both to achieve incremental steps and to increase our fundamental understanding of algae to identify potential paradigm shifts. In doing this, integration of biology and engineering will be essential. In this review we present an overview of a potential algal biofuel pipeline, and focus on recent work that tackles optimization of algal biomass production and the content of fuel molecules within the algal cell.

  3. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated.

  4. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  5. [Extinguishment of harmful algae by organo-clay].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming

    2003-07-01

    Periodic and widespread algal blooms have caused a variety of problems for aquatic life and human activity throughout the world. Currently, the only remedial practice employed for removing algal blooms is to spread clay on the surface of the water. But, the algal removal efficiency by the crude minerals are not really ideal, and how to improve the capability of clays to remove algae is now the technological focus, which also is fatal to the practical value of clays. In this study, hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB), one kind of cationic organo-surfactants, was chosen to improve kaolin by surface sorption and cationic exchange, and was tested to remove Prorocentrum donghaiense, a red tide organism in Donghai Sea. The results indicated that organo-clay had an excellent ability to extinguish red tide organisms, even under the application of 0.01 g.L-1, and could subside more than 95% red tide organisms in 24 h. The efficient algae removal by organo-clay might be from the reversal of the surface electric charge on clay particles, the "net capture" by the long lipoid chains of HDTMAB, and the local high density of HDTMAB on particles surface, which could effectively kill algal cells.

  6. Evidence for a photoprotective function for secondary carotenoids of snow algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bidigare, R.R.; Ondrusek, M.E. ); Kennicutt, M.C. II ); Iturriaga, R. ); Harvey, H.R. ); Hoham, R.W. ); Macko, S.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Snow algae occupy a unique habitat in high altitude and polar environments. These algae are often subject to extremes in nutrient availability, acidity, solar irradiance, desiccation, and ambient temperature. This report documents the accumulation of secondary carotenoids by snow algae in response to the availability of nitrogenous nutrients. Unusually large accumulations of astaxanthin esters in extra-chloroplastic lipid globules produce the characteristic red pigmentation typical of some snow algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille). Consequently, these compounds greatly reduce the amount of light available for absorption by the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, thus potentially limiting photoinhibition and photodamage caused by intense solar radiation. The esterification of astaxanthin with fatty acids represents a possible mechanism by which this chromophore can be concentrated within cytoplasmic globules to maximize its photoprotective efficiency. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  8. 3D-PTV measurement of the phototactic movement of algae in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsuyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Recently, swimming motion of algae cells is researched actively, because algae fuel is one of the hottest topic in engineering. It is known that algae swim toward the light for photosynthesis however, the effect of a background flow on the unidirectional swimming is unclear. In this study, we used Volvox as a model alga and placed them in a simple shear flow with or without light stimulus. The shear flow was generated by moving two flat sheets in the opposite direction tangentially. A red LED light (wave length 660 nm) was used as an observation light source, and a white LED light was used to stimulate cells for the phototaxis. The trajectories of individual cells were measured by a 3D-PTV system, consists of a pair of high-speed camera with macro lenses. The results were analyzed to understand the effect of the background shear flow on the phototaxis of cells.

  9. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  10. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  11. Respiratory Chain of Colorless Algae II. Cyanophyta

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D. A.; Hackett, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Whole cell difference spectra of the blue-green algae, Saprospira grandis, Leucothrix mucor, and Vitreoscilla sp. have one, or at the most 2, broad α-bands near 560 mμ. At −190° these bands split to give 4 peaks in the α-region for b and c-type cytochromes, but no α-band for a-type cytochromes is visible. The NADH oxidase activity of these organisms was shown to be associated with particulate fractions of cell homogenates. The response of this activity to inhibitors differed from the responses of the NADH oxidase activities of particulate preparations from the green algae and higher plants to the same inhibitors, but is more typical of certain bacteria. No cytochrome oxidase activity was present in these preparations. The respiration of Saprospira and Vitreoscilla can be light-reversibly inhibited by CO, and all 3 organisms have a CO-binding pigment whose CO complex absorbs near 570, 535, and 417 mμ. The action spectrum for the light reversal of CO-inhibited Vitreoscilla respiration shows maxima at 568, 534, and 416 mμ. The results suggest that the terminal oxidase in these blue-greens is an o-type cytochrome. Images PMID:5932404

  12. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Curtis, Tom P; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production from a phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73 +/- 1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m(2) (277 W/m(3)) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m(2) (215 W/m(3)) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs.

  13. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  14. Surface gas-exchange processes of snow algae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, William E.; Gorton, Holly L.; Vogelmann, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The red-colored chlorophyte Chlamydomonas nivalis is commonly found in summer snowfields. We used a modified Li-Cor gas-exchange system to investigate surface gas-exchange characteristics of snow colonized by this alga, finding rates of CO2 uptake up to 0.3 μmol m−2⋅s−1 in dense algal blooms. Experiments varying the irradiance resulted in light curves that resembled those of the leaves of higher plants. Red light was more effective than white and much more effective than green or blue, because of the red astaxanthin that surrounds and masks the algal chloroplasts. Integrating daily course measurements of gas exchange showed CO2 uptake around 2,300 μmol⋅m−2⋅day−1 in heavily colonized patches, indicating that summer snowfields can be surprisingly productive. PMID:12518048

  15. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  16. Algae Farming in Low Earth Orbit: Past Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, N.

    Algal strains used as a production engine represent a novel example of living mechanical systems with tremendous potential for applications in space. Algae use photosynthesis to create lipids, glycerin, and biomass, with different strains of algae producing different oils. Algae can be grown to produce many types of oils, with low, medium or long hydrocarbon chain lengths. This article examines the history of algae research, as well as its value to astronauts as both a food supplement and as an oxygen production and carbon sequester engine. Consideration is given to ways algae is currently being used and tested in space, followed by a look forward envisioning dynamic living technological systems that can help to sustain our race as we travel the void between stars.

  17. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  18. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    SciTech Connect

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  19. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  20. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    DOE PAGES

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; ...

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence ofmore » phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.« less

  1. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia -Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  2. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems.

    PubMed

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N; van Baren, Marijke J; Price, Dana C; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2014-11-04

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  3. [Effects of marine bacteria on the growth and toxin production of red-tide algae under different pH and salinities].

    PubMed

    Su, Jianqiang; Zheng, Tianling; Hu, Zhong; Xu, Jingsen; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian

    2003-07-01

    The effects of strain S10 isolated from sediments of Xiamen Western Sea Area on the growth and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) production of Alexandrium tamarense at different pH and salinities were studied. The results showed that the alga grew well at pH 6-8 and at salinity of 20-34. The toxicity of A. tamarense varied markedly at different pH and salinities: it decreased with increasing pH, while increased with salinity and reached its peak value at the salinity of 30, and then declined. The strain S10 inhibited the growth and the PSP production of A. tamarense at different pH and salinities. It had the best inhibitory function on the growth of A. tamarense at pH 7 and salinity of 34. The best inhibitory function on the PSP production of A. tamarense was at pH 7, but this inhibitory function was not related to salinity.

  4. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  5. Marine algae as a prospective source for antidiabetic compounds - A brief review.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, S P; Jayasri, A M

    2016-12-29

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM. In the continuing search for effective antidiabetic drugs, marine algae (seaweeds) remains as a promising source with potent bioactivity. It is anticipated that the isolation, characterization, and pharmacological study of unexplored marine algae can be useful in the discovery of novel antidiabetic compounds with high biomedical value. Among marine algae, brown and red algae are reported to exhibit antidiabetic activity. Majority of the investigations on algal derived compounds controls the blood glucose levels through the inhbition of carbohydrate hydroloyzing enzymes and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B enzymes, insulin sensitization, glucose uptake effect and other protective effects against diabetic complications. Based on the above perspective this review provides; profiles for various marine algae posessing antidiabetic activity. This study also highlights the therapeutic potential of compounds isolated from marine algae for the effective management of diabetes and its associated complications.

  6. Predicting the risk of toxic blooms of golden alga from cell abundance and environmental covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a toxic haptophyte that has caused considerable ecological damage to marine and inland aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Studies focused primarily on laboratory cultures have indicated that toxicity is poorly correlated with the abundance of golden alga cells. This relationship, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in the field where environmental conditions are much different. The ability to predict toxicity using readily measured environmental variables and golden alga abundance would allow managers rapid assessments of ichthyotoxicity potential without laboratory bioassay confirmation, which requires additional resources to accomplish. To assess the potential utility of these relationships, several a priori models relating lethal levels of golden alga ichthyotoxicity to golden alga abundance and environmental covariates were constructed. Model parameters were estimated using archived data from four river basins in Texas and New Mexico (Colorado, Brazos, Red, Pecos). Model predictive ability was quantified using cross-validation, sensitivity, and specificity, and the relative ranking of environmental covariate models was determined by Akaike Information Criterion values and Akaike weights. Overall, abundance was a generally good predictor of ichthyotoxicity as cross validation of golden alga abundance-only models ranged from ∼ 80% to ∼ 90% (leave-one-out cross-validation). Environmental covariates improved predictions, especially the ability to predict lethally toxic events (i.e., increased sensitivity), and top-ranked environmental covariate models differed among the four basins. These associations may be useful for monitoring as well as understanding the abiotic factors that influence toxicity during blooms.

  7. Random flow induced by swimming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Rushkin, Ilia; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    In this work we studied the random flow induced in a fluid by the motion of a dilute suspension of the swimming algae Volvox carteri. The fluid velocity in the suspension is a superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions that decay as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocity fluctuations are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet. Deviations from Gaussianity are shown to arise from near-field effects. Comparison is made with the statistical properties of abiotic sedimenting suspensions. The experimental results are supplemented by extensive numerical studies.

  8. Swimming like algae: biomimetic soft artificial cilia.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-01-06

    Cilia are used effectively in a wide variety of biological systems from fluid transport to thrust generation. Here, we present the design and implementation of artificial cilia, based on a biomimetic planar actuator using soft-smart materials. This actuator is modelled on the cilia movement of the alga Volvox, and represents the cilium as a piecewise constant-curvature robotic actuator that enables the subsequent direct translation of natural articulation into a multi-segment ionic polymer metal composite actuator. It is demonstrated how the combination of optimal segmentation pattern and biologically derived per-segment driving signals reproduce natural ciliary motion. The amenability of the artificial cilia to scaling is also demonstrated through the comparison of the Reynolds number achieved with that of natural cilia.

  9. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  10. Interactions of metals and protons with algae

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, R.H.; Oberholser, K.; Schwartz, D.; Marzoff, J.; Ryder, D.; Crist, D.R.

    1988-07-01

    Proton uptake by intact algal cells was found to consist of two processes: (1) a fast (<4 s) surface reaction and (2) a slow (2h) diffusion of protons into cells. A pH titration technique measured only the rapid surface reaction that forms negative sites at higher pH. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions on algae was quantitatively represented by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with its two parameters y/sub m/, the maximum amount of metal adsorbed, and K, the equilibrium constant taken as a measure of bond strength. Variations of these parameters with pH and type of metal indicate that metals adsorb to algal surfaces by electrostatic attraction to negative sites, such as carboxylate anions of poly(galaturonic acid) (pectin), as previously suggested.

  11. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  12. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.

  13. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-02-05

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences.

  14. Gas Exchange with Mass Cultures of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, P. J.; Patouillet, Constance

    1963-01-01

    Comparisons of oxygen production and carbon dioxide absorption by an algal gas exchanger were made over a 3-month period. The data do not represent a continuous test, but they do represent results obtained when identical light intensities, CO2 supply rates, and dilution rates with fresh culture medium had been used for more than 1 day. Steady-state conditions were thus assured, and the agreement in the data was excellent. Under the same experimental conditions, the unit was operated continuously for a 5-day period, and the daily variability in this test was less than in the results obtained from month to month. The variation between the average O2 production during the 5-day test and the average of the tests over a several-month period was less than 3%. It is concluded, therefore, that the reliability of the algae in producing oxygen is sufficient to warrant their use in either submarine or space ship use. PMID:14063790

  15. Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Diaz, J G; Odlare, M; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-01-01

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Mälaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Mälaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8±2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4±41.4% of PO4-P.

  16. Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium.

    PubMed

    Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Tsai, David Dah-Wei; Chen, Paris Honglay

    2015-01-01

    Algae are the dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Since algae are highly varied group organisms, which have important functions in ecosystem, and their biomass is an essential biological resource. Currently, algae have been applied increasingly to diverse range of biomass applications. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the ecological algae features of microalgal production by natural medium, ecological function by lab scale of the symbiotic reactor which is imitated nature ecosystem, and atmospheric CO2 absorption that was related the algal growth of biomass to understand algae in natural water body better. Consequently, this study took advantages of using the unsupplemented freshwater natural medium to produce microalgae. Algal biomass by direct measurement of total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) resulted as 0.14g/L and 0.08g/L respectively. The biomass measurements of TSS and VSS are the sensible biomass index for algae production. The laboratory results obtained in the present study proved the production of algae by the natural water medium is potentially feasible.

  17. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  18. [Numerical simulation on hydrodynamic character for algae growth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Pang, Yong

    2008-04-01

    In order to quantificationally study the direct effects of hydrodynamic condition on the growth of algae, the Microcystis aeruginosa was chosen to carry through the disturbance-experiment. By keeping the same value of illumination, temperature and nutrition and changing the rotate speed of oscillator, the growing processes of algae under different disturbance intensities were researched. The hydraulic parameter was presented to amend the formula for the growth of algae. Take Neijiang as an example. A 2-D unsteady model for algae growth was established to forecast the scope of water blooms in Neijiang. It is found that the growth of algae is obviously influenced by hydrodynamic condition, and a condign low velocity is beneficial for its growth while both the quiescence condition and high velocity will restrain its growth rate. After the close of the water gate in Leading Channel, the velocity in Neijiang will be decreased, which accelerated the growth rate of algae, and the area of water blooms will be increased to 2.5 km2 which is about 36.8 percent of the total water surface area of Neijiang. Under the quiescent condition and the improved hydrodynamic condition, the growth rate of algae will be effectively controlled and the area of water blooms will be reduced to 0.78 km2 and 0.18 km2 respectively.

  19. [Seasonal variation characteristics of algae biomass in Chaohu Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Wang, Shu-Hang; Zhong, Li-Xiang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Shi-Qun

    2010-09-01

    The biomass and distribution of algae community in Chaohu Lake were investigated in 2008. At the same time, the seasonal variations of algae translocation between the sediment and overlying water were also quantitative studied by self-made "algae up/down trap". Chaohu Lake was dominated by Cyanobacteria all the year, and dominant Cyanobacteria species changed in different seasons. In spring, Anabaena was the dominant species, and Microcystis was the subdominant species; In the whole summer and autumn, the dominant species is Microcystis. Algae biomass increased significantly from May and the maximum appeared in August, was 146.37 mg x m(-3) with Chl-a. The value of algae biomass were 9.75-16.24 mg x kg(-1) in the surface sediments, and the minimum appeared in Summer, then the algae biomass increased gradually with the maximum value in winter. Translocation process between the sediment and the overlying water occurred throughout the study period. The recruitment rates increased at first with the maximum rates in early August, was 0.036 8 mg x (m2 x d) (-1), and then had a downward tendency. However the sedimentation rates increased slowly firstly with the maximum rate in early September, then it decreased sharply, was 0.032 1 mg x (m2 x d)(-1). Multiple stepwise regression showed that temperature was the most significant factor for the algae biomass in Chaohu Lake, Total nitrogen (TN) and Total phosphorus(TP) are sub-important factors.

  20. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  1. Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae.

    PubMed

    WELCH, A M

    1962-01-01

    Welch, Ann Marie (U. S. Veterans Administration Hospital, Durham, N. C.). Preliminary survey of fungistatic properties of marine algae. J. Bacteriol. 83:97-99. 1962-Homogenized preparations of 35 marine algae were tested for inhibitory activity against 6 pathogenic or opportunistically pathogenic fungi with saturated filter-paper discs on seeded Sabouraud agar plates; 11 of these preparations produced wide zones of inhibition against 1 or more test organisms, and at least 4 of the 11 are considered to be worthy of further study. The results indicated that further search should be made for antifungal substances from marine algae.

  2. Polyploidy of endosymbiotically derived genomes in complex algae.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Chlorarachniophyte and cryptophyte algae have complex plastids that were acquired by the uptake of a green or red algal endosymbiont via secondary endosymbiosis. The plastid is surrounded by four membranes, and a relict nucleus, called the nucleomorph, remains in the periplastidal compartment that is the remnant cytoplasm of the endosymbiont. Thus, these two algae possess four different genomes in a cell: Nuclear, nucleomorph, plastid, and mitochondrial. Recently, sequencing of the nuclear genomes of the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans and the cryptophyte Guillardia theta has been completed, and all four genomes have been made available. However, the copy number of each genome has never been investigated. It is important to know the actual DNA content of each genome, especially the highly reduced nucleomorph genome, for studies on genome evolution. In this study, we calculated genomic copy numbers in B. natans and G. theta using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach. The nuclear genomes were haploid in both species, whereas the nucleomorph genomes were estimated to be diploid and tetraploid, respectively. Mitochondria and plastids contained a large copy number of genomic DNA in each cell. In the secondary endosymbioses of chlorarachniophytes and cryptophytes, the endosymbiont nuclear genomes were highly reduced in size and in the number of coding genes, whereas the chromosomal copy number was increased, as in bacterial endosymbiont genomes. This suggests that polyploidization is a general characteristic of highly reduced genomes in broad prokaryotic and eukaryotic endosymbionts.

  3. Study of Selecting on Light Source Used for Micro-algae Cultivation in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Weidang; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuang-Sheng; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yong-Kang; Qin, Li-Feng

    To select suitable light source for micro-algae cultivation in future space station, the selected Spirulina plastensis(No.7) were cultured under different lightening qualities, including six light sources that were made up of different combinations of red and blue light-emitting diode(LED). The growth, photosynthetic efficiency and nutrition quality of the Spirulina, were analyzed. From the experiments, the red light may promote the cumulation of biomass of the Spirulina, and the cumulating rate was the highest under all red light source, but the syntheses of protein, phycobiliprotein, β-carotene, VE and other nutrients needs a certain portion of blue light; yet, the complete blue light condition is not favorable to the growth of Spirulina, and may bring pollution by chlorella and other kinds of micro-algae. It is concluded that the LEDs can be used as the light resource of micro-algae cultivation. The normal growth and development of microalgae need two light sources of both red and blue LEDs. The comprehensive analyses of the various factors that affect the growth of Spirulina, such as nutrition quality and photosynthetic activities, etc., showed that the combination of 80% red and 20% blue LED is the optimum one among those tested combinations. Key word: light-emitting diode; micro-algae; controlled ecological life support system (CELSS); space cultivation

  4. Resurrection kinetics of photosynthesis in desiccation-tolerant terrestrial green algae (Chlorophyta) on tree bark.

    PubMed

    Lüttge, U; Büdel, B

    2010-05-01

    The rough bark of orchard trees (Malus) around Darmstadt is predominantly covered in red to purple-brown layers (biofilms) of epiphytic terrestrial alga of Trentepohlia umbrina. The smooth bark of forest trees (Fagus sylvatica L. and Acer sp.) in the same area is covered by bright green biofilms composed of the green algae Desmococcus, Apatococcus and Trebouxia, with a few cells of Coccomyxa and 'Chlorella' trebouxioides between them. These algae are desiccation tolerant. After samples of bark with the biofilms were kept in dry air in darkness for various periods of time, potential quantum yield of PSII, F(v)/F(m), recovered during rehydration upon rewetting. The kinetics and degree of recovery depended on the length of time that the algae were kept in dry air in the desiccated state. Recovery was better for green biofilm samples, i.e. quite good even after 80 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 50% of initial value), than the red samples, where recovery was only adequate up to ca. 30-40 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 20-55% of initial value). It is concluded that the different bark types constitute different ecophysiological niches that can be occupied by the algae and that can be distinguished by their capacity to recover from desiccation after different times in the dry state.

  5. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies.

  6. [Parameter determination of algae growth based on ecological tank experiment].

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Ding, Ling; Gao, Guang

    2005-05-01

    A dynamic simulation experiment of algae in an ecological tank was performed at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research. During the experiment, water from Taihu Lake was infused into the ecological tank and samples were taken continually to observe algae growth under varying conditions, such as temperature, sunlight and nutrients. Based on the experiment, an algae growth model, considering nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, was developed by using the advanced PHREEQC model. After that, a detailed calibration and validation of parameters in the model were done on the basis of experimental results. The least square method was used to determine the optimal set of parameters. The calculated values of algae and nutrient concentrations show fairly satisfying fittness with measured data.

  7. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In this article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed. PMID:23049529

  8. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  9. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  10. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM GROUNDWATER IMMOBILIZED ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. conducted a project under the Emerging Technology portion of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to evaluate the ability of immobilized algae to adsorb mercury from contamina...

  11. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  12. Harmful algae blooms removal from fresh water with modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunguang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiangqin

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite and vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid were investigated to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies in freshwater containing harmful algae blooms (HABs) (Microcystis aeruginosa). Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, converted fluorescence microscope, plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and Zetasizer were used to study the flocculation mechanism of modified vermiculite. It was found that the vermiculite modified with hydrochloric acid could coagulate algae cells through charge neutralization, chemical bridging, and netting effect. The experimental results show that the efficiency of flocculation can be notably improved by modified vermiculite. Ninety-eight per cent of algae cells in algae solution could be removed within 10 min after the addition ofmodified vermiculite clay. The method that removal of HABs with modified vermiculite is economical with high efficiency, and more research is needed to assess their ecological impacts before using in practical application.

  13. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) and copper on the morphology, ultrastructural organization and physiological responses of the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Éder C; Kreusch, Marianne; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Ouriques, Luciane C; Farias-Soares, Francine L; Steiner, Neusa; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and copper (Cu) on apical segments of Pterocladiella capillacea was examined under two different conditions of radiation, PAR (control) and PAR+UVA+UVB (PAR+UVAB), and three copper concentrations, ranging from 0 (control) to 0.62, 1.25 and 2.50 μm. Algae were exposed in vitro to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 70 μmol photons m(-2)  s(-1) , PAR + UVB at 0.35 W m(-2) and PAR +UVA at 0.70 W m(-2) during a 12-h photocycle for 3 h each day for 7 days. The effects of radiation and copper on growth rates, content of photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic performance were analyzed. In addition, samples were processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased after exposure to radiation and Cu. Compared with PAR radiation and copper treatments modified the kinetics patterns of the photosynthesis/irradiance curve. The treatments also caused changes in the ultrastructure of cortical and subcortical cells, including increased cell wall thickness and accumulation of plastoglobuli, as well as changes in the organization of chloroplasts. The results indicate that the synergistic interaction between UV radiation and Cu in P. capillacea, led to the failure of protective mechanisms and causing more drastic changes and cellular imbalances.

  14. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  15. Study on algae removal by immobilized biosystem on sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2006-10-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake’s water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae, organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively. The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans. Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  16. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    SciTech Connect

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  17. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using algae to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial and small-scale utility power boilers. The operations are being studied for the use of CO2 from flue gas for algae growth along with the production of biofuels and other useful products to prepare a comprehensive characterization of the economic feasibility of using algae to capture CO2. Information is being generated for analyses of the potential for these technologies to advance in the market and assist in meeting environmental goals, as well as to examine their associated environmental implications. Three electric power generation plants (coal and fuel oil fired) equipped to send flue-gas emissions to algae culture at demonstration facilities are being studied. Data and process information are being collected and developed to facilitate feasibility and modeling evaluations of the CO2 to algae technology. An understanding of process requirements to apply this technology to existing industries would go far in advancing carbon capture opportunities. Documenting the successful use of this technology could help bring “low-tech”, low-cost, CO2 to algae, carbon capture to multiple size industries and

  18. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-03

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential.

  19. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  20. Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers.

  1. Phosphorus-Limited Growth of a Green Alga and a Blue-Green Alga

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Douglas S.; Brown, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nägeli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nägeli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nägeli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). PMID:16345896

  2. Phosphorus-limited growth of a green alga and a blue-green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.S.; Brown, E.J.

    1981-12-01

    The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nageli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nageli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nageli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). (Refs. 44).

  3. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  4. Coccolithophorid algae culture in closed photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Navid R; Isdepsky, Andreas; Lisec, Jan; Raes, Eric; Borowitzka, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of growth, calcium carbonate and lipid production of the coccolithophorid algae (Prymnesiophyceae), Pleurochrysis carterae, Emiliania huxleyi, and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, was investigated in plate, carboy, airlift, and tubular photobioreactors. The plate photobioreactor was the most promising closed cultivation system. All species could be grown in the carboy photobioreactor. However, P. carterae was the only species which grew in an airlift photobioreactor. Despite several attempts to grow these coccolithophorid species in the tubular photobioreactor (Biocoil), including modification of the airlift and sparger design, no net growth could be achieved. The shear produced by turbulence and bubble effects are the most likely reasons for this failure to grow in the Biocoil. The highest total dry weight, lipid and calcium carbonate productivities achieved by P. carterae in the plate photobioreactors were 0.54, 0.12, and 0.06 g L(-1) day(-1) respectively. Irrespective of the type of photobioreactor, the productivities were P. carterae > E. huxleyi > G. oceanica. Pleurochrysis carterae lipid (20-25% of dry weight) and calcium carbonate (11-12% of dry weight) contents were also the highest of all species tested.

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Four Prymnesiophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Koid, Amy E.; Liu, Zhenfeng; Terrado, Ramon; Jones, Adriane C.; Caron, David A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of bacteria, archaea and viruses have provided insights into the microbial world by unveiling potential functional capabilities and molecular pathways. However, the rate of discovery has been slower among microbial eukaryotes, whose genomes are larger and more complex. Transcriptomic approaches provide a cost-effective alternative for examining genetic potential and physiological responses of microbial eukaryotes to environmental stimuli. In this study, we generated and compared the transcriptomes of four globally-distributed, bloom-forming prymnesiophyte algae: Prymnesium parvum, Chrysochromulina brevifilum, Chrysochromulina ericina and Phaeocystis antarctica. Our results revealed that the four transcriptomes possess a set of core genes that are similar in number and shared across all four organisms. The functional classifications of these core genes using the euKaryotic Orthologous Genes (KOG) database were also similar among the four study organisms. More broadly, when the frequencies of different cellular and physiological functions were compared with other protists, the species clustered by both phylogeny and nutritional modes. Thus, these clustering patterns provide insight into genomic factors relating to both evolutionary relationships as well as trophic ecology. This paper provides a novel comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of ecologically important and closely related prymnesiophyte protists and advances an emerging field of study that uses transcriptomics to reveal ecology and function in protists. PMID:24926657

  6. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements. PMID:28245621

  7. Four wavelength lidar applied to determination of chlorophyll a concentration and algae color group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Mumola, P. B.; Brown, C. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A technique for remote measurement of chlorophyll a density and determination of algae color group is described. In vivo fluorescence measurements of chlorophyll a for four color groups of algae (green, golden-brown, red, and blue-green) are described, and representative spectra are shown. The lidar equation is developed for the general case of a mixture of color groups showing the need for multicolor excitation. The lidar instrument which has been designed and fabricated at Langley Research Center for helicopter flights over surrounding portions of the Chesapeake Bay is described. The lidar package contains a unique four-color dye laser which permits multicolor excitation of chlorophyll a fluorescence from the various color groups of algae.

  8. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  9. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-10-22

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells.

  10. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga

    PubMed Central

    Schaum, C. Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: ‘migrate, acclimate, adapt or die’ (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167–178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298–230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells. PMID:25209938

  11. DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae Ulvella leptochaete (Ulvellaceae, Chlorophyta) in India.

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; Bhushan, Satej; John, Aijaz Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world's oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae Cladophora glomerata and benthic red algae Laurencia obtusa collected from India. DNA barcodes at nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcriber Spacer (nrDNA ITS) 1 and 2 regions for Indian isolates from the west and east coasts have been generated for the first time. Based on morphology and DNA barcoding, isolates were identified as Ulvella leptochaete. Phylogenetic reconstruction of concatenated dataset using Maximum Likelihood method differentiated Indian isolates from other accessions of this alga available in Genbank, albeit with low bootstrap support. Monophyly of Ulvella leptochaete was obvious in both of our phylogenetic analyses. With this first report of epi-endophytic algae from Indian territorial waters, the dire need to catalogue its cryptic diversity is highlighted and avenues of future research are discussed.

  12. Cytofluorometric determination of nuclear DNA in living and preserved algae.

    PubMed

    Hull, H M; Hoshaw, R W; Wang, J C

    1982-09-01

    Three DNA-localizing fluorochromes used in conjunction with epi (incident) UV illumination were examined for sensitivity and selectivity for the cytofluorometric determination of nuclear DNA in ten species of six algal genera: Mougeotia, Oedogonium, Sirogonium, Spirogyra and Zygnema among the green algae, and the marine red alga Polysiphonia boldii. In comparison with absorption photometry for the determination of nuclear DNA, the cytofluorometric procedure proved to be simpler and considerably more sensitive. Following staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), nuclei fluoresce blue-white, the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-DAPI complex being considerably greater than that of the unbound dye molecule. Algal strains stained with 2,5-bis[4'-aminophenyl(1')]-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BAO) also showed brilliant blue-white nuclear fluorescence. Although the BAO schedule requires the use of freshly prepared dye and sulfite water, and careful control of hydrolysis, nuclear fluorescence of the stained specimens does not fade under irradiation of the UV beam as rapidly as it does with certain other fluorochrome procedures. A more useful fluorochrome was the fungal antibiotic mithramycin. Its staining schedule is simple and the bright orange-yellow fluorescence of the nuclei is associated with an exceptional degree of sensitivity and specificity for DNA. Forty-eight-year-old preserved filaments of Spirogyra jatobae, stained with either BAO or mithramycin, exhibited a fluorescence brilliance of nuclear and chloroplast DNA equal to that of fresh specimens of this species. The three schedules, but particularly the one with mithramycin, have proven useful in providing indirect evidence for variation in ploidy level in several of the above algal genera, and in verifying the assumed ploidy level of the gametophyte (haploid) and tetrasporophyte (diploid) of Polysiphonia boldii.

  13. Roseitalea porphyridii gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a red alga and reclassification of Hoeflea suaedae (Chung et al., 2013) as Pseudohoeflea suaedae gen. nov., comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jong Woo; Jeong, Sang Eun; Baek, Kyunghwa; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-11-02

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated MA7-20T, was isolated from a marine alga, Porphyridium marinum, in Korea. Cells showing oxidase-positive and catalase-positive activities were motile rods with bipolar flagella. Growth of strain MA7-20T was observed at 15-45 C (optimum, 30-37 C), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). Strain MA7-20T contained summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and 11-methyl-C18:1 ω7c and C18:0 as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.5 mol%. Strain MA7-20T was most closely related to Hoeflea suaedae YC6898T, Oricola cellulosilytica CC-AMH-OT and Nitratireductor basaltis J3T with 96.0 %, 95.8 % and 95.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively, but the strain formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage from them within the family Phyllobacteriaceae with a low bootstrap value. H. suaedae also formed a clearly distinct phylogenetic lineage from other members of the genus Hoeflea and closely related genera. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain MA7-20T represents a novel genus of the family Phyllobacteriaceae, for which the name Roseitalea porphyridii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MA7-20T (=KACC 18807T =JCM 31538T). In addition, H. suaedae is also reclassified as Pseudohoeflea suaedae gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain YC6898T =KACC 14911T =NBRC 107700T).

  14. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  15. Evolution of reproductive development in the volvocine algae.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Armin

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of multicellularity, the separation of germline cells from sterile somatic cells, and the generation of a male-female dichotomy are certainly among the greatest innovations of eukaryotes. Remarkably, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the shift from simple to complex, differentiated multicellularity was not a unique progression in the evolution of life, but in fact a quite frequent event. The spheroidal green alga Volvox and its close relatives, the volvocine algae, span the full range of organizational complexity, from unicellular and colonial genera to multicellular genera with a full germ-soma division of labor and male-female dichotomy; thus, these algae are ideal model organisms for addressing fundamental issues related to the transition to multicellularity and for discovering universal rules that characterize this transition. Of all living species, Volvox carteri represents the simplest version of an immortal germline producing specialized somatic cells. This cellular specialization involved the emergence of mortality and the production of the first dead ancestors in the evolution of this lineage. Volvocine algae therefore exemplify the evolution of cellular cooperation from cellular autonomy. They also serve as a prime example of the evolution of complex traits by a few successive, small steps. Thus, we learn from volvocine algae that the evolutionary transition to complex, multicellular life is probably much easier to achieve than is commonly believed.

  16. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  17. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  18. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  19. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications.

  20. Development and characteristics of an adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae.

    PubMed

    Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gachon, Claire M M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2012-01-01

    Species of filamentous brown algae in the family Ectocarpaceae are significant members of fouling communities. However, there are few systematic studies on the influence of surface physico-chemical properties on their adhesion. In the present paper the development of a novel, laboratory-based adhesion bioassay for ectocarpoid algae, at an appropriate scale for the screening of sets of experimental samples in well-replicated and controlled experiments is described. The assays are based on the colonization of surfaces from a starting inoculum consisting of multicellular filaments obtained by blending the cultured alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum. The adhesion strength of the biomass after 14 days growth was assessed by applying a hydrodynamic shear stress. Results from adhesion tests on a set of standard surfaces showed that E. crouaniorum adhered more weakly to the amphiphilic Intersleek® 900 than to the more hydrophobic Intersleek® 700 and Silastic® T2 coatings. Adhesion to hydrophilic glass was also weak. Similar results were obtained for other cultivated species of Ectocarpus but differed from those obtained with the related ectocarpoid species Hincksia secunda. The response of the ectocarpoid algae to the surfaces was also compared to that for the green alga, Ulva.

  1. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor.

  2. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Gregg, Allison K; Smith, Jennifer E; Abieri, Maria L; Hatay, Mark; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L(- 1)) and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L(- 1)) conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  3. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  4. Coralline algae as a globally significant pool of marine dimethylated sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Heidi L.; Hatton, Angela D.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2015-10-01

    Marine algae are key sources of the biogenic sulfur compound dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a vital component of the marine sulfur cycle. Autotrophic ecosystem engineers such as red coralline algae support highly diverse and biogeochemically active ecosystems and are known to be high DMSP producers, but their importance in the global marine sulfur cycle has not yet been appreciated. Using a global sampling approach, we show that red coralline algae are a globally significant pool of DMSP in the oceans, estimated to be ~110 × 1012 moles worldwide during the summer months. Latitude was a major driver of observed regional-scale variations, with peaks in polar and tropical climate regimes, reflecting the varied cellular functions for DMSP (e.g., as a cryoprotectant and antioxidant). A temperate coralline algal bed was investigated in more detail to also identify local-scale temporal variations. Here, water column DMSP was driven by water temperature, and to a lesser extent, cloud cover; two factors which are also vital in controlling coralline algal growth. This study demonstrates that coralline algae harbor a large pool of dimethylated sulfur, thereby playing a significant role in both the sulfur and carbon marine biogeochemical cycles. However, coralline algal habitats are severely threatened by projected climate change; a loss of this habitat may thus detrimentally impact oceanic sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Exudates of different marine algae promote growth and mediate trace metal binding in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D; Leal, M Fernanda C

    2008-12-01

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum was grown in filtered natural seawater enriched with nitrate, phosphate, and silicate only (control) or with exudates from itself, from Emiliania huxleyi (a coccolithophore micro-alga), Porphyra spp. (a red macro-alga) or Enteromorpha spp. (a green macro-alga). Cathodic (and anodic) stripping voltammetry (C(A)SV) were used to determine the concentrations of trace metals, both in the medium and in the algae, as well as total Cu-complexing organic ligands in the medium and, among these, some thiols (compounds identified as cysteine- or as glutathione by CSV). Exudates of different marine micro- and macro-algae could cause allelopathic effects in P. tricornutum cultures. Cell yield of P. tricornutum was increasingly promoted by exudates of E. huxleyi >Porphyra >Enteromorpha. Although exudates strongly complex Cu (and probably other metals), their presence promoted Cu uptake. Significant changes of Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn uptake by P. tricornutum were also observed in the presence of exudates of different algal species. In addition, both intensity of production and nature of exudates released by P. tricornutum were markedly influenced by the presence of exudates of other algae, the allelopathic effects being very specific (variable from one species to another). Allelopathy will probably also occur in the aquatic environment, although to a lesser extent than in cultures, particularly during bloom events and may have effects on both chemical speciation and bioavailability of chemicals to phytoplanktonic species. Such changes might cause the predominance of some species over other species. Therefore, in future in vitro culture studies with the purpose of using them as models of the real environment, more attention should be paid to the role of algal exudates, in order to improve the environmental relevance and significance of the results.

  6. RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes. PMID:21803865

  7. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  8. [Nutritive value of the spirulina algae (Spirulina maxima)].

    PubMed

    Tejada de Hernández, I; Shimada, A S

    1978-06-01

    Nine experiments were conducted, five of them in vivo to determine the limiting amino acids and digestibility of spiruline algae for the rat, and four in vitro to determine the digestibility of the product in pepsin and ruminal liquid. None of the amino acids studied (lysine, methionine, histidine) added alone or in combination to 10% protein (either crude or true) diets provided exclusively by spiruline, seems to be limiting although the results could be masked by the low palatability and acceptability of the product by the rats. The apparent digestibility of the algae was 67.4%. For the in vitro tests, the algae were subjected to several physical or chemical treatments, and the digestibility of the resulting product determined by four different techniques. In no case did the tested treatments have any effect on its digestibility.

  9. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  10. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  11. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  12. Potential anti-inflammatory natural products from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds. These include polyphenols, sulfated polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactives. Consumption of these marine algae could provide defense against the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases. With further investigation, algal anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have the potential to be used as therapeutics or in the synthesis of structural analogs with profound anti-inflammatory activity with reduced side effects. The current review summarizes the latest knowledge about the potential anti-inflammatory compounds discovered from marine algae.

  13. Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-03-15

    Algae have been suggested as a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the strong development of functional foods as a method to improve or maintain health, the exploration of new compounds with real health effects is now an intense field of research. The potential use of algae as source of functional food ingredients, such as lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, phenolics, carotenoids, etc., is presented, together with the different possibilities of improving valuable metabolites production either using the tools and the knowledge provided by marine biotechnology or improving the different factors involved in the production on a large scale of such metabolites. The bio-refinery concept is also presented as a way to improve the efficient use of algae biomass while favouring process sustainability.

  14. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized.

  15. Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier.

  16. Integrated 'Omics', Targeted Metabolite and Single-cell Analyses of Arctic Snow Algae Functionality and Adaptability.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Field, Katie; Benning, Liane G

    2015-01-01

    Snow algae are poly-extremophilic microalgae and important primary colonizers and producers on glaciers and snow fields. Depending on their pigmentation they cause green or red mass blooms during the melt season. This decreases surface albedo and thus further enhances snow and ice melting. Although the phenomenon of snow algal blooms has been known for a long time, large aspects of their physiology and ecology sill remain cryptic. This study provides the first in-depth and multi-omics investigation of two very striking adjacent green and red snow fields on a glacier in Svalbard. We have assessed the algal community composition of green and red snow including their associated microbiota, i.e., bacteria and archaea, their metabolic profiles (targeted and non-targeted metabolites) on the bulk and single-cell level, and assessed the feedbacks between the algae and their physico-chemical environment including liquid water content, pH, albedo, and nutrient availability. We demonstrate that green and red snow clearly vary in their physico-chemical environment, their microbial community composition and their metabolic profiles. For the algae this likely reflects both different stages of their life cycles and their adaptation strategies. Green snow represents a wet, carbon and nutrient rich environment and is dominated by the algae Microglena sp. with a metabolic profile that is characterized by key metabolites involved in growth and proliferation. In contrast, the dry and nutrient poor red snow habitat is colonized by various Chloromonas species with a high abundance of storage and reserve metabolites likely to face upcoming severe conditions. Combining a multitude of techniques we demonstrate the power of such complementary approaches in elucidating the function and ecology of extremophiles such as green and red snow algal blooms, which play crucial roles in glacial ecosystems.

  17. [Sedimentary Phosphorus Forms Under Disturbances and Algae in Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Li, Da-peng; Zhu, Pei-ying; Huang, Yong; Wang, Ren

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary phosphorus forms were investigated to clarify the release of sedimentary phosphorus forms under the repeated disturbance with the addition of algae at different initial concentrations. The sediments and overlying water were taken from the Meiliang Bay in Taihu Lake. The results showed that the concentrations of NH₄ Cl-P and Res-P decreased, while the content of Fe/Al-P and Ca-P increased without disturbance. In addition, the Ca-P increased with the increase of the initial concentration of algae and the net increase of Ca-P increased by 48% (30 µg · L⁻¹), 66% (60 µg · L⁻¹), 74% (120 µg · L⁻¹), respectively. However, under the disturbance, the NH₄Cl-P and Res-P were significantly reduced, the Fe/Al-P increased significantly. The percentage of Fe/Al-P to Tot-P was up to 66. 2% (average of the 3 experiments with the addition of algae of 30 µg · L⁻¹, 60 µg · L⁻¹ and 120 µg L-¹), it was higher than the value (53.%, average of the 3 experiments) without the disturbance. Moreover, under the disturbance, the percentage of Ca-P to Tot-P was 24.1% (average of the 3 experiments with the addition of algae of 30 µg · L⁻¹, 60 µg⁻¹ and 120 µg · L⁻¹) and it was slightly lower than that (33.0%, average of the 3 experiments) without the disturbance. It is suggested that the coexistence of disturbance and algae facilitated the formation of Fe/Al-P, but the algae accelerated the formation of Ca-P without disturbance.

  18. Aragonitic Pennsylvanian phylloid algae from New Mexico: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, B.L.; Moore, C.H. Jr. ); Dickson, J.A.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Remarkably well-preserved codiacean algae (Eugonophyllum and Anchicodium) retaining original aragonite are present in the Virgilian Holder Formation, Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico. The algae are preserved in a 20-cm-thick packstone between two thick (> 5m) shale beds. Aragonite is preserved as a felt-like mesh of needles in the algal skeletons, in the shell fragments of molluscs, in the walls of sponges, and in botryoidal and isopachous marine cements. The aragonite is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, by visual inspection of pristine aragonite needles with SEM, and by a high content of Sr as revealed by microprobe analysis. The average Sr content of the algae (9,091 ppm, n = 21) is comparable to modern codiaceans. Preservation of internal structure in Eugonophyllum was previously unknown. The medullary (interior) region of the Eugonophyllum thallus is composed of an aragonite felt punctuated by small (20 {mu}m diameter), parallel utricles. As in modern codiaceans, the utricles in the cortical (exterior) region of the thallus increase in diameter and their bulbous tips coalesce to form the outer cortex of the plant. This occurrence provides a key piece of evidence in support of hypotheses concerning the nature and origin of phylloid algal bioherms. Because the internal structure of most fossil phylloid algae is replaced by sparry mosaic calcite, taxonomic classification has been difficult even at the fundamental level of division (phylum). The authors discovery confirms that at least some ancient phylloid algae resembled the modern green algae Halimeda or Udotea, and lends credibility to the suggestion that ancient phylloid algal mounds are analogous to modern Halimeda mounds of the South Pacific.

  19. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants.

  20. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-29

    The Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada uses chemical stoichiometry to estimate Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon atom availability from waste water and carbon dioxide emissions streams, and requirements for those same elements to produce a unit of algae. This information is then combined to find limiting nutrient information and estimate potential productivity associated with waste water and carbon dioxide sources. Output is visualized in terms of distributions or spatial locations. Distances are calculated between points of interest in the model using the great circle distance equation, and the smallest distances found by an exhaustive search and sort algorithm.

  1. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B F; Holt, H M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Bundvad, A; Sogaard, P; Gram, L

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection.

  2. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  3. Heavy metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast

    SciTech Connect

    Buo-Olayan, A.H.; Subrahmanyam, M.N.V.

    1996-12-31

    Marine algae are considered as important primary producers in the coastal region. Several marine algal species are being considered as raw material for various economically important products and this has resulted in their increasing demand. Marine algal species also have been suggested to be the indicators of pollution. Keeping in view the importance of marine algal species for direct or indirect human and cattle consumption, it is necessary to monitor the bioaccumulation of certain elements in these species. This study was aimed at establishing the concentration levels of trace metals in marine algae of the Kuwait coast. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  5. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

    2008-03-01

    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant.

  6. Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF ALGAE HARVESTING, DEWATERING AND DRYING (HDD) SYSTEMS by FENGMING LI Submitted in partial fulfillment of the...Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ALTERNATIVE ENERGY .................................................................................................................. 3 1.3 ALGAE OIL

  7. Where Have All the Algae Gone, or, How Many Kingdoms Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined 10 introductory college-level, general biology survey textbooks for the coverage of algae to assess the efficacy of coverage. Describes a proposal of seven kingdoms and discusses the disposition of algae among five of these kingdoms. Contends that textbooks should highlight the concept of algae across the five kingdoms. Contains 59…

  8. MONITORING CHLOROPHYLL-A AS A MEASURE OF ALGAE IN LAKE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are an important quality component in water bodies. They are photosynthesizing organisms and are the foundation of most aquatic food webs; however, some algae (e.g. blue-green algae) can produce algal toxins. The presence of algal toxins in water bodies has important ...

  9. Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-10

    Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices Key...Assembly of Photosynthetic Antenna Protein / Pigments Complexes from Algae and Plants for Development of Nanobiodevices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This is the report of a project to use photosynthetic antenna pigment complexes from algae and plants as

  10. Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Gloe, Lindsey M; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Grillet, Anne M; Hankins, Matthew G; Pohl, Phillip I

    2012-02-01

    The effects of algae concentration, ferric chloride dose, and pH on the flocculation efficiency of the freshwater algae Chlorella zofingiensis can be understood by considering the nature of the electrostatic charges on the algae and precipitate surfaces. Two critical conditions are identified which, when met, result in flocculation efficiencies in excess of 90% for freshwater algae. First, a minimum concentration of ferric chloride is required to overcome the electrostatic stabilization of the algae and promote bridging of algae cells by hydroxide precipitates. At low algae concentrations, the minimum amount of ferric chloride required increases linearly with algae concentration, characteristic of flocculation primarily through electrostatic bridging by hydroxide precipitates. At higher algae concentrations, the minimum required concentration of ferric chloride for flocculation is independent of algae concentration, suggesting a change in the primary flocculation mechanism from bridging to sweep flocculation. Second, the algae must have a negative surface charge. Experiments and surface complexation modeling show that the surface charge of C. zofingiensis is negative above a pH of 4.0 ± 0.3 which agrees well with the minimum pH required for effective flocculation. These critical flocculation criteria can be extended to other freshwater algae to design effective flocculation systems.

  11. A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ACROCHAETE AND OTHER ENDOPHYTIC GREEN ALGAE (ULVALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Rinkel, Barbara E; Hayes, Paul; Gueidan, Cécile; Brodie, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    A molecular phylogeny was reconstructed from a culture collection of >150 isolates of epi-endophytic and endophytic green algae, based on nucleotide sequences of the plastid tufA and nuclear ITS2 loci. The cultures were isolated from a variety of algal hosts, notably the red algae Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Osmundea species, and the brown algae Chorda filum and Fucus serratus. The phylogeny revealed that in the Ulvales the majority of isolates fell into Acrochaete (Ulvellaceae), Ulva (Ulvaceae), Bolbocoleon (Bolbocoleaceae), and at least two unknown genera provisionally assigned to the Kornmanniaceae. Acrochaete was monophyletic. The genus was also more specious than previously described with 12 species, including up to six new species awaiting formal description. Isolates identified as Acrochaete repens, the type species of the genus, were polyphyletic. The remainder of the isolates were placed in the Ulotrichales. The results confirm that the endophytic habit supports a broad diversity of algal taxa and suggest that blade formation is a relatively recent innovation within the green algae.

  12. [Presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors in venezuelan marine algae].

    PubMed

    Perez-Lorenzo, S; Levy-Benshimol, A; Gomez-Acevedo, S

    1998-01-01

    The presence of lectins, tannins and protease inhibitors was studied in 27 algae species collected at four Venezuelan coral rift sites. Among the species studied, only six had hemagglutinating activity, apparently due to their lectin content. Higher hemagglutinating titers were obtained when the extracts were tested on pronase-treated erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was inhibited by simple sugars and by bovine submaxillary gland mucine. GaINAc was the only inhibitor of the hemagglutination caused by Grateulopia filicina extracts. None of the compounds tested inhibited the hemagglutination caused by Halimeda opuntia. The polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment abolished the hemagglutinating activity of both brown and red algae. However, in Grateulopia filicina and Hypnea cervicornis (Rhodophyta) hemagglutinating activity persisted after the polyvinylpolypirrolidone treatment, presumably due to the presence of true lectins in those algae. Tannin content (presumably phlorotannins) was higher in the Phaeophyta as compared to the Rhodophyta. The brown alga Padina gymnospora had the higher content of these polyphenols. Trypsin inhibitors were detected, in minute ammounts, only in Padina gymnospora (Phaeophyta) and Acantophora spicifera (Rhodophyta). No subtilisin inhibition was observed whatsoever.

  13. Microbiota Influences Morphology and Reproduction of the Brown Alga Ectocarpus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Javier E.; González, Bernardo; Goulitquer, Sophie; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Associated microbiota play crucial roles in health and disease of higher organisms. For macroalgae, some associated bacteria exert beneficial effects on nutrition, morphogenesis and growth. However, current knowledge on macroalgae–microbiota interactions is mostly based on studies on green and red seaweeds. In this study, we report that when cultured under axenic conditions, the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus sp. loses its branched morphology and grows with a small ball-like appearance. Nine strains of periphytic bacteria isolated from Ectocarpus sp. unialgal cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and assessed for their effect on morphology, reproduction and the metabolites secreted by axenic Ectocarpus sp. Six of these isolates restored morphology and reproduction features of axenic Ectocarpus sp. Bacteria-algae co-culture supernatants, but not the supernatant of the corresponding bacterium growing alone, also recovered morphology and reproduction of the alga. Furthermore, colonization of axenic Ectocarpus sp. with a single bacterial isolate impacted significantly the metabolites released by the alga. These results show that the branched typical morphology and the individuals produced by Ectocarpus sp. are strongly dependent on the presence of bacteria, while the bacterial effect on the algal exometabolome profile reflects the impact of bacteria on the whole physiology of this alga. PMID:26941722

  14. Newly-fixed carbon preferentially flows through starch in the unicellular alga Rhodella

    SciTech Connect

    Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J.S. )

    1989-04-01

    Cells of the unicellular red alga Rhodella reticulata produce copious amounts of anionic extracellular polysaccharides. Previous experiments, comparing growing and non-growing cells, showed little difference in the pattern of initial {sup 14}C partitioning, with a high percentage of label in starch. Short labelling periods, followed by chasing in unlabelled medium, showed rapid movement of carbon through the starch pool within the first 6 hrs, with an accompanying increase in both the protein and mucilage fractions. The overall pattern of carbon metabolism appears fixed throughout growth of the cells, with total carbon input changing with changing growth phase. As starch is extrachloroplastic in the red algae, input of fixed carbon directly into the starch pool may serve as a routing mechanism to direct subsequent carbon metabolism within the cell.

  15. MicroRNAs in a multicellular green alga Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrui; Wu, Yang; Qi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key components in the eukaryotic gene regulatory network. We and others have previously identified many miRNAs in a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To investigate whether miRNA-mediated gene regulation is a general mechanism in green algae and how miRNAs have been evolved in the green algal lineage, we examined small RNAs in Volvox carteri, a multicellular species in the same family with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We identified 174 miRNAs in Volvox, with many of them being highly enriched in gonidia or somatic cells. The targets of the miRNAs were predicted and many of them were subjected to miRNA-mediated cleavage in vivo, suggesting that miRNAs play regulatory roles in the biology of green algae. Our catalog of miRNAs and their targets provides a resource for further studies on the evolution, biological functions, and genomic properties of miRNAs in green algae.

  16. Sexual reproduction and sex determination in green algae.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-10

    The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt(+)) and mating type minus (mt(-)), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt(+) and mt(-) mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion. The loci of sex-limited genes and the conformation of sex-determining regions have been rearranged during the evolution of volvocine algae; however, the essential function of the sex-determining genes of the isogamous unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is conserved in the multicellular oogamous Volvox carteri. The sexual reproduction of the unicellular charophycean alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, is also focused on here. The sexual reproductive processes of heterothallic strains are controlled by two multifunctional sex pheromones, PR-IP and PR-IP Inducer, which independently promote multiple steps in conjugation at the appropriate times through different induction mechanisms. The molecules involved in sexual reproduction and sex determination have also been characterized.

  17. Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and the Enolase Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Jürgen E. W.; Neofotis, Peter; Huang, Andy; Chang, William; Sury, Kiran; Wiech, Eliza M.

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae. PMID:25093929

  18. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  19. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  20. Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 μg L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 μg L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 μg L(-1), NOEC was 5 μg L(-1) and LOEC was 15 μg L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 μg L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage.

  1. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3 MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption.

  2. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management.

  3. Lysis of Blue-Green Algae by Myxobacter

    PubMed Central

    Shilo, Miriam

    1970-01-01

    Enrichment from local fishponds led to the isolation of a bacterium capable of lysing many species of unicellular and filamentous blue-green algae, as well as certain bacteria. The isolate is an aflagellate, motile rod which moves in a gliding, flexuous manner; the organism is capable of digesting starch and agar, but not cellulose and gelatin. Its deoxyribonucleic acid base pair composition (per cent guanine plus cytosine ∼70) shows a close resemblance to that of the fruiting myxobacteria. Algae in lawns on agar plates were lysed rapidly by the myxobacter, but only limited and slow lysis occurred in liquid media, and no lysis took place when liquid cultures were shaken. No diffusible lytic factors would be demonstrated. Continuous observation of the lytic process under a phase-contrast microscope suggested that a close contact between the polar tip of the myxobacter and the alga is necessary for lysis. The lytic action is limited to the vegetative cells of the algae, whereas heterocysts are not affected. The gas vacuoles of the algal host are the only remnant visible after completion of digestion by the myxobacter. Images PMID:4990764

  4. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  5. Energy-water nexus for mass cultivation of algae.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cynthia Folsom; Allen, David T

    2011-07-01

    Microalgae are currently considered a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. This work addresses the energy needed to manage the water used in the mass cultivation of saline, eukaryotic algae grown in open pond systems. Estimates of both direct and upstream energy requirements for obtaining, containing, and circulating water within algae cultivation systems are developed. Potential productivities are calculated for each of the 48 states within the continental U.S. based on theoretical photosynthetic efficiencies, growing season, and total available land area. Energy output in the form of algal biodiesel and the total energy content of algal biomass are compared to energy inputs required for water management. The analysis indicates that, for current technologies, energy required for water management alone is approximately seven times greater than energy output in the form of biodiesel and more than double that contained within the entire algal biomass. While this analysis addresses only currently identified species grown in an open-pond system, the water management requirements of any algae system will be substantial; therefore, it is critical that an energy assessment of water management requirements be performed for any cultivation technology and algal type in order to fully understand the energy balance of algae-derived biofuels.

  6. Optimization of light use efficiency for biofuel production in algae.

    PubMed

    Simionato, Diana; Basso, Stefania; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge for next decades is development of competitive renewable energy sources, highly needed to compensate fossil fuels reserves and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different possibilities, which are currently under investigation, there is the exploitation of unicellular algae for production of biofuels and biodiesel in particular. Some algae species have the ability of accumulating large amount of lipids within their cells which can be exploited as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Strong research efforts are however still needed to fulfill this potential and optimize cultivation systems and biomass harvesting. Light provides the energy supporting algae growth and available radiation must be exploited with the highest possible efficiency to optimize productivity and make microalgae large scale cultivation energetically and economically sustainable. Investigation of the molecular bases influencing light use efficiency is thus seminal for the success of this biotechnology. In this work factors influencing light use efficiency in algal biomass production are reviewed, focusing on how algae genetic engineering and control of light environment within photobioreactors can improve the productivity of large scale cultivation systems.

  7. Basis for the Resistance of Several Algae to Microbial Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Gunnison, Douglas; Alexander, Martin

    1975-01-01

    The basis for the resistance of certain algae to microbial decomposition in natural waters was investigated using Pediastrum duplex, Staurastrum sp., and Fischerella muscicola as test organisms. Enzyme preparations previously found to convert susceptible algae into spheroplasts had no such effect on the resistant species, although glucose and galacturonic acid were released from P. duplex walls. Little protein or lipid but considerable carbohydrate was found in the walls of the refractory organisms, but resistance was not correlated with the presence of a unique sugar monomer. A substance present in Staurastrum sp. walls was characterized as lignin or lignin-like on the basis of its extraction characteristics, infrared spectrum, pyrolysis pattern, and content of an aromatic building block. Sporopollenin was found in P. duplex, and cellulose in Staurastrum sp. Cell walls of the algae were fractionated, and the fractions least susceptible to microbial degradation were the sporopollenin of P. duplex, the polyaromatic component of Staurastrum sp., and two F. muscicola fractions containing several sugar monomers. The sporopollenin content of P. duplex, the content of lignin or a related constituent of Staurastrum sp., and the resistance of the algae to microbial attack increased with age. It is suggested that resistance results from the presence of sporopollenin in P. duplex, a lignin-like material in Staurastrum sp., and possibly heteropolysaccharides in F. muscicola. PMID:808166

  8. Study of ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles using algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, L. M.; Abramenko, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared and tested for their ecotoxicity using Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. algae as a hydrobiotic test organism and a photometric method of control. The toxicity was supposed to originate from Ag+ ions released into the aqueous solution. Also, the toxicity of the stabilizing agent was found to be comparable to that of silver nanoparticles.

  9. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  10. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  11. Development of a Double Nuclear Gene-Targeting Method by Two-Step Transformation Based on a Newly Established Chloramphenicol-Selection System in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Takayuki; Ohnuma, Mio; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae possesses a simple cellular architecture that consists of one mitochondrion, one chloroplast, one peroxisome, one Golgi apparatus, and several lysosomes. The nuclear genome content is also simple, with very little genetic redundancy (16.5 Mbp, 4,775 genes). In addition, molecular genetic tools such as gene targeting and inducible gene expression systems have been recently developed. These cytological features and genetic tractability have facilitated various omics analyses. However, only a single transformation selection marker URA has been made available and thus the application of genetic modification has been limited. Here, we report the development of a nuclear targeting method by using chloramphenicol and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. In addition, we found that at least 200-bp homologous arms are required and 500-bp arms are sufficient for a targeted single-copy insertion of the CAT selection marker into the nuclear genome. By means of a combination of the URA and CAT transformation systems, we succeeded in producing a C. merolae strain that expresses HA-cyclin 1 and FLAG-CDKA from the chromosomal CYC1 and CDKA loci, respectively. These methods of multiple nuclear targeting will facilitate genetic manipulation of C. merolae. PMID:28352279

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and asymmetrical accumulation of F-actin are necessary for establishment of cell polarity in the early development of monospores from the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2008-01-01

    The polarized distribution of F-actin is important in providing the driving force for directional migration in mammalian leukocytes and Dictyostelium cells, in which compartmentation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphatidylinositol phosphatase is critical for the establishment of cell polarity. Since monospores from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis are a real example of migrating plant cells, the involvement of the cytoskeleton and PI3K was investigated during their early development. Our results indicate that the asymmetrical localization of F-actin at the leading edge is fixed by the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in migrating monospores, which is PI3K-dependent and protein synthesis-independent. After migration, monospores adhere to the substratum and then become upright, developing into multicellular thalli via the establishment of the apical-basal axis. In this process, F-actin usually accumulates at the bottom of the basal cell and development after migration requires new protein synthesis. These findings suggest that the establishment of anterior-posterior and apical-basal axes are differentially regulated during the early development of monospores. Our results also indicate that PI3K-dependent F-actin asymmetry is evolutionally conserved in relation to the establishment of cell polarity in migrating eukaryotic cells.

  13. [New additions to the marine algae of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Silva, Soraida; Brito, Leonor; Lemus, Andrés

    2003-06-01

    The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella (C. Agardh) M.J. Wynne and Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne. Morphological and anatomical aspects of the specimens are described and illustrated.

  14. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast. PMID:23794933

  15. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Wendy A

    2013-01-01

    A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.

  16. Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Ann C; Mulbry, Walter W

    2002-08-01

    Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of this research was to assess the ability of benthic freshwater algae to recover nutrients from dairy manure and to evaluate nutrient uptake rates and dry matter/crude protein yields in comparison to a conventional cropping system. Benthic algae growth chambers were operated in semi-batch mode by continuously recycling wastewater and adding manure inputs daily. Using total nitrogen (TN) loading rates of 0.64-1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), the dried algal yields were 5.3-5.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The dried algae contained 1.5-2.1% P and 4.9-7.1% N. At a TN loading rate of 1.03 g m(-2) d(-1), algal biomass contained 7.1% N compared to only 4.9% N at a TN loading rate of 0.64 g m(-2) d(-1). In the best case, algal biomass had a crude protein content of 44%, compared to a typical corn silage protein content of 7%. At a dry matter yield of 5.5 g m(-2) d(-1), this is equivalent to an annual N uptake rate of 1,430 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). Compared to a conventional corn/rye rotation, such benthic algae production rates would require 26% of the land area requirements for equivalent N uptake rates and 23% of the land area requirements on a P uptake basis. Combining conventional cropping systems with an algal treatment system could facilitate more efficient crop production and farm nutrient management, allowing dairy operations to be environmentally sustainable on fewer acres.

  17. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand.

  18. UV-A/Blue-Light responses in algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senger, Horst; Hermsmeier, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there is a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL (red light) region as well as in the UV-A/BL (blue light) region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogenetically the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered.

  19. Two natural products from the algae Laurencia scoparia.

    PubMed

    Suescun, L; Mombrú, A W; Mariezcurrena, R A; Davyt, D; Fernández, R; Manta, E

    2001-03-01

    The structures and absolute stereochemistries of two chamigrene-type metabolites (spiro[5.5]undecane derivatives) isolated from the red algae Laurencia scoparia are described. One, a non-sesquiterpene named maĩlione (8-bromo-9-hydroxy-7,7-dimethyl-11-methylenespiro[5.5]undec-1-en-3-one), C(14)H(19)BrO(2), was detected previously in Laurencia cartilaginea, while the other, the sesquiterpene isorigidol (8-bromo-3,7,7-trimethyl-11-methylenespiro[5.5]-undec-1-ene-3,9-diol), C(15)H(23)BrO(2), is a new isomer of rigidol, first isolated from Laurencia rigida. The A rings of these spirocyclic compounds show the same carbon skeleton. However, the relative stereochemistry of the 8-Br and 9-OH substituents is different. While maĩlione displays the usual syn (or cis) relative stereochemistry of the bromohydroxy vicinal group, isorigidol shows an anti (or trans) arrangement. The 8-Br and 9-OH groups are both in equatorial positions in isorigidol, while the 9-OH group is axial in maĩlione, as in most chamigrenes. The absolute configurations of the chiral centers were determined as 6S, 8S and 9R in maĩlione, and 3R, 6S, 8S and 9S in isorigidol.

  20. The alga Bryothamnion seaforthii contains carbohydrates with antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L A P; Freitas, A L P; Feitosa, J P A; Silva, D C; Viana, G S B

    2004-07-01

    Bryothamnion seaforthii, a red alga common to the Northeastern coast of Brazil, was used to prepare the protein fraction F0/60 by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The chromatography of F0/60 on DEAE-Sephadel column resulted in two lectin fractions, PI and PII, which have antinociceptive properties in rodents. We determined the antinociceptive activity of the PII fraction and of a carbohydrate-containing fraction (CF) in mice. The CF was prepared from the dried algae, after digestion with 100 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0, containing 5 mM cysteine, EDTA and 0.4% papain, at 60 masculine C. A 10% cetylpyridinium chloride was added to the filtrate, and the precipitate was dissolved with 2 M NaCl:ethanol (100:15, v/v) followed by the carbohydrate precipitation with ethanol. The final precipitate, in acetone, was dried at 25 masculine C. The PII fraction markedly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing after ip administration (control: 27.1 +/- 2.20; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 5.5 +/- 1.85; 1 mg/kg: 1.6 +/- 0.72 writhes/20 min) and after oral administration (control: 32.0 +/- 3.32; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 13.1 +/- 2.50; 1 mg/kg: 9.4 +/- 3.96 writhes/20 min). PII was also effective against both phases of pain induced by 1% formalin (control, ip: 48.2 +/- 2.40 and 27.7 +/- 2.56 s; PII: 1 mg/kg, ip: 34.3 +/- 5.13 and 5.6 +/- 2.14 s; control, po: 44.5 +/- 3.52 and 25.6 +/- 2.39 s; PII 5 mg/kg, po: 26.5 +/- 4.67 and 15.3 +/- 3.54 s for the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively) and in the hot-plate test. The CF (ip) also displayed significant antinociceptive properties in all tests but at higher doses (1 and 5 mg/kg, ip and po). Thus, CF at the dose of 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited writhes (ip: 7.1 +/- 2.47 and po: 14.5 +/- 2.40 writhes/20 min) as well as the 1st (po: 19.6 +/- 1.74 s) and 2nd (po: 7.1 +/- 2.24 s) phases of the formalin test compared to controls ip and po. The antinociceptive effects of both the PII and CF in the formalin and hot-plate tests were prevented at least partially by

  1. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lin; Wang, Hongli; Deng, Nansheng

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps (lambda = 365 nm, 250 W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 mg L(-1) and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS(algae) (the absorbency of algae) = 0.025 to ABS(algae) = 0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250 W metal halide lamps was V0 = kC(0)(0.1718)A(algae)(0.5235) (C0 was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A(algae) was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4.

  2. In vitro antioxidant properties of crude extracts and compounds from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Balboa, Elena M; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andres; Falqué, Elena; Domínguez, Herminia

    2013-06-01

    Research on the bioactives from seaweeds has increased in recent years. Antioxidant activity is one of the most studied, due to the interest of these compounds both as preservatives and protectors against oxidation in food and cosmetics and also due to their health implications, mainly in relation to their potential as functional ingredients. Brown algae present higher antioxidant potential in comparison with red and green families and contain compounds not found in terrestrial sources. In vitro antioxidant chemical methods, used as a first approach to evaluate potential agents to protect from lipid oxidation in foods, confirmed that the brown algae crude extracts, fractions and pure components are comparatively similar or superior to synthetic antioxidants. Particular emphasis on the fucoidan and phlorotannin polymeric fractions is given, considering variations associated with the species, collection area, season, and extraction and purification technologies.

  3. RNase P RNA from the recently evolved plastid of Paulinella and from algae.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Puerto-Galán, Leonor; Vioque, Agustín

    2014-11-13

    The RNase P RNA catalytic subunit (RPR) encoded in some plastids has been found to be functionally defective. The amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains an organelle (chromatophore) that is derived from the recent endosymbiotic acquisition of a cyanobacterium, and therefore represents a model of the early steps in the acquisition of plastids. In contrast with plastid RPRs the chromatophore RPR retains functionality similar to the cyanobacterial enzyme. The chromatophore RPR sequence deviates from consensus at some positions but those changes allow optimal activity compared with mutated chromatophore RPR with the consensus sequence. We have analyzed additional RPR sequences identifiable in plastids and have found that it is present in all red algae and in several prasinophyte green algae. We have assayed in vitro a subset of the plastid RPRs not previously analyzed and confirm that these organelle RPRs lack RNase P activity in vitro.

  4. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  5. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  6. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  7. Plant algae method for arsenic removal from arsenic contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    de la Paix, Mupenzi Jean; Lanhai, Li; de Dieu, Habumugisha Jean; John, Maina Nyongesah

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in Urumqi River Basin in Northwest China. The study focused on experimentation on a plant algae method that was tested by taking various water chemistries into consideration. The results from a greenhouse experiment evaluated for four doses of P (0, 100, 200, and 300 μmol/L) using two ferns (30 and 60 day old) on 15 L of contaminated groundwater per plant revealed that the biomass of 30-day old ferns gained was higher than 60-day fern. As solution-P increased from 0 to 450 μmol/L, Phosphorus concentration in the fronds increased from 1.9 to 3.9 mg/kg and 1.95 to 4.0 mg/kg for 30-d and 60-d ferns respectively. This study showed that the plant algae method may be a good solution to maximize arsenic uptake in the short term under normal climatic conditions.

  8. Production of phthalate esters by nuisance freshwater algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bakthavachalam; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    2010-10-01

    Phthalate esters are widely distributed pollutants which originate from synthetic plasticizer and are known to act as toxicants as well as environmental pheromones in the aquatic ecosystems. From investigating sixteen species of freshwater algae and cyanobacteria we revealed that some of them were capable of producing either di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) or mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) or both. These phthalate esters would be released into the environment under stress conditions. The incubation of the cells in culture medium containing NaH(13)CO(3) confirmed that both phthalates were de novo synthesized by the studied cells. This study suggested that the nuisance freshwater micro-algae and cyanobacteria growing in eutrophic waters might affect the aquatic ecosystem via the production of these phthalate esters.

  9. Proton channels in algae: reasons to be excited.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison R; Brownlee, Colin; Wheeler, Glen L

    2012-11-01

    A fundamental requirement of all eukaryotes is the ability to translocate protons across membranes. This is critical in bioenergetics, for compartmentalized metabolism, and to regulate intracellular pH (pH(i)) within a range that is compatible with cellular metabolism. Plants, animals, and algae utilize specialized transport machinery for membrane energization and pH homeostasis that reflects the prevailing ionic conditions in which they evolved. The recent characterization of H(+)-permeable channels in marine and freshwater algae has led to the discovery of novel functions for these transport proteins in both cellular pH homeostasis and sensory biology. Here we review the potential implications for understanding the origins and evolution of membrane excitability and the phytoplankton-based marine ecosystem responses to ocean acidification.

  10. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-05-15

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  11. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms. PMID:26594068

  12. A New Noncalcified Dasycladalean Alga from the Silurian of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LoDuca, S.T.; Kluessendorf, Joanne; Mikulic, Donald G.

    2003-01-01

    Noncalcified thalli, consisting of a narrow main axis with numerous branched hairlike laterals in whorls and a subapical array of undivided clavate laterals, from the Silurian (Llandovery) Brandon Bridge Formation of southeastern Wisconsin, constitute the basis for a new genus and species of dasycladalean alga, Heterocladus waukeshaensis. A relationship within the family Triploporellaceae is indicated by the whorled arrangement of the laterals and the absence of gametophores on mature specimens. A compilation of occurrence data suggests that noncalcified dasyclads, as a whole, were more abundant and diverse during the Ordovician and Silurian than at any other time in their history. The heterocladous thallus architecture of this alga adds to a wide range of morphological variation documented among Ordovician and Silurian dasyclads, the sum of which indicates that Dasycladales underwent a significant evolutionary radiation during the early Paleozoic.

  13. Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales performed particularly well in this descending sequence: Fucus > Ascophyllum > Sargassum. Although decreasing the swelling of wetted biomass particles, their reinforcement by crosslinking may significantly affect the biosorption performance. Lead uptakes up to 370 mg Pb/g were observed in crosslinked Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. At low equilibrium residual concentrations of lead in solution, however, ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 had a higher lead uptake than the biosorbent materials. An order-of-magnitude lower uptake of nickel was observed in all of the sorbent materials examined.

  14. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms

    PubMed Central

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11888.001 PMID:27054497

  15. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  16. A preliminary study on automated freshwater algae recognition and classification system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated analyses and identification of algae images were limited to only one type of algae. Automated identification system for tropical freshwater algae is even non-existent and this study is partly to fill this gap. Results The development of the automated freshwater algae detection system involved image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification by using Artificial neural networks (ANN). Image preprocessing was used to improve contrast and remove noise. Image segmentation using canny edge detection algorithm was then carried out on binary image to detect the algae and its boundaries. Feature extraction process was applied to extract specific feature parameters from algae image to obtain some shape and texture features of selected algae such as shape, area, perimeter, minor and major axes, and finally Fourier spectrum with principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract some of algae feature texture. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify algae images based on the extracted features. Feed-forward multilayer perceptron network was initialized with back propagation error algorithm, and trained with extracted database features of algae image samples. System's accuracy rate was obtained by comparing the results between the manual and automated classifying methods. The developed system was able to identify 93 images of selected freshwater algae genera from a total of 100 tested images which yielded accuracy rate of 93%. Conclusions This study

  17. The problems of Prochloron. [evolution of green algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prokaryotic green algae (prochlorophytes), which contain chlorophylls a and b but no bilin pigments, may be phylogenetically related to ancestral chloroplasts if symbiogenesis occurred. They may be otherwise related to eukaryotic chlorophytes. They could have evolved from cyanophytes by loss of phycobilin and gain of chlorophyll b synthesis. These possibilities are briefly discussed. Relevant evidence from biochemical studies in many collaborative laboratories is now becoming available for the resolution of such questions.

  18. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION First Annual Report OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS 1 Sep - 31 May 76 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER ANNUAL...p’dioctyldephrylamine RJ-5 Phenyl-a-napthylamine Lubrication Additives Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine Hydrazine Symmetrical Dimethylhydrazine [continusd on .bnckj 20...Force Contract AF33615-76-C-5005. Work under this portion of the contract covers the period September 1 , 1975 to May 31, 1976. The project is

  19. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  20. Origins of multicellular complexity: Volvox and the volvocine algae.

    PubMed

    Herron, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    The collection of evolutionary transformations known as the 'major transitions' or 'transitions in individuality' resulted in changes in the units of evolution and in the hierarchical structure of cellular life. Volvox and related algae have become an important model system for the major transition from unicellular to multicellular life, which touches on several fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. The Third International Volvox Conference was held at the University of Cambridge in August 2015 to discuss recent advances in the biology and evolution of this group of algae. Here, I highlight the benefits of integrating phylogenetic comparative methods and experimental evolution with detailed studies of developmental genetics in a model system with substantial genetic and genomic resources. I summarize recent research on Volvox and its relatives and comment on its implications for the genomic changes underlying major evolutionary transitions, evolution and development of complex traits, evolution of sex and sexes, evolution of cellular differentiation and the biophysics of motility. Finally, I outline challenges and suggest future directions for research into the biology and evolution of the volvocine algae.