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Sample records for algal food source

  1. Food processing wastes as nutrient sources in algal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M-H; Chan, W-C; Chu, L-M

    1983-03-01

    Utilization of food processing wastes for biological production will ease part of the disposal problem, especially the potential hazards of eutrophication, andat the same time recycle the inherently rich plant nutrients in the waste materials. The present investigation is an attempt to study the feasibility of using five food processing wastes, including carrot, coconut, eggshell, soybean, and sugarcane, for culturing Chlorella pyrenoidosa (a unicellular green alga).

  2. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  3. Sodium and Food Sources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  4. Algal food and fuel coproduction can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while improving land and water-use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Michael J.; Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Sills, Deborah L.; Archibald, Ian; Beal, Colin M.; Gen Lei, Xin; Huntley, Mark E.; Johnson, Zackary; Greene, Charles H.

    2016-11-01

    The goals of ensuring energy, water, food, and climate security can often conflict. Microalgae (algae) are being pursued as a feedstock for both food and fuels—primarily due to algae’s high areal yield and ability to grow on non-arable land, thus avoiding common bioenergy-food tradeoffs. However, algal cultivation requires significant energy inputs that may limit potential emission reductions. We examine the tradeoffs associated with producing fuel and food from algae at the energy-food-water-climate nexus. We use the GCAM integrated assessment model to demonstrate that algal food production can promote reductions in land-use change emissions through the offset of conventional agriculture. However, fuel production, either via co-production of algal food and fuel or complete biomass conversion to fuel, is necessary to ensure long-term emission reductions, due to the high energy costs of cultivation. Cultivation of salt-water algae for food products may lead to substantial freshwater savings; but, nutrients for algae cultivation will need to be sourced from waste streams to ensure sustainability. By reducing the land demand of food production, while simultaneously enhancing food and energy security, algae can further enable the development of terrestrial bioenergy technologies including those utilizing carbon capture and storage. Our results demonstrate that large-scale algae research and commercialization efforts should focus on developing both food and energy products to achieve environmental goals.

  5. Effects of algal food quality on sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Yun; Kim, Seong-Ki; La, Geung-Hwan; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Jeong, Keon-Young; Park, Min S; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk

    2016-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna associated with mating behaviors and hatching rates, according to different algal food sources. Since a diatom is known to contain more abundant long-chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), we hypothesized that the diatom-consuming D. magna would exhibit more successful reproduction rates. Upon the hypothesis, we designed three experiments using two algal species, a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris) and a diatom (Stephanodiscus hantzschii). From the results, we found that the mating frequency and copulation duration increased in the treatment with S. hantzschii, resulting in a significant increase of hatching rates of resting eggs. In the other two repetitive mating strategies (e.g., one female vs. multiple males, and one male vs. multiple females), we found that the hatching rates of resting eggs were greater in the S. hantzschii treatment. In addition to the mating strategy, male body size significantly increased in the diatom treatment, hence average diameter of penis was also statistically different among the treatments (greater diameter in the S. hantzschii treatment). To examine the effect of algal food quality, we estimated quantity of fatty acids in the two algal species. Our result showed that S. hantzschii had a higher proportion of long-chain PUFAs than C. vulgaris. Furthermore, a stable isotope analysis revealed that carbon and nitrogen originated from S. hantzschii were more assimilated to D. magna. In summary, our study manifested that diatom consumption of D. magna leads to more successful sexual reproduction. We then discussed how the diatom consumption of zooplankton influences food web dynamics in a freshwater ecosystem.

  6. Food protein sources.

    PubMed

    Pirie, N W

    1976-07-01

    Work on food, planned by the U.M. (Use and Management) Section of the U.K. committe, was limited to sources of protein because we agreed that more problems calling for research were likely to arise in getting adequate supplies of protein than of other types of food. Deer meat can be produced on land too rough and exposed for sheep; parts of the work on their metabolism and food requirements necessitated building a mobile laboratory. The manner in which the nutritive value of maize is affected by changes in the ratios in which the component proteins are present, stimulated similar studies on barley and groundnut. There is good quality protein in coconuts and leaves but its use in human food is restricted by the presence of fibre. Methods for separating protein from fibre and other deleterious components were improved. In cooperation with scientists in India and Nigeria, the potential yield of protein-deficient foods. e.g. cassava, were 'ennobled' by growing micro-organisms on them with the addition of a cheap source of nitrogen.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11 Isolated from an Algal Food Product

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain W11 isolated from an algal food product in Japan. This study should facilitate the identification of a novel mechanism of glycerol metabolic control in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27688337

  8. Efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl assimilation from water and algal food by the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerk, M.; Gilek, M.

    1999-04-01

    A novel method was used to estimate assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dissolved and food associated PCBs (IUPAC 31, 49, and 153) by the Baltic Sea blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to radiolabeled PCBs in a series of short-term toxicokinetic experiments at different algal food concentrations, both at apparent steady-state (ASS) and non-steady-state (NSS) conditions in respect to PCB partitioning between water and algae. The PCB AEs were calculated using a physiologically based bioaccumulation model where experimentally determined uptake and exposure rates at ASS and NSS conditions were combined into linear equation systems, which were solved for PCB AE from water and food. A positive relationship between PCB uptake and algae clearance by the mussels was observed for all three PCBs. The PCB AEs from both water and food increased with congener hydrophobicity (octanol/water partition coefficient [K{sub ow}]), but AEs decreased with increases in water pumping and filtration rate of the mussels, respectively. The average contribution of food-associated PCB to the total uptake also increased with K{sub ow} from approximately 30% for PCB 31 and PCB 49 to 50% for PCB 153, mainly as a consequence of increased sorption to the algal food.

  9. Plasticizer and surfactant formation from food-waste- and algal biomass-derived lipids.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Zhang, Chengwu; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-05-22

    The potential of lipids derived from food-waste and algal biomass (produced from food-waste hydrolysate) for the formation of plasticizers and surfactants is investigated herein. Plasticizers were formed by epoxidation of double bonds of methylated unsaturated fatty acids with in situ generated peroxoformic acid. Assuming that all unsaturated fatty acids are convertible, 0.35 and 0.40 g of plasticizer can be obtained from 1 g of crude algae- or food-waste-derived lipids, respectively. Surfactants were formed by transesterification of saturated and epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with polyglycerol. The addition of polyglycerol would result in a complete conversion of saturated and epoxidized FAMEs to fatty acid polyglycerol esters. This study successfully demonstrates the conversion of food-waste into value-added chemicals using simple and conventional chemical reactions.

  10. Production of Algal-based Biofuel from Non-fresh Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. C.; Reno, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    A system dynamics model is developed to assess the availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual framework is based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The simulation framework contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil and gas produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  11. Carbon Sequestration through Sustainably Sourced Algal Fertilizer: Deep Ocean Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Drawing down carbon from the atmosphere happens in the oceans when marine plants are growing due to the use of carbon dioxide for biological processes and by raising the pH of the water. Macro- and microscopic marine photosynthesizers are limited in their growth by the availability of light and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, etc.) Deep ocean water (DOW), oceanic water from bellow about 1000m, is a natural medium for marine algae, which contains all (except in rare circumstances) necessary components for algal growth and represents over 90% of the volume of the ocean. The introduction of DOW to a tropical or summer sea can increase chlorophyll from near zero to 60 mg per M3 or more. The form of the utilization infrastructure for DOW can roughly be divided into two effective types; the unconstrained release and the open pond system. Unconstrained release has the advantage of having relatively low infrastructure investment and is available to any area of the ocean. The open pond system has high infrastructure costs but enables intensive use of DOW for harvesting macro- and microalgae and sustainable mariculture. It also enables greater concomitant production of DOW's other potential products such as electricity or potable water. However, unlike an unconstrained release the open pond system can capture much of the biomaterial from the water and limits the impact to the surrounding ecosystem. The Tidal Irrigation and Electrical System (TIESystem), is an open pond that is to be constructed on a continental shelf. It harnesses the tidal flux to pump DOW into the pond on the rising tide and then uses the falling tide to pump biologically rich material out of the pond. This biomaterial represents fixed CO2 and can be used for biofuel or fertilizers. The TIESystem benefits from an economy of scale that increases at a rate that is roughly equal to the relationship of the circumference of a circle (the barrier that creates the open pond) to the area of the pond

  12. Production of algal-based biofuel using non-fresh water sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Reno, Marissa Devan

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this LDRD involves development of a system dynamics model to understand the interdependencies between water resource availability and water needs for production of biofuels. Specifically, this model focuses on availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual simulation framework and historical data are based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The overall water balance ignores both transportation options and water chemistry and is broken down by county level. The resulting model contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. A user interface is also created for controlling the adjustable parameters in the model. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil- and gas-produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  13. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    PubMed

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind.

  14. A bacterium capable of using phytol as its sole carbon source, isolated from algal sediment of Mud Lake, Florida.

    PubMed

    Hoag, K B; Bradley, W H; Tousimis, A J; Price, D L

    1969-07-01

    A species of Flavobacterium that consistently attacks pure phytol and can use it as a sole source of carbon has been isolated from the blue-green algal sediment of Mud Lake, Florida. Biochemical tests demonstrate that this bacterium also readily uses various other organic compounds. This bacterium may account for the degradation products of chlorophyll and its side chain phytol, which have been found in the Mud Lake algal sediment. Phytol and its degradation products play a role in Refsum's disease, but phytol is also the most promising precursor of the isoprenoid hydrocarbons found in oil shale of the Green River Formation (Eocene) of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The discovery of this species of Flavobacterium is a significant product of a protracted study of the bacteriology, phycology, zoology, and geochemistry of the algal sediment forming in Mud Lake, which is believed to be a modern analogue of the kind of algal sediment that, through geologic time, became oil shale.

  15. Pretreated algal bloom as a substantial nutrient source for microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Jain, Priyanka; Arora, Neha; Mehtani, Juhi; Pruthi, Vikas; Majumder, C B

    2017-03-28

    In the present investigation, toxic algal bloom, a copious and low-cost nutrient source was deployed for cultivating Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Various pre-treatment methods using combinations of acid/alkali and autoclave/microwave were tested for preparing hydrolysates and compared with minimal media (BG-11). Acid autoclave treatment resulted in maximum carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous content which substantially boosted the growth of the microalgal cells (4.36g/L) as compared to rest of the media. The microalga grown in this media also showed enhanced lipid content (43.2%) and lipid productivity (188mg/L/d) as compared to BG-11 (19.42mg/L/d). The biochemical composition showed 1.6-fold declines in protein while 1.27 folds in carbohydrate content as compared to BG-11. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of C14-C22 with increased amount of monounsaturated fatty acids as compared to BG-11. The results obtained showed that algal bloom can be used as a potential nutrient source for microalgae.

  16. Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production.

    PubMed

    Anemaet, Ida G; Bekker, Martijn; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2010-11-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO₂ into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO₂ into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

  17. Algal Photosynthesis as the Primary Driver for a Sustainable Development in Energy, Feed, and Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Anemaet, Ida G.; Bekker, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO2 into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO2 into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps—after acid hydrolysis—as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:20640935

  18. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  19. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  20. Cephalopods as Vectors of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Marine Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Vanessa M.; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)—the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG >> kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 μg kg−1 and palytoxin reaching 115 μg kg−1 (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 μg kg−1 in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the

  1. Cephalopods as vectors of harmful algal bloom toxins in marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Costa, Pedro; Rosa, Rui

    2013-09-06

    Here we summarize the current knowledge on the transfer and accumulation of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-related toxins in cephalopods (octopods, cuttlefishes and squids). These mollusks have been reported to accumulate several HAB-toxins, namely domoic acid (DA, and its isomers), saxitoxin (and its derivatives) and palytoxin (and palytoxin-like compounds) and, therefore, act as HAB-toxin vectors in marine food webs. Coastal octopods and cuttlefishes store considerably high levels of DA (amnesic shellfish toxin) in several tissues, but mainly in the digestive gland (DG)--the primary site of digestive absorption and intracellular digestion. Studies on the sub-cellular partitioning of DA in the soluble and insoluble fractions showed that nearly all DA (92.6%) is found in the cytosol. This favors the trophic transfer of the toxins since cytosolic substances can be absorbed by predators with greater efficiency. The available information on the accumulation and tissue distribution of DA in squids (e.g., in stranded Humboldt squids, Dosidicus gigas) is scarcer than in other cephalopod groups. Regarding paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), these organisms accumulate them at the greatest extent in DG > kidneys > stomach > branchial hearts > posterior salivary glands > gills. Palytoxins are among the most toxic molecules identified and stranded octopods revealed high contamination levels, with ovatoxin (a palytoxin analogue) reaching 971 μg kg⁻¹ and palytoxin reaching 115 μg kg⁻¹ (the regulatory limit for PlTXs is 30 μg kg⁻¹ in shellfish). Although the impacts of HAB-toxins in cephalopod physiology are not as well understood as in fish species, similar effects are expected since they possess a complex nervous system and highly developed brain comparable to that of the vertebrates. Compared to bivalves, cephalopods represent a lower risk of shellfish poisoning in humans, since they are usually consumed eviscerated, with exception of traditional dishes from the

  2. Impacts of zooplankton composition and algal enrichment on the accumulation of mercury in an experimental freshwater food web.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Paul C; Folt, Carol L; Chen, Celia Y; Klaue, Bjoern; Blum, Joel D

    2005-03-01

    There is a well documented accumulation of mercury in fish to concentrations of concern for human consumption. Variation in fish Hg burden between lakes is often high and may result from differences in Hg transfer through lower levels of the food web where mercury is bioconcentrated to phytoplankton and transferred to herbivorous zooplankton. Prior research derived patterns of mercury accumulation in freshwater invertebrates from field collected animals. This study provides results from controlled mesocosm experiments comparing the effects of zooplankton composition, algal abundance, and the chemical speciation of mercury on the ability of zooplankton to accumulate mercury from phytoplankton and transfer that mercury to planktivores. Experiments were conducted in 550-L mesocosms across a gradient of algal densities manipulated by inorganic nutrient additions. Enriched, stable isotopes of organic (CH3(200HgCl)) and inorganic (201HgCl2) mercury were added to mesocosms and their concentrations measured in water, seston, and three common zooplankton species. After 2 weeks, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations were two to three times lower in the two copepod species, Leptodiaptomus minutus and Mesocyclops edax than in the cladoceran, Daphnia mendotae. All three zooplankton species had higher MMHg concentrations in mesocosms with low versus high initial algal abundance. However, despite higher concentrations of inorganic mercury (HgI) in seston from low nutrient mesocosms, there were no significant differences in the HgI accumulated by zooplankton across nutrient treatments. Bioaccumulation factors for MMHg in the plankton were similar to those calculated for plankton in natural lakes and a four-compartment (aqueous, seston, macrozooplankton, and periphyton/sediments) mass balance model after 21 days accounted for approximately 18% of the CH3(200Hg) and approximately 33% of the 201Hg added. Results from our experiments corroborate results from field studies and

  3. Nutrient sources and composition of recent algal blooms and eutrophication in the northern Jiulong River, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cao, Wenzhi; Su, Caixia; Hong, Huasheng

    2011-01-01

    The natural process of eutrophication is accelerated by human activities worldwide that interrupt nutrient biogeochemical cycles. Three algal bloom events have been monitored in the northern tributary of the Jiulong River since 2009. The inflection points in a robust locally-weighted regression analysis (LOESS) of the relationship between TN and TP concentrations in the river water, and a TN:TP comparison with nutrient source loadings, suggested that both external loading and internal nutrient cycling contributed to these algal blooms. Nutrient release from the sediments may have played an important role in regulating the nutrients in the overlying water column. In particular, excessive nutrient inputs from various sources and ubiquitous river damming caused further accumulation of the nutrient loading. In-situ autochthonous primary production was enhanced in this relatively stable "river" to "lake" water body. Thus, attention must be paid to the effects of river damming and the consequent internal nutrient release.

  4. Quantitative analysis of earthy and musty odors in drinking water sources impacted by wastewater and algal derived contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Danyang; Duirk, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a robust method capable of quantifying taste and odor compounds (i.e., geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) at very low aqueous concentrations in the presence of wastewater and algal derived contaminants. A polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used to perform headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to extract and analyze taste and odor compounds from model, source water, and finished drinking water samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometery (GC/MS) in full scan mode was used to analyze the compounds desorbed from the fiber in the GC inlet. The following parameters were optimized in order to enhance analyte recovery: extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sonication temperature, sonication time and GC/MS configuration/temperature program. After optimization, the method provided a linear response from 1 to 300 ng L(-1) and yielded limit of detections (LODs) of 1 ng L(-1) for both 2-MIB and geosmin. In MS full scan mode, wastewater contaminants and other algal derived volatile organic compounds (ADVOCs) relevant to cyanobacterial bloom dynamics were detected and monitored in real source water samples. In the presence of known interferents with similar mass/charge fragments and elution times, the optimized method yielded low detection limits as well as exact molecular confirmation for taste and odor compounds in impacted source water samples. This method could be used as a tool to aid in the development of source water protection plans by identifying potential sources of anthropogenic and algal derived contamination in drinking water sources.

  5. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jester, R.; Lefebvre, K.; Langlois, G.; Vigilant, V.; Baugh, K.; Silver, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    In California, the toxic algal species of primary concern are the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and members of the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, both producers of potent neurotoxins that are capable of sickening and killing marine life and humans. During the summer of 2004 in Monterey Bay, we observed a change in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community-the typically diatom-dominated community shifted to a red tide, dinoflagellate-dominated community. Here we use a 6-year time series (2000-2006) to show how the abundance of the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Bay up to that point, Pseudo-nitzschia, significantly declined during the dinoflagellate-dominated interval, while two genera of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium and Dinophysis, became the predominant toxin producers. This change represents a shift from a genus of toxin producers that typically dominates the community during a toxic bloom, to HAB taxa that are generally only minor components of the community in a toxic event. This change in the local HAB species was also reflected in the toxins present in higher trophic levels. Despite the small contribution of A. catenella to the overall phytoplankton community, the increase in the presence of this species in Monterey Bay was associated with an increase in the presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in sentinel shellfish and clupeoid fish. This report provides the first evidence that PSP toxins are present in California's pelagic food web, as PSP toxins were detected in both northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Another interesting observation from our data is the co-occurrence of DA and PSP toxins in both planktivorous fish and sentinel shellfish. We also provide evidence, based on the statewide biotoxin monitoring program, that this increase in the frequency and abundance of PSP events related to A. catenella occurred not just in Monterey Bay, but also

  6. Will biodiesel derived from algal oils live up to its promise? A fuel property assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algae have been attracting considerable attention as a source of biodiesel recently. This attention is largely due to the claimed high production potential of algal oils while circumventing the food vs. fuel issue. However, the properties of biodiesel fuels derived from algal oils have been only spa...

  7. Grazer traits, competition, and carbon sources to a headwater-stream food web.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Camille; Finlay, Jacques C; Power, Mary E

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the effect of grazing by a dominant invertebrate grazer (the caddisfly Glossosoma penitum) on the energy sources used by other consumers in a headwater-stream food web. Stable isotope studies in small, forested streams in northern California have shown that G. penitum larvae derive most of their carbon from algae, despite low algal standing crops. We hypothesized that the caddisfly competes with other primary consumers (including mayflies) for algal food and increases their reliance on terrestrial detritus. Because Glossosoma are abundant and defended from predators by stone cases, their consumption of algal energy may reduce its transfer up the food chain. We removed Glossosoma (natural densities >1000 caddisflies/m2) from five approximately 4 m2) stream sections during the summer of 2000 and measured responses of algae, invertebrate primary consumers, and invertebrate predators. The treatment reduced Glossosoma biomass by 80-90%. We observed a doubling in chlorophyll a per area in sections with reduced Glossosoma abundance and aggregative increases in the biomass of undefended primary consumers. Heptageniid mayfly larvae consumed more algae (as measured by stable carbon isotope ratios and gut content analysis) in caddisfly removal plots at the end of the 60-day experiment, although not after one month. We did not see isotopic evidence of increased algal carbon in invertebrate predators, however. Patterns of caddisfly and mayfly diets in the surrounding watershed suggested that mayfly diets are variable and include algae and detrital carbon in variable proportions, but scraping caddisflies consume primarily algae. Caddisfly and mayfly diets are more similar in larger, more productive streams where the mayflies assimilate more algae. Isotopic analysis, in combination with measurements of macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass in unmanipulated plots, suggested that a substantial portion of the invertebrate community (>50% of biomass) was supported

  8. Behavior of gold nanoparticles in an experimental algal-zooplankton food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, Kyle D.; Neretina, Svetlana; Sanders, Robert W.

    2014-05-01

    The release of engineered nanomaterials offers a significant concern due to their unexpected behavior in biological systems. In order to establish the level of threat from releasing nanomaterials into ecosystems, simplified food webs are an effective method to determine toxicity and bioassessment. A study is presented examining the behavior of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) introduced into a model food chain consisting of a phytoplankton food ( Ankistrodesmus falcatus) and a zooplankton grazer ( Daphnia magna). UV-Vis spectroscopy is used to monitor the behavior of AuNPs in the presence of algae ( Ankistrodesmus) and Daphnia over the span of 5 days. Transmission electron microscopy shows the attachment of gold aggregates to the surface of the Ankistrodesmus. Bright field microscopy shows significant accumulation of AuNPs in the gut of Daphnia via uptake of contaminated Ankistrodesmus and directly from water. No toxicity was evident for Daphnia exposed to AuNPs at the concentration used (880 µg L-1).

  9. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance.

  10. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  11. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  12. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  13. 76 FR 80873 - Food Source Attribution; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Food Source Attribution; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for...

  14. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth.

  15. Algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  16. An emerging trend in functional foods for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: Marine algal polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Murray, Margaret; Dordevic, Aimee L; Ryan, Lisa; Bonham, Maxine P

    2016-11-11

    Marine macroalgae are gaining recognition among the scientific community as a significant source of functional food ingredients. Due to the harsh environments in which macroalgae survive, they produce unique bioactive compounds that are not found in terrestrial plants. Polyphenols are the predominant bioactive compound in brown algae and are accountable for the majority of its biological activity. Phlorotannins are a type of polyphenol that are unique to marine sources and have exhibited protective effects against hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications, in cell culture, animal studies and some human studies. This review updates the information on marine polyphenols, with a particular focus on phlorotannins and their potential health benefits in relation to the prevention and treatment of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  18. Flaxseed-a potential functional food source.

    PubMed

    Kajla, Priyanka; Sharma, Alka; Sood, Dev Raj

    2015-04-01

    There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive molecules of food. Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity among health conscious consumers. Flaxseed is cultivated in many parts of world for fiber, oil as well as for medicinal purposes and also as nutritional product. In this review, nutrients, anti-nutrients, functional properties, processing, metabolism and health benefits of bioactive molecules viz., essential fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber of flaxseed are discussed.

  19. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  20. Accelerated food source location in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Egenriether, Sada M; Chow, Eileen S; Krauth, Nathalie; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2015-10-01

    Adequate energy stores are essential for survival, and sophisticated neuroendocrine mechanisms evolved to stimulate foraging in response to nutrient deprivation. Food search behavior is usually investigated in young animals, and it is not known how aging alters this behavior. To address this question in Drosophila melanogaster, we compared the ability to locate food by olfaction in young and old flies using a food-filled trap. As aging is associated with a decline in motor functions, learning, and memory, we expected that aged flies would take longer to enter the food trap than their young counterparts. Surprisingly, old flies located food with significantly shorter latency than young ones. Robust food search behavior was associated with significantly lower fat reserves and lower starvation resistance in old flies. Food-finding latency (FFL) was shortened in young wild-type flies that were starved until their fat was depleted but also in heterozygous chico mutants with reduced insulin receptor activity and higher fat deposits. Conversely, food trap entry was delayed in old flies with increased insulin signaling. Our results suggest that the difference in FFL between young and old flies is linked to age-dependent differences in metabolic status and may be mediated by reduced insulin signaling.

  1. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Víctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.

  2. Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jessica J; Slater, Frances R; Bai, Xue; Pratt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential of using this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g total dissolved solids per litre (TDS L(-1)) respectively) were inoculated with algal biomass from freshwater and seawater environments and supplemented with nutrients in open, fed-batch reactors. Significant algal growth was recorded, with maximum specific growth rates in CSG water and CSG brine of 0.20 +/- 0.05 d(-1) and 0.26 +/- 0.04 d(-1) respectively. These maximum specific growth rates were equal to or greater than specific growth rates in deionized water and seawater diluted to the same salinity. However, algal growth lag time in CSG brine was between 7 and 9 times longer than in other waters. Microscopy and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to monitor community structure in the reactors. The same few algal species dominated all of the reactors, except for the CSG brine reactor at day 15. This result indicates that conditions in CSG brine select for different species of algae compared to seawater of the same salinity and other waters tested. The findings suggest that mass algae production in CSG water is feasible but algae community composition may be a function of CSG water chemistry. This has implications for the downstream use of algae.

  3. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  4. Herbs as a food source in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Esiyok, Dursun; Otles, Semih; Akcicek, Eren

    2004-01-01

    Medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. Many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. These herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. The traditional Turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs which have been employed as ingredients since ancient times. The present paper provides a brief overview of some important herbs in the Turkish flora, including fennel, sage, rosemary, mallow, sweet basil, savory, chicory, nettle, thyme, flax, cumin, caper, coriander, milk thistle, spanish lavender, marjoram, dandelion, rocket, purslane, spanish salsify, amaranthus, wild radish, and wild mustard. Studies on these herbs have revealed that they contain powerful active components that might be effective for increasing human health and preventing cancer.

  5. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources.

  6. Source food webs as estimators of community web structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Bradford A.; Martinez, Neo D.; Gilbert, Francis

    Taxonomically restricted "source webs" are commonly used to represent the community food webs of which they are part. This raises a methodological problem if source webs provide biased estimates of food web structure. We use four high quality, extensive food webs containing multiple source species to measure the sensitivity of food web metrics to the number of source species used to generate a web. The total number of species ( S), linkage density ( L/S), directed connectance ( L/S 2) and the fractions of basal ( B), intermediate ( I), and top ( T) species are all sensitive to the number of source species. Further, the pattern of variation for the latter fractions is inconsistent and web dependent, indicating that source webs are inappropriate for characterizing these properties. Linkage densities increase with the numbers of source species in all four cases, with webs based on single or few sources severely underestimating values obtained for the full webs. Connectance shows more constrained decreases with increasing numbers of sources, suggesting that multiple-source webs may provide reasonable estimates of connectance for community webs.

  7. Food Sources of Important Nutrients (for Vegetarians)

    MedlinePlus

    ... greens, turnip greens and kale Broccoli Beans including soybeans, chickpeas and black beans Almonds and almond butter ... increases iron absorption. Sources include: Fortified breakfast cereals Soybeans Some dark leafy greens including spinach and chard ...

  8. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food.

  9. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  10. Vitamin B₁₂-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-05-05

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  11. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  12. Roots as a source of food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous plant species produce edible roots that are an important source of calories and that contribute to human nutrition. This book chapter discusses the origin and domestication, production aspects and nutritional aspects of a number of root crops including; cassava (Manioc), sweetpotato (Ipomo...

  13. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  14. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG

  15. Algal pigments in Southern Ocean abyssal foraminiferans indicate pelagobenthic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasm of four species of abyssal benthic foraminiferans from the Southern Ocean (around 51°S; 12°W and 50°S; 39°W) was analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain large concentrations of algal pigments and their degradation products. The composition of the algal pigments in the foraminiferan cytoplasm reflected the plankton community at the surface. Some foraminiferans contained high ratios of chlorophyll a/degraded pigments because they were feeding on fresher phytodetritus. Other foraminiferans contained only degraded pigments which shows that they utilized degraded phytodetritus. The concentration of algal pigment and corresponding degradation products in the foraminiferan cytoplasm is much higher than in the surrounding sediment. It shows that the foraminiferans collect a diluted and sparse food resource and concentrate it as they build up their cytoplasm. This ability contributes to the understanding of the great quantitative success of foraminiferans in the deep sea. Benthic foraminiferans are a food source for many abyssal metazoans. They form a link between the degraded food resources, phytodetritus, back to the active metazoan food chains.

  16. Networks within networks: floods, droughts, and the assembly of algal-based food webs in a Mediterranean river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, M. E.; Limm, M.; Finlay, J. C.; Welter, J.; Furey, P.; Lowe, R.; Hondzo, M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Bode, C. A.; National CenterEarth Surface Dynamics

    2011-12-01

    Riverine biota live within several networks. Organisms are embedded in food webs, whose structure and dynamics respond to environmental changes down river drainages. In sunlit rivers, food webs are fueled by attached algae. Primary producer biomass in the Eel River of Northwestern California, as in many sunlit, temperate rivers worldwide, is dominated by the macroalga Cladophora, which grows as a hierarchical, branched network. Cladophora proliferations vastly amplify the ecological surface area and the diversity microhabitats available to microbes. Environmental conditions (light, substrate age or stability, flow, redox gradients) change in partially predictable ways along both Cladophora fronds and river drainage networks, from the frond tips (or headwaters) to their base (or river mouth). We are interested in the ecological and biogeochemical consequences, at the catchment scale, of cross-scale interactions of microbial food webs on Cladophora with macro-organismal food webs, as these change down river drainages. We are beginning to explore how seasonal, hydrologic and macro-consumer control over the production and fate of Cladophora and its epiphytes could mediate ecosystem linkages of the river, its watershed, and nearshore marine ecosystems. Of the four interacting networks we consider, the web of microbial interactions is the most poorly known, and possibly the least hierarchical due to the prevalence of metabolic processing chains (waste products of some members become resources for others) and mutualisms.

  17. Flavonoids--food sources and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Aleksandra; Szostak-Wegierek, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of bioactive compounds that are extensively found in foodstuffs of plant origin. Their regular consumption is associated with reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids are classified into subgroups based on their chemical structure: flavanones, flavones, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins and isoflavones. Their actions at the molecular level include antioxidant effects, as well the ability to modulate several key enzymatic pathways. The growing body of scientific evidence indicates that flavonoids play a beneficial role in disease prevention, however further clinical and epidemiological trials are greatly needed. Among dietary sources of flavonoids there are fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds and spices. Consumption of these substances with diet appears to be safe. It seems that a diet rich in flavonoids is beneficial and its promotion is thus justifiable.

  18. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-01-01

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges. PMID:19025676

  19. Quantifying the food sources of basal vitamin d input.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Sharon L; French, Christine B; Heaney, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous synthesis and traditional food sources do not fully account for unsupplemented vitamin D status. Non-traditional food sources may be an undiscovered input. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14)ng/ml we assessed the relationship between vitamin D status and selected food sources. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for season, UVB exposures, and body size. These adjusted values were then regressed against multiple food items and combinations. Whole milk cottage cheese, eggs, red meat, and total protein were positively associated with total 25(OH)D and/or 25(OH)D3 (P<0.05 for each), whereas fish and milk intake were not. The slope of the relationship was such that for every intake of 1serving/day, serum 25(OH)D rose by about 2ng/ml for eggs and 1ng/ml for meat and total protein. For every weekly serving of whole milk cottage cheese, serum 25(OH)D rose by about 1ng/ml. While some food sources were significant predictors of vitamin D status, their ability to explain inter-individual variability was limited. Supplementation will likely remain essential to improving vitamin D status on a population level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  20. NREL Algal Biofuels Projects and Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights several algal biofuels research and development projects focused on improving the economics of the algal biofuels production process. These projects should serve as a foundation for the research efforts toward algae as a source of fuels and other chemicals.

  1. Microbial source tracking: a tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source tracking (MST), which currently is largely focused on determining sources of fecal contamination in waterways, is also providing the scientific community tools for tracking both fecal bacteria and food-borne pathogens contamination in the food chain. Approaches to MST are commonly classified as library-dependent methods (LDMs) or library-independent methods (LIMs). These tools will have widespread applications, including the use for regulatory compliance, pollution remediation, and risk assessment. These tools will reduce the incidence of illness associated with food and water. Our aim in this review is to highlight the use of molecular MST methods in application to understanding the source and transmission of food-borne pathogens. Moreover, the future directions of MST research are also discussed.

  2. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.

  3. Sources of variability in the flavonoid content of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2012, USDA prepared Release 3.1 of the “USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods”, which contained data on 508 food items collected from 308 published sources. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites produced by plants in response to various environmental stresses such as climate a...

  4. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Recovery optimization and characterizations of algal proteins and lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed environment life support system (CELSS) diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  5. Harmful Algal Bloom Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The problem is complex. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous levels can cause harmful algal blooms. Different algal/cyanobacteria strains bloom under different conditions. Different strains produce different toxins at varying amounts.

  6. Recovery of Campylobacter spp. from Food and Environmental Sources.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Catherine D; Kenwell, Robyn; Iugovaz, Irene; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of Campylobacter species from food and environmental sources is challenging due to the slow growth of these bacteria and the need to suppress competing organisms during the isolation procedures. The addition of multiple selective antimicrobials to growth media can negatively impact recovery of some Campylobacter spp. Here, we describe our current method for the isolation of thermotolerant Campylobacter species, mainly C. jejuni and C. coli, from food and environmental samples. We emphasize the use of membrane filtration during plating for the specific isolation of Campylobacter spp. and a reduced use of antimicrobial supplements throughout the whole isolation process.

  7. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Results Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents’ age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided <1% of energy. Pizza from QSR, the top food away from home (FAFH) item, provided 2.2% of energy in the diets of children and 3.4% in the diets of adolescents. Soda, energy, and sports drinks from QSR provided approximately 1.2% of dietary energy. Conclusions Refining dietary surveillance approaches by incorporating food purchase location may help inform public health policy. Characterizing the important sources of energy, in terms of both purchase location and source may be useful in anticipating the population-level impacts of proposed policy or educational interventions. These data show that stores provide a majority of

  8. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-06-17

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes currently undergoing analysis, JGI continues its commitment to driving forward basic and applied algal science. Among these ongoing projects are the pan-genome of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the interrelationships between the 4 genomes in the nucleomorph-containing Bigelowiella natans and Guillardia theta, and the search for symbiosis genes of lichens.

  9. Raman microspectroscopy of individual algal cells: sensing unsaturation of storage lipids in vivo.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Algae are becoming a strategic source of fuels, food, feedstocks, and biologically active compounds. This potential has stimulated the development of innovative analytical methods focused on these microorganisms. Algal lipids are among the most promising potential products for fuels as well as for nutrition. The crucial parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids quantified by the iodine value. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. The Raman spectra were collected from three selected algal species immobilized in an agarose gel. Prior to immobilization, the algae were cultivated in the stationary phase inducing an overproduction of lipids. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm(-1) (cis C═C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm(-1) (CH(2) scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids. These spectral features were first quantified for pure fatty acids of known iodine value. The resultant calibration curve was then used to calculate the effective iodine value of storage lipids in the living algal cells from their Raman spectra. We demonstrated that the iodine value differs significantly for the three studied algal species. Our spectroscopic estimations of the iodine value were validated using GC-MS measurements and an excellent agreement was found for the Trachydiscus minutus species. A good agreement was also found with the earlier published data on Botryococcus braunii. Thus, we propose that Raman microspectroscopy can become technique of choice in the rapidly expanding field of algal biotechnology.

  10. Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, Soňa; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health.

  11. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Emmie; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita

    2006-08-01

    Especially in the last decade, a vast number of papers on Se and its role in health issues have been published. This review gives a brief, critical overview of the main analytical findings reported in these papers. Of particular interest is the Se content in different food sources worldwide and the extent to which their consumption is reflected in the Se content of human tissues and body fluids. Several food sources, both natural (Brazil nuts, garlic, Brassica juncea) and Se-enriched (yeast-based supplements), are discussed as to origin, characteristics, Se metabolism and impact of their consumption on the human body. The continuous development of new and improvement of existing analytical techniques has provided different powerful tools to unravel the Se species and their function. An up-to-date literature study on Se speciation analysis is given, illustrating how analytical chemistry in its different facets aids in the identification of Se compounds and provides insight into the complete metabolic pathway of Se throughout the human body. This review includes a detailed image of the current state-of-the-art of Se speciation analysis in these food sources and in human tissues and body fluids.

  12. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  13. Amino acid content of selected plant, algae and insect species: a search for alternative protein sources for use in pet foods.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Sarah; Buff, Preston R; Yu, Zengshou; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.

  14. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed Estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobczak, W.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Muller-Solger, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of algal and detrital food supplies to the planktonic food web of a highly disturbed, estuarine ecosystem was evaluated in response to declining zooplankton and fish populations. We assessed organic matter bioavailability among a diversity of habitats and hydrologic inputs over 2 years in San Francisco Estuary's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Results show that bioavailable dissolved organic carbon from external riverine sources supports a large component of ecosystem metabolism. However, bioavailable particulate organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply to the planktonic food web. The relative importance of phytoplankton as a food source is surprising because phytoplankton production is a small component of the ecosystem's organic-matter mass balance. Our results indicate that management plans aimed at modifying the supply of organic matter to riverine, estuarine, and coastal food webs need to incorporate the potentially wide nutritional range represented by different organic matter sources.

  15. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: the role of detrital and algal resources.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, William V; Cloern, James E; Jassby, Alan D; Müller-Solger, Anke B

    2002-06-11

    The importance of algal and detrital food supplies to the planktonic food web of a highly disturbed, estuarine ecosystem was evaluated in response to declining zooplankton and fish populations. We assessed organic matter bioavailability among a diversity of habitats and hydrologic inputs over 2 years in San Francisco Estuary's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Results show that bioavailable dissolved organic carbon from external riverine sources supports a large component of ecosystem metabolism. However, bioavailable particulate organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply to the planktonic food web. The relative importance of phytoplankton as a food source is surprising because phytoplankton production is a small component of the ecosystem's organic-matter mass balance. Our results indicate that management plans aimed at modifying the supply of organic matter to riverine, estuarine, and coastal food webs need to incorporate the potentially wide nutritional range represented by different organic matter sources.

  16. Texas Public School Nutrition Policy Changes Sources of Middle School Student Food Choices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the impact of school food policy changes on student intake. This study assessed changes in student intake by food source after the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was implemented. Anonymous lunch food records, with food source identified, were collected from students ...

  17. Food Proteins as Source of Opioid Peptides-A Review.

    PubMed

    Garg, Swati; Nurgali, Kulmira; Mishra, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Traditional opioids, mainly alkaloids, have been used in the clinical management of pain for a number of years but are often associated with numerous side-effects including sedation, dizziness, physical dependence, tolerance, addiction, nausea, vomiting, constipation and respiratory depression which prevent their effective use. Opioid peptides derived from food provide significant advantages as safe and natural alternative due to the possibility of their production using animal and plant proteins as well as comparatively less side-effects. This review aims to discuss the current literature on food-derived opioid peptides focusing on their production, methods of detection, isolation and purification. The need for screening more dietary proteins as a source of novel opioid peptides is emphasized in order to fully understand their potential in pain management either as a drug or as part of diet complementing therapeutic prescription.

  18. Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing the biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on naturally occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions, and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results emphasize that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e., isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterially derived amino acids ranged from 10 to 15 % in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years, and up to 35 % during the last glacial period. The greater bacterial contributions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a

  19. Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, Dora A; Kettler, Susanne I; Kirchgessner, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from selected food sources including eggs, bananas, white cabbage, corn, milk powder, fish, barley, soybeans, brown rice, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, rye and soybean meal. These foods were chosen for their relevance in human and animal nutrition and prepared as they are usually eaten by humans. As confirmed by further investigations the precaecal digestibility is a valuable measure for determining the availability of native B-vitamins. Therefore, pigs were fitted with an end-to-end ileo-rectal anastomosis for digesta passing straight from ileum to rectum, thus avoiding endogenous vitamin synthesis by the colon. Three weeks after surgery the digestibility experiments were carried out during which the animals were fed various experimental diets for a period of 12 days and digesta were collected quantitatively twice a day during the final 5 days of this period. The concentration of vitamin B6 in foods and chyme was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from all tested food sources ranged from 51 to 91% in the following order: cabbage diet > banana diet > fish diet > milk powder diet > brewer's yeast diet > soybeans diet > soybean meal diet > egg diet/corn diet > barley diet > wheat bran diet > rye diet. Only boiled brown rice had a very low vitamin B6 availability of 16%. The digestibility of vitamin B6 from plant products (excluding the rice) was on average 10% lower when compared with animal products (71 versus 79%).

  20. A Collection of Algal Genomes from the JGI

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Algae, defined as photosynthetic eukaryotes other than plants, constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity. Acquisition of the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis through endosymbiotic events has been a principal driver of eukaryotic evolution, and today algae continue to underpin aquatic food chains as primary producers. Algae play profound roles in the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE?s Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A collection of algal projects ongoing at JGI contributes to each of these areas and illustrates analyses employed in their genome exploration.

  1. Instant food products as a source of silicon.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Hojka, Anna; Grajeta, Halina

    2012-12-01

    Silicon is a trace element for humans, and is absorbed from food in the form of orthosilicic acid. Instant food products are part of a constantly growing market of convenience foods, which have not been evaluated yet as sources of silicon. In this study the total and soluble silicon contents in different instant food products were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). A selection of instant products commercially available in Wroclaw were analyzed: soups, main courses, coffee drinks, jellies and puddings. Total silicon contents in soups, main courses and coffee drinks ranged widely and reached the values: 0.10-30.20, 0.63-37.91 and 0.21-13.37mg/serving, respectively. These products contained 0.05-1.26mg of soluble silicon per serving. The total silicon content in jellies and puddings did not exceed 0.36mg and 2.42mg/serving, respectively. Among the analyzed desserts the highest level of soluble silicon was found in chocolate puddings: 0.36-0.41mg/serving. The silicon level in servings of the studied instant products when prepared with the appropriate amount of water was also estimated. The mean content of silicon determined in samples of drinking water from Wrocław and the vicinity, which was used for the estimation, amounted to 7.09mg/l. The total silicon content in ready-to-eat products ranged from 1.32 to 39.21mg/serving. In conclusion, some of the analyzed instant foods contained very high amounts of silicon, however the content of the soluble, and hence available, form of this element was low.

  2. 21 CFR 1250.25 - Source identification and inspection of food and drink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Source identification and inspection of food and drink. 1250.25 Section 1250.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.25 - Source identification and inspection of food and drink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Source identification and inspection of food and drink. 1250.25 Section 1250.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND...

  4. Stable isotope assessment of water quality, primary productivity, nutrient sources, and food web structure in Lake Winnipeg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenaar, L. I.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Winnipeg (Canada) is a shallow great lake currently undergoing extensive eutrophication. A 4-year stable isotope project is currently underway to examine water quality, primary productivity, nutrient sources, and food web structure in the lake. The isotope hydrology (18O, 2H) of Lake Winnipeg is needed in order to gain a picture of spatial isotopic patterns in the lake that can be related to the unique fingerprints imposed by contributing watersheds, and to verify hydrodynmamic mixing models. Stable isotope assays of key nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved oxygen in Lake Winnipeg are being applied to assess (1) the sources of nutrients, (2) the sources of the organic matter (internal vs external), (3) the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and organic matter that lead to algal formation and enhanced biological oxygen demand and 4) quantify the rates of aquatic photoautotrophic activity, respiration and gas exchange. Altogether, these assays will allow us to better link nutrient sources and cycling to enhanced aquatic productivity. Foodweb structure and function is being examined using 13C and 15N while DH and 34S are being evaluated as tracer of inter basin fish migration. Only if the current foodweb structure is well understood can predictions regarding the negative impacts of eutrophication and invasive species on the foodweb be possible.

  5. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Ulrich; Frølich, Wenche; Prieto, Rafel M; Grases, Felix

    2009-09-01

    The article gives an overview of phytic acid in food and of its significance for human nutrition. It summarises phytate sources in foods and discusses problems of phytic acid/phytate contents of food tables. Data on phytic acid intake are evaluated and daily phytic acid intake depending on food habits is assessed. Degradation of phytate during gastro-intestinal passage is summarised, the mechanism of phytate interacting with minerals and trace elements in the gastro-intestinal chyme described and the pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut presented. The present knowledge of phytate absorption is summarised and discussed. Effects of phytate on mineral and trace element bioavailability are reported and phytate degradation during processing and storage is described. Beneficial activities of dietary phytate such as its effects on calcification and kidney stone formation and on lowering blood glucose and lipids are reported. The antioxidative property of phytic acid and its potentional anticancerogenic activities are briefly surveyed. Development of the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates is described, problems of inositol phosphate determination and detection discussed and the need for standardisation of phytic acid analysis in foods argued.

  6. Assessing the potential of amino acid δ13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles, and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on natural occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions; and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results underscore that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e. isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterial derived amino acids ranged from 10-15% in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years to 35% during the last glacial period. The larger bacterial fractions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a function of sediment age, to

  7. Discriminating between west-side sources of nutrients and organiccarbon contributing to algal growth and oxygen demand in the San JoaquinRiver

    SciTech Connect

    Wstringfellow@lbl.gov

    2002-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Salt and Mud Slough tributaries as sources of oxygen demanding materials entering the San Joaquin River (SJR). Mud Slough and Salt Slough are the main drainage arteries of the Grasslands Watershed, a 370,000-acre area west of the SJR, covering portions of Merced and Fresno Counties. Although these tributaries of the SJR are typically classified as agricultural, they are also heavily influenced by Federal, State and private wetlands. The majority of the surface water used for both irrigation and wetland management in the Grassland Watershed is imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta through the Delta-Mendota Canal. In this study, they measured algal biomass (as chlorophyll a), organic carbon, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and other measures of water quality in drainage from both agricultural and wetland sources at key points in the Salt Slough and Mud Slough tributaries. This report includes the data collected between June 16th and October 4th, 2001. The objective of the study was to compare agricultural and wetland drainage in the Grasslands Watershed and to determine the relative importance of each return flow source to the concentration and mass loading of oxygen demanding materials entering the SJR. Additionally, they compared the quality of water exiting our study area to water entering our study area. This study has demonstrated that Salt and Mud Sloughs both contribute significant amounts of oxygen demand to the SJR. Together, these tributaries could account for 35% of the oxygen demand observed below their confluence with the SJR. This study has characterized the sources of oxygen demanding materials entering Mud Slough and evaluated the oxygen demand conditions in Salt Slough. Salt Slough was found to be the dominant source of oxygen demand load in the study area, because of the higher flows in this tributary. The origins of oxygen demand in Salt Slough still remain largely uninvestigated

  8. Metabolic systems analysis to advance algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian J; Lin-Schmidt, Xiefan; Chamberlin, Austin; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Papin, Jason A

    2010-07-01

    Algal fuel sources promise unsurpassed yields in a carbon neutral manner that minimizes resource competition between agriculture and fuel crops. Many challenges must be addressed before algal biofuels can be accepted as a component of the fossil fuel replacement strategy. One significant challenge is that the cost of algal fuel production must become competitive with existing fuel alternatives. Algal biofuel production presents the opportunity to fine-tune microbial metabolic machinery for an optimal blend of biomass constituents and desired fuel molecules. Genome-scale model-driven algal metabolic design promises to facilitate both goals by directing the utilization of metabolites in the complex, interconnected metabolic networks to optimize production of the compounds of interest. Network analysis can direct microbial development efforts towards successful strategies and enable quantitative fine-tuning of the network for optimal product yields while maintaining the robustness of the production microbe. Metabolic modeling yields insights into microbial function, guides experiments by generating testable hypotheses, and enables the refinement of knowledge on the specific organism. While the application of such analytical approaches to algal systems is limited to date, metabolic network analysis can improve understanding of algal metabolic systems and play an important role in expediting the adoption of new biofuel technologies.

  9. Antiglycation Activity of Iridoids and Their Food Sources.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Deng, Shixin; Nakajima, Sanae; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2014-01-01

    Iridoids are dietary phytochemicals that may have the ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Three studies were conducted to investigate this anti-AGE potential. First, the inhibition of fluorescence intensity by food-derived iridoids, after 4 days of incubation with bovine serum albumin, glucose, and fructose, was used to evaluate in vitro antiglycation activity. Next, an 8-week open-label pilot study used the AGE Reader to measure changes in the skin autofluorescence of 34 overweight adults who consumed daily a beverage containing food sources of iridoids. Finally, a cross-sectional population study with 3913 people analyzed the relationship between daily iridoid intake and AGE accumulation, as measured by skin autofluorescence with the TruAge scanner. In the in vitro test, deacetylasperulosidic acid and loganic acid both inhibited glycation in a concentration-dependent manner, with respective IC50 values of 3.55 and 2.69 mM. In the pilot study, average skin autofluorescence measurements decreased by 0.12 units (P < 0.05). The cross-sectional population survey revealed that, for every mg of iridoids consumed, there is a corresponding decline in AGE associated age of 0.017 years (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that consumption of dietary sources of iridoids may be a useful antiaging strategy.

  10. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    PubMed

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently.

  11. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  12. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA FROM FOODS AS POSSIBLE EXPOSURE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of foods collected from local supermarkets and produce stands were examined as possible sources of nontuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Food samples were combined with sterile ultrapure water and manually shaken. To remove large particles, the suspensions were filtere...

  13. Food adulteration: Sources, health risks, and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sangita; Singh, Apoorva; Mangal, Manisha; Mangal, Anupam K; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2017-04-13

    Adulteration in food has been a concern since the beginning of civilization, as it not only decreases the quality of food products but also results in a number of ill effects on health. Authentic testing of food and adulterant detection of various food products is required for value assessment and to assure consumer protection against fraudulent activities. Through this review we intend to compile different types of adulterations made in different food items, the health risks imposed by these adulterants and detection methods available for them. Concerns about food safety and regulation have ensured the development of various techniques like physical, biochemical/immunological and molecular techniques, for adulterant detection in food. Molecular methods are more preferable when it comes to detection of biological adulterants in food, although physical and biochemical techniques are preferable for detection of other adulterants in food.

  14. The place of algae in agriculture: policies for algal biomass production.

    PubMed

    Trentacoste, Emily M; Martinez, Alice M; Zenk, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Algae have been used for food and nutraceuticals for thousands of years, and the large-scale cultivation of algae, or algaculture, has existed for over half a century. More recently algae have been identified and developed as renewable fuel sources, and the cultivation of algal biomass for various products is transitioning to commercial-scale systems. It is crucial during this period that institutional frameworks (i.e., policies) support and promote development and commercialization and anticipate and stimulate the evolution of the algal biomass industry as a source of renewable fuels, high value protein and carbohydrates and low-cost drugs. Large-scale cultivation of algae merges the fundamental aspects of traditional agricultural farming and aquaculture. Despite this overlap, algaculture has not yet been afforded a position within agriculture or the benefits associated with it. Various federal and state agricultural support and assistance programs are currently appropriated for crops, but their extension to algal biomass is uncertain. These programs are essential for nascent industries to encourage investment, build infrastructure, disseminate technical experience and information, and create markets. This review describes the potential agricultural policies and programs that could support algal biomass cultivation, and the barriers to the expansion of these programs to algae.

  15. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  16. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  17. Indicators: Algal Toxins (microcystin)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Algal toxins are toxic substances released by some types of algae (phytoplankton) when they are present in large quantities (blooms) and decay or degrade. High nutrient levels and warm temperatures often result in favorable conditions for algae blooms.

  18. Cassia Cinnamon as a source of Coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamon is one of the most popular flavoring agents in the United States. Some cinnamon varieties and cinnamon flavored food sold in US could be potential sources of coumarin. Coumarin is banned from food in the United States due to its potential adverse side effects. An ultra-performance liquid ch...

  19. Potato fiber as a dietary fiber source in dog foods.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, M R; Rossoni Serao, M C; de Godoy, M R C; Swanson, K S; Guérin-Deremaux, L; Lynch, G L; Wils, D; Fahey, G C; Dilger, R N

    2013-11-01

    Potato fiber (PF), a coproduct of potato starch manufacture, was evaluated as a potential novel fiber source in dog food. Potato fiber contained 55% total dietary fiber, 29% starch, 4% crude protein, and 2% acid-hydrolyzed fat. The PF substrate was evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo responses. For the in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion and fermentation experiment, raw and cooked PF substrates were first subjected to hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine OM disappearance and then fermented using dog fecal inoculum. Fermentation characteristics were then measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. For the in vivo experiment, 10 female mixed-breed dogs (6.13±0.17 yr; 22±2.1 kg) were provided 5 diets with graded concentrations (0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, or 6%) of PF in a replicated 5×5 Latin square design. Dogs were acclimated to the test diet for 10 d, followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end products. In vitro digestion revealed that raw and cooked PF were 32.3% and 27.9% digested enzymatically, whereas in vitro fermentation showed that PF was fermentable through 9 h. Raw PF had greater (P<0.05) acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at the 12-h time point compared with cooked PF. The in vivo experiment showed no differences in apparent total tract DM, OM, CP, acid-hydrolyzed fat, or energy digestibility of diets containing graded concentrations of PF. However, total dietary fiber digestibility exhibited a linear increase (P<0.01) with increasing PF concentrations in the diet. Overall, linear increases (P<0.01) were observed for all individual and total SCFA, with a concomitant linear decrease (P<0.01) in fecal pH with increasing dietary PF. Fecal protein catabolite concentrations were low or undetectable, with the exception of spermidine, which exhibited a linear increase with increasing

  20. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  1. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol: effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Denver J; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2008-06-11

    Crude glycerol is the primary byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the alga Schizochytrium limacinum on crude glycerol provides a unique opportunity to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of impurities contained in the crude glycerol on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Crude glycerol streams were obtained from different biodiesel refineries. All of the glycerol samples contained methanol, soaps, and various elements including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and zinc. Both methanol and soap were found to negatively influence algal DHA production; these two impurities can be removed from culture medium by evaporation through autoclaving (for methanol) and by precipitation through pH adjustment (for soap). The glycerol-derived algal biomass contained 45-50% lipid, 14-20% protein, and 25% carbohydrate, with 8-13% ash content. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and DHA were the two major fatty acids in the algal lipid. The algal biomass was rich in lysine and cysteine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that boron, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and sulfur were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury) were detected in the algal biomass. Overall, the results show that crude glycerol was a suitable carbon source for algal fermentation. The crude glycerol-derived algal biomass had a high level of DHA and a nutritional profile similar to that of commercial algal biomass, suggesting a great potential for using crude glycerol-derived algae in omega-3-fortified food or feed.

  2. Is the inclusion of animal source foods in fortified blended foods justified?

    PubMed

    Noriega, Kristen E; Lindshield, Brian L

    2014-09-04

    Fortified blended foods (FBF) are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF) in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC), especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1) epidemiological; (2) ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3) ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4) ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed.

  3. Toxic effect of selenium on the zooplankton, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria, in water and the food source (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyum, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity experiments were performed on the zooplankton, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria, to investigate the toxicity of selenium on these aquatic invertebrates. The acute 48 h LC/sub 50/ of sodium selenate for Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria were 1.01 and 0.25 mg Se/1, respectively. The 48 h LC/sub 50/ of sodium selenite for D. magna and D. pulicaria were 0.45 and 0.006 mg Se/1, respectively. Chronic 28-day toxicity tests were performed on D. magna at 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 mg Se/1 as sodium selenate in the water and with two food types. One food type was algae raised in clean Lake Michigan water and the second treatment was algae raised in media with selenium concentrations corresponding to those in the water cited above. When compared to Daphnia fed selenium-free algae, D. magna fed selenium-laden algae had greater survival, a greater number of offspring produced, and a greater intrinsic growth rate, r, at the toxicant concentration in the water of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.50 mg Se/1. These parameters were, however, lower than those observed in the controls. Uptake of /sup 75/Se as sodium selenate in D. magna was reduced in the presence of selenium-laden algae and DL-selenomethionine, while L-methionine increased the uptake of /sup 75/Se. Selenium bound to an amino acid such as Dl-selenomethionine or organically bound within an algal food source appears to be preferentially incorporated thereby reducing the uptake of inorganic forms from the water.

  4. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology: Reduced Insect Food Source at Airports.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Christopher G L; Popay, Alison J; Rolston, M Philip; Townsend, Richard J; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Card, Stuart D

    2016-02-01

    Birds and other forms of wildlife are a major issue for airport authorities worldwide, as they can create hazards to operating aircraft. Wildlife "strikes," the majority caused by birds, can cause damage to operating aircraft and in severe cases lead to a loss of human life. Many airfields contain large areas of ground cover herbage alongside their runways that consist of mixtures of grasses, legumes, and weeds that can harbor many invertebrates. Many airfields use insecticides to control insect populations; however, mounting pressure from regional councils and water boards aim to reduce this practice due to ground water runoff and contamination concerns. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology, a product specifically developed to reduce the attractiveness of airports and surrounding areas to birds, is based on a novel association between a selected strain of Epichloë endophyte and a turf-type tall fescue cultivar. This grass-endophyte association acts through a direct mechanism whereby a negative response in birds is created through taste aversion and postingestion feedback as well as an indirect mechanism by deterring many invertebrates, a food source of many bird species.

  5. Sources of Hydrogen as Food for Deep Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    To survive in deep subsurface environments autolithotrophic microbial communities require a sustainable food supply. One possible source is H2 which forms when H2O reacts with ferrous iron at rock surfaces or mineral grain boundaries to produce H2 plus ferric iron. The amount of H2 that can be supplied in this way, however, is relatively small and may not last for more than a few hundred or thousand years. A much larger reservoir of H2 exists in the rocks, inside mineral grains, arising from an as yet little-known redox conversion that affects OH- in nominally anhydrous minerals. These OH- represent small amounts of "water" that become incorporated during crystallization in H2O-laden environments. A corollary of the H2 formation from OH- is the formation of peroxy, an oxidized form of oxygen. While the peroxy become part of the mineral structure, the H2 molecules are diffusively mobile and can escape from within the mineral grains, entering the intergranular space. Assuming cautiously realistic number densities of OH- undergoing the in situ redox conversion to H2 plus peroxy, a 10 km deep rock column is expected to contain enough H2 to allow for a constant degassing rate of 50-100 nmole H2 per day per sq cm over 30 million years.

  6. What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

  7. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  8. Sodium intakes of US children and adults from foods and beverages by location of origin and by specific food source.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-05-28

    Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003-2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6-11 years of age), adolescents (12-19), and adults (20-50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6-11 year olds and 6.0% for 12-19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet.

  9. Tracking sources of Staphylococcus aureus hand contamination in food handlers by spa typing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffery; Boost, Maureen V; O'Donoghue, Margaret M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to identify the source of Staphylococcus aureus contaminating hands of food handlers. Nasal samples and direct fingertip imprints were collected on 2 occasions from food handlers and characterized to determine likely sources of hand contamination. Most hand contamination was attributable to nasal isolates of persistently colonized coworkers who had presumably contaminated the environment. Regular handwashing should be supplemented by effective environmental disinfection.

  10. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and ...

  11. Industrial-strength ecology: trade-offs and opportunities in algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Abbott, Rachel L; Deal, Michael S; Kwan, Garfield T; Litchman, Elena; McBride, Robert C; Mandal, Shovon; Smith, Val H

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology.

  12. Observations on gas exchange and element recycle within a gas-closed algal-mouse system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, D. T.; Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Averner, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Algae are potentially useful for a variety of Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) functions including the revitalization of atmospheres, production of food and for nitrogen fixation. The results of experiments conducted with a gas-closed algal-mouse system designed to investigate gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions, and the ability of algae to utilize oxidized mouse solid waste are reported. Inherent instabilities exist between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) by the mouse and algae in a gas-closed system. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable short-term steady-state concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations were examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system.

  13. Drosophila learn efficient paths to a food source.

    PubMed

    Navawongse, Rapeechai; Choudhury, Deepak; Raczkowska, Marlena; Stewart, James Charles; Lim, Terrence; Rahman, Mashiur; Toh, Alicia Guek Geok; Wang, Zhiping; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the genetic, and neuronal bases for learned behavior is a central problem in neuroscience. A leading system for neurogenetic discovery is the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster; fly memory research has identified genes and circuits that mediate aversive and appetitive learning. However, methods to study adaptive food-seeking behavior in this animal have lagged decades behind rodent feeding analysis, largely due to the challenges presented by their small scale. There is currently no method to dynamically control flies' access to food. In rodents, protocols that use dynamic food delivery are a central element of experimental paradigms that date back to the influential work of Skinner. This method is still commonly used in the analysis of learning, memory, addiction, feeding, and many other subjects in experimental psychology. The difficulty of microscale food delivery means this is not a technique used in fly behavior. In the present manuscript we describe a microfluidic chip integrated with machine vision and automation to dynamically control defined liquid food presentations and sensory stimuli. Strikingly, repeated presentations of food at a fixed location produced improvements in path efficiency during food approach. This shows that improved path choice is a learned behavior. Active control of food availability using this microfluidic system is a valuable addition to the methods currently available for the analysis of learned feeding behavior in flies.

  14. Plant Food Residues as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros; Zakynthinos, George; Verpoort, Francis

    2016-12-10

    This chapter describes the use of different plant and vegetable food residues as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Different nutraceuticals are mentioned and explained. Their uses are well addressed along with their disease management and their action as nutraceutical delivery vehicles.

  15. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  16. Safety evaluation of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bailey-Hall, E; Ryan, A S

    2011-01-01

    The safety of Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt.% of Algal Oil and two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt.% menhaden oil (the fish oil control). There were no treatment-related effects of Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis parameters. Increased mean liver weights and alveolar histiocytosis were observed in both the fish oil control and the high-dose Algal Oil-treated animals and were not considered to be adverse. Algal Oil was bioavailable as demonstrated by the dose-related increase of DHA and EPA levels in tissues and plasma. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt.% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average Algal Oil intake of 3250 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats. Based on the body surface area, the human equivalent dose is about 30 g Algal Oil/day for a 60 kg adult.

  17. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future.

  18. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  19. Food-neophobia in semi-free ranging rhesus macaques: effects of food limitation and food source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E

    2000-01-01

    This study characterizes food neophobia in semi-free ranging rhesus macaques. In experiment one, monkeys received novel and familiar foods during periods of normal provisioning and when provisioning was suspended. The monkeys did discriminate between novel and familiar foods and continued to exhibit neophobia when provisioning was suspended. In experiment two, food was either tossed to subjects or placed in the habitat so that monkeys discovered food without the observer in close proximity. Rhesus macaques were more likely to eat a novel food that was hand-tossed to them compared to food they discovered in their habitat. This study suggests that food neophobia is a robust trait in rhesus macaques and that a history of provisioning may affect the expression of the trait.

  20. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  1. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  2. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 µg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 µg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  3. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  4. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  5. Changes in algal community structure via density- and trait-mediated indirect interactions in a marine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yoko; Iwasaki, Keiji; Yusa, Yoichi

    2013-11-01

    In various terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, predators affect resources indirectly via intermediate prey. Such indirect interactions involve reducing the density of the prey (density-mediated indirect interactions, DMIIs) or changing the behavioral, morphological, or life history traits of the prey (trait-mediated indirect interactions, TMIIs). Although the importance of TMIIs has been highlighted recently, the strengths of both DMIIs and TMIIs under natural conditions have rarely been evaluated, especially in the context of resource community structure. We studied a three-level marine food chain involving the carnivorous snail Thais clavigera, its limpet prey Siphonaria sirius, and the limpet's food sources, the algae Lithoderma sp. and Ulva sp. We measured the strengths of DMIIs and TMIIs and observed how the algal community changes under the pressure of natural predation by T. clavigera on S. sirius. Neither DMIIs nor TMIIs affected the total algal cover or chlorophyll content per unit area. However, both types of indirect interactions caused similar changes in algal composition by increasing the cover of Ulva and decreasing the cover of Lithoderma. This change in the algal community was caused by a reduction in the limpet's preferential consumption of the competitively dominant Ulva over Lithoderma. These results suggest that both DMIIs and TMIIs have similar effects on the changes in resource community structure under natural conditions.

  6. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  7. Uniform algal growth in photobioreactors using surface scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Syed S.; Pereyra, Brandon; Erickson, David

    2014-03-01

    Cultures of algae, such as cyanobacteria, are a promising source of renewable energy. However, algal growth is highly dependent on light intensity and standard photobioreactors do a poor job of distributing light uniformly for algal utilization due to shading effects in dense algal cultures. Engineered scattering schemes are already employed in current slab-waveguide technologies, like edge-lit LEDs. Stacking such slab-waveguides that uniformly distribute light could potentially yield photobioreactors to overcome the shading effect and grow extremely high densities of algal cultures that would lower monetary and energetic costs. Here, we characterize and design a scattering scheme for specific application within photobioreactors which employs a gradient distribution of surface scatterers with uniform lateral scattering intensity. This uniform scattering scheme is shown to be superior for algal cultivation.

  8. Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi Sea, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort Sea coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that changes in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.

  9. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  10. Community-Based Interventions in Prepared-Food Sources: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Batorsky, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Food purchased from prepared-food sources has become a major part of the American diet and is linked to increased rates of chronic disease. Many interventions targeting prepared-food sources have been initiated with the goal of promoting healthful options. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of interventions in prepared-food sources in community settings. Methods We used PubMed and Google Scholar and identified 13 interventions that met these criteria: 1) focused on prepared-food sources in public community settings, 2) used an impact evaluation, 3) had written documentation, and 4) took place after 1990. We conducted interviews with intervention staff to obtain additional information. Reviewers extracted and reported data in table format to ensure comparability. Results Interventions mostly targeted an urban population, predominantly white, in a range of income levels. The most common framework used was social marketing theory. Most interventions used a nonexperimental design. All made use of signage and menu labeling to promote healthful food options. Several promoted more healthful cooking methods; only one introduced new healthful menu options. Levels of feasibility and sustainability were high; sales results showed increased purchasing of healthful options. Measures among consumers were limited but in many cases showed improved awareness and frequency of purchase of promoted foods. Conclusion Interventions in prepared-food sources show initial promising results at the store level. Future studies should focus on improved study designs, expanding intervention strategies beyond signage and assessing impact among consumers. PMID:24176084

  11. AGGREGATING FOOD SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE DIETARY STUDIES: LUMP IT OR LEAVE IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common situation when stable isotope mixing models are used to estimate food source dietary contributions is that there are too many sources to allow a unique solution. To resolve this problem one option is to combine sources with similar signatures such that the number of sou...

  12. Re-visiting of plentiful food sources and food search strategies in desert ants.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald; Wittlinger, Matthias; Bolek, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    North African desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, are established model organisms in animal navigation research. Cataglyphis re-visit plentiful feeding sites, but their decision to return to a feeder and the organization of food searches has been little studied. Here we provide a review of recent advances regarding this topic. At least two parameters determine the ants' assessment of site quality, namely, amount of food available and reliability of food encounter on subsequent visits. The amount of food appears to be judged by the concentration of items at the food uptake site. Initially the amount of food in a feeder dominates the foragers' decision to return, whereas learning about reliability takes precedence in the course of a few visits. The location of a worthwhile site is determined by the animals' path integration system. In particular, the distance of the feeding site is memorized as the arithmetic average of the distances covered during the previous outbound and homebound journeys. Feeding sites that are small and inconspicuous cannot be approached directly with sufficient certainty, due to inevitable inaccuracies of the path integrator. Instead, desert ants steer downwind of the goal to encounter the odor plume emanating from the food and they follow this plume to the feeder. The angle steered downwind reflects the animals' maximal navigation error and is adjusted according to experience. In summary, food searches of desert ants provide an unexpected wealth of features that may advance our understanding of search, navigation, and decision strategies. There are several aspects that warrant further scrutiny.

  13. Plant Food Residues as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Varzakas, Theodoros; Zakynthinos, George; Verpoort, Francis

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of different plant and vegetable food residues as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Different nutraceuticals are mentioned and explained. Their uses are well addressed along with their disease management and their action as nutraceutical delivery vehicles. PMID:28231183

  14. [Macronutrient food sources in a probabilistic sample of Brazilian adults].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Danielle Ribeiro; Ados njos, Luiz Antonio; Wahrlich, Vivian; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2015-05-01

    Once it is available, the information on food intake (FI) may enable the development of strategies to intervene, monitor and explore dietary patterns with more sophisticated statistical methods. Thus, the purpose of this study was to document the quantitative dietary characteristics in a probabilistic sample of adults in Niterói in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A 24-hour dietary recall of a typical day was conducted. The food eaten by most adults (> 50%) was white rice, coffee, black beans, refined sugar and French bread. Whole milk was ingested by more adults than skimmed or semi-skimmed milk. Beef was ingested by more adults than chicken, fish or pork. More adults ingested sodas than fruit juices and fruits were eaten by a relatively high percentage of adults (63.3%). The combination of white rice, black beans, beef and French bread was responsible for at least 25% of energy, protein and carbohydrate and 17% of lipids. A total of 65 food items accounted for approximately 90% of energy and macronutrients. The list generated is somewhat similar to the one used in a similar survey conducted in São Paulo. The list can serve as the basis for a single food frequency questionnaire to be used for the southeastern Brazilian urban population.

  15. Food markets with live birds as source of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Di, Biao; Zhou, Duan-Hua; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Jing, Huaiqi; Lin, Yong-Ping; Liu, Yu-Fei; Wu, Xin-Wei; Qin, Peng-Zhe; Wang, Yu-Lin; Jian, Li-Yun; Li, Xiang-Zhong; Xu, Jian-Xiong; Lu, En-Jie; Li, Tie-Gang; Xu, Jianguo

    2006-11-01

    A patient may have been infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, at a food market that had live birds. Virus genes were detected in 1 of 79 wire cages for birds at 9 markets. One of 110 persons in the poultry business at markets had neutralizing antibody against H5N1.

  16. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations.

  17. Sri Lankan Villagers' Attitudes toward Winged Bean, New Third World Food Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacklander, Effie H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a survey on the acquisition, preparation, and consumption patterns of the winged bean as a food source in various parts of Sri Lanka. It was found that expanding the knowledge and production of indigenous legumes can help satisfy food needs of Third World countries. (JOW)

  18. Assessment of Food as a Source of Exposure to Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF or Committee) was asked to assess the importance of food as a source of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease, which affects primarily the small intestin...

  19. Some Sources of Free or Inexpensive Materials About Food and/or Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, B.

    Materials on food and nutrition which are available from nearly 80 sources, are listed in this document. The organizations listed include food producing companies, industry representatives, insurance and utilities companies, and a small number of nonprofit agencies. Materials include informational pamphlets and other publications, recipes,…

  20. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E; Bell, Bethany A; Hibbert, James D; Barnes, Timothy L; Liese, Angela D

    2013-12-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called "food deserts" have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50-65% sensitivity, and 60-64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88-91% concordance, 80-86% sensitivity and 78-82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access.

  1. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E.; Bell, Bethany A.; Hibbert, James D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called “food deserts” have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-healthier food retail tract measure in two secondary data sources (InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet) and reference data from an eight-county field census covering169 Census tracts in South Carolina. For the USDA ERS food deserts measure accuracy statistics for secondary data sources were 94% concordance, 50–65% sensitivity, and 60–64% positive predictive value (PPV). Based on the CDC non-healthier food retail tracts both secondary data demonstrated 88–91% concordance, 80–86% sensitivity and 78–82% PPV. While inaccuracies in secondary data sources used to identify low food access areas may be acceptable for large-scale surveillance, verification with field work is advisable for local community efforts aimed at identifying and improving food access. PMID:24367136

  2. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited δ13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the δ13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher δ13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore δ13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The δ13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish δ15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in δ13C and δ15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated δ13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish δ13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that

  3. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  4. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  5. Comparison of algal and fish sources on the oxidative stability of poultry meat and its enrichment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rymer, C; Gibbs, R A; Givens, D I

    2010-01-01

    Human consumption of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) is below recommendations, and enriching chicken meat (by incorporating LC n-3 PUFA into broiler diets) is a viable means of increasing consumption. Fish oil is the most common LC n-3 PUFA supplement used but is unsustainable and reduces the oxidative stability of the mat. The objective of this experiment was to compare fresh fish oil (FFO) with fish oil encapsulated (EFO) in a gelatin matrix (to maintain its oxidative stability) and algal biomass at a low (LAG, 11), medium (MAG, 22), or high (HAG, 33 g/kg of diet) level of inclusion. The C22:6n-3 contents of the FFO, EFO, and MAG diets were equal. A control (CON) diet using blended vegetable oil was also made. As-hatched 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (144) were reared (21 d) on a common starter diet then allocated to treatment pens (4 pens per treatment, 6 birds per pen) and fed treatment diets for 21 d before being slaughtered. Breast and leg meat was analyzed (per pen) for fatty acids, and cooked samples (2 pens per treatment) were analyzed for volatile aldehydes. Concentrations (mg/100 g of meat) of C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 were (respectively) CON: 4, 15, 24; FFO: 31, 46, 129; EFO: 18, 27, 122; LAG: 9, 19, 111; MAG: 6, 16, 147; and HAG: 9, 14, 187 (SEM: 2.4, 3.6, 13.1) in breast meat and CON: 4, 12, 9; FFO: 58, 56, 132; EFO: 63, 49, 153; LAG: 13, 14, 101; MAG: 11, 15, 102; HAG: 37, 37, 203 (SEM: 7.8, 6.7, 14.4) in leg meat. Cooked EFO and HAG leg meat was more oxidized (5.2 mg of hexanal/kg of meat) than the other meats (mean 2.2 mg/kg, SEM 0.63). It is concluded that algal biomass is as effective as fish oil at enriching broiler diets with C22:6 LC n-3 PUFA, and at equal C22:6n-3 contents, there is no significant difference between these 2 supplements on the oxidative stability of the meat that is produced.

  6. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  7. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  8. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.

    PubMed

    Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

    2014-12-01

    Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts.

  9. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping: does including data on food consumption matter?

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-11-17

    Source attribution based on microbial subtyping is being performed in many countries to ascertain the main reservoirs of human salmonellosis and to assess the impact of food safety interventions. To account for differences in exposure, the amount of food available for consumption within a country is often included in Salmonella source attribution models along with the level of contamination. However, not all foods have an equal probability of serving as vehicles for salmonellas, as some foods are more likely to be consumed raw/undercooked than others, posing a relatively higher risk. Using Salmonella data from the Netherlands in 2001-2004, this study aims at elucidating whether and how the incorporation of food consumption data in two source attribution models - the (modified) Dutch and Hald models - affects their attributions. We also propose the incorporation of an additional parameter to weight the amount of food consumed by its likelihood to be consumed raw/undercooked by the population. Incorporating the amount of food consumed caused a drastic change in the ranking of the top reservoirs in the Dutch model, but not in the Hald model, which proved to be insensitive to additional weightings given that its source-dependent factor can account for both food consumption and the ability for foods to serve as vehicles for salmonellas. Compared to attributions without food consumption, the Dutch model including the amount of food consumed showed an increase in the percentage of cases attributable to pigs and a decrease in that of layers/eggs, which became the second reservoir, after pigs. This was not consistent with established knowledge indicating that layers/eggs, rather than pigs, were the main reservoir of human salmonellosis in that period. By incorporating the additional weight reflecting the likelihood for different foods to be consumed raw/undercooked, the attributions of the Dutch model were effectively adjusted, both in terms of ranking and percent

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in response to food source in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Nattero, Julieta; Malerba, Romina; Rodríguez, Claudia S; Crocco, Liliana

    2013-10-01

    In the Gran Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is still a severe problem because, among other causes, houses are reinfested with Triatoma infestans, the main vector of T. cruzi in southern South America. A better understanding of adaptation and evolution of T. infestans populations may contribute to the selection of appropriate vector control strategies in this region. Phenotypic plasticity is essential to understand development and maintenance of morphological variation. An experimental phenotypic plasticity study was conducted to assess if blood meal source induced head shape and size variation during development in T. infestans. Eighteen full-sib families were assigned to one of two food sources (pigeon and guinea pig) to examine the effect of food source on head shape and size in all nymph instars and adults. Data were analyzed using geometric morphometric tools and phenotypic plasticity analyses. Significant differences in head shape and size were observed between adults fed on different food sources. Allometric effects at the adult stage were observed. Head size showed significant food source × family interaction for fifth-instar nymphs and adults. For head size, significant differences between food sources were observed at stages and in ontogenetic trajectory. Phenotypic plasticity expression was found for head shape and size in adults; indeed, bugs fed on guinea pigs exhibited greater changes in head shape and larger heads than those fed on pigeon. Full-sib families exhibited different patterns of phenotypic expression in response to food source. Food source × family interaction may indicate that the observed variation in phenotypic plasticity may contribute to changes in head morphometry. These results may contribute to the selection of an appropriate control strategy for T. infestans in the Gran Chaco region, since they provide evidences of morphological

  11. Quantifying and managing food-sourced nutrient metabolism in Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Wang, Jin; Bai, Xuemei; Zhang, Guoqin; Li, Xinhu; Ge, Rubing; Ye, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Food supply and consumption are critical for sustaining urban system functions, and are key determinants of the quantity and pathways of nutrient flow in cities. Nutrient elements from urban food consumption are becoming major pollutant sources in urban environments. Therefore, understanding flow magnitude and pathways, the role of a growing population, and changing dietary structure and technology in future nutrient metabolism are essential to understand cities as ecosystems and urban environmental management. Taking the city of Xiamen, a rapid urbanizing area of Southeast China as a case study, we simulated urban metabolism of three major food-sourced nutrient elements (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus or CNP) over 1991-2010 and environmental emissions. Impacts of future population growth, dietary habit change, and waste treatment improvement on various environments were forecast by scenario analysis. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test how different waste treatment technologies affect environmental emissions from food-sourced nutrients. Our results show that the food-sourced CNP had various metabolic fluxes through urban systems, with carbon mostly emitted into the air and nitrogen and phosphorus mostly discharged into landfills and water. Population growth and dietary structure change will accelerate increases of nutrient emissions to the environment, whereas enhancing current waste treatment technology can just alter emissions to different environments. Based on the results, we discuss how food-sourced nutrient metabolism can be better managed, to enhance connectivity between cities and their hinterlands and maintain environmental emissions within the carrying capacity of the cities.

  12. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  13. Study of polyacrylamide grafted starch based algal flocculation towards applications in algal biomass harvesting.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Gupta, Pratibha; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae may be the source of high amount of lipid and protein. It has the property for carbon dioxide sequestration, recycling and also can remove pollutants from wastewater. Using traditional methods, collection of algal biomass is either cost effective, time consuming or may be toxic due to use of chemical salts. The aim of this study is to harvest freshwater microalgae (Chlorella sp. CB4) biomass by using polymer. Polyacrylamide grafted starch (St-g-PAM) has been synthesized by microwave assisted method involving a synergism of microwave radiation and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to initiate the grafting reaction. The synthesis was optimized in terms of CAN and monomer (acrylamide) concentration. The algal flocculation efficacy of all the grades of this graft copolymer was studied through standard 'Jar test' procedure. Effects of percentage grafting, pH and zeta potential on percentage recovery of algal biomass were thoroughly investigated.

  14. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    PubMed

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  15. Food sources of dominant macrozoobenthos between native and non-native mangrove forests: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Luzhen; Yan, Ting; Xiong, Yiyi; Zhang, Yihui; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-03-01

    The macrozoobenthos is an important link of the food web in coastal wetlands. Diet-habitat relationships may significantly depend on qualitative differences and seasonal availability of food sources. Increasing interest has been shown in food web structure altered by non-native plants. In particular, however, a non-native mangrove species from Bangladesh, Sonneratia apetala, has been widely planted in China, but little is known about its possible impact on food sources of macrozoobenthos living in these non-native mangrove forests. Therefore, in this study, we used fatty acid analysis to compare the food sources of one littorinid snail and two grapsid crab species between two native mangrove forests and one non-native S. apetala plantation in the Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve of China. We found that the sediment of all three forests had high diatom and bacteria signals, but low mangrove leaf signals, while the opposite patterns were detected in the three macrozoobenthos. Specifically, the gastropod Littoraria melanostoma relied mainly on mangrove leaves and brown algae as food sources, with significant differences among the three mangrove forests, and showed significant seasonal variation in its diet. The grapsidae species (Perisesarma bidens and Parasesarma plicatum) mainly grazed on mangrove litter, brown and green algae, and occasionally consumed diatoms and bacteria, also showing significant seasonal variation in their diet. Overall, Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the fatty acid profiles showed a significant overlapping in food sources among the macrozoobenthos living in the non-native and native mangrove forests, but significant seasonal variations in their food sources. This suggests that the planting of non-native S. apetala near original mangrove forests has had little effect on the feeding behavior of macrozoobenthos some 10 years after planting.

  16. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  17. Traditional Indian fermented foods: a rich source of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the diversity of Indian fermented food and its significance as a potential source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermented foods consumed in India are categorized based upon their base material. Fermented foods such as dahi, gundruk, sinki, iniziangsang, iromba, fermented rai, kanjika and handua were reported to have significant medicinal properties. Some fermented products such as koozh, dahi and kanjika are consumed unknowingly as, probiotic drinks, by local people. There are very few reports regarding isolation of LAB from Indian fermented foods available in the past; however, due to growing consciousness about potential health benefits of LAB, we now have scores of reports in this field. There is an abundant opportunity available for food microbiologists to explore the Indian fermented foods for the isolation of new LAB strains for their potential role in probiotic research.

  18. Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefining of Non-Food Source Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Pruski, Marek; Trewyn, Brian G.; Lee, Young-Jin; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

    2013-01-22

    The goal of this proposed work is to develop and optimize the synthesis of mesoporous nanoparticle materials that are able to selectively sequester fatty acids from hexane extracts from algae, and to catalyze their transformation, as well as waste oils, into biodiesel. The project involves studies of the interactions between the functionalized MSN surface and the sequestering molecules. We investigate the mechanisms of selective extraction of fatty acids and conversion of triglycerides and fatty acids into biodiesel by the produced nanoparticles. This knowledge is used to further improve the properties of the mesoporous nanoparticle materials for both tasks. Furthermore, we investigate the strategies for scaling the synthesis of the catalytic nanomaterials up from the current pilot plant scale to industrial level, such that the biodiesel obtained with this technology can successfully compete with food crop-based biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

  19. Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefinery of Non-Food Source Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Pruski, Marek; Trewyn, Brian; Lee, Young-Jin; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

    2013-01-22

    The goal of this proposed work is to develop and optimize the synthesis of mesoporous nanoparticle materials that are able to selectively sequester fatty acids from hexane extracts from algae, and to catalyze their transformation, as well as waste oils, into biodiesel. The project involves studies of the interactions between the functionalized MSN surface and the sequestering molecules. We investigate the mechanisms of selective extraction of fatty acids and conversion of triglycerides and fatty acids into biodiesel by the produced nanoparticles. This knowledge is used to further improve the properties of the mesoporous nanoparticle materials for both tasks. Furthermore, we investigate the strategies for scaling the synthesis of the catalytic nanomaterials up from the current pilot plant scale to industrial level, such that the biodiesel obtained with this technology can successfully compete with food crop-based biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

  20. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  1. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-12-19

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  2. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy—yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat—other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber—yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium—milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D—milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium—milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999

  3. Zooplankton interactions with toxic phytoplankton: Some implications for food web studies and algal defence strategies of feeding selectivity behaviour, toxin dilution and phytoplankton population diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, A.; Guisande, C.; Maneiro, I.; Vergara, A. R.; Riveiro, I.; Iglesias, P.

    2007-11-01

    This study focuses on the interactions between toxic phytoplankton and zooplankton grazers. The experimental conditions used are an attempt to simulate situations that have, so far, received little attention. We presume the phytoplankton community to be a set of species where a population of a toxic species is intrinsically diverse by the presence of coexisting strains with different toxic properties. The other species in the community may not always be high-quality food for herbivorous zooplankton. Zooplankton populations may have developed adaptive responses to sympatric toxic phytoplankton species. Zooplankton grazers may perform a specific feeding behaviour and its consequences on fitness will depend on the species ingested, the effect of toxins, and the presence of mechanisms of toxin dilution and compensatory feeding. Our target species are a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and a sympatric population of the copepod Acartia clausi. Mixed diets were used with two kinds of A. minutum cells: non-toxic and toxic. The flagellate Rhodomonas baltica and the non-toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense were added as accompanying species. The effect of each alga was studied in separate diets. The toxic A. minutum cells were shown to have negative effects on egg production, hatching success and total reproductive output, while, in terms of its effect on fitness, the non-toxic A. minutum was the best quality food offered. R. baltica and A. tamarense were in intermediate positions. In the mixed diets, copepods showed a strong preference for toxic A. minutum cells and a weaker one for A. tamarense cells, while non-toxic A. minutum was slightly negatively selected and R. baltica strongly negatively selected. Although the level of toxins accumulated by copepods was very similar, in both the diet with only toxic A. minutum cells and in the mixed diet, the negative effects on fitness in the mixed diet could be offset by toxin dilution mechanisms. The

  4. Effects of algal-derived carbon on sediment methane ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient loading is known to have adverse consequences for aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the form of algal blooms that may result. These blooms pose problems for humans and wildlife, including harmful toxin release, aquatic hypoxia and increased costs for water treatment. Another potential disservice resulting from algal blooms is the enhanced production of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, in aquatic sediments. Laboratory experiments have shown that algal biomass additions to sediment cores increase rates of CH4 production, but it is unclear whether or not this effect occurs at the ecosystem scale. The goal of this research was to explore the link between algal-derived carbon and methane production in the sediment of a eutrophic reservoir located in southwest Ohio, using a sampling design that capitalized on spatial and temporal gradients in autochthonous carbon input to sediments. Specifically, we aimed to determine if the within-reservoir gradient of sediment algal-derived organic matter and sediment CH4 production rates correlate. This was done by retrieving sediment cores from 15 sites within the reservoir along a known gradient of methane emission rates, at two separate time points in 2016: late spring before the sediments had received large amounts of algal input and mid-summer after algal blooms had been prevalent in the reservoir. Potential CH4 production rates, sediment organic matter source, and microbial community composition were charac

  5. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  6. "Closing the Loop": Overcoming barriers to locally sourcing food in Fort Collins, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a focal point for many communities in recent years, and restaurants are seeking creative ways to become more sustainable. As many chefs realize, sourcing food locally is an important step towards sustainability and towards building a healthy, resilient community. Review of literature on sustainability in restaurants and the local food movement revealed that chefs face many barriers to sourcing their food locally, but that there are also many solutions for overcoming these barriers that chefs are in the early stages of exploring. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify barriers to local sourcing and investigate how some restaurants are working to overcome those barriers in the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. To do this, interviews were conducted with four subjects who guide purchasing decisions for restaurants in Fort Collins. Two of these restaurants have created successful solutions and are able to source most of their food locally. The other two are interested in and working towards sourcing locally but have not yet been able to overcome barriers, and therefore only source a few local items. Findings show that there are four barriers and nine solutions commonly identified by each of the subjects. The research found differences between those who source most of their food locally and those who have not made as much progress in local sourcing. Based on these results, two solution flowcharts were created, one for primary barriers and one for secondary barriers, for restaurants to assess where they are in the local food chain and how they can more successfully source food locally. As there are few explicit connections between this research question and climate change, it is important to consider the implicit connections that motivate and justify this research. The question of whether or not greenhouse gas emissions are lower for locally sourced food is a topic of much debate, and while there are major developments

  7. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  8. Effect of centrifugation on water recycling and algal growth to enable algae biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Igou, Thomas; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Penalver-Argueso, Patricia; Fu, Hao; Doi, Shusuke; Narode, Asmita; Cheruvu, Sarasija; Zhang, Qian; Hassan, Fariha; Woodruff, Frazier; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    The latest research shows that algal biofuels, at the production levels mandated in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, will place significant demands on water and compete with agriculture meant for food production. Thus, there is a great need to recycle water while producing algal biofuels. This study shows that when using a synthetic medium, soluble algal products, bacteria, and other inhibitors can be removed by centrifugation and enable water recycling. Average water recovery reached 84% and water could be recycled at least 10 times without reducing algal growth.

  9. Trophic connectivity and basal food sources sustaining tropical aquatic consumers along a mangrove to ocean gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudino, Marlucy Coelho; Pessanha, André Luiz Machado; Araújo, Francisco Gerson; Garcia, Alexandre Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the relative importance of autotrophic sources to aquatic consumers along environmental gradients and the trophic role of mangrove-derived detritus to marine coastal food webs are still poorly investigated in tropical systems. In this study, we employed stable isotope analyses to investigate the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers (decapod crustaceans and fishes) in a tropical estuary along an environmental gradient extending from the mangroves to the ocean. Additionally, we evaluated the 'outwelling hypothesis', which hypothesizes that mangrove-derived detritus exported to the adjacent marine area is a food source for marine macroconsumers at open and reef-protected sandy beaches. Primary producers and macroconsumers (62 and 214 samples, respectively) were collected at five locations across the main longitudinal axis of the Mamanguape estuary, a tropical Southwestern Atlantic estuary. There were marked shifts in carbon and nitrogen isotope values for both food sources and consumers along the estuarine-marine gradient, and the mixing model results revealed similar patterns of assimilation of basal food sources by decapod crustaceans and fishes. In the inner section of the estuary, consumers tended to assimilated nutrients derived mainly from mangrove and macroalgae, whereas nearer the mouth of the estuary and in the adjacent marine area they assimilated nutrients derived mainly from macroalgae, seagrass and organic matter in the sediment (SOM). These findings support the hypothesis that the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers in this tropical estuarine system reflects the dominant autochthonous primary production at each location. In contrast, our results did not support the outwelling hypothesis that mangrove-originated detritus, in the form of senescent mangrove leaves, makes a significant contribution as a primary source of carbon to high-order consumers inhabiting adjacent ocean sandy beaches.

  10. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2011-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods. PMID:21359162

  11. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  12. Improving photosynthesis for algal biofuels: toward a green revolution.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Patrick G; Moore, C Mark; Terry, Matthew J; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Bibby, Thomas S

    2011-12-01

    Biofuels derived from marine algae are a potential source of sustainable energy that can contribute to future global demands. The realisation of this potential will require manipulation of the fundamental biology of algal physiology to increase the efficiency with which solar energy is ultimately converted into usable biomass. This 'photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency' sets an upper limit on the potential of algal-derived biofuels. In this review, we outline photosynthetic molecular targets that could be manipulated to increase the efficiency and yield of algal biofuel production. We also highlight modern 'omic' and high-throughput technologies that might enable identification, selection and improvement of algal cell lines on timescales relevant for achieving significant contributions to future energy solutions.

  13. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  14. Evidence supporting the importance of terrestrial carbon in a large-river food web.

    PubMed

    Zeug, Steven C; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2008-06-01

    Algal carbon has been increasingly recognized as the primary carbon source supporting large-river food webs; however, many of the studies that support this contention have focused on lotic main channels during low-flow periods. The flow variability and habitat-heterogeneity characteristic of these systems has the potential to significantly influence food web structure and must be integrated into models of large-river webs. We used stable-isotope analysis and IsoSource software to model terrestrial and algal sources of organic carbon supporting consumer taxa in the main channel and oxbow lakes of the Brazos River, Texas, USA, during a period of frequent hydrologic connectivity between these habitat types. Standardized sampling was conducted monthly to collect production sources and consumer species used in isotopic analysis. Predictability of hydrologic connections between habitat types was based on the previous 30 years of flow data. IsoSource mixing models identified terrestrial C3 macrophytes (riparian origin) as the primary carbon source supporting virtually all consumers in the main channel and most consumers in oxbow lakes. Small-bodied consumers (<100 mm) in oxbow lakes assimilated large fractions of algal carbon whereas this pattern was not apparent in the main channel. Estimates of detritivore trophic positions based on delta15N values indicated that terrestrial material was likely assimilated via invertebrates rather than directly from detritus. High flows in the river channel influenced algal standing stock, and differences in the importance of terrestrial and algal production sources among consumers in channel vs. oxbow habitats were associated with patterns of flooding. The importance of terrestrial material contradicts the findings of recent studies of large-river food webs that have emphasized the importance of algal carbon and indicates that there can be significant spatial, temporal, and taxonomic variation in carbon sources supporting consumers in

  15. Algal diseases: spotlight on a black box.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Strittmatter, Martina; Chambouvet, Aurélie; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Like any other living organisms, algae are plagued by diseases caused by fungi, protists, bacteria or viruses. As aquaculture continues to rise worldwide, pathogens of nori or biofuel sources are becoming a significant economic burden. Parasites are also increasingly being considered of equal importance with predators for ecosystem functioning. Altered disease patterns in disturbed environments are blamed for sudden extinctions, regime shifts, and spreading of alien species. Here we review the biodiversity and impact of pathogens and parasites of aquatic primary producers in freshwater and marine systems. We also cover recent advances on algal defence reactions, and discuss how emerging technologies can be used to reassess the profound, multi-faceted, and so far broadly-overlooked influence of algal diseases on ecosystem properties.

  16. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    PubMed

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability.

  17. The importance of milk and other animal-source foods for children in low-income countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk and other animal-source foods are concentrated dietary sources of macro- and micronutrients. Despite a global increase in milk production and consumption over the past decades, milk and other animal-source foods are often lacking in the diets of children in developing countries. To evaluate the...

  18. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  19. The Importance of Animal Source Foods for Nutrient Sufficiency in the Developing World: The Zambia Scenario.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiying; Goldsmith, Peter D; Winter-Nelson, Alex

    2016-05-05

    There have been successful interventions fortifying staple foods to mobilize micronutrients as well as agricultural efforts to raise yields of staple foods to increase food availability. Zambia serves as an interesting case study because since 1961 there has been a notable decline in the availability of animal source foods (ASFs) and pulses and a significant increase in the supply of cassava and vegetable oils. The shift in food availability was partly attributed to the agricultural success in high-yielding and drought-resistant varieties that made cassava and oil crops more affordable and readily available. In this research, we explore another policy strategy that involves ASF as a mechanism to help remedy micronutrient inadequacies in a population. A scenario modeling analysis compares the changes in the nutrient profile of the Zambian diet through adding either staple plant source foods (PSFs) or ASFs. The scenarios under study involve the addition of (1) 18 fl oz of whole cow's milk; (2) 60 g of beef, 30 g of chicken, and 5 g of beef liver; (3) milk plus meat; or (4) 83 g of maize flour, 123 g of cassava, and other staple PSF, that is, isocaloric to the "milk + meat" group. The findings alert program planners and policy makers to the value of increasing the availability, accessibility, and utilization of ASF to simultaneously address multiple nutrient deficiencies, as well as the nutrition challenges that remain when expanding the availability of plant-based staples.

  20. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  1. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    PubMed

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures.

  2. Application of electron linacs in medicine, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Duc-Tien

    1989-04-01

    A review of the state of the art and new trends in electron linac technology is given with emphasis on three particular applications: radiotherapy, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources. The requirements on linac performances that these applications call for, namely energy variation flexibility, high power, high energy and low cost, will open linacs to new applications to come.

  3. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Polotow, Tatiana G.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Vardaris, Cristina V.; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F.; Bondan, Eduardo F.; Barros, Marcelo P.

    2015-01-01

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions. PMID:26426026

  4. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    PubMed

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-09-28

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  5. Role of food source and predator avoidance in habitat specialization by an octocoral-associated amphipod.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Naoki H

    2008-04-01

    Small marine invertebrates often use sessile organisms as microhabitats, which can provide food sources and/or serve as refugees from predators. Because of the availability of external food items such as epibionts and detritus in the marine environment, these invertebrates may not depend on the sessile organisms as sole food sources. In this study, I hypothesized that habitat specialization by a marine invertebrate is determined by factors other than food. Results of field surveys off the coast of the Izu Peninsula, on the eastern coast of Japan, showed that, with few exceptions, the distribution of the amphipod Incisocalliope symbioticus was restricted to the octocoral Melithaea flabellifera. When presented with several habitat options, I. symbioticus selected M. flabellifera most frequently, although some individuals chose the octocoral Acabaria japonica. The selection was proximately determined by water-borne cues from M. flabellifera that appear to be unrelated to the octocoral as a food source, since the amphipod preferred detritus to the octocoral. As a chemical refuge, M. flabellifera had an allelopathic effect that deterred fish predation on the exposed epifauna. With regard to octocoral habitat in the study area, I. symbioticus may be restricted to M. flabellifera because this was the only abundant octocoral consistently occurring in shallow water (< or =10 m), where predation is intensive. The relationship between I. symbioticus and M. flabellifera was commensal and was ultimately driven by the value of M. flabellifera as a chemical refuge from predation, rather than its food value. This study supports the idea that protection from predators, rather than food utilization, can promote ecological specialization.

  6. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  7. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  8. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  9. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems. PMID:26569296

  10. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-11-11

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  11. The role of cannibalism and contaminant source on bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Alison J; Cahill, Thomas M; Lasenby, David C; Mackay, Donald; Milford, Lynne

    2005-04-01

    Two aspects of bioaccumulation in an aquatic food web are explored. First, the possible implications of cannibalism, including the scavenging of conspecifics, as a factor influencing food web bioaccumulation and biomagnification are explored by examining the behavior of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a simple aquatic food web consisting of plankton, juvenile and adult Mysis relicta, Diporeia, and alewife. From an analysis of trophic transfer efficiencies and food consumption rates, it is concluded that, for M. relicta, a maximum extent of cannibalism in a population is about 10%, although certain individuals may be more cannibalistic. The model suggests that cannibalism and scavenging of dead conspecifics generally result in an increase in concentration by self-biomagnification, but the effect is small and unlikely to exceed 5% on the average. Concentration differences also are likely to result from changes in the relative amounts of the dietary components. Highly cannibalistic individuals may achieve higher levels of bioaccumulation. In extreme cases, the food web model becomes mathematically unstable because of excessive feedback of high concentrations. A major implication is that differences in extent of cannibalism and scavenging probably contribute significantly to natural concentration variation in a population. Second, and more important, is the effect of benthic versus pelagic sources, especially when significant fugacity differences exist between these zones. A simple method is described by which the separate contributions from these sources can be estimated for organisms at higher trophic levels.

  12. [Foods as sources of mono and disaccharides: biochemical and metabolic aspects].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Martínez Augustín, Olga; Gil Hernández, Angel

    2013-07-01

    Carbohydrates are important and necessary components of human diet. Although they primarily play an energetic function, they also have structural and functional roles. According to the European Food Safety Authority, carbohydrate intake should range between 45 and 60 percent of the energy in adults and children older than one year of age. An important part of carbohydrates available in foods are mono and disaccharides, commonly referred to as sugars. Dietary sources of sugars include fruits, fruit juices, vegetables, milk and milk products, and foods containing added sucrose and starch hydrolyzates. Despite their importance in daily life, there is currently no clear and adequate terminology on the various types of carbohydrates, particularly sugars. Nor are there available sugar intake recommendations or food composition tables. Without these recommendations or reference values, dietary unbalances might occur, which subsequently may end in the premature onset of most chronic or degenerative diseases of our society. The aims of the present work are: to classify dietary carbohydrates, to define the biochemical and common terms for sugars, to explain their nutritional value and their metabolism as well as their food sources and to carry out a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis about the nomenclature and dietary intakes of sugars.

  13. Learning in an exotic social wasp while relocating a food source.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; D'Adamo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review several studies on Vespulagermanica behavioral plasticity while relocating a food source in natural environments. This exotic social wasp, which has become established in many parts of the world, displays diverse cognitive abilities when foraging. Given its successful invasiveness worldwide, our initial hypothesis was that this species has great behavioral plasticity, which enables it to face environmental uncertainty. In our work we have analyzed foraging behavior associated with undepleted resources. Throughout several experiments, rapid learning was observed in this species; after few learning experiences they associate diverse contextual cues with a food source. However, by exploring wasp behavior when food suddenly disappeared, either because it had been removed or displaced, we found that they continued searching over a no longer rewarding site for a considerable period of time, suggesting that past experience can hinder new learning. Particularly surprising is the fact that when food was displaced nearby, wasps persisted in searching over the empty dish, ignoring the presence of food close by. We propose that this species could be a suitable model for studying cognitive plasticity in relation to environmental uncertainty.

  14. Differential aerosolization of algal and cyanobacterial particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen K; Singh, Surendra

    2010-10-01

    Aeroalgal sampling at short height (2.5 m) over natural aquatic and terrestrial algal sources revealed that despite of being similar in size (<1 mm), algal groups vary in their atmospheric abundance. Cyanobacteria were the most abundant, while chlorophytes and bacillariophytes though present, but rare. Statistical analysis (Akaike Information Criterion) showed that climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind velocity and sunshine hours) acted in concert, and mainly affected the release and subsequent vertical movement (aerosolization) of algae from natural sources. Variation in aerosolization may affect the atmospheric abundance of algae. These findings have important implication as dispersal limitation may influence the biogeography and biodiversity of microbial algae.

  15. Clostridium difficile from food and surface samples in a Belgian nursing home: an unlikely source of contamination.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Brach, P; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the contamination of foods and surfaces with Clostridium difficile in a single nursing home. C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 was found in one food sample and in none of the tested surfaces. These results indicate that food and surfaces are an unlikely source of C. difficile infection in this setting.

  16. Brassica foods as a dietary source of vitamin C: a review.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Mena, P; García-Viguera, C; Moreno, D A

    2014-01-01

    Brassica genus includes known horticultural vegetables with major economical importance worldwide, and involves vegetables of economical importance being part of the diet and source of oils for industry in many countries. Brassicales own a broad array of health-promoting compounds, emphasized as healthy rich sources of vitamin C. The adequate management of pre- and postharvest factors including crop varieties, growth conditions, harvesting, handling, storage, and final consumer operations would lead to increase or preserve of the vitamin C content or reduced losses by interfering in the catalysis mechanisms that remains largely unknown, and should be reviewed. Likewise, the importance of the food matrix on the absorption and metabolism of vitamin C is closely related to the range of the health benefits attributed to its intake. However, less beneficial effects were derived when purified compounds were administered in comparison to the ingestion of horticultural products such as Brassicas, which entail a closely relation between this food matrix and the bioavailability of its content in vitamin C. This fact should be here also discussed. These vegetables of immature flowers or leaves are used as food stuffs all over the world and represent a considerable part of both western and non-Western diets, being inexpensive crops widely spread and reachable to all social levels, constituting an important source of dietary vitamin C, which may work synergistically with the wealth of bioactive compounds present in these foods.

  17. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G; Tang, Yaoping; Bryan, Nathan S

    2009-07-01

    The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

  18. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  19. Transcriptomic evidence that longevity of acquired plastids in the photosynthetic slugs Elysia timida and Plakobranchus ocellatus does not entail lateral transfer of algal nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Wägele, Heike; Deusch, Oliver; Händeler, Katharina; Martin, Rainer; Schmitt, Valerie; Christa, Gregor; Pinzger, Britta; Gould, Sven B; Dagan, Tal; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Martin, William

    2011-01-01

    Sacoglossan sea slugs are unique in the animal kingdom in that they sequester and maintain active plastids that they acquire from the siphonaceous algae upon which they feed, making the animals photosynthetic. Although most sacoglossan species digest their freshly ingested plastids within hours, four species from the family Plakobranchidae retain their stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) in a photosynthetically active state on timescales of weeks to months. The molecular basis of plastid maintenance within the cytosol of digestive gland cells in these photosynthetic metazoans is yet unknown but is widely thought to involve gene transfer from the algal food source to the slugs based upon previous investigations of single genes. Indeed, normal plastid development requires hundreds of nuclear-encoded proteins, with protein turnover in photosystem II in particular known to be rapid under various conditions. Moreover, only algal plastids, not the algal nuclei, are sequestered by the animals during feeding. If algal nuclear genes are transferred to the animal either during feeding or in the germ line, and if they are expressed, then they should be readily detectable with deep-sequencing methods. We have sequenced expressed mRNAs from actively photosynthesizing, starved individuals of two photosynthetic sea slug species, Plakobranchus ocellatus Van Hasselt, 1824 and Elysia timida Risso, 1818. We find that nuclear-encoded, algal-derived genes specific to photosynthetic function are expressed neither in P. ocellatus nor in E. timida. Despite their dramatic plastid longevity, these photosynthetic sacoglossan slugs do not express genes acquired from algal nuclei in order to maintain plastid function.

  20. Algal Diet of Small-Bodied Crustacean Zooplankton in a Cyanobacteria-Dominated Eutrophic Lake.

    PubMed

    Tõnno, Ilmar; Agasild, Helen; Kõiv, Toomas; Freiberg, Rene; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Small-bodied cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods are becoming increasingly dominant over large crustacean zooplankton in eutrophic waters where they often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms. However, relatively little is known about their algal diet preferences. We studied grazing selectivity of small crustaceans (the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops kolensis, and the cladocerans Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina spp.) by liquid chromatographic analyses of phytoplankton marker pigments in the shallow, highly eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia) during a seasonal cycle. Copepods (mainly C. kolensis) preferably consumed cryptophytes (identified by the marker pigment alloxanthin in gut contents) during colder periods, while they preferred small non-filamentous diatoms and green algae (identified mainly by diatoxanthin and lutein, respectively) from May to September. All studied cladoceran species showed highest selectivity towards colonial cyanobacteria (identified by canthaxanthin). For small C. sphaericus, commonly occuring in the pelagic zone of eutrophic lakes, colonial cyanobacteria can be their major food source, supporting their coexistence with cyanobacterial blooms. Pigments characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms (zeaxanthin and fucoxanthin, respectively), algae dominating in Võrtsjärv, were also found in the grazers' diet but were generally avoided by the crustaceans commonly dominating the zooplankton assemblage. Together these results suggest that the co-occurring small-bodied cyclopoid and cladoceran species have markedly different algal diets and that the cladocera represent the main trophic link transferring cyanobacterial carbon to the food web in a highly eutrophic lake.

  1. Algal Diet of Small-Bodied Crustacean Zooplankton in a Cyanobacteria-Dominated Eutrophic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tõnno, Ilmar; Agasild, Helen; Kõiv, Toomas; Freiberg, Rene; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Small-bodied cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods are becoming increasingly dominant over large crustacean zooplankton in eutrophic waters where they often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms. However, relatively little is known about their algal diet preferences. We studied grazing selectivity of small crustaceans (the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops kolensis, and the cladocerans Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina spp.) by liquid chromatographic analyses of phytoplankton marker pigments in the shallow, highly eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia) during a seasonal cycle. Copepods (mainly C. kolensis) preferably consumed cryptophytes (identified by the marker pigment alloxanthin in gut contents) during colder periods, while they preferred small non-filamentous diatoms and green algae (identified mainly by diatoxanthin and lutein, respectively) from May to September. All studied cladoceran species showed highest selectivity towards colonial cyanobacteria (identified by canthaxanthin). For small C. sphaericus, commonly occuring in the pelagic zone of eutrophic lakes, colonial cyanobacteria can be their major food source, supporting their coexistence with cyanobacterial blooms. Pigments characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms (zeaxanthin and fucoxanthin, respectively), algae dominating in Võrtsjärv, were also found in the grazers’ diet but were generally avoided by the crustaceans commonly dominating the zooplankton assemblage. Together these results suggest that the co-occurring small-bodied cyclopoid and cladoceran species have markedly different algal diets and that the cladocera represent the main trophic link transferring cyanobacterial carbon to the food web in a highly eutrophic lake. PMID:27124652

  2. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula with a new algal source of docosahexaenoic acid: Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yeiser, Michael; Harris, Cheryl L; Kirchoff, Ashlee L; Patterson, Ashley C; Wampler, Jennifer L; Zissman, Edward N; Berseth, Carol Lynn

    2016-12-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formula at concentrations based on worldwide human milk has resulted in circulating red blood cell (RBC) lipids related to visual and cognitive development. In this study, infants received study formula (17mg DHA/100kcal) with a commercially-available (Control: n=140; DHASCO®) or alternative (DHASCO®-B: n=127) DHA single cell oil from 14 to 120 days of age. No significant group differences were detected for growth rates by gender through 120 days of age. Blood fatty acids at 120 days of age were assessed by capillary column gas chromatography in a participant subset (Control: n=34; DHASCO-B: n=27). The 90% confidence interval (91-104%) for the group mean (geometric) total RBC DHA (µg/mL) ratio fell within the pre-specified equivalence limit (80-125%), establishing study formula equivalence with respect to DHA. This study demonstrated infant formula with DHASCO-B was safe, well-tolerated, and associated with normal growth. Furthermore, DHASCO and DHASCO-B represented equivalent sources of DHA as measured by circulating RBC DHA.

  3. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  4. Aging and food source effects on mandibular stylets teeth wear of phytophagous stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Depieri, Rogério A; Siqueira, Fábio; Panizzi, Antônio R

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to test the effect of age and food sources on wear of the mandibular teeth of the phytophagous pentatomid, Euschistus heros (F.). The total length (µm) of the area bearing the mandibular teeth, the length of the 1st tooth, and the height of the 2nd tooth for teneral (< 1 day-old) adults were significantly greater than that of adults fed on natural [green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris pods, raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, and mature soybean, Glycine max seeds] for 30 or 60 days. Adults fed on artificial dry diet showed, in general, similar results to those of teneral adults. Force (Newtons) required penetrating the natural foods was significantly greater than that required penetrating the artificial diet. The greater hardness of the natural foods caused increased mandibular serration wear.

  5. A nutribusiness strategy for processing and marketing animal-source foods for children.

    PubMed

    Mills, Edward W; Seetharaman, Koushik; Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional benefits of animal source foods in the diets of children in developing countries indicate a need to increase the availability of such foods to young children. A nutribusiness strategy based on a dried meat and starch product could be used to increase children's access to such foods. The "Chiparoo" was developed at The Pennsylvania State University with this objective in mind. Plant-based and meat ingredients of the Chiparoo are chosen based on regional availability and cultural acceptability. Chiparoo processing procedures, including solar drying, are designed to ensure product safety and to provide product properties that allow them to be eaten as a snack or crumbled into a weaning porridge. Continued work is needed to develop formulation and processing variations that accommodate the needs of cultures around the world.

  6. The dynamics of heterotrophic algal cultures.

    PubMed

    De la Hoz Siegler, H; Ben-Zvi, A; Burrell, R E; McCaffrey, W C

    2011-05-01

    In this work, the time varying characteristics of microalgal cultures are investigated. Microalgae are a promising source of biofuels and other valuable chemicals; a better understanding of their dynamic behavior is, however, required to facilitate process scale-up, optimization and control. Growth and oil production rates are evaluated as a function of carbon and nitrogen sources concentration. It is found that nitrogen has a major role in controlling the productivity of microalgae. Moreover, it is shown that there exists a nitrogen source concentration at which biomass and oil production can be maximized. A mathematical model that describes the effect of nitrogen and carbon source on growth and oil production is proposed. The model considers the uncoupling between nutrient uptake and growth, a characteristic of algal cells. Validity of the proposed model is tested on fed-batch cultures.

  7. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  8. Atrazine exposure affects the ability of crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) to localize a food odor source.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Peters, Tyler J; Sabhapathy, Gita S; Khan, Sana; Katta, Juhi; Abraham, Noor K

    2015-05-01

    Environmental pollutants, found in aquatic ecosystems, have been shown to have an effect on olfactory-mediated behaviors including feeding, mate attraction, and other important social behaviors. Crayfish are polytrophic, meaning that they feed on and become prey for all levels of the aquatic food web as well as are also important for the transfer of energy between benthic and terrestrial food webs. Because crayfish are a keystone species, it is important to investigate any factors that may affect their population size. Crayfish are active at night and rely heavily on their sensory appendages (e.g., antennulues, maxillipeds, and pereopods) to localize food sources. In this experiment, we investigated the effects of atrazine (ATR) exposure on the chemosensory responses of male and female crayfish to food odors. We exposed crayfish to environmentally relevant, sublethal levels of ATR [80 ppb (µg/L)] for 72 h and then examined the behavioral responses of both ATR-treated and control crayfish to food odor delivered from one end of a test arena. We used Noldus Ethovision XT software to measure odor localization and locomotory behaviors of crayfish in response to food (fish) odor. We found that control crayfish spent more time in the proximal region of the test arena and at the odor source compared with ATR-treated crayfish. Furthermore, there were no differences in the time spent moving and not moving, total distance travelled in the tank, and walking speed (cm/s) when control and ATR-treated crayfish were compared. Overall, this indicates that acute ATR exposure alters chemosensory abilities of crayfish, whereas overall motor function remains unchanged.

  9. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  10. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

  11. New food sources of essential trace elements produced by biotechnology facilities.

    PubMed

    Mazo, Vladimir K; Gmoshinski, Ivan V; Zorin, Sergey N

    2007-10-01

    Population satiety with trace elements (TE) is a problem that is widely discussed in nutrition science. For optimal nutrition, the form of TE eaten in food is very important. Organic forms of TE in nutrition are appropriate as human metabolism has adapted to these kinds of nutrients during species evolution. This is now considered a reason for the beneficial use of biotechnologically produced TE sources in human food. Advanced matrixes for TE incorporation are unicellular organisms such as yeast, lactobacilli and Spirulina. Addition of inorganic salts at certain concentrations into cultivation media enables the mineral ions to incorporate into the microbial biomass. As a consequence, the biomass becomes enriched with organic forms of incorporated TE, which are presented by their complexes with amino acids, proteins and probably lipids and polysaccharides. In addition, a new direction of research has made good advances, in which technology has been developed for production of organic forms of TE through complex formation between transition metals (zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron) with amino acids and peptides formed during enzymatic hydrolysis of food protein. This brief review discusses the results demonstrating the advances in the biotechnological production of new TE sources, to obtain food components destined for wide prophylaxis of TE deficiency or for dietary treatment of the adverse consequences of these deficiencies.

  12. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. PMID:26393573

  13. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  14. Mediterranean countries' food consumption and sourcing patterns:An Ecological Footprint viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Iha, Katsunori; Halle, Martin; El Bilali, Hamid; Grunewald, Nicole; Eaton, Derek; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; Bottalico, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Securing food for growing populations while minimizing environmental externalities is becoming a key topic in the current sustainability debate. This is particularly true in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by scarce natural resources and increasing climate-related impacts. This paper focuses on the pressure Mediterranean people place on the Earth ecosystems because of their food consumption and sourcing patterns and then explores ways in which such pressure can be reduced. To do so, it uses an Ecological-Footprint-Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output (EF-MRIO) approach applied to 15 Mediterranean countries. Results indicate that food consumption is a substantial driver of the region's ecological deficit, whereby demand for renewable resources and ecosystems services outpaces the capacity of its ecosystems to provide them. Portugal, Malta and Greece are found to have the highest per capita food Footprints (1.50, 1.25 and 1.22 global hectares (gha), respectively), while Slovenia, Egypt and Israel have the lowest (0.63, 0.64 and 0.79gha, respectively). With the exception of France, all Mediterranean countries rely on the biocapacity of foreign countries to satisfy their residents' demand for food. By analyzing the effect of shifting to a calorie-adequate diet or changing dietary patterns, we finally point out that the region's Ecological Footprint - and therefore its ecological deficit - could be reduced by 8% to 10%.

  15. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  16. Food source affects the expression of vitellogenin and fecundity of a biological control agent, Neoseiulus cucumeris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlong; Li, Dunsong; Zhang, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Guren

    2014-07-01

    Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the most widely used and important biological control agents for thrips and other small pests worldwide. In the present study, we cloned two cDNAs of vitellogenins (Vgs, NcVg1 and NcVg2) and analyzed the effect of food source on the expression of both Vgs and fecundity in female adults. NcVgs showed higher sequence similarity to Vgs from Parasitiformes. Both neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods for phylogenetic analysis of NcVgs yielded similar topologies and showed that the Parasitiformes except Haemaphysalis longicornis segregated into a single clade that was separated into two subclades including one of both Vgs from N. cucumeris. Both transcripts, NcVg1 and NcVg2 revealed similar trends during developmental periods and reached the maximum level at the pre-oviposition period. When fed with different food sources, both NcVg1 and NcVg2 of female adults demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05) during the pre-oviposition period. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between the expression of Vgs and fecundity was observed. Therefore, the nutrients provided by the food sources affected fecundity resulting in differential expression of Vgs. Vitellogenin expression can be used as a molecular marker of fecundity of N. cucumeris.

  17. Algal Lipids as Quantitative Paleosalinity Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, A.; Shinneman, A.; Hemeon, K.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The tropics play an important role in driving climate. However it is difficult to uncover past changes in tropical precipitation due to a lack of tree ring records and low accumulation rates of marine sediments. Hydrogen isotope ratios of algal lipids preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments have been used to qualitatively reconstruct tropical paleohydrology. Changes in the hydrologic balance are reflected in salinity and in lake water D/H ratios, which are closely tracked by lipid D/H ratios of algal biomarkers. While useful for determining past periods of "wetter" or "drier" conditions, variability in isotope fractionation in algal lipids during lipid biosynthesis can be exploited to more quantitatively determine how much wetter or drier conditions were in the past. The estuarine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonnana, was grown in continuous cultures under controlled light, temperature, nutrient, and growth rate conditions to assess the influence of salinity (9-40 PSU) on D/H fractionation between lipids and source water. Three fatty acids, 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3B-ol, and phytol show decreasing fractionation between lipid and source water as salinity increases with 0.8-1.3‰ change in fractionation per salinity unit. These results compliment field-based empirical observations of dinosterol in Chesapeake Bay suspended particles that change 0.99‰ per salinity unit and lipid biomarkers from hyper-saline ponds on Christmas Island that change 0.7-1.1‰ per salinity unit. Biological pathways responsible for the inverse relationship between fractionation and salinity will be discussed.

  18. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  19. Evaluation of Sources of Nitrate Beneath Food Processing Wastewater-Application Sites near Umatilla, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna; Paulson, Anthony; Richerson, Phil; Striz, Elise; Black, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Water samples from wells were collected beneath and downgradient of two food-processing wastewater-application sites near Umatilla, Oregon. These samples were analyzed for nitrate stable isotopes, nutrients, major ions, and age-dating constituents to determine if nitrate-stable isotopes can be used to differentiate food-processing waste from other potential sources of nitrate. Major-ion data from each site were used to determine which samples were associated with the recharge of the food-processing wastewater. End-member mixing analysis was used to determine the relative amounts of each identified end member within the samples collected from the Terrace Farm site. The delta nitrogen-15 (delta 15N) of nitrate generally ranged between +2 and +9 parts per thousand and the delta oxygen-18 (delta 18O) of nitrate generally ranged between -2 and -7 parts per thousand. None of the samples that were determined to be associated with the wastewater were different from the samples that were not affected by the wastewater. The nitrate isotope values measured in this study are also characteristic of ammonium fertilizer, animal and human waste, and soil nitrate; therefore, it was not possible to differentiate between food-processing wastewater and the other nitrate sources. Values of delta 15N and delta 18O of nitrate provided no more information about the sources of nitrate in the Umatilla River basin than did a hydrologic and geochemical understanding of the ground-water system derived from interpreting water-level and major-ion chemistry data.

  20. Tracing Carbon Sources through Aquatic and Terrestrial Food Webs Using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O’Brien, Diane M.; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ13C patterns among amino acids (δ13CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

  1. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  2. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dolah, F M

    2000-01-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10698729

  3. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  4. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    White, Rebecca L.; Tyler, Mike

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  5. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  6. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format.

  7. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimuro, Haruno; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Sato, Midori; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaga, Izumi; Naito, Shigehiro; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Oike, Hideaki; Nagata, Tadahiro; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Kobori, Masuko

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods. PMID:25849945

  8. Quantifying the non-food sources of basal vitamin D input.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Sharon L; French, Christine B; Heaney, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Unsupplemented vitamin D status is determined by cutaneous synthesis and food inputs; however, their relative magnitudes are largely unknown. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14)ng/ml we assessed the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and non-food environmental variables. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for seasonal influence (which removed 2% of the total variance) and these adjusted values were regressed against factors involved in cutaneous synthesis. Indoor tanning use, sun exposure, and percent of work performed outdoors were significantly positively associated and body mass index (BMI) was significantly negatively associated with 25(OH)D values (P<0.03 for each). Latitude, gender, and age were not significantly correlated (P>0.10). Season and non-food predictors together explained 13% of the total variance in serum 25(OH)D concentration. Non-traditional food sources need to be investigated as possible vitamin D inputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

  9. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pořízka, Pavel; Prochazková, Petra; Prochazka, David; Sládková, Lucia; Novotný, Jan; Petrilak, Michal; Brada, Michal; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail. PMID:25251409

  10. Use of vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos o amigos (neighbors or friends) as alternative sources of food for purchase among Mexican-origin households in Texas border colonias.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies acknowledging the existence of alternative food sources, and factors associated with food purchasing from three common alternative sources: vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos/amigos (neighbors/friends). This analysis aims to examine the use of alternative food sources by Mexican-origin women from Texas-border colonias and determine factors associated with their use. The design was cross-sectional. Promotora-researchers (promotoras de salud trained in research methods) recruited 610 Mexican-origin women from 44 colonias and conducted in-person surveys. Surveys included participant characteristics and measures of food environment use and household food security. Statistical analyses included separate logistic regressions, modeled for food purchase from mobile food vendors, pulgas, or neighbors/friends. Child food insecurity was associated with purchasing food from mobile food vendors, while household food security was associated with using pulgas or neighbors/friends. School nutrition program participants were more likely to live in households that depend on alternative food sources. Efforts to increase healthful food consumption such as fruits and vegetables should acknowledge all potential food sources (traditional, convenience, nontraditional, and alternative), especially those preferred by colonia residents. Current findings support the conceptual broadening of the retail food environment, and the importance of linking use with spatial access (proximity) to more accurately depict access to food sources.

  11. Sources of error and nutritional adequacy of the food guide pyramid.

    PubMed

    Tavelli, S; Beerman, K; Shultz, J E; Heiss, C

    1998-09-01

    The authors assessed the accuracy of college students' use of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) in their diets and evaluated sources of error and nutritional adequacy of the pyramid. Students enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition class (N = 346) completed 3-day dietary records that were analyzed, using computer software, to determine individual recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values and the extent to which the students' diets met those values. The students' most common error in using the FGP was underestimating serving sizes. Only 8% of the students consumed the minimum recommended number of servings for all food groups, but diets that satisfied FGP recommendations also tended to satisfy RDA requirements. Less than 2% of the students who met the minimal number of FGP servings did not satisfy their RDA values, but less than 45% of the survey participants, regardless of gender or residence, met the recommended intake for dietary fiber. The FGP was judged to be a good indicator of dietary adequacy.

  12. The use of the sex pheromone as an evolutionary solution to food source selection in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Poivet, Erwan; Rharrabe, Kacem; Monsempes, Christelle; Glaser, Nicolas; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex pheromones are released by adults of a species to elicit a sexual interaction with the other sex of the same species. Here we report an unexpected effect of a moth sex pheromone on the caterpillars of the same species. We demonstrate that larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis are attracted by the moth sex pheromone and that this phenomenon is independent of sex determination. In addition, we show that the olfactory sensilla carried by the caterpillar antennae are sensitive to the pheromone and that the caterpillar sensilla express pheromone-binding proteins that are used by adult antennae to bind pheromone components. Finally, we demonstrate that the larvae are preferentially attracted to a food source when it contains the sex pheromone main component. A possible interpretation of these results is that the sex pheromone is used to promote food search in caterpillars, opening potential new routes for insect pest management.

  13. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  14. Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Telesco, D.J.; Roy, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

  15. Food proteins: new sources from seeds. Fortified and processed seed proteins have a role in satisfying human protein needs.

    PubMed

    Altschul, A M

    1967-10-13

    Adequate protein nutrition is possible at lower cost without the undermining of man's satisfaction with his food. This potential requires the upgrading of the proteins of cereals by supplementation with amino acids and the development of new protein foods from low-cost sources such as the oilseeds; infant malnutrition can be eliminated by such means. The more sophisticated new foods such as protein beverages and textured products are proving acceptable to man and will supplement meager supplies of animal protein.

  16. Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2015-10-08

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the guidance of Drs. Michael Seibert (retired, Fellow Emeritus) and Maria Ghirardi (Fellow), led 15 years of research addressing the issue of algal H2 photoproduction. This project resulted in greatly increased rates and yields of algal hydrogen production; increased understanding of the H2 metabolism in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; expanded our knowledge of other physiological aspects relevant to sustained algal photosynthetic H2 production; led to the genetic identification, cloning and manipulation of algal hydrogenase genes; and contributed to a broader, fundamental understanding of the technical and scientific challenges to improving the conversion efficiencies in order to reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office’s targets. Some of the tangible results are: (i) 64 publications and 6 patents, (ii) international visibility to NREL, (iii) reinvigoration of national and international biohydrogen research, and (iv) research progress that helped stimulate new funding from other DOE and non-DOE programs, including the AFOSR and the DOE Office of Science.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  18. [Information sources for causality assessment of health problems related to health foods and their usefulness].

    PubMed

    Umegaki, Keizo; Yamada, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoko; Fukuyama, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Collecting adverse case reports suspected to be due to health foods and evaluation of the causality are important to secure safety, even if the causal relationship between health foods and reported health problem is uncertain. Case reports are mainly collected at three sites: public health centers, practical living information online network system(PIO-NET), and individual companies. The case reports from the three sources are not dealt with consistently. In this study, we investigated and characterized those case reports from the viewpoint of evaluating causality, using the causality association rating methods, namely, the dendritic and pointed methods, which we reported previously. Information in public health centers comprised 20 reports per year; approximately 40% were from health care providers and contained detailed medical data. PIO-NET information comprised 366 reports per year; 80% were self-reports from users, and few medical details were included. Company information covered 1,323 cases from 13 companies; more than 90% were from users and most of them were complaints. Case reports from public health centers and PIO-NET showed that the largerst number of victims were female aged >60, with allergy and gastrointestinal symptoms. When these case reports from the letter two sources were examined using the causality association rating systems, most were rated as "possible" and only a few were rated as "probable". As specific case reports from different information sources were examined in this study, we were able to identify several points that should be improved in our two rating methods. However, to ensure the safety of health foods, it will be necessary to collect a large number of high-quality case reports for evaluation by a suitable causality rating method, and to integrate those evaluated case reports into a single site.

  19. Role of polysaccharides in food, digestion, and health

    PubMed Central

    Lovegrove, A.; Edwards, C. H.; De Noni, I.; Patel, H.; El, S. N.; Grassby, T.; Zielke, C.; Ulmius, M.; Nilsson, L.; Butterworth, P. J.; Ellis, P. R; Shewry, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polysaccharides derived from plant foods are major components of the human diet, with limited contributions of related components from fungal and algal sources. In particular, starch and other storage carbohydrates are the major sources of energy in all diets, while cell wall polysaccharides are the major components of dietary fiber. We review the role of these components in the human diet, including their structure and distribution, their modification during food processing and effects on functional properties, their behavior in the gastrointestinal tract, and their contribution to healthy diets. PMID:25921546

  20. Role of polysaccharides in food, digestion, and health.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, A; Edwards, C H; De Noni, I; Patel, H; El, S N; Grassby, T; Zielke, C; Ulmius, M; Nilsson, L; Butterworth, P J; Ellis, P R; Shewry, P R

    2017-01-22

    Polysaccharides derived from plant foods are major components of the human diet, with limited contributions of related components from fungal and algal sources. In particular, starch and other storage carbohydrates are the major sources of energy in all diets, while cell wall polysaccharides are the major components of dietary fiber. We review the role of these components in the human diet, including their structure and distribution, their modification during food processing and effects on functional properties, their behavior in the gastrointestinal tract, and their contribution to healthy diets.

  1. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  2. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  3. Formulation of a drinkable peanut-based therapeutic food for malnourished children using plant sources.

    PubMed

    Nabuuma, Deborah; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Phillips, Robert Dixon; Chen, Jinru

    2013-06-01

    High ingredient costs continue to hamper local production of therapeutic foods (TFs). Development of formulations without milk, the most expensive ingredient, is one way of reducing cost. This study formulated a ready-to-drink peanut-based TF that matched the nutrient composition of F100 using plant sources. Three least cost formulations namely, A, B and C were designed using computer formulation software with peanuts, beans, sesame, cowpeas and grain amaranth as ingredients. A 100 g portion of the TF provided 101-111 kcal, 5 g protein and 5.3-6.5 g fat. Consumer acceptability hedonic tests showed that the products were liked (extremely and moderately) by 62-65% of mothers. These results suggest that nutrient dense TFs formulated from only plant sources have the potential to be used in the rehabilitation phase of the management of malnourished children after clinical testing.

  4. The effect of light direction and suspended cell concentrations on algal biofilm growth rates.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, Peter J; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2014-10-01

    Algae biofilms were grown in a semicontinuous flat plate biofilm photobioreactor to study the effects of light direction and suspended algal cell populations on algal biofilm growth. It was determined that, under the growth conditions and biofilm thicknesses studied, light direction had no effect on long-term algal biofilm growth (26 days); however, light direction did affect the concentration of suspended algal cells by influencing the photon flux density in the growth medium in the photobioreactors. This suspended algal cell population affected short-term (7 days) algae cell recruitment and algal biofilm growth, but additional studies showed that enhanced suspended algal cell populations did not affect biofilm growth rates over the long term (26 days). Studying profiles of light transmittance through biofilms as they grew showed that most of the light became attenuated by the biomass after just a few days of growth (88 % after 3 days). The estimated biofilm thicknesses after these few days of growth were approximately 150 μm. The light attenuation data suggests that, although the biofilms grew to 700-900 μm, under these light intensities, only the first few hundred micrometers of the biofilm is receiving enough light to be photosynthetically active. We postulate that this photosynthetically active layer of the biofilm grows adjacent to the light source, while the rest of the biofilm is in a stationary growth phase. The results of this study have implications for algal biofilm photobioreactor design and operation.

  5. Applying a nutribusiness approach to increase animal source food consumption in local communities.

    PubMed

    Maretzki, Audrey N; Mills, Edward W

    2003-11-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) in the diets of schoolchildren are beneficial for supporting optimal physical and cognitive development. Nevertheless, behavioral change and economic development are needed to increase and sustain adequate meat product consumption by schoolchildren in developing countries. A NutriBusiness enterprise may be one way for local communities to promote economic development while increasing the availability of meat for children. This work evaluates the feasibility of a NutriBusiness enterprise involving the production of rabbits and the manufacture of solar dried snack food. Some rabbits would be kept for home use, whereas others would be used in the manufacture of a rabbit-sweet potato dried snack food that could be fed to children or sold for income. The NutriBusiness enterprise would be composed of participants from the community contributing to a cooperative effort for setting up a manufacturing facility and organizing production, manufacturing and marketing functions. A unit operation for rabbit-sweet potato Chiparoos, based on full-capacity operation of a single solar drier would involve up to 110 shareholder families, each producing 240 rabbits/y with 120 used at home and 120 sold for Chiparoos manufacture. Participation in the enterprise would increase the availability to children of iron, zinc and vitamin B-12, and other nutrients, and provide approximately 350 dollars/y additional income for the family.

  6. The significance of linoleic acid in food sources for detritivorous benthic invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, J. Arie; van Kuijk, Bernd F.; van Beusekom, Mick; Hunting, Ellard R.; Kraak, Michiel H. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is a key driver for detritus consumption by macroinvertebrates and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content is considered a candidate indicator of food palatability. Since traditionally used complex natural OM covaries in many quality attributes, it remains uncertain whether benthic invertebrates developed an actual preference for PUFA-rich food. Therefore we aimed to test the influence of the PUFA linoleic acid on OM consumption by aquatic macroinvertebrates using standardized surrogate substrates (decomposition and consumption tablet, DECOTAB) with added linoleic acid (PUFA) in comparison to consumption of DECOTAB containing only cellulose (Standard) or ground macrophytes (Plant). In microcosms, we observed a higher consumption rate of PUFA DECOTAB in comparison to Standard DECOTAB in two functionally distinct invertebrate species (Lumbriculus variegatus and Asellus aquaticus). This effect appeared to be overruled in the field due to unknown sources of natural variation. Although we observed higher consumption rates in species-rich ditches compared to species-poor ditches, consumption rates were comparable for all three types of DECOTAB deployed. Upon reduced food quality and palatability, results presented here hint that PUFA like linoleic acid may be a key OM attribute driving the performance of benthic macroinvertebrates and inherent functioning of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27767068

  7. Compositional Analysis of Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Cerca, Nuno; Nicolau, Anca I.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen Staphylococcus aureus isolates originating from foods (eight from dairy products, five from fish and fish products and three from meat and meat products) were evaluated regarding their biofilms formation ability. Six strains (E2, E6, E8, E10, E16, and E23) distinguished as strong biofilm formers, either in standard Tryptic Soy Broth or in Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with 0.4% glucose or with 4% NaCl. The composition of the biofilms formed by these S. aureus strains on polystyrene surfaces was first inferred using enzymatic and chemical treatments. Later on, biofilms were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Our experiments proved that protein-based matrices are of prime importance for the structure of biofilms formed by S. aureus strains isolated from food sources. These biofilm matrix compositions are similar to those put into evidence for coagulase negative staphylococci. This is a new finding having in view that scientific literature mentions exopolysaccharide abundance in biofilms produced by clinical isolates and food processing environment isolates of S. aureus. PMID:27065962

  8. Virulence genes and genetic relationship of L. monocytogenes isolated from human and food sources in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rosana Macedo de; Barbosa, André Victor; Lisbôa, Rodrigo de Castro; Santos, André Felipe das Mercês; Hofer, Ernesto; Vallim, Deyse Christina; Hofer, Cristina Barroso

    2017-03-05

    The herein presented assay provided a bacteriological and molecular characterization of 100 samples of L. monocytogenes isolated from human (43) and food (57) sources, from several regions of Brazil, and collected between 1975 and 2013. Antigenic characterization defined 49% of serotype 4b samples, followed by 28% of serotype 1/2b, 14% of serotype 1/2c, 8% of serotype 1/2a, and 1% of serotype 3b. Both type of samples from human and food origin express the same serotype distribution. Multiplex PCR analysis showed 13 strains of type 4b with the amplification profile 4b-VI (Variant I). Virulence genes hly, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, plcA, and prfA were detected in all samples, highlighting a deletion of 105pb on the actA gene in 23% of serotype 4b samples. Macrorestriction profile with ApaI at PFGE showed 55 pulsotypes, with the occurrence of the same pulsotype in hospitalized patients in São Paulo in 1992 and 1997, and two other highly related pulsotypes in patients hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro in 2008. Recognized pulsotypes in listeriosis cases have also been detected in food. Thus, the prevalence of a serotype and the persistence of certain pulsotypes herald future problems.

  9. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  10. Tannins: current knowledge of food sources, intake, bioavailability and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Serrano, José; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Dauer, Andreas; Aura, Anna-Marja; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-09-01

    Tannins are a unique group of phenolic metabolites with molecular weights between 500 and 30 000 Da, which are widely distributed in almost all plant foods and beverages. Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins are the two major groups of these bioactive compounds, but complex tannins containing structural elements of both groups and specific tannins in marine brown algae have also been described. Most literature data on food tannins refer only to oligomeric compounds that are extracted with aqueous-organic solvents, but a significant number of non-extractable tannins are usually not mentioned in the literature. The biological effects of tannins usually depend on their grade of polymerisation and solubility. Highly polymerised tannins exhibit low bioaccessibility in the small intestine and low fermentability by colonic microflora. This review summarises a new approach to analysis of extractable and non-extractable tannins, major food sources, and effects of storage and processing on tannin content and bioavailability. Biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral effects are also described. In addition, the role of tannins in diabetes mellitus has been discussed.

  11. Huitlacoche (Ustilago maydis) as a food source--biology, composition, and production.

    PubMed

    Valverde, M E; Paredes-López, O; Pataky, J K; Guevara-Lara, F

    1995-01-01

    Huitlacoche is the ethnic name applied to the young fruiting bodies (galls) of the fungus Ustilago maydis, which causes common smut of maize (Zea mays L). Biologists and agronomists have historically used U. maydis as a model to study a wide array of genetic, physiological, ecological, and phytopathological phenomena. In Mexico and other Latin American countries, huitlacoche has been used traditionally as human food, being highly regarded as an interesting dish or condiment. The food potential of huitlacoche is described here in terms of its chemical composition, which includes carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. In addition, essential amino acids (especially lysine) and fatty acids (linoleate) are present in huitlacoche in considerable levels, adding to its nutritional attributes. The feasibility of growing U. maydis in submerged agitated culture has yielded a variety of fermentation products, including essential amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and flavorings, among others. Recent interest in developing huitlacoche as a cash crop has come from increasing acceptance by the North American public, who prize it as a new delicacy. However, research efforts are still needed to determine the biological factors involved in the establishment of U. maydis as a pathogen on the maize plant. This review deals with the role of huitlacoche as a food source, implicating the biological components that will determine the development of technologies for large scale production.

  12. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. PMID:26690212

  13. Genomic diversity of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from food and human sources

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, A.; Jamshidi, A.; Razmyar, J.; Rad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study, RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49 isolates of C. perfringens type A from three different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD-PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human stool, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human stool and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR method seems to be very promising for contamination source tracking in the field of food hygiene. PMID:27822244

  14. Microalgae as a safe food source for animals: nutritional characteristics of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Francisco; Forján, Eduardo; Vázquez, María; Montero, Zaida; Bermejo, Elisabeth; Castaño, Miguel Ángel; Toimil, Alberto; Chagüaceda, Enrique; García-Sevillano, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Marisa; Domínguez, María José; Pásaro, Rosario; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Vega, José María

    2016-01-01

    Background Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. Objective We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats. Method Four randomly organized groups of rats (n=6) were fed a standard diet (Diet 1, control) or with a diet in which 0.4% (Diet 2), 1.25% (Diet 3), or 6.25% (Diet 4) (w/w) of the standard diet weight was substituted with dried microalgae powder, respectively. The four groups of animals were provided ad libitum access to feed for 45 days. Results C. onubensis biomass is rich in protein (44.60% of dry weight) and dietary fiber (15.73%), and has a moderate carbohydrate content (24.8%) and a low lipid content (5.4%) in which polyunsaturated fatty acids represent 65% of the total fatty acid. Nucleic acids are present at 4.8%. No significant difference was found in growth rates or feed efficiency ratios of the four groups of rats. Histological studies of liver and kidney tissue revealed healthy organs in control and C. onubensis-fed animals, while plasma hematological and biochemical parameters were within healthy ranges for all animals. Furthermore, animals fed a microalgae-enriched diet exhibited a statistically significant decrease in both blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The blood triglyceride content and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels decreased by about 50% in rats fed Diet 4. Conclusions These data suggest that C. onubensis may be useful as a food supplement for laboratory animals and may also serve as a nutraceutical in functional foods. In addition, microalgae powder-supplemented diets exerted a significant hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effect in animals

  15. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  16. Chiral source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Hudson River estuary atmosphere and food web.

    PubMed

    Asher, Brian J; Wong, Charles S; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2007-09-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary is subject to significant contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from numerous sources, including the historically contaminated Upper Hudson River, stormwater runoff and sewer overflows, and atmospheric deposition from PCBs originating from the surrounding urban area. However, the relative importance of these sources to the estuary's food web is not fully understood. Sources of PCBs to the estuary were apportioned using chiral signatures of PCBs in air, water, total suspended matter, phytoplankton, and sediment. PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were racemic in the atmosphere of the estuary. However, the other phases contained nonracemic PCB 95 and to a lesser extent PCB 149. Thus, the predominant atmospheric source of these congeners is likely unweathered local pollution and not volatilization from the estuary. The similarity in chiral signatures in the other phases is consistent with dynamic contaminant exchange among them. Chiral signatures in the dissolved phase and total suspended matter were correlated with Upper Hudson discharge, suggesting thatthe delivery of nonracemic contaminated sediment from the Upper Hudson, not the atmosphere, controls phytoplankton uptake of some PCBs. Thus, measures to control PCB contamination in the Upper Hudson should be effective in reducing loadings to the estuary's aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Isotopic study of mercury sources and transfer between a freshwater lake and adjacent forest food web.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Nadelhoffer, Knute J; Timothy Dvonch, J; Tsui, Martin Tsz-Ki

    2015-11-01

    Studies of monomethylmercury (MMHg) sources and biogeochemical pathways have been extensive in aquatic ecosystems, but limited in forest ecosystems. Increasing evidence suggests that there is significant mercury (Hg) exchange between aquatic and forest ecosystems. We use Hg stable isotope ratios (δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg) to investigate the relative importance of MMHg sources and assess Hg transfer pathways between Douglas Lake and adjacent forests located at the University of Michigan Biological Station, USA. We characterize Hg isotopic compositions of basal resources and use linear regression of % MMHg versus δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg to estimate Hg isotope values for inorganic mercury (IHg) and MMHg in the aquatic and adjacent forest food webs. In the aquatic ecosystem, we found that lake sediment represents a mixture of IHg pools deposited via watershed runoff and precipitation. The δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values estimated for IHg are consistent with other studies that measured forest floor in temperate forests. The Δ(199)Hg value estimated for MMHg in the aquatic food web indicates that MMHg is subjected to ~20% photochemical degradation prior to bioaccumulation. In the forest ecosystem, we found a significant negative relationship between total Hg and δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg of soil collected at multiple distances from the lakeshore and lake sediment. This suggests that IHg input from watershed runoff provides an important Hg transfer pathway between the forest and aquatic ecosystems. We measured Δ(199)Hg values for high trophic level insects and compared these insects at multiple distances perpendicular to the lake shoreline. The Δ(199)Hg values correspond to the % canopy cover suggesting that forest MMHg is subjected to varying extents of photochemical degradation and the extent may be controlled by sunlight. Our study demonstrates that the use of Hg isotopes adds important new insight into the relative importance of MMHg sources and complex Hg transfer

  18. Geographic access to healthy and unhealthy food sources for children in neighbourhoods and from elementary schools in a mid-sized Canadian city.

    PubMed

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Shah, Tayyab; Bell, Scott; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2014-10-01

    We examined location-related accessibility to healthy and unhealthy food sources for school going children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. We compared proximity to food sources from school sites and from small clusters of homes (i.e., dissemination blocks) as a proxy for home location. We found that (1) unhealthy food sources are more prevalent near schools in lower income than higher income neighbourhoods; (2) unhealthy compared to healthy food sources are more accessible from schools as well as from places of residence; and (3) while some characteristics of neighbourhood low socio-economic status are associated with less accessibility to healthy food sources, there is no consistent pattern of access. Greater access to unhealthy food sources from schools in low-income neighbourhoods is likely a reflection of the greater degree of commercialization. Our spatial examination provides a more nuanced understanding of accessibility through our approach of comparing place of residence and school access to food sources.

  19. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted.

  20. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  1. Share your sweets: Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus) willingness to share highly attractive, monopolizable food sources.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-08-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, few controlled studies have been made in which groups of Pan are introduced to food items that may be shared or monopolized by a first food possessor, and very few studies have examined what happens to these sharing patterns if the food in question is a highly attractive, monopolizable food source. The one study to date to include food quality as the independent variable used different types of food as high- and low-value items, making differences in food divisibility and size potentially confounding factors. It was the aim of the present study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of 2 different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that the large majority of food transfers in both species came about as sharing in which group members were allowed to cofeed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than bonobos. Bonobos, instead, engaged in sexual invitations, which the chimpanzees never did. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW.

  3. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development.

  4. 21 CFR 179.21 - Sources of radiation used for inspection of food, for inspection of packaged food, and for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... than 2.2 million electron volts from one of the following isotopes: Americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt... radiation from the isotope Californium-252 (CAS Reg. No. 13981-17-4) to measure moisture in food....

  5. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans.

  6. Mechanism of Algal Aggregation by Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

  7. Mechanism of algal aggregation by Bacillus sp. strain RP1137.

    PubMed

    Powell, Ryan J; Hill, Russell T

    2014-07-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting.

  8. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group.

  9. Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, Richard; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Sarmiento, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    Underground storage organs (USOs) have been proposed as critical fallback foods for early hominins in savanna, but there has been little discussion as to which habitats would have been important sources of USOs. USOs consumed by hominins could have included both underwater and underground storage organs, i.e., from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Shallow aquatic habitats tend to offer high plant growth rates, high USO densities, and relatively continuous USO availability throughout the year. Baboons in the Okavango delta use aquatic USOs as a fallback food, and aquatic or semiaquatic USOs support high-density human populations in various parts of the world. As expected given fossilization requisites, the African early- to mid-Pleistocene shows an association of Homo and Paranthropus fossils with shallow-water and flooded habitats where high densities of plant-bearing USOs are likely to have occurred. Given that early hominins in the tropics lived in relatively dry habitats, while others occupied temperate latitudes, ripe, fleshy fruits of the type preferred by African apes would not normally have been available year round. We therefore suggest that water-associated USOs were likely to have been key fallback foods, and that dry-season access to aquatic habitats would have been an important predictor of hominin home range quality. This study differs from traditional savanna chimpanzee models of hominin origins by proposing that access to aquatic habitats was a necessary condition for adaptation to savanna habitats. It also raises the possibility that harvesting efficiency in shallow water promoted adaptations for habitual bipedality in early hominins.

  10. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases.

    PubMed

    Watson, Reg A; Nowara, Gabrielle B; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S; Tracey, Sean R; Carter, Chris G

    2015-06-16

    The growing human population must be fed, but historic land-based systems struggle to meet expanding demand. Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming. Here we show the expanding footprint of humans to utilize global ocean productivity to feed themselves. Our results illustrate how incrementally each year, marine foods are sourced farther from where they are consumed and moreover, require an increasing proportion of the ocean's primary productivity that underpins all marine life. Though mariculture supports increased consumption of seafood, it continues to require feeds based on fully exploited wild stocks. Here we examine the ocean's ability to meet our future demands to 2100 and find that even with mariculture supplementing near-static wild catches our growing needs are unlikely to be met without significant changes.

  11. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Reg A.; Nowara, Gabrielle B.; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S.; Tracey, Sean R.; Carter, Chris G.

    2015-01-01

    The growing human population must be fed, but historic land-based systems struggle to meet expanding demand. Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming. Here we show the expanding footprint of humans to utilize global ocean productivity to feed themselves. Our results illustrate how incrementally each year, marine foods are sourced farther from where they are consumed and moreover, require an increasing proportion of the ocean's primary productivity that underpins all marine life. Though mariculture supports increased consumption of seafood, it continues to require feeds based on fully exploited wild stocks. Here we examine the ocean's ability to meet our future demands to 2100 and find that even with mariculture supplementing near-static wild catches our growing needs are unlikely to be met without significant changes. PMID:26079714

  12. Mathematical model for path selection by ants between nest and food source.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Marek; Okińczyc, Natalia; Vela-Pérez, M

    2017-03-01

    Several models have been proposed to describe the behavior of ants when moving from nest to food sources. Most of these studies where based on numerical simulations with no mathematical justification. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for the formation of paths of minimal length between two points by a collection of individuals undergoing reinforced random walks taking into account not only the lengths of the paths but also the angles (connected to the preference of ants to move along straight lines). Our model involves reinforcement (pheromone accumulation), persistence (tendency to preferably follow straight directions in absence of any external effect) and takes into account the bifurcation angles of each edge (represented by a probability of willingness of choosing the path with the smallest angle). We describe analytically the results for 2 ants and different path lengths and numerical simulations for several ants.

  13. Oxygen consumption in the foraging honeybee depends on the reward rate at the food source.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, L; Núñez, J A

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen consumption of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica was measured as a function of the flow rate supply of sucrose solution at an automatic feeder located inside a respirometric chamber. Trained bees freely entered the respirometric chamber and collected the sucrose solution supplied. The mean value of the O2 consumption rate per visit increased with the sucrose flow rate, and for a given flow rate, with increasing locomotor activity. However, when no locomotor activity was displayed, O2 consumption also increased with increasing nectar flow rate. Crop load attained at the end of the visit showed a positive relationship with the nectar flow rate; however, for a given flow rate, O2 consumption showed either no correlation or a negative one with the final crop load attained. It is concluded that the energy expenditure of the foraging bee is controlled by a motivational drive whose intensity depends on the reward rate at the food source.

  14. Honeybees perform optimal scale-free searching flights when attempting to locate a food source.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew M; Smith, Alan D; Reynolds, Don R; Carreck, Norman L; Osborne, Juliet L

    2007-11-01

    The foraging strategies used by animals are key to their success in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments. We hypothesise that when a food source at a known location ceases to be available, flying insects will exhibit search patterns that optimise the rediscovery of such resources. In order to study these searching patterns, foraging honeybees were trained to an artificial feeder that was then removed, and the subsequent flight patterns of the bees were recorded using harmonic radar. We show that the flight patterns have a scale-free (Lévy-flight) characteristic that constitutes an optimal searching strategy for the location of the feeder. It is shown that this searching strategy would remain optimal even if the implementation of the Lévy-flights was imprecise due, for example, to errors in the bees' path integration system or difficulties in responding to variable wind conditions. The implications of these findings for animal foraging in general are discussed.

  15. Easy preparation of dietary fiber with the high water-holding capacity from food sources.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Murakami, Kazumi; Kurita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    Dietary fibers were prepared as alkali- and acid-insoluble fractions with chemical phosphorylation from Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius), defatted soybean (Glycine max), and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The dietary fiber fractions treated with alkaline solution containing sodium metaphosphate had the lower protein content and higher total dietary fiber content than those of the preparations without phosphorylation. Alkaline extraction followed by phosphorylation led to a 1.5-fold increase in the water holding capacity of dietary fiber compared with no phosphorylation, whereas the binding capacity to bile acids of dietary fiber was almost the same. The alkali- and acid-insoluble extraction with phosphorylation provided an efficient preparation of water-insoluble dietary fiber with high-water holding capacity from various food sources.

  16. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Mabeyo, Petro E.; Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; Gruhonjic, Amra; Fitzpatrick, Paul A.; Landberg, Göran; Erdélyi, Máté; Nyandoro, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH) as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90 ± 0.40 to 1.95 ± 0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW), with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12 ± 0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35 ± 0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P < 0.01). The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods. PMID:26955635

  17. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Mabeyo, Petro E; Manoko, Mkabwa L K; Gruhonjic, Amra; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; Landberg, Göran; Erdélyi, Máté; Nyandoro, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH) as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90 ± 0.40 to 1.95 ± 0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW), with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12 ± 0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35 ± 0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P < 0.01). The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  18. Scale-dependent phenological synchrony between songbirds and their caterpillar food source.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Amy E; Cole, Ella F; Daniels, Katherine J; Wilkin, Teddy A; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-07-01

    In seasonal environments, the timing of reproduction has important fitness consequences. Our current understanding of the determinants of reproductive phenology in natural systems is limited because studies often ignore the spatial scale on which animals interact with their environment. When animals use a restricted amount of space and the phenology of resources is spatially variable, selection may favor sensitivity to small-scale environmental variation. Population-level studies of how songbirds track the changing phenology of their food source have been influential in explaining how populations adjust to changing climates but have largely ignored the spatial scale at which phenology varies. We explored whether individual great tits (Parus major) synchronize their breeding with phenological events in their local environment and investigated the spatial scale at which this occurs. We demonstrate marked variation in the timing of food availability, at a spatial scale relevant to individual birds, and that such local variation predicts the breeding phenology of individuals. Using a 45-year data set, we show that measures of vegetation phenology at very local scales are the most important predictors of timing of breeding within years, suggesting that birds can fine-tune their phenology to that of other trophic levels. Knowledge of the determinants of variation in reproductive behavior at different spatial scales is likely to be critical in understanding how selection operates on breeding phenology in natural populations.

  19. Nutritional ecology of a parasitic wasp: food source affects gustatory response, metabolic utilization, and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Williams, Livy; Roane, Timberley M

    2007-12-01

    The success of biological control is partly mediated by the longevity and reproductive success of beneficial insects. Availability of nectar and honeydew can improve the nutrition of parasitic insects, and thereby increase their longevity and realized fecundity. The egg parasitoid, Anaphes iole, showed strong gustatory perception of trehalulose, a carbohydrate found in homopteran honeydew. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose, a common nectar sugar, proceeded at a faster rate than that of melezitose, a sugar common in aphid honeydew. A long-term bioassay showed that longevity was greater at 20 degrees C than at 27 degrees C, and at both temperatures survival was generally greatest for wasps provisioned with the three major nectar sugars, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Patterns of food acceptance and utilization showed that A. iole accepted and utilized a broad range of sugars found in nature, including those found in nectar as well as honeydew. Glucose, fructose, and several oligosaccharides composed of these monosaccharide units appear to be more suitable for A. iole than other sugars tested. Evidence suggests that individual fitness benefits afforded by food sources are important for a time-limited parasitoid, and that continued investigations on the interface between nutrition and biological control are warranted for A. iole.

  20. Genome dynamics are influenced by food source in Allogromia laticollaris strain CSH (Foraminifera).

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Katz, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    Across the eukaryotic tree of life, genomes vary within populations and within individuals during their life cycle. Understanding intraspecific genome variation in diverse eukaryotes is key to elucidating the factors that underlie this variation. Here, we characterize genome dynamics during the life cycle of Allogromia laticollaris strain CSH, a member of the Foraminifera, using fluorescence microscopy and reveal extensive variation in nuclear size and DNA content. Both nuclear size and DNA content are tightly correlated across a 700-fold range in cell volume. In contrast to models in yeast where nuclear size is determined solely by cell size, the relationship in A. laticollaris CSH differs according to both life cycle stage and food source. Feeding A. laticollaris CSH a diet that includes algae results in a 2-fold increase in DNA content in reproductive cells compared with a diet of bacteria alone. This difference in DNA content likely corresponds to increased fecundity, as reproduction occurs through segregation of the polyploid nucleus into numerous daughter nuclei. Environmentally mediated variation in DNA content may be a widespread phenomenon, as it has been previously reported in the plant flax and the flagellate Euglena. We hypothesize that DNA content is influenced by food in other single-celled eukaryotes with ploidy cycles and that this genome flexibility may enable these eukaryotes to maximize fitness across changing environmental conditions.

  1. Evaluation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as food source for Balamuthia mandrillaris.

    PubMed

    Matin, Abdul; Jeong, Seok Ryoul; Faull, Jane; Rivas, Antonio Ortega; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently identified free-living protozoan pathogen that can cause fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. Recent studies have shown that B. mandrillaris consumes eukaryotic cells such as mammalian cell cultures as food source. Here, we studied B. mandrillaris interactions with various eukaryotic cells including, monkey kidney fibroblast-like cells (COS-7), human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and Acanthamoeba (an opportunistic protozoan pathogen) as well as prokaryotes, Escherichia coli. B. mandrillaris exhibited optimal growth on HBMEC compared with Cos-7 cells. In contrast, B. mandrillaris did not grow on bacteria but remained in the trophozoite stage. When incubated with Acanthamoeba trophozoites, B. mandrillaris produced partial Acanthamoeba damage and the remaining Acanthamoeba trophozoites underwent encystment. However, B. mandrillaris were unable to consume Acanthamoeba cysts. Next, we observed that B. mandrillaris-mediated Acanthamoeba encystment is a contact-dependent process that requires viable B. mandrillaris. In support, conditioned medium of B. mandrillaris did not stimulate Acanthamoeba encystment nor did lysates of B. mandrillaris. Overall, these studies suggest that B. mandrillaris target Acanthamoeba in the trophozoite stage; however, Acanthamoeba possess the ability to defend themselves by forming cysts, which are resistant to B. mandrillaris. Further studies will examine the mechanisms associated with food selectivity in B. mandrillaris.

  2. Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989-2010.

    PubMed

    Slining, Meghan M; Mathias, Kevin C; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the historical rise and recent plateau of child overweight and obesity, levels remain exceedingly high. To understand these trends and identify targets for intervention it is important to examine concomitant trends in children's diets. The objective of our analysis was to describe 21-year trends in total energy intake and the major food and beverage sources of energy among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Six nationally representative surveys were examined in 2012, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 and 1994-1996, 1998) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010). Total energy intake among US children and adolescents rose considerably from 1989 to 2004, and subsequently declined through 2010. Seven sources were consistently major contributors across all time points: sugar-sweetened beverages, pizza, full-fat milk, grain-based desserts, breads, pasta dishes, and savory snacks. Intakes of full-fat milk, meats and processed meat products, ready-to-eat cereals, burgers, fried potatoes, fruit juice, and vegetables decreased from 1989-2010 whereas intakes of nonfat milk, poultry, sweet snacks and candies, and tortilla- and corn-based dishes increased linearly over the 21-year period. Significant nonlinear time trends were observed with recent decreases in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, pizza, pasta dishes, breads and rolls, and savory snacks and recent increases in intake of fruit. Energy intakes of US children began to decline in 2003-2004 and continued to decline through 2009-2010. However, among preschool children (aged 2 to 5 years) and children from low-income families, total energy intakes in 2009-2010 still remained significantly higher than in 1989-1991.

  3. Spatial scales of carbon flow in a river food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finlay, J.C.; Khandwala, S.; Power, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial extents of food webs that support stream and river consumers are largely unknown, but such information is essential for basic understanding and management of lotic ecosystems. We used predictable variation in algal ??13C with water velocity, and measurements of consumer ??13C and ??15N to examine carbon flow and trophic structure in food webs of the South Fork Eel River in Northern California. Analyses of ??13C showed that the most abundant macroinvertebrate groups (collector-gatherers and scrapers) relied on algae from local sources within their riffle or shallow pool habitats. In contrast, filter-feeding invertebrates in riffles relied in part on algal production derived from upstream shallow pools. Riffle invertebrate predators also relied in part on consumers of pool-derived algal carbon. One abundant taxon drifting from shallow pools and riffles (baetid mayflies) relied on algal production derived from the habitats from which they dispersed. The trophic linkage from pool algae to riffle invertebrate predators was thus mediated through either predation on pool herbivores dispersing into riffles, or on filter feeders. Algal production in shallow pool habitats dominated the resource base of vertebrate predators in all habitats at the end of the summer. We could not distinguish between the trophic roles of riffle algae and terrestrial detritus, but both carbon sources appeared to play minor roles for vertebrate consumers. In shallow pools, small vertebrates, including three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), roach (Hesperoleucas symmetricus), and rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa), relied on invertebrate prey derived from local pool habitats. During the most productive summer period, growth of all size classes of steelhead and resident rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in all habitats (shallow pools, riffles, and deep unproductive pools) was largely derived from algal production in shallow pools. Preliminary data suggest that the strong

  4. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  5. 9 CFR 424.21 - Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with 21 CFR 172.5 (calcium lactate required at a rate of 25 percent of binder). Food starch modified To... modified food starch at 3 percent of product formulation and soy protein concentrate at 0.5 percent of... only with modified food starch, with combination of modified food starch at 3 percent of...

  6. 9 CFR 424.21 - Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with 21 CFR 172.5 (calcium lactate required at a rate of 25 percent of binder). Food starch modified To... modified food starch at 3 percent of product formulation and soy protein concentrate at 0.5 percent of... only with modified food starch, with combination of modified food starch at 3 percent of...

  7. 9 CFR 424.21 - Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 21 CFR 172.5 (calcium lactate required at a rate of 25 percent of binder). Food starch modified To... modified food starch at 3 percent of product formulation and soy protein concentrate at 0.5 percent of... only with modified food starch, with combination of modified food starch at 3 percent of...

  8. Experimental approaches to test pesticide-treated seed avoidance by birds under a simulated diversification of food sources.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-10-15

    Pesticide coated seeds are known to be potentially toxic for birds, but the risk of poisoning will depend on how likely the individuals are to consume them. To refine the risk assessment of coated seed consumption by birds we studied the consumption and avoidance of seeds treated with imidacloprid, thiram, maneb or rhodamine B under different scenarios of food unpredictability (diversity or changes in food sources). In a first set of experiments, we examined during four days the amount of ingested food by red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) when offered untreated seeds, treated seeds or both. In the latter case, we also assessed the effect of a daily interchange in the position of feeders containing treated and untreated food. A second experiment, conducted with imidacloprid only, consisted of offering, during 27 h, fixed overall amounts of treated and untreated food, equally distributed in a different number of feeders per pen (1, 2, 4 or 8 feeders of each type of food) in order to diversify food sources. All the tested pesticide-treated seeds were avoided in two-choice experiments, and imidacloprid and thiram were also avoided in one-choice experiments. We found that imidacloprid treated seeds were avoided, probably as a consequence of a conditioned aversion effect due to the post-ingestion distress. However, under a diversification of two-choice food sources with multiple feeders, imidacloprid-treated seeds were ingested by partridges at increasing amounts that can produce sublethal effects or even death. Thiram treated seeds were also initially avoided in one-choice experiment, but probably mediated by a sensory repellence that progressively decreased with time. Our results reveal that the risk of pesticide exposure in birds may increase by unpredictability of food resources or prolonged availability of coated seeds, so pesticide registration for seed coating should consider worst-case scenarios to avoid negative impacts on farmland birds.

  9. Food coloring agents and plant food supplements derived from Vitis vinifera: a new source of human exposure to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Piemontese, Luca; Gambacorta, Lucia; Zivoli, Rosanna; Longobardi, Francesco

    2015-04-08

    Grape pomaces are increasingly being used as starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements (PFS), food coloring, and tartrates, but they are at risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic effects. We analyzed 24 commercial PFS and 13 food coloring samples derived from Vitis vinifera, mainly pomaces, using a HPLC-FLD method for OTA determination. OTA was found in 75% of PFS samples and 69% of food coloring samples at levels of <1.16-20.23 μg/kg and <1.16-32.00 μg/kg, respectively. The four commercial leavening agents containing tartrates were found to be negative for OTA. All eight samples collected in two distilleries that use grape pomaces and wine lees to produce tartrates and other byproducts contained OTA at levels of <1.16-240.93 μg/kg. The high incidence of OTA contamination in PFS and food coloring agents derived from V. vinifera suggests that maximum permitted level(s) should be established for this mycotoxin in these products.

  10. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  11. Food sources for Ruditapes philippinarum in a coastal lagoon determined by mass balance and stable isotope approaches.

    PubMed

    Komorita, Tomohiro; Kajihara, Rumiko; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Seiichiro; Yamada, Toshiro; Montani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the food demand of a clam population (Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve 1850)) and the isotopic contributions of potential food sources (phytoplankton, benthic diatoms, and organic matter derived from the sediment surface, seagrass, and seaweeds) to the clam diet were investigated. In particular, we investigated the manner in which dense patches of clams with high secondary productivity are sustained in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (Hichirippu Lagoon) in Hokkaido, Japan. Clam feeding behavior should affect material circulation in this lagoon owing to their high secondary productivity (ca. 130 g C m(-2) yr(-1)). Phytoplankton were initially found to constitute 14-77% of the clam diet, although phytoplankton nitrogen content (1.79-4.48 kmol N) and the food demand of the clam (16.2 kmol N d(-1)) suggest that phytoplankton can constitute only up to 28% of clam dietary demands. However, use of isotopic signatures alone may be misleading. For example, the contribution of microphytobenthos (MPB) were estimated to be 0-68% on the basis of isotopic signatures but was subsequently shown to be 35 ± 13% (mean ± S.D.) and 64 ± 4% (mean ± S.D.) on the basis of phytoplankton biomass and clam food demand respectively, suggesting that MPB are the primary food source for clams. Thus, in the present study, the abundant MPB in the subtidal area appear to be a key food source for clams, suggesting that these MPB may sustain the high secondary production of the clam.

  12. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  13. Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): Construction and Validation of an Open-source Device for Measuring Food Intake in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Katrina P; Ali, Mohamed A; O'Neal, Timothy J; Szczot, Ilona; Licholai, Julia A; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-21

    Food intake measurements are essential for many research studies. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel solution for measuring food intake in mice: the Feeding Experimentation Device (FED). FED is an open-source system that was designed to facilitate flexibility in food intake studies. Due to its compact and battery powered design, FED can be placed within standard home cages or other experimental equipment. Food intake measurements can also be synchronized with other equipment in real-time via FED's transistor-transistor logic (TTL) digital output, or in post-acquisition processing as FED timestamps every event with a real-time clock. When in use, a food pellet sits within FED's food well where it is monitored via an infrared beam. When the pellet is removed by the mouse, FED logs the timestamp onto its internal secure digital (SD) card and dispenses another pellet. FED can run for up to 5 days before it is necessary to charge the battery and refill the pellet hopper, minimizing human interference in data collection. Assembly of FED requires minimal engineering background, and off-the-shelf materials and electronics were prioritized in its construction. We also provide scripts for analysis of food intake and meal patterns. Finally, FED is open-source and all design and construction files are online, to facilitate modifications and improvements by other researchers.

  14. Side Streams of Plant Food Processing As a Source of Valuable Compounds: Selected Examples.

    PubMed

    Schieber, Andreas

    2017-02-28

    Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products. The criteria used were economic importance, amounts generated, relevance of side streams as a source of valuable compounds, and reviews already published. Despite a plethora of studies carried out on the utilization of side streams, relatively few processes have yet found industrial application.

  15. Biofilm formation and genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from clinical, food, poultry and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Nair, Amruta; Rawool, Deepak B; Doijad, Swapnil; Poharkar, Krupali; Mohan, Vysakh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Kolhe, Rahul; Kurkure, Nitin V; Kumar, Ashok; Malik, S V S; Balasaravanan, T

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, Salmonella isolates (n=40) recovered from clinical, food, poultry and environmental sources were characterized for serotype identification, genetic diversity and biofilm formation capability. Serotype identification using multiplex PCR assay revealed six isolates to be Salmonella Typhimurium, 14 as Salmonella Enteritidis, 11 as Salmonella Typhi, and the remaining nine isolates unidentified were considered as other Salmonella spp. Most of the Salmonella isolates (85%) produced biofilm on polystyrene surfaces as assessed by microtitre plate assay. About 67.5% isolates were weak biofilm producers and 17.5% were moderate biofilm producers. There was no significant difference in biofilm-forming ability among the Salmonella isolates recovered from different geographical regions or different sources. Among the genetic methods, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) PCR revealed greater discriminatory power (DI, 0.943) followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (DI, 0.899) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR (DI, 0.873). However, composite analysis revealed the highest discrimination index (0.957). Greater discrimination of S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi was achieved using PFGE, while ERIC PCR was better for S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serotypes. A strong positive correlation (r=0.992) was observed between biofilm formation trait and clustered Salmonella isolates in composite genetic analysis.

  16. Spatial variation in the effects of grazing on epilithic algal turfs on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaldo, R. M.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2011-06-01

    Of all benthic components on tropical reefs, algal turfs are the most widespread and the main source of primary productivity. We compared the importance of grazing by herbivores on algal turfs on two zones with marked differences in terms of benthic composition, herbivore biomass and grazing pressure, the inner flat and crest, of an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. A combination of herbivore exclusion cages and transplants of coral rubble covered by algal turfs between reef zones was used to examine changes in algal turfs over a 4-day experimental period. In situ crest turfs had lower algal height, sediment loads and particulate content than reef flat turfs. Caged samples on the crest exhibited an increase in all three variables. In contrast, in situ and caged treatments on the flat presented algal turfs with similar values for the three analysed variables, with high algal height and heavy particulate and sediment loads. In the absence of cages, reef flat turfs transplanted to the crest had decreased algal height, total particulate material and particulate inorganic content, while the opposite was found in crest turf samples transplanted to the flat. Our results highlight the dynamic nature of algal turfs and the clear differences in the relative importance of herbivory in shaping turf length and sediment load between the reef crest and inner flat.

  17. Daily bioaccessible levels of selected essential but toxic heavy metals from the consumption of non-dietary food sources.

    PubMed

    Tongesayi, Tsanangurayi; Fedick, Patrick; Lechner, Lauren; Brock, Christiana; Le Beau, Arielle; Bray, Chelsea

    2013-12-01

    Researchers and regulatory bodies tend to focus on non-essential toxic elements when testing for inorganic chemical pollutants in food. Both toxic and essential elements are increasingly getting into the food chain from the extensive use agrochemicals and the use of contaminated water, raw sewage and untreated industrial effluent to irrigate crops. A holistic testing protocol for chemical contaminants in food should be the norm in order to protect human health, especially considering that the essential elements are as a matter of fact essential poisons. They are essential but are toxic above certain thresholds. Eating contaminated foods that are not considered to be dietary sources of the essential poisons may result in an inadvertent overdose, especially considering that consumers may be taking food supplements that recommended as sources of the essential elements. We measured the levels of manganese and zinc in rice and calculated the daily bioaccessible levels of the two elements. The daily bioaccessible levels were significantly higher than the recommended daily intakes in most of the samples. It has to be noted that exposure from various sources is additive, therefore, lower levels than recommended limits in one source may not guarantee safety from a particular chemical toxicant.

  18. Opportunities for Switzerland to Contribute to the Production of Algal Biofuels: the Hydrothermal Pathway to Bio-Methane.

    PubMed

    Bagnoud-Velásquez, Mariluz; Refardt, Dominik; Vuille, François; Ludwig, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have a significant potential to be a sustainable source of fuel and thus are of interest in the transition to a sustainable energy system, in particular for resource-dependent countries such as Switzerland. Independence of fossil fuels, considerable reduction of CO(2) emissions, and abandoning nuclear energy may be possible with an integrated system approach including the sourcing of biofuels from different types of biomass. Today, a full carbon-to-fuel conversion is possible, and has been recently demonstrated with an advanced hydrothermal technology. The potential to develop algal biofuels is viewed as high thanks to the possibility they offer to uncouple bioenergy from food production. Nevertheless, technological breakthroughs must take place before commercial production becomes a reality, especially to meet the necessary cost savings and efficiency gains in the algae cultivation structure. In addition, an integrated management of waste resources to promote the nutrient recovery appears today as imperative to further improve the economic viability and the environmental sustainability of algal production. We provide here a review that includes the global technological status of both algae production and their conversion into biofuels in order to understand first the added value of algal energy in general before we focus on the potential of algae to contribute specifically to the Swiss energy system to the horizon 2050. In this respect, the hydrothermal conversion pathway of microalgal biomass into synthetic natural gas (SNG) is emphasized, as research into this technology has received considerable attention in Switzerland during the last decade. In addition, SNG is a particularly relevant fuel in the Swiss context due to the existing gas grid and to the opportunity it offers to cover a wide spectrum of energy applications, in particular cogeneration of heat and electricity or use as a transport fuel in the growing gas car fleet.

  19. The extended Kalman filter for forecast of algal bloom dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mao, J Q; Lee, Joseph H W; Choi, K W

    2009-09-01

    A deterministic ecosystem model is combined with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to produce short term forecasts of algal bloom and dissolved oxygen dynamics in a marine fish culture zone (FCZ). The weakly flushed FCZ is modelled as a well-mixed system; the tidal exchange with the outer bay is lumped into a flushing rate that is numerically determined from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The ecosystem model incorporates phytoplankton growth kinetics, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic production, nutrient sources from organic fish farm loads, and nutrient exchange with a sediment bed layer. High frequency field observations of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydro-meteorological parameters (sampling interval Deltat=1 day, 2h, 1h, respectively) and bi-weekly nutrient data are assimilated into the model to produce the combined state estimate accounting for the uncertainties. In addition to the water quality state variables, the EKF incorporates dynamic estimation of algal growth rate and settling velocity. The effectiveness of the EKF data assimilation is studied for a wide range of sampling intervals and prediction lead-times. The chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen estimated by the EKF are compared with field data of seven algal bloom events observed at Lamma Island, Hong Kong. The results show that the EKF estimate well captures the nonlinear error evolution in time; the chlorophyll level can be satisfactorily predicted by the filtered model estimate with a mean absolute error of around 1-2 microg/L. Predictions with 1-2 day lead-time are highly correlated with the observations (r=0.7-0.9); the correlation stays at a high level for a lead-time of 3 days (r=0.6-0.7). Estimated algal growth and settling rates are in accord with field observations; the more frequent DO data can compensate for less frequent algal biomass measurements. The present study is the first time the EKF is successfully applied to forecast an entire algal bloom cycle, suggesting the

  20. Avian food selection with application to pesticide risk assessment: are dead and desiccated insects a desirable food source?

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jennifer M; Brewer, Larry W; Gessaman, James A

    2003-06-01

    Past evaluations of pesticide exposure have been conducted with substantial uncertainty regarding avian consumption of contaminated food items. One question is whether birds consume invertebrates that are killed by a chemical application and that may present an increasing chemical concentration as they desiccate. We addressed the research question in two phases. First, a laboratory study was conducted in which wild-caught birds were individually offered three food choices, i.e., live, fresh-dead, and desiccated insect larvae. Second, these same food choices plus live, fresh-dead, and desiccated crickets were presented in study plots in two agricultural crops, i.e., a cornfield and an orchard. The experimental food items were monitored with videography equipment to determine their fate and to compare laboratory and field results. Laboratory results showed that birds have a strong preference for live and fresh-dead prey over desiccated prey, with live prey taken before fresh-dead prey in most trials. The field study revealed a similar preference for live prey over desiccated prey, with preference for fresh-dead prey intermediate to the two other types.

  1. Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected ...

  2. A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2008-11-01

    Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

  3. Food composition tables in resource-poor settings: exploring current limitations and opportunities, with a focus on animal-source foods in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Julia; Ferguson, Elaine; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Maulaga, Wende; Msuya, John; Alders, Robyn

    2016-11-08

    Animal-source foods (ASF) have the potential to enhance the nutritional adequacy of cereal-based diets in low- and middle-income countries, through the provision of high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients. The development of guidelines for including ASF in local diets requires an understanding of the nutrient content of available resources. This article reviews food composition tables (FCT) used in sub-Saharan Africa, examining the spectrum of ASF reported and exploring data sources for each reference. Compositional data are shown to be derived from a small number of existing data sets from analyses conducted largely in high-income nations, often many decades previously. There are limitations in using such values, which represent the products of intensively raised animals of commercial breeds, as a reference in resource-poor settings where indigenous breed livestock are commonly reared in low-input production systems, on mineral-deficient soils and not receiving nutritionally balanced feed. The FCT examined also revealed a lack of data on the full spectrum of ASF, including offal and wild foods, which correspond to local food preferences and represent valuable dietary resources in food-deficient settings. Using poultry products as an example, comparisons are made between compositional data from three high-income nations, and potential implications of differences in the published values for micronutrients of public health significance, including Fe, folate and vitamin A, are discussed. It is important that those working on nutritional interventions and on developing dietary recommendations for resource-poor settings understand the limitations of current food composition data and that opportunities to improve existing resources are more actively explored and supported.

  4. Carbohydrate intake and food sources of junior triathletes during a moderate and an intensive training period.

    PubMed

    Carlsohn, Anja; Nippe, Susanne; Heydenreich, Juliane; Mayer, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the quantity and the main food sources of carbohydrate (CHO) intake of junior elite triathletes during a short-term moderate (MOD; 12 km swimming, 100 km cycling, 30 km running per wk) and intensive training period (INT; 23 km swimming, 200 km cycling, 45 km running per wk). Self-reported dietary-intake data accompanied by training protocols of 7 male triathletes (18.1 ± 2.4 yr, 20.9 ± 1.4 kg/m(2)) were collected on 7 consecutive days during both training periods in the same competitive season. Total energy and CHO intake were calculated based on the German Food Database. A paired t test was applied to test for differences between the training phases (α = .05). CHO intake was slightly higher in INT than in MOD (9.0 ± 1.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) vs. 7.8 ± 1.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1); p = .041). Additional CHO in INT was mainly ingested during breakfast (115 ± 37 g in MOD vs. 175 ± 23 g in INT; p = .002) and provided by beverages (280.5 ± 97.3 g/d vs. 174.0 ± 58.3 g/d CHO; p = .112). Altogether, main meals provided approximately two thirds of the total CHO intake. Pre- and postexercise snacks additionally supplied remarkable amounts of CHO (198.3 ± 84.3 g/d in INT vs. 185.9 ± 112 g/d CHO in MOD; p = .231). In conclusion, male German junior triathletes consume CHO in amounts currently recommended for endurance athletes during moderate to intensive training periods. Main meals provide the majority of CHO and should therefore not be skipped. CHO-containing beverages, as well as pre- and postexercise snacks, may provide a substantial amount of CHO intake in training periods with high CHO requirements.

  5. Distribution, food preference, and trophic position of the corallivorous fireworm Hermodice carunculata in a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Alexander T.; Nugues, Maggy M.; Wild, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The fireworm Hermodice carunculata is a facultative corallivore on coral reefs. It can interact with algal overgrowth to cause coral mortality. However, because of its cryptic nature, little is known about its ecology. We used micropredator attracting devices (MADs) and stable isotope analyses to provide insights into the distribution and diet of H. carunculata in a coral reef on Curaçao, southern Caribbean. MADs consisted of algal clumps inside accessible mesh nets which H. carunculata could use as refuge. To obtain indications on its distribution pattern, MADs filled with Halimeda opuntia were deployed in different reef habitats ranging from 0 to 16 m water depth. Fireworms were found inside MADs in all reef habitats, indicating that they have a widespread horizontal and vertical distribution, ranging from the shoreline to the deeper reef slope. On the reef crest, MADs were filled using different algal species and deployed on dead or live scleractinian corals. MADs hosted more fireworms when placed on live corals, regardless of algal species used, suggesting that algal-induced corallivory may be widespread. To test for food preferences, different food sources were added inside the MADs. Fireworms detected potential prey within 6 h and were significantly more attracted by decaying corals and raw fish than by live corals, hydrozoans, or gorgonians. Stable isotope analyses indicated detritus, macroalgae, and scleractinian corals as potential food sources and revealed an ontogenetic dietary shift toward enriched δ 13C and δ 15N values with increasing fireworm size, suggesting that large-sized individuals feed on food sources of higher trophic levels. Our findings highlight H. carunculata as a widespread, and omnivorous scavenger that has the potential to switch feeding toward weakened or stressed corals, thereby likely acting as a harmful corallivore on degraded reefs.

  6. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  7. Food Sources of Protein and Risk of Incident Gout in the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Gim Gee; Pan, An; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prospective studies evaluating diet in relation to the risk of gout in Asian populations are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the consumption of dietary protein from each of its major sources and the risk of gout in a Chinese population. Methods We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults who were 45–74 years old at recruitment during the years 1993–1998. Habitual diet information was collected via a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and physician-diagnosed gout was self-reported during 2 followup interviews up to the year 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders, among 51,114 eligible study participants who were free of gout at baseline and responded to our followup interviews. Results A total of 2,167 participants reported physician-diagnosed gout during the followup period. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (with 95% CIs) of gout, comparing the first quartile with the fourth quartile, were as follows: 1.27 (1.12–1.44; P for trend < 0.001) for total protein, 1.27 (1.11–1.45; P for trend < 0.001) for poultry, 1.16 (1.02–1.32; P for trend = 0.006) for fish and shellfish, 0.86 (0.75–0.98; P for trend = 0.018) for soy food, and 0.83 (0.73–0.95; P for trend = 0.012) for nonsoy legumes. No statistically significant associations were found with protein intake from other sources (red meat, eggs, dairy products, grains, or nuts and seeds). Conclusion In this Chinese population living in Singapore, higher total dietary protein intake from mainly poultry and fish/shellfish was associated with an increased risk of gout, while dietary intake of soy and nonsoy legumes was associated with a reduced risk of gout. PMID:25808549

  8. Combined effect of predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal suppression.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Ma, Sumin

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the combined effects of four typical predatory zooplankton and allelopathic aquatic macrophytes on algal control in a microcosm system. It would determine the effects of diverse species and biological restoration on the growth of harmful water-bloom microalgae in great lakes polluted by excess nutrients. It was found that the mixtures of each zooplankton and the floating plant Nymphoides peltatum had stronger inhibitory effects on harmful water-bloom microalgae than the individual species in clean or eutrophic water bodies. In addition, a community of four zooplankton types had a synergistic effect on algal inhibition. Algal suppression by the zooplankton community was enhanced significantly when the macrophyte was co-cultured in the microcosm. Furthermore, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more susceptible than Microcystis aeruginosa when exposed to grazing by zooplankton and the allelopathic potential of the macrophyte. Algal inhibition was also weaker in eutrophic conditions compared with the control. These findings indicate that diverse species may enhance algal inhibition. Therefore, it is necessary to restore biological diversity and rebuild an ecologically balanced food chain or web to facilitate the control of harmful algal blooms in eutrophic lakes.

  9. Safety evaluation of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Fedorova-Dahms, I; Marone, P A; Bauter, M; Ryan, A S

    2011-12-01

    The safety of DHA-rich Algal Oil from Schizochytrium sp. containing 40-45 wt% DHA and up to 10 wt% EPA was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity and aneugenicity, and in a subchronic 90-day Sprague-Dawley rat dietary study with in utero exposure, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. In the 90-day study, DHA-rich Algal Oil was administered at dietary levels of 0.5, 1.5, and 5 wt% along with two control diets: a standard low-fat basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 5 wt% of concentrated Fish Oil. There were no treatment-related effects of DHA-rich Algal Oil on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, or urinalysis. Increases in absolute and relative weights of the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals (adrenals and spleen with histological correlates) were observed in both the Fish Oil- and the high-dose of DHA-rich Algal Oil-treated females and were not considered to be adverse. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for DHA-rich Algal Oil under the conditions of this study was 5 wt% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average DHA-rich Algal Oil intake of 4260 mg/kg bw/day for male and female rats.

  10. Mass cultivation of various algal species and their evaluation as a potential candidate for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Nadia; Munir, Neelma; Saleem, Faiza; Aslam, Farheen; Naz, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a promising source for biodiesel production. Focusing on algal strains for biodiesel production, efforts should be made to search new strains. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of growth parameters (nutrients, pH, light, aeration and temperature) and the oil percentage of eight algal strains (Chlorella sp., Cladophora sp., Hydrodictylium sp., Oedogonium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Spirogyra sp., Stigeocolonium sp., Ulothrix sp.). Results show that 6.5-7.5 is the optimum pH for the growth of all algal species. Temperature showed a greater variation (25°40°C). Ulothrix sp. gave more biomass productivity and is the most suitable strain for biodiesel production due to higher oil percentage (62%). Least biomass production was observed for Stigeocolonium sp. and least oil content was obtained from Hydrodictylium sp. It was observed that among these eight algal strains for biodiesel production, Ulothrix and Chlorella are the most promising algae species.

  11. Large, omega-3 rich, pelagic diatoms under Arctic sea ice: sources and implications for food webs.

    PubMed

    Duerksen, Steven W; Thiemann, Gregory W; Budge, Suzanne M; Poulin, Michel; Niemi, Andrea; Michel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic primary production in Arctic seas has traditionally been viewed as biologically insignificant until after the ice breakup. There is growing evidence however, that under-ice blooms of pelagic phytoplankton may be a recurrent occurrence. During the springs of 2011 and 2012, we found substantial numbers (201-5713 cells m-3) of the large centric diatom (diameter >250 µm) Coscinodiscus centralis under the sea ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Resolute Bay, Nunavut. The highest numbers of these pelagic diatoms were observed in Barrow Strait. Spatial patterns of fatty acid profiles and stable isotopes indicated two source populations for C. centralis: a western origin with low light conditions and high nutrients, and a northern origin with lower nutrient levels and higher irradiances. Fatty acid analysis revealed that pelagic diatoms had significantly higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mean ± SD: 50.3 ± 8.9%) compared to ice-associated producers (30.6 ± 10.3%) in our study area. In particular, C. centralis had significantly greater proportions of the long chain omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), than ice algae (24.4 ± 5.1% versus 13.7 ± 5.1%, respectively). Thus, C. centralis represented a significantly higher quality food source for local herbivores than ice algae, although feeding experiments did not show clear evidence of copepod grazing on C. centralis. Our results suggest that C. centralis are able to initiate growth under pack ice in this area and provide further evidence that biological productivity in ice-covered seas may be substantially higher than previously recognized.

  12. Large, Omega-3 Rich, Pelagic Diatoms under Arctic Sea Ice: Sources and Implications for Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Duerksen, Steven W.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Poulin, Michel; Niemi, Andrea; Michel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic primary production in Arctic seas has traditionally been viewed as biologically insignificant until after the ice breakup. There is growing evidence however, that under-ice blooms of pelagic phytoplankton may be a recurrent occurrence. During the springs of 2011 and 2012, we found substantial numbers (201–5713 cells m−3) of the large centric diatom (diameter >250 µm) Coscinodiscus centralis under the sea ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Resolute Bay, Nunavut. The highest numbers of these pelagic diatoms were observed in Barrow Strait. Spatial patterns of fatty acid profiles and stable isotopes indicated two source populations for C. centralis: a western origin with low light conditions and high nutrients, and a northern origin with lower nutrient levels and higher irradiances. Fatty acid analysis revealed that pelagic diatoms had significantly higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mean ± SD: 50.3±8.9%) compared to ice-associated producers (30.6±10.3%) in our study area. In particular, C. centralis had significantly greater proportions of the long chain omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), than ice algae (24.4±5.1% versus 13.7±5.1%, respectively). Thus, C. centralis represented a significantly higher quality food source for local herbivores than ice algae, although feeding experiments did not show clear evidence of copepod grazing on C. centralis. Our results suggest that C. centralis are able to initiate growth under pack ice in this area and provide further evidence that biological productivity in ice-covered seas may be substantially higher than previously recognized. PMID:25473949

  13. Enhanced Production of Green Tide Algal Biomass through Additional Carbon Supply

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3−) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3− affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7–9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3− utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3−. PMID:24324672

  14. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    PubMed

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  15. EVALUATING TERRESTRIAL FOOD CHAIN IMPACTS NEAR SOURCES OF DIOXIN RELEASE IN U.S. EPA RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to the mid 1980s, assessments of health impacts from dioxin-like compounds released into the air only evaluated the inhalation exposure pathway. In the latter 1980s it was demonstrated that consumption of animal food products is the principal source of exposure to dioxin...

  16. Effects of animal source foods, with emphasis on milk, in the diet of children in low-income countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluates evidence for benefits of including animal source foods (ASF) in the diets of children in developing countries. In observational studies, a higher usual intake of ASF in such countries is associated with better growth, status of some micronutrients, cognitive performance, motor ...

  17. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term.

  18. Adsorption of Nanoplastics on Algal Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, James; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Lin, Sijie; Ke, Pu Chun

    2010-03-01

    The rapid accumulation of disposed plastics in the environment, especially in the Pacific Ocean, has become a global concern in recent years. Photo, chemical and physical degradations constantly fragment these plastics into a wide array of macroscopic to microscopic particles. As a result, marine organisms such as algae may be exposed to plastic particles through ingestion, adsorption and other forms of uptake. Such interactions, currently little understood, could potentially impact on the health state of the entire food chain. Here we report on polystyrene-algae interaction and its impact on algal photosynthesis. We first investigated the adsorption of polystyrene beads (20 nm) on a cellulose film coated on a 96-well plate. We derived a supralinear increase of the adsorption with the beads concentration for both positively and negatively charged polystyrene beads, with a saturation observed for the negatively charged polystyrene beads of concentration above 1.6 mg/mL. Using a bicarbonate indicator we discovered decreased carbon dioxide depletion due to polystyrene-algae binding. Since polystyrene beads also mediated algae aggregation, nanoplastics may alternatively be harnessed for waste water treatment.

  19. Estimating usual food intake distributions by using the multiple source method in the EPIC-Potsdam Calibration Study.

    PubMed

    Haubrock, Jennifer; Nöthlings, Ute; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dekkers, Arnold; Ocké, Marga; Harttig, Ulrich; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Knüppel, Sven; Andersen, Lene F; Boeing, Heiner

    2011-05-01

    Estimating usual food intake distributions from short-term quantitative measurements is critical when occasionally or rarely eaten food groups are considered. To overcome this challenge by statistical modeling, the Multiple Source Method (MSM) was developed in 2006. The MSM provides usual food intake distributions from individual short-term estimates by combining the probability and the amount of consumption with incorporation of covariates into the modeling part. Habitual consumption frequency information may be used in 2 ways: first, to distinguish true nonconsumers from occasional nonconsumers in short-term measurements and second, as a covariate in the statistical model. The MSM is therefore able to calculate estimates for occasional nonconsumers. External information on the proportion of nonconsumers of a food can also be handled by the MSM. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the MSM to a data set from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Calibration Study (2004) comprising 393 participants who completed two 24-h dietary recalls and one FFQ. Usual intake distributions were estimated for 38 food groups with a proportion of nonconsumers > 70% in the 24-h dietary recalls. The intake estimates derived by the MSM corresponded with the observed values such as the group mean. This study shows that the MSM is a useful and applicable statistical technique to estimate usual food intake distributions, if at least 2 repeated measurements per participant are available, even for food groups with a sizeable percentage of nonconsumers.

  20. Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: importance of food sources.

    PubMed

    Cresson, P; Fabri, M C; Bouchoucha, M; Brach Papa, C; Chavanon, F; Jadaud, A; Knoery, J; Miralles, F; Cossa, D

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30±0.61 to 7.13±7.09 μg g(-1) dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends.

  1. Aphid Honeydew Quality as a Food Source for Parasitoids Is Maintained in Bt Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L.; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance. PMID:25226521

  2. Aphid honeydew quality as a food source for parasitoids is maintained in Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance.

  3. Relationship between jaw apparatus, feeding habit, and food source in oriental woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José; Höfling, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ana Luiza C

    2014-04-01

    Associations among feeding habit, beak type, and food source in birds have been widely studied and are well known to exist. The relationship between feeding habit and jaw apparatus in birds has not attracted attention from ornithologists, perhaps because of the complexity of the skeletal morphology of the feeding system of birds. The goal of this study was to compare the jaw apparatus and foraging strategies of various Oriental species of the Picidae (Meiglyptini and Picini tribes) using a morphofunctional analysis of the skeletal structure of the jaw apparatus. This study showed that there are at least three types of jaw apparatus in these woodpeckers, as follows: 1) robust, developed, and complex; 2) complexity and development intermediate, as observed in Meiglyptes tristis and Dinopium spp., whose main foraging method involves gleaning, probing, and tapping; and 3) poorly developed, as observed in Picus miniaceus and Hemicircus concretus. The success of woodpeckers as a natural group is due not only to their feeding diversity, but also their ability to explore a wide range of different resources, as appropriate to their jaw apparatus.

  4. How drone flies (Eristalis tenax L., Syrphidae, Diptera) use floral guides to locate food sources.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, T; Lunau, K

    2001-09-01

    In this study we show how inexperienced syrphid flies, Eristalis tenax, orient on artificial flowers by means of floral guides. To test the effect of floral guides such as line and ring markings on the probability and speed of the location of a potential food source, we exploited the spontaneous proboscis reaction triggered by yellow colour stimuli. We tested whether and how fast the flies, when placed on the edge of a circular dummy flower, found a small central yellow spot and touched it with the proboscis extended. The flies found the central yellow spot more often and faster if guide lines from the margin to the yellow spot were present. The effect of guide lines was dependent on the colour of the dummy flower, and independent of the colour of the guide lines, except for yellow guide lines releasing the proboscis reaction. The effect of guide lines was stronger if the yellow spot was hidden in a 2 mm deep depression and thus not as easily visible to the flies. Ring guides had a significant effect on performance only when the intensity of the central yellow spot was low.

  5. Algal polycultures enhance coproduct recycling from hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Casey M; Hietala, David C; Lashaway, Aubrey R; Narwani, Anita; Savage, Phillip E; Cardinale, Bradley J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if polycultures of algae could enhance tolerance to aqueous-phase coproduct (ACP) from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algal biomass to produce biocrude. The growth of algal monocultures and polycultures was characterized across a range ACP concentrations and sources. All of the monocultures were either killed or inhibited by 2% ACP, but polycultures of the same species were viable at up to 10%. The addition of ACP increased the growth rate (up to 25%) and biomass production (53%) of polycultures, several of which were more productive in ACP than any monoculture was in the presence or absence of ACP. These results suggest that a cultivation process that applies biodiversity to nutrient recycling could produce more algae with less fertilizer consumption.

  6. Sources and transfer of organic matter in food webs of a Mediterranean coastal environment: Evidence for spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2006-02-01

    The spatial variability in the food web structure of a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal environment (Stagnone di Marsala, Italy) was investigated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Organic matter sources and consumers were sampled in two locations with different environmental features (e.g. hydrodynamic regime, open-sea influence, vegetal coverage). Overall more 13C-enriched and 15N-depleted values were found in the central location than in the southern for organic matter sources and consumers. Pelagic consumers (zooplankton and juveniles of transient fish) showed slight spatial differences and in both locations seemed to depend on phytoplankton as the ultimate energy source. In contrast, benthic consumers (epifauna and resident fish) exhibited remarkable differences between locations. Spatial differences in organic matter sources were smaller than in benthic consumers and thus consumers presumably exploited different ultimate organic matter sources in the two locations. Sedimentary organic matter and epiphytes appeared to be the main primary producers transferred within the food web in both locations, and seagrasses seemed to play a non-negligible trophic role in the central location. The results of this paper corroborate the finding food webs are characterised by high spatial variability even on a small spatial scale and environmental heterogeneity more than primary production that seems to influence the trophic role of autotrophs.

  7. Fatty acid and stable isotope characteristics of sea ice and pelagic particulate organic matter in the Bering Sea: tools for estimating sea ice algal contribution to Arctic food web production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiway W; Budge, Suzanne M; Gradinger, Rolf R; Iken, Katrin; Wooller, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    We determined fatty acid (FA) profiles and carbon stable isotopic composition of individual FAs (δ(13)CFA values) from sea ice particulate organic matter (i-POM) and pelagic POM (p-POM) in the Bering Sea during maximum ice extent, ice melt, and ice-free conditions in 2010. Based on FA biomarkers, differences in relative composition of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and bacteria were inferred for i-POM versus p-POM and for seasonal succession stages in p-POM. Proportions of diatom markers were higher in i-POM (16:4n-1, 6.6-8.7%; 20:5n-3, 19.6-25.9%) than in p-POM (16:4n-1, 1.2-4.0%; 20:5n-3, 5.5-14.0%). The dinoflagellate marker 22:6n-3/20:5n-3 was highest in p-POM. Bacterial FA concentration was higher in the bottom 1 cm of sea ice (14-245 μg L(-1)) than in the water column (0.6-1.7 μg L(-1)). Many i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values were higher (up to ~10‰) than those of p-POM, and i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values increased with day length. The higher i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values are most likely related to the reduced dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability within the semi-closed sea ice brine channel system. Based on a modified Rayleigh equation, the fraction of sea ice DIC fixed in i-POM ranged from 12 to 73%, implying that carbon was not limiting for primary productivity in the sympagic habitat. These differences in FA composition and δ(13)C(FA) values between i-POM and p-POM will aid efforts to track the proportional contribution of sea ice algal carbon to higher trophic levels in the Bering Sea and likely other Arctic seas.

  8. Food Sources for Ruditapes philippinarum in a Coastal Lagoon Determined by Mass Balance and Stable Isotope Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Komorita, Tomohiro; Kajihara, Rumiko; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Seiichiro; Yamada, Toshiro; Montani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the food demand of a clam population (Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve 1850)) and the isotopic contributions of potential food sources (phytoplankton, benthic diatoms, and organic matter derived from the sediment surface, seagrass, and seaweeds) to the clam diet were investigated. In particular, we investigated the manner in which dense patches of clams with high secondary productivity are sustained in a coastal lagoon ecosystem (Hichirippu Lagoon) in Hokkaido, Japan. Clam feeding behavior should affect material circulation in this lagoon owing to their high secondary productivity (ca. 130 g C m−2 yr−1). Phytoplankton were initially found to constitute 14–77% of the clam diet, although phytoplankton nitrogen content (1.79–4.48 kmol N) and the food demand of the clam (16.2 kmol N d–1) suggest that phytoplankton can constitute only up to 28% of clam dietary demands. However, use of isotopic signatures alone may be misleading. For example, the contribution of microphytobenthos (MPB) were estimated to be 0–68% on the basis of isotopic signatures but was subsequently shown to be 35±13% (mean ± S.D.) and 64±4% (mean ± S.D.) on the basis of phytoplankton biomass and clam food demand respectively, suggesting that MPB are the primary food source for clams. Thus, in the present study, the abundant MPB in the subtidal area appear to be a key food source for clams, suggesting that these MPB may sustain the high secondary production of the clam. PMID:24489779

  9. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analyses of Chrysochromulina tobin: Metabolic Tools for Enhanced Algal Fitness in the Prominent Order Prymnesiales (Haptophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hovde, Blake T.; Deodato, Chloe R.; Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ryken, Scott A.; Yost, Will; Jha, Ramesh K.; Patterson, Johnathan; Monnat, Raymond J.; Barlow, Steven B.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Richardson, Paul M.

    2015-09-23

    Haptophytes are recognized as seminal players in aquatic ecosystem function. These algae are important in global carbon sequestration, form destructive harmful blooms, and given their rich fatty acid content, serve as a highly nutritive food source to a broad range of eco-cohorts. Haptophyte dominance in both fresh and marine waters is supported by the mixotrophic nature of many taxa. Despite their importance the nuclear genome sequence of only one haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi (Isochrysidales), is available. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales), and transcriptome data collected at seven time points over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. The nuclear genome of C. tobin is small (59 Mb), compact (∼40% of the genome is protein coding) and encodes approximately 16,777 genes. Genes important to fatty acid synthesis, modification, and catabolism show distinct patterns of expression when monitored over the circadian photoperiod. The C. tobin genome harbors the first hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene complex reported for an algal species, and encodes potential anti-microbial peptides and proteins involved in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion. A new haptophyte xanthorhodopsin was also identified, together with two “red” RuBisCO activases that are shared across many algal lineages. In conclusion, the Chrysochromulina tobin genome sequence provides new information on the evolutionary history, ecology and economic importance of haptophytes.

  10. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analyses of Chrysochromulina tobin: Metabolic Tools for Enhanced Algal Fitness in the Prominent Order Prymnesiales (Haptophyceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Hovde, Blake T.; Deodato, Chloe R.; Hunsperger, Heather M.; ...

    2015-09-23

    Haptophytes are recognized as seminal players in aquatic ecosystem function. These algae are important in global carbon sequestration, form destructive harmful blooms, and given their rich fatty acid content, serve as a highly nutritive food source to a broad range of eco-cohorts. Haptophyte dominance in both fresh and marine waters is supported by the mixotrophic nature of many taxa. Despite their importance the nuclear genome sequence of only one haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi (Isochrysidales), is available. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales), and transcriptome data collected at seven time points over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. Themore » nuclear genome of C. tobin is small (59 Mb), compact (∼40% of the genome is protein coding) and encodes approximately 16,777 genes. Genes important to fatty acid synthesis, modification, and catabolism show distinct patterns of expression when monitored over the circadian photoperiod. The C. tobin genome harbors the first hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene complex reported for an algal species, and encodes potential anti-microbial peptides and proteins involved in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion. A new haptophyte xanthorhodopsin was also identified, together with two “red” RuBisCO activases that are shared across many algal lineages. In conclusion, the Chrysochromulina tobin genome sequence provides new information on the evolutionary history, ecology and economic importance of haptophytes.« less

  11. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analyses of Chrysochromulina tobin: Metabolic Tools for Enhanced Algal Fitness in the Prominent Order Prymnesiales (Haptophyceae).

    PubMed

    Hovde, Blake T; Deodato, Chloe R; Hunsperger, Heather M; Ryken, Scott A; Yost, Will; Jha, Ramesh K; Patterson, Johnathan; Monnat, Raymond J; Barlow, Steven B; Starkenburg, Shawn R; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2015-01-01

    Haptophytes are recognized as seminal players in aquatic ecosystem function. These algae are important in global carbon sequestration, form destructive harmful blooms, and given their rich fatty acid content, serve as a highly nutritive food source to a broad range of eco-cohorts. Haptophyte dominance in both fresh and marine waters is supported by the mixotrophic nature of many taxa. Despite their importance the nuclear genome sequence of only one haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi (Isochrysidales), is available. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales), and transcriptome data collected at seven time points over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. The nuclear genome of C. tobin is small (59 Mb), compact (∼ 40% of the genome is protein coding) and encodes approximately 16,777 genes. Genes important to fatty acid synthesis, modification, and catabolism show distinct patterns of expression when monitored over the circadian photoperiod. The C. tobin genome harbors the first hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene complex reported for an algal species, and encodes potential anti-microbial peptides and proteins involved in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion. A new haptophyte xanthorhodopsin was also identified, together with two "red" RuBisCO activases that are shared across many algal lineages. The Chrysochromulina tobin genome sequence provides new information on the evolutionary history, ecology and economic importance of haptophytes.

  12. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analyses of Chrysochromulina tobin: Metabolic Tools for Enhanced Algal Fitness in the Prominent Order Prymnesiales (Haptophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hovde, Blake T.; Deodato, Chloe R.; Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ryken, Scott A.; Yost, Will; Jha, Ramesh K.; Patterson, Johnathan; Monnat, Raymond J.; Barlow, Steven B.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2015-01-01

    Haptophytes are recognized as seminal players in aquatic ecosystem function. These algae are important in global carbon sequestration, form destructive harmful blooms, and given their rich fatty acid content, serve as a highly nutritive food source to a broad range of eco-cohorts. Haptophyte dominance in both fresh and marine waters is supported by the mixotrophic nature of many taxa. Despite their importance the nuclear genome sequence of only one haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi (Isochrysidales), is available. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Chrysochromulina tobin (Prymnesiales), and transcriptome data collected at seven time points over a 24-hour light/dark cycle. The nuclear genome of C. tobin is small (59 Mb), compact (∼40% of the genome is protein coding) and encodes approximately 16,777 genes. Genes important to fatty acid synthesis, modification, and catabolism show distinct patterns of expression when monitored over the circadian photoperiod. The C. tobin genome harbors the first hybrid polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthase gene complex reported for an algal species, and encodes potential anti-microbial peptides and proteins involved in multidrug and toxic compound extrusion. A new haptophyte xanthorhodopsin was also identified, together with two “red” RuBisCO activases that are shared across many algal lineages. The Chrysochromulina tobin genome sequence provides new information on the evolutionary history, ecology and economic importance of haptophytes. PMID:26397803

  13. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, William E.

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  14. Determination of sulfur in food by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for determination of sulfur in food and beverages by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry was developed. The determination was performed via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. Different CS rotational lines (257.959 nm, 258.033 nm, 258.055 nm), number of pixels and types of standard solution of sulfur, namely: sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide, DL-cysteine, and L-cystine, were studied in terms of sensitivity, repeatability of results as well as limit of detection and limit of quantification. The best results were obtained for measurements of absorption of the CS molecule at 258.055 nm at the wavelength range covering 3 pixels and DL-cysteine in 0.2 mol L- 1 HNO3 solution as a calibration standard. Under optimized conditions the limit of detection and the limit of quantification achieved for sulfur were 10.9 mg L- 1 and 36.4 mg L- 1, respectively. The repeatability of the results expressed as relative standard deviation was typically < 5%. The accuracy of the method was tested by analysis of digested biological certified reference materials (soya bean flour, corn flour and herbs) and recovery experiment for beverage samples with added known amount of sulfur standard. The recovery of analyte from such samples was in the range of 93-105% with the repeatability in the range of 4.1-5.0%. The developed method was applied for the determination of sulfur in milk (194 ± 10 mg kg- 1), egg white (2188 ± 29 mg kg- 1), mineral water (31.0 ± 0.9 mg L- 1), white wine (260 ± 4 mg L- 1) and red wine (82 ± 2 mg L- 1), as well as in sample rich in ions, such as bitter mineral water (6900 ± 100 mg L- 1).

  15. Microbial communities mediating algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Murphy, Chelsea L.; Baker, Kristina; Zamor, Richard M.; Nikolai, Steve J.; Wilder, Shawn; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored. Results Here, we characterized the microbial communities mediating the degradation of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta), Chara sp. strain IWP1 (Charophyceae), and kelp Ascophyllum nodosum (phylum Phaeophyceae), using sediments from an anaerobic spring (Zodlteone spring, OK; ZDT), sludge from a secondary digester in a local wastewater treatment plant (Stillwater, OK; WWT), and deeper anoxic layers from a seasonally stratified lake (Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees, OK; GL) as inoculum sources. Within all enrichments, the majority of algal biomass was metabolized within 13–16 weeks, and the process was accompanied by an increase in cell numbers and a decrease in community diversity. Community surveys based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene identified different lineages belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria (alpha, delta, gamma, and epsilon classes), Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes that were selectively abundant under various substrate and inoculum conditions. Within all kelp enrichments, the microbial communities structures at the conclusion of the experiment were highly similar regardless of the enrichment source, and were dominated by the genus Clostridium, or family Veillonellaceae within the Firmicutes. In all other enrichments the final microbial community was dependent on the inoculum source, rather than the type of algae utilized as substrate. Lineages enriched

  16. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  17. Variations of algal communities cause darkening of a Greenland glacier.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Jorge Villar, Susana E; Benning, Liane G

    2014-08-01

    We have assessed the microbial ecology on the surface of Mittivakkat glacier in SE-Greenland during the exceptional high melting season in July 2012 when the so far most extreme melting rate for the Greenland Ice Sheet has been recorded. By employing a complementary and multi-disciplinary field sampling and analytical approach, we quantified the dramatic changes in the different microbial surface habitats (green snow, red snow, biofilms, grey ice, cryoconite holes). The observed clear change in dominant algal community and their rapidly changing cryo-organic adaptation inventory was linked to the high melting rate. The changes in carbon and nutrient fluxes between different microbial pools (from snow to ice, cryoconite holes and glacial forefronts) revealed that snow and ice algae dominate the net primary production at the onset of melting, and that they have the potential to support the cryoconite hole communities as carbon and nutrient sources. A large proportion of algal cells is retained on the glacial surface and temporal and spatial changes in pigmentation contribute to the darkening of the snow and ice surfaces. This implies that the fast, melt-induced algal growth has a high albedo reduction potential, and this may lead to a positive feedback speeding up melting processes.

  18. The paradox of algal blooms in oligotrophic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhyay, S.; Abessa, M. B.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient inputs to streams and lakes, primarily from anthropogenic sources, lead to eutrophic conditions that favor algal blooms with undesirable consequences. In contrast, low nutrient or oligotrophic waters rarely support algal blooms; such ecosystems are typically lower in productivity. Since the mid-1980’s however, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has dramatically expanded its range colonizing oligotrophic rivers worldwide with blooms appearing as thick benthic mats. This recent global occurrence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms in temperate rivers has been perplexing in its pace of spread and the paradoxical nature of the nuisance growths. The blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic flowing waters, where phosphorus (P) availability often limits primary production. We present a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats adsorb both P and iron (Fe) from flowing waters and make P available for cellular uptake. The adsorbed P becomes bioavailable through biogeochemical processes that occur within the mat. The biogeochemical processes observed here while well accepted in benthic systems are novel for algal blooms in lotic habits. Enzymatic and bacterial processes such as Fe and sulfate reduction can release the adsorbed P and increase its bioavailability, creating a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and nutrient availability. Stalk affinity for Fe, Fe-P biogeochemistry, and interaction between watershed processes and climatic setting explain the paradoxical blooms, and the recent global spread of this invasive aquatic species. At a broader scale the study also implies that such algal blooms in oligotrophic environments can fundamentally alter the retention and longitudinal transfer of important nutrients such as P in streams and rivers.

  19. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  20. Factsheet: Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change is predicted to change many environmental conditions that could affect the properties of fresh and marine waters. These changes could favor the growth of harmful algal blooms and habitat changes.

  1. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S.; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red–absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:24567382

  2. Environmental performance of algal biofuel technology options.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Venkatesh; Stratton, Russell W; Pearlson, Matthew N; Jersey, Gilbert R; Beyene, Abraham G; Weissman, Joseph C; Rubino, Michele; Hileman, James I

    2012-02-21

    Considerable research and development is underway to produce fuels from microalgae, one of several options being explored for increasing transportation fuel supplies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This work models life-cycle GHG and on-site freshwater consumption for algal biofuels over a wide technology space, spanning both near- and long-term options. The environmental performance of algal biofuel production can vary considerably and is influenced by engineering, biological, siting, and land-use considerations. We have examined these considerations for open pond systems, to identify variables that have a strong influence on GHG and freshwater consumption. We conclude that algal biofuels can yield GHG reductions relative to fossil and other biobased fuels with the use of appropriate technology options. Further, freshwater consumption for algal biofuels produced using saline pond systems can be comparable to that of petroleum-derived fuels.

  3. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  4. Recent Advances in Algal Genetic Tool Development

    SciTech Connect

    R. Dahlin, Lukas; T. Guarnieri, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The goal of achieving cost-effective biofuels and bioproducts derived from algal biomass will require improvements along the entire value chain, including identification of robust, high-productivity strains and development of advanced genetic tools. Though there have been modest advances in development of genetic systems for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, progress in development of algal genetic tools, especially as applied to non-model algae, has generally lagged behind that of more commonly utilized laboratory and industrial microbes. This is in part due to the complex organellar structure of algae, including robust cell walls and intricate compartmentalization of target loci, as well as prevalent gene silencing mechanisms, which hinder facile utilization of conventional genetic engineering tools and methodologies. However, recent progress in global tool development has opened the door for implementation of strain-engineering strategies in industrially-relevant algal strains. Here, we review recent advances in algal genetic tool development and applications in eukaryotic microalgae.

  5. Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Plants Used Traditionally as a Source of Food.

    PubMed

    Tabit, Frederick Tawi; Komolafe, Naomi Tope; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Nyila, Monde Alfred

    2016-03-01

    Many indigenous plants have also been used as a source of food and medicine in many African rural communities in the past. The study investigated the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical constituent, and antioxidant activity of selected traditional plants used traditionally as a source of food and medicine. The methanol and water extracts of different plant parts were analyzed for phytochemicals using standard phytochemical screening reagents while the broth microdilution assays were used to analyze antimicrobial activities. Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and terpenes were found in one or more of the plant extracts, and all the plant extracts demonstrated scavenging activities. The back extracts of Sclerocarya birrea and the leaf extracts of Garcinia livingstonei exhibit the best antioxidant activities, while the water and methanol back extracts of S. birrea and G. livingstonei were the most active against all the tested foodborne bacteria.

  6. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon--natural food sources with anti-quorum sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-03-20

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  7. Analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes reveal food sources of estuarine detritivorous fish in tropical/subtropical Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsing-Juh; Kao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Ting

    2007-07-01

    Detritivorous fish generally refers to fish that primarily ingest unidentified organic detritus. We analyzed stomach contents in combination with stable isotopes to trace and compare the food sources of the large-scale mullet Liza macrolepis and other detritivorous fish species in subtropical mangrove creeks and a tropical lagoon in Taiwan. The volume of organic detritus always contributed >50% of the stomach content of L. macrolepis in the two habitats. However, consumed items were distinct between the two habitats and corresponded to the types in which they reside. The consumed items in the lagoon were more diverse than those observed in the mangroves. In the mangroves, the diet composition of L. macrolepis was primarily determined by season, not by body size. In the lagoon, there were no clear seasonal or size-dependent grouping patterns for the diet composition. There were significant seasonal and spatial variations in δ13C and δ15N values of potential food sources and L. macrolepis. However, neither δ13C nor δ15N values of L. macrolepis were correlated with fish body size. Joint analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes indicated that benthic microalgae on sediments were the most important assimilated food in both seasons for the dominant detritivorous fish in the mangroves, whereas a greater reliance on microalgal and macroalgal periphyton on oyster-culture pens was observed in the lagoon. Mangrove and marsh plants and phytoplankton, which are mostly locally produced within each habitat, were of minor importance in the assimilated food.

  8. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area.

    PubMed

    Rispo, A; Williams, I D; Shaw, P J

    2015-10-01

    A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste's weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of "don't know" were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no "quick and easy fix", regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are "hard-to-reach" in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional efforts and additional resources are usually required to improve performance.

  9. Evaluation of Crayfish Growth and Assimilation on Animal and Detrital Food Sources: Are Stable Isotopes Telling the Whole Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. L.; Wotton, R. S.; Wharton, G.; Fortino, K.; Ulseth, A. J.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    Crayfish are the dominant omnivores of many ecosystems and have strong direct and indirect effects through predation and organic matter processing. Despite this, the importance of detritus for crayfish production is poorly understood. We conducted a laboratory experiment where we fed crayfish an ad. lib. diet of only detritus, only fish tissue, or a mixture the above. The crayfish grew more on a diet which contained meat but growth was highly correlated with the amount of food consumed. The least amount of food was consumed in the detritus treatment, an intermediate amount of food in the meat treatment, and the most food in the mix treatment, suggesting that consumption of detritus by crayfish is related to more than simply the abundance of detritus. Nonetheless, isotopic evidence indicated that the crayfish were not assimilating leaf C and N. Additionally, crayfish in the meat containing treatments never exceeded the del 15N signature of their source by the approximately 3 units expected following fractionation, despite coming to isotopic equilibrium with their source. These findings suggest that crayfish may fractionate C and N uniquely. This difference may have to do with gut microbial activity and may have implications for the interpretation crayfish isotopic signatures.

  10. The recruiter's excitement--features of thoracic vibrations during the honey bee's waggle dance related to food source profitability.

    PubMed

    Hrncir, Michael; Maia-Silva, Camila; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Farina, Walter M

    2011-12-01

    The honey bee's waggle dance constitutes a remarkable example of an efficient code allowing social exploitation of available feeding sites. In addition to indicating the position (distance, direction) of a food patch, both the occurrence and frequency of the dances depend on the profitability of the exploited resource (sugar concentration, solution flow rate). During the waggle dance, successful foragers generate pulsed thoracic vibrations that putatively serve as a source of different kinds of information for hive bees, who cannot visually decode dances in the darkness of the hive. In the present study, we asked whether these vibrations are a reliable estimator of the excitement of the dancer when food profitability changes in terms of both sugar concentration and solution flow rate. The probability of producing thoracic vibrations as well as several features related to their intensity during the waggle phase (pulse duration, velocity amplitude, duty cycle) increased with both these profitability variables. The number of vibratory pulses, however, was independent of sugar concentration and reward rate exploited. Thus, pulse number could indeed be used by dance followers as reliable information about food source distance, as suggested in previous studies. The variability of the dancer's thoracic vibrations in relation to changes in food profitability suggests their role as an indicator of the recruiter's motivational state. Hence, the vibrations could make an important contribution to forager reactivation and, consequently, to the organisation of collective foraging processes in honey bees.

  11. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  12. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  13. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  14. Lutein and Zeaxanthin—Food Sources, Bioavailability and Dietary Variety in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Protection

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Natoli, Sharon; Liew, Gerald; Flood, Victoria M.

    2017-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) are the predominant carotenoids which accumulate in the retina of the eye. The impact of L/Z intake on the risk and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the developed world, has been investigated in cohort studies and clinical trials. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature and evaluate the current evidence relating to L/Z intake and AMD, and describe important food sources and factors that increase the bioavailability of L/Z, to inform dietary models. Cohort studies generally assessed L/Z from dietary sources, while clinical trials focused on providing L/Z as a supplement. Important considerations to take into account in relation to dietary L/Z include: nutrient-rich sources of L/Z, cooking methods, diet variety and the use of healthy fats. Dietary models include examples of how suggested effective levels of L/Z can be achieved through diet alone, with values of 5 mg and 10 mg per day described. These diet models depict a variety of food sources, not only from dark green leafy vegetables, but also include pistachio nuts and other highly bioavailable sources of L/Z such as eggs. This review and the diet models outlined provide information about the importance of diet variety among people at high risk of AMD or with early signs and symptoms of AMD. PMID:28208784

  15. 21 CFR 1250.25 - Source identification and inspection of food and drink.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... whom they have acquired or are acquiring their food supply, including milk, fluid milk products, ice cream and other frozen desserts, butter, cheese, bottled water, sandwiches and box lunches. (b)...

  16. Stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris) learn to associate footprint cues at food sources with a specific reward context.

    PubMed

    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, André Vieira; Hrncir, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Foraging insects leave chemical footprints on flowers that subsequent foragers may use as indicators for recent flower visits and, thus, potential resource depletion. Accordingly, foragers should reject food sources presenting these chemical cues. Contrasting this assumption, experimental studies in stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), so far, demonstrated an attractive effect of footprints. These findings lead to doubts about the meaning of these chemical cues in natural foraging contexts. Here, we asked whether foragers of stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris) use footprints according to the previously experienced reward level of visited food sources. Bees were trained to artificial flower patches, at which the reward of a flower either decreased or, alternatively, increased after a visit by a forager. Individuals were allowed a total of nine foraging bouts to the patch, after which their preference for visited or unvisited flowers was tested. In the choice tests, bees trained under the decreasing reward context preferred unvisited flowers, whereas individuals trained under the increasing reward context preferred visited flowers. Foragers without experience chose randomly between visited and unvisited flowers. These results demonstrate that M. scutellaris learns to associate unspecific footprint cues at food sources with differential, specific reward contexts, and uses these chemical cues accordingly for their foraging decisions.

  17. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: −22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., −25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, −22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, −24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, −21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., −29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and −24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  18. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers.

  19. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    are critical in determining the characteristics and size of downstream populations, as illustrated by the Wapato Lake bloom in 2008, but more data are needed from upstream to fully define the importance of this connection. The sources of flow, through their differential contribution of plankton inocula (quality and amount), were, at times, important factors affecting phytoplankton populations. While SRP concentrations were often most highly correlated with phytoplankton species community, the bioavailability of phosphorus is still somewhat unknown and there are several sources to consider. Preliminary bioassay tests suggested that while treated wastewater effluent may stimulate algae at 30 percent concentrations, negative effects (or decreased stimulation) on Chl-a and DO production may occur at concentrations of 50 percent. Targeted data collection and future research will be needed to further understand the importance of these factors on Tualatin River phytoplankton. While the data and analysis completed for this report provide insights into future research and monitoring that would be useful to continue, additional monitoring of turbidity, Chl-a, and plankton abundance and species composition in the upper part of the basin would enhance our understanding of plankton dynamics and factors affecting phytoplankton abundance in the lower river. Assessment of the key upstream sources of algal inocula via surveys of the major flow sources as well as tributaries and wetlands would provide useful information for the management of river water quality. Other studies that could prove useful for developing management strategies include targeted experiments to evaluate the bioavailability of phosphorus from a variety of sources. New research on phytoplankton–zooplankton interactions, and studies of planktivorous fish, might also provide insight about food web dynamics and potential “top-down” effects of fish predation on the plankton communities. In addition, further

  20. Public directory data sources do not accurately characterize the food environment in two predominantly rural states.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Primack, Brian A; Owens, Peter M; Gibson, Lucinda; Beauregard, Sandy; Mackenzie, Todd A; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-04-01

    Communities are being encouraged to develop locally based interventions to address environmental risk factors for obesity. Online public directories represent an affordable and easily accessible mechanism for mapping community food environments, but may have limited utility in rural areas. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of public directories vs rigorous onsite field verification to characterize the community food environment in 32 geographically dispersed towns from two rural states covering 1,237.6 square miles. Eight types of food outlets were assessed in 2007, including food markets and eating establishments, first using two publically available online directories followed by onsite field verification by trained coders. χ(2) and univariate binomial regression were used to determine whether the proportion of outlets accurately listed varied by food outlet type or town population. Among 1,340 identified outlets, only 36.9% were accurately listed through public directories; 29.6% were not listed but were located during field observation. Accuracy varied by outlet type, being most accurate for big box stores and least accurate for farm/produce stands. Overall, public directories accurately identified fewer than half of the food outlets. Accuracy was significantly lower for rural and small towns compared to mid-size and urban towns (P<0.001). In this geographic sample, public directories seriously misrepresented the actual distribution of food outlets, particularly for rural and small towns. To inform local obesity-prevention efforts, communities should strongly consider using field verification to characterize the food environment in low-population areas.

  1. Cereal foods are the major source of betaine in the Western diet--analysis of betaine and free choline in cereal foods and updated assessments of betaine intake.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Zangger, Alicia; Guiraud, Seu Ping

    2014-02-15

    Betaine and its precursor choline are important components of one-carbon metabolism, remethylating homocysteine into methionine and providing methyl groups for DNA methylation. Cereals are the main source of betaine in the diet, though there is little literature available on the content of betaine in cereal products, nor on betaine intake from cereals. Betaine and free-choline concentrations were measured by liquid-chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a wide range of commercially available cereal foods and cereal fractions. Whole grain wheat and related fractions were the best overall common source of betaine, while the pseudocereal quinoa had the highest amount of betaine measured (3900 μg/g). Based on estimates of dietary intake data cereal foods provide approximately 60-67% of betaine in Western diets, and 20-40% of betaine in South-East Asian diets. Average intake of betaine was 131 mg/d, well below those used in intervention studies using betaine to lower blood homocysteine.

  2. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.

  3. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered.

  4. Harmful Algal Bloom Hotspots Really Are Hot: A Case Study from Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, R. M.; Anderson, C.; Birch, J. M.; Bowers, H.; Caron, D. A.; Chao, Y.; Doucette, G.; Farrara, J. D.; Gellene, A. G.; Negrey, K.; Howard, M. D.; Ryan, J. P.; Scholin, C. A.; Smith, J.; Sukhatme, G.

    2015-12-01

    Monterey Bay, California is one of several recognized hotspots for harmful algal blooms along the US west coast, particularly for the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, which produces domoic acid and is responsible for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning. Historical observations have linked bloom activity to anomalously warm conditions with weak and sporadic upwelling. In particular, blooms appear to be associated with El Niño conditions. Monterey, as with much of the US west coast, experienced unusual warm conditions in spring and summer 2014, leading to multiple ecosystem effects including massive algal blooms, concentration of apex predators nearshore, and unusually high levels of domoic acid. As the warm anomalies continued and strengthened into 2015, Monterey (and much of the west coast) has been experiencing the largest and most toxic algal bloom recorded in the last 15 years, as well as unprecedented coccolithophore blooms associated with warm, nutrient-depleted waters. With the strengthening El Niño conditions developing in summer 2015, it is possible that 2016 will result in a third consecutive year of unusually toxic algal blooms. Using a combination of historical observations, intensive field studies, and predictive models we explore the hypothesis that these warm anomalies lead to shifts in the typical upwelling-dominated food web leading to a collapse of the ecosystem towards the coast, unusual algal blooms, and enhanced trophic transfer of toxins, resulting in magnified negative impacts to wildlife and, potentially, humans.

  5. Transformation of algal turf by echinoids and scarid fishes on French Polynesian coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille L.; Peyrot-Clausade, Mireille; Romano, Jean-Claude

    1992-04-01

    The respective roles of regular echinoids and scarid fishes in the transformation of turf algae, the main food resource for reef herbivores, were investigated on French Polynesian coral reefs. The role of one species of parrotfish ( Scarus sordidus) was compared with that of four species of echinoids. The degree and ways of degradation of the algal matter were determined by the organic matter percentage, the composition of the sugar fraction, and the concentration and composition of chlorophylltype pigments as assayed by HPLC analysis. Chemical analyses were performed on anterior and posterior intestines for scarids, intestinal contents and faeces for echinoids, and on fresh algal turf as a control of initial food quality. A decrease in mean percentage of organic matter in gut content was observed from intestine (9.7%) to faeces (7%) in sea urchins, but not in parrotfishes. The total sugar fraction decreased from fresh algal turf (32% of total organic matter) to echinoid (28%) to scarid (18%) gut contents. The ratio of insoluble to soluble sugars (I/S ratios) was higher in echinoids (2.6) than in scarid gut contents (1.0). A decrease in the total pigment concentration was measured from fresh algal turf to echinoid and it was found to be even lower in scarid gut contents. Chromatograms showed that the composition of chlorophyll-type pigments in scarid intestines was very similar to fresh algal turf, with a dominance of native forms, mainly chlorophyll a and b. On the contrary, degraded pigment forms dominated in echinoids. The main degraded products were pheophorbides in sea urchins, and chlorophyllides in parrotfishes. These results provided evidence for differentiation in digestive processes occurring in the two types of grazers. Echinoids released higher degraded algal material than did scarids. Thus, these two types of grazers play different roles in the recycling of organic matter on coral reefs.

  6. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    SciTech Connect

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D. Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  7. Phycoremediation coupled production of algal biomass, harvesting and anaerobic digestion: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree; Vijay, Virendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion is a versatile and environment friendly fuel which traditionally utilizes cattle dung as the substrate. In the recent years, owing to its high content of biodegradable compounds, algal biomass has emerged as a potential feedstock for biogas production. Moreover, the ability of algae to treat wastewater and fix CO2 from waste gas streams makes it an environmental friendly and economically feasible feedstock. The present review focuses on the possibility of utilizing wastewater as the nutrient and waste gases as the CO2 source for algal biomass production and subsequent biogas generation. Studies describing the various harvesting methods of algal biomass as well as its anaerobic digestion have been compiled and discussed. Studies targeting the most recent advancements on biogas enrichment by algae have been discussed. Apart from highlighting the various advantages of utilizing algal biomass for biogas production, limitations of the process such as cell wall resistivity towards digestion and inhibitions caused due to ammonia toxicity and the possible strategies for overcoming the same have been reviewed. The studies compiled in the present review indicate that if the challenges posed in translating the lab scale studies on phycoremediation and biogas production to pilot scale are overcome, algal biogas could become the sustainable and economically feasible source of renewable energy.

  8. Atmosphere stabilization and element recycle in an experimental mouse-algal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Experiments conducted with a gas-closed mouse-algal system designed to investigate principles of photosynthetic gas exchange focus primarily on observing gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions and secondarily on studying element cycling through compartments of the experimental system. Inherent instabilities exit between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide CO2 and oxygen O2 by the mouse and algae. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable maintenance of physiologic concentrations of CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations have been examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system. Elemental mass balances through the experimental systems compartments are being studied with the concurrent development of a mathematical simulation model. Element cycling experiments include quantification of elemental flows through system compartments and wet oxidation of system waste materials for use as an algal nutrient source. Oxidized waste products demonstrate inhibitory properties although dilution has been shown to allow normal growth.

  9. The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Jon K; Dean, Andrew P; Osundeko, Olumayowa

    2011-01-01

    The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy has received considerable interest, but if microalgal biofuel production is to be economically viable and sustainable, further optimization of mass culture conditions are needed. Wastewaters derived from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities potentially provide cost-effective and sustainable means of algal growth for biofuels. In addition, there is also potential for combining wastewater treatment by algae, such as nutrient removal, with biofuel production. Here we will review the current research on this topic and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using wastewaters as resources for cost-effective microalgal biofuel production.

  10. Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rothwell, Joseph A; Scalbert, Augustin; Knaze, Viktoria; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Touillaud, Marina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Menéndez, Virginia; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Palli, Domenico; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sieri, Sabina; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Grote, Verena; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Tsiotas, Konstantinos; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ros, Martine; Peeters, Petra H M; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Ericson, Ulrika; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Wark, Petra; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2013-10-01

    Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36,037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6-95·3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6-14·4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1-0·8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3-80·7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.

  11. Foraging energetics of a nectar-feeding ant: metabolic expenditure as a function of food-source profitability.

    PubMed

    Schilman, Pablo E; Roces, Flavio

    2006-10-01

    We examined the quantitative relationship between the energetic costs and benefits of nectar collection by nectar-feeding ants, Camponotus rufipes. In the laboratory, individual workers were trained to visit an artificial feeder that provided a sucrose solution of 1%, 5%, 10%, 30% or 50% at controlled flows, in a similar span range to those observed in natural nectar sources. We measured foraging times, nectar loads collected, and CO(2) production during actual feeding, as an indication of the energy expenditure for a single forager. Results show an increase in individual metabolic rates with increasing flow rate of sugar solution, but no dependence on sucrose concentration. This increase in metabolic expenditure does not depend on the crop load attained while feeding, as intuitively expected, and is therefore a result of an increased activity brought about by the food-source profitability experienced by the forager. The energy gained during collection of sugar solution is always higher than the energy spent by the ant. Even with a food source of lower quality than a natural source, the ants gain ca. tenfold of what they spend. Based on a simplified model, we calculated that foragers of C. rufipes could travel from 0.5 to 9 km with the energy gained in a single foraging trip only. These results suggest that decreasing foraging time is more important than increasing individual energetic efficiency when workers of the nectar-feeding ant C. rufipes decide to stop drinking and return to the nest with partial crop loads.

  12. Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF

  13. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  14. Adolescent girls' most common source of junk food away from home.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John; Pereira, Mark A; Veblen Mortenson, Sara; Pickrel, Julie; Conway, Terry L

    2012-09-01

    Contextual factors associated with adolescent girls' dietary behaviors could inform future interventions to improve diet. High school girls completed a 7-day diary, recording all trips made. In places other than home or school they recorded the food eaten. Girls made an average of 11.4 trips per week other than to home or school. Snacks high in solid oils, fats and added sugars (SOFAS) were frequently consumed. Girls reported eating an average of 3.5 servings per week of snacks high in SOFAS at someone else's house compared to 3.0 servings per week at retail food outlets. Findings demonstrate that low nutrient foods are ubiquitous and efforts should be made to reduce their availability in multiple settings.

  15. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Justin N.; Sullivan, Enid J.; Dean, Cynthia A.; Steichen, Seth A.

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  16. Floating mucus aggregates derived from benthic microorganisms on rocky intertidal reefs: Potential as food sources for benthic animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2011-09-01

    Mucus films, flocs or foams consisting of fine sand, algae and detritus frequently occur in the surface waters of rocky intertidal reef flats during incoming tide. These masses are referred to as mucus aggregates. We examined the developmental process of mucus aggregates and their abundance, distribution, migration and trophic composition. The trophic composition of mucus aggregates was then compared to those of sediments to evaluate their potential nutritional value for benthic animals. The organic matter content, chlorophyll a concentration, microalgal density and bacteria-derived fatty acid contents of mucus aggregates were higher than those observed in sediment, suggesting that mucus aggregates contain not only high levels of organic matter but also dense concentrations of microalgae and bacteria; therefore, mucus aggregates may serve as a qualitatively more energetic food source for benthic fauna compared to sediments. Benthic diatoms were the most abundant organisms in mucus aggregates. Large numbers of diatoms were trapped in fine mineral particles and mucilage-like strings, suggesting that a portion of the mucus is secreted by these benthic microalgae. Mucus aggregate accounted for only 0.01-3.9% of the daily feeding requirements of the dominant detritivore, Ophiocoma scolopendrina (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) over the entire sampling area. In contrast, for the species population on the back reef, where mucus aggregates ultimately accumulate, mucus aggregates provided from 0.4 to 113.3% of food for this species. These results suggest that mucus aggregate availability varies spatiotemporally and that they do not always provide adequate food sources for O. scolopendrina populations.

  17. Memory and disgust: Effects of appearance-congruent and appearance-incongruent information on source memory for food.

    PubMed

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The present study was stimulated by previous findings showing that people preferentially remember person descriptions that violate appearance-based first impressions. Given that until now all studies used faces as stimuli, these findings can be explained by referring to a content-specific module for social information processing that facilitates social orientation within groups via stereotyping and counter-stereotyping. The present study tests whether the same results can be obtained with fitness-relevant stimuli from another domain--pictures of disgusting-looking or tasty-looking food, paired with tasty and disgusting descriptions. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, guessing and source memory. There was an old-new recognition advantage for disgusting-looking food. People had a strong tendency towards guessing that disgusting-looking food had been previously associated with a disgusting description. Source memory was enhanced for descriptions that disconfirmed these negative, appearance-based impressions. These findings parallel the results from the social domain. Heuristic processing of stimuli based on visual appearance may be complemented by intensified processing of incongruent information that invalidates these first impressions.

  18. Coming out of the woods: do termites need a specialized worker caste to search for new food sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupf, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2008-09-01

    Most small-colony termites live confined within a single piece of wood on which they feed and do not possess permanent workers: Tasks are done by developmentally flexible immatures (pseudergates). By contrast, large-colony termites possess a specialized (true) worker caste and forage outside their nest for food. To shed light on possible transitional steps between these contrasting patterns of social organization, we studied an atypical Rhinotermitidae, Prorhinotermes inopinatus. In this species, despite the absence of a true worker caste, soldiers, pseudergates, and neotenic reproductives may leave the nest and explore their surroundings. Although evidence presented in this study indicates that termites recognize unknown areas, there is no directional recruitment toward them. The discovery of a food source, i.e., a piece of wood, is followed by the establishment of a long-lasting trail between the nest and the food source. A large fraction of the colony, including neotenic reproductives, ultimately migrates into the piece of wood. Our results thus demonstrate that multiple features of external foraging behavior can evolve independently of the existence of a true worker caste in termites. We suggest that large colonies with true workers, like those of most Rhinotermitidae, may easily have evolved from a Prorhinotermes-like pattern if submitted to increasing selective pressures for worker efficiency in a stable environment.

  19. Characterizing the Food Retail Environment: Impact of Count, Type and Geospatial Error in Two Secondary Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Hibbert, James D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Commercial listings of food retail outlets are increasingly used by community members, food policy councils, and in multi-level intervention research to identify areas with limited access to healthier food. This study quantified the amount of count, type and geospatial error in two commercial data sources. Methods InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) were compared to a validated field census and validity statistics calculated. Results Considering only completeness, D&B data undercounted 24% of existing supermarkets and grocery stores and InfoUSA 29%. Additionally, considering accuracy of outlet type assignment increased the undercount error to 42% and 39%, respectively. Marked overcount existed as well and only 43% of existing supermarkets were correctly identified with respect to presence, outlet type, and location. Conclusions and Implications Relying exclusively on secondary data to characterize the food environment will result in substantial error. While extensive data cleaning can offset some error, verification of outlets with a field census is still the method of choice. PMID:23582231

  20. The Importance of Source: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Taylor K.; Rumble, Joy N.; Gay, Keegan D.; Rodriguez, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Even though science says genetically modified (GM) foods are safe, many consumers remain skeptical of the technology. Additionally, the scientific community has trouble communicating to the public, causing consumers to make uninformed decisions. The Millennial Generation will have more buying power than any other generation before them, and more…

  1. Food proteins as a source of bioactive peptides with diverse functions.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J

    2012-08-01

    In addition to supplying essential nutrients, some food proteins can confer additional health benefits beyond nutrition. The presence of bioactive proteins and peptides in different foods is a factor not currently taken into consideration when assessing the dietary quality of food proteins. The range of described physiological benefits attributed to bioactive proteins and peptides is diverse. Multiple factors can potentially impact on the ability of a bioactive peptide or protein to elicit an effect. Although some food proteins act directly in their intact form to elicit their effects, generally it is peptides derived from digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation that are of most interest. The levels of bioactive peptides generated must be sufficient to elicit a response, but should not be so high as to be unsafe, thus causing negative effects. In addition, some peptides cause systemic effects and therefore must be absorbed, again in sufficient amounts to elicit their action. Many studies to date have been carried out in vitro; therefore it is important that further trials are conducted in vivo to assess efficacy, dose response and safety of the peptides, particularly if health related claims are to be made. Therefore, methods must be developed and standardised that enable the measurement of health benefits and also the level of bioactive peptides which are absorbed into the bloodstream. Once standardised, such methods may provide a new perspective and an additional mechanism for analysing protein quality which is currently not encompassed by the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS).

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes.

  3. 9 CFR 424.21 - Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Inspection Service, Office of Policy, Program Development and Evaluation, Washington, DC 20250-3700. (6... of Policy, Program Development and Evaluation, Washington, DC 20250-3700. (c) The food ingredients... ......do Do. Anti-coagulants Citric acid To prevent clotting Fresh blood of livestock 0.2 percent with...

  4. 9 CFR 424.21 - Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inspection Service, Office of Policy, Program Development and Evaluation, Washington, DC 20250-3700. (6... of Policy, Program Development and Evaluation, Washington, DC 20250-3700. (c) The food ingredients... ......do Do. Anti-coagulants Citric acid To prevent clotting Fresh blood of livestock 0.2 percent with...

  5. Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel; Knight, Annemarie; Asante, Matilda; Thomas, Jane; Goff, Louise M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in diasporic populations of African ancestry. Objective To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. Design An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26) and London (n=57) was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. Results Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001), fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005), and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, p<0.001) and a significantly lower energy from carbohydrate (52.2±7.7 vs. 61.5±9.3%, p<0.001). Dietary fibre intake was significantly higher in the UK-Ghanaian diet compared to the native Ghanaian diet (8.3±3.1 vs. 6.7±2.2 g/1,000 kcal, p=0.007). There was significantly less energy, macronutrients, and fibre derived from traditional foods post-migration. Non-traditional foods including breakfast cereals, wholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. Conclusions Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of ‘Western’ foods observed in migrant communities. PMID:26610275

  6. Algal swimming velocities signal fatty acid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Travis J; Hondzo, Miki; Mashek, Mara T; Mashek, Douglas G; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The use of microalgae for biofuel production will be beneficial to society if we can produce biofuels at large scales with minimal mechanical energy input in the production process. Understanding micro-algal physiological responses under variable environmental conditions in bioreactors is essential for the optimization of biofuel production. We demonstrate that measuring micro-algal swimming speed provides information on culture health and total fatty acid accumulation. Three strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown heterotrophically on acetate and subjected to various levels of nitrogen starvation. Other nutrient levels were explored to determine their effect on micro-algal kinetics. Swimming velocities were measured with two-dimensional micro-particle tracking velocimetry. The results show an inverse linear relationship between normalized total fatty acid mass versus swimming speed of micro-algal cells. Analysis of RNA sequencing data confirms these results by demonstrating that the biological processes of cell motion and the generation of energy precursors are significantly down-regulated. Experiments demonstrate that changes in nutrient concentration in the surrounding media also affect swimming speed. The findings have the potential for the in situ and indirect assessment of lipid content by measuring micro-algal swimming kinetics.

  7. Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

  8. Genetic diversity and antibiogram profile of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from human, animal, foods and associated environmental sources

    PubMed Central

    Dhaka, Pankaj; Vijay, Deepthi; Vergis, Jess; Negi, Mamta; Kumar, Manesh; Mohan, Vysakh; Doijad, Swapnil; Poharkar, Krupali V.; Malik, Satyaveer Singh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram; Rawool, Deepak B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infectious diarrhoea particularly due to pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in developing countries, including India. Despite significant reports of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes around the globe, studies which address genetic relatedness, antibiogram profile and their correlation with respect to their isolation from different sources are sparse. The present study determines isolation and identification of DEC pathotypes from different sources, their genetic characterisation, antibiogram profile and their correlation if any. Materials and methods A total of 336 samples comprising diarrhoeic stool samples from infants (n=103), young animal (n=106), foods (n=68) and associated environmental sources (n=59) were collected from Bareilly region of India. All the samples were screened by using standard microbiological methods for the detection of E. coli. The identified E. coli were then confirmed as DEC pathotypes using polymerase chain reaction–based assays. Those DEC pathotypes identified as Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were further confirmed using HEp-2 adherence assay. All the isolated DEC pathotypes were studied for their genetic diversity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using disc diffusion method as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results and discussion Of the four DEC pathotypes investigated, EAEC was found to be the predominant pathogen with an isolation rate of 16.5% from infants, 17.9% from young animals, 16.2% from foods and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. These EAEC isolates, on further characterisation, revealed predominance of ‘atypical’ EAEC, with an isolation rate of 10.7% from infants, 15.1% from young animals, 16.2% from foods, and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. On PFGE analysis, discrimination was evident within DEC pathotypes as 52 unique pulsotypes were observed for 59

  9. Trans fatty acids (tFA): sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food.

    PubMed

    Fernández-San Juan, P-M

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%). These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep), these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries), snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits), margarines and dehydrated soups.

  10. Biological nitrate removal using a food waste-derived carbon source in synthetic wastewater and real sewage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Menglu; Yan, Feng; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Quan

    2016-01-15

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from food waste to improve biological nutrient removal has drawn much attention. In this study, acidogenic liquid from food waste was used as an alternative carbon source for synthetic wastewater treatment. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were suitable for denitrification, and the change in acidogenic liquid composition had no negative effect on denitrification. The denitrification rates using optimal carbon-to-nitrate ratios of acidogenic liquid were more than 25 mg NO3-N/(gVSS·h). At the same time, acidogenic liquid was used to improve nutrient removal from summer and winter sewage. C/N ratios of 5 and 6 were acceptable for summer sewage treatment. Total nitrogen in the final effluent was less than 7 mg/L. Two additional hours were required for winter sewage treatment, and the C/N ratio had to be >6.

  11. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet.

  12. Effect of fermentation liquid from food waste as a carbon source for enhancing denitrification in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-02-01

    Food wastes were used for anaerobic fermentation to prepare carbon sources for enhancing nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. Under anaerobic conditions without pH adjustment, the fermentation liquid from food wastes (FLFW) with a high organic acid content was produced at room temperature (25 °C) and initial solid concentration of 13%. Using FLFW as the sole carbon source of artificial wastewater for biological treatment by sequence batch operation, maximized denitrification (with a denitrification rate of V(DN) = 12.89 mg/gVSS h and a denitrification potential of P(DN) = 0.174 gN/gCOD) could be achieved at a COD/TN ratio of 6. The readily biodegradable fraction in the FLFW was evaluated as 58.35%. By comparing FLFW with glucose and sodium acetate, two commonly used chemical carbon sources, FLFW showed a denitrification result similar to sodium acetate but much better than glucose in terms of total nitrogen removal, V(DN), P(DN), organic matter consumption rate (V(COD)) and heterotrophy anoxic yield coefficient (Y(H)).

  13. Assessment of food source profitability in honeybees (Apis mellifera): how does disturbance of foraging activity affect trophallactic behaviour?

    PubMed

    Wainselboim, A J; Roces, F; Farina, W M

    2003-01-01

    When forager honeybees (Apis mellifera) return to the hive after a successful foraging trip, they unload the collected liquid to recipient hive mates through mouth-to-mouth contacts (trophallaxis). The speed at which the liquid is transferred (unloading rate) from donor to recipient is related to the profitability of the recently visited food source. Two main characteristics that define this profitability are the flow of solution delivered by the feeder and the time invested by the forager at the source (visit time). To investigate the effect of visit time on trophallactic behaviour, donor foragers were trained to a rate feeder that could deliver different flows of solution. We dissociated visit time and flow of solution by introducing pauses in the solution's deliverance at different moments of the foraging visit. We analysed whether timing of the non-deliverance period within the visit is important for the forager's assessment of resource profitability. During the subsequent trophallactic encounter with a hive mate, unloading rate was related to the total time invested by the forager at the food source only if the ingestion process had already been started. These results together with previous ones suggest that foragers integrate an overall flow rate of solution of the feeder throughout the entire foraging visit.

  14. Genetic diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 : H7 recovered from human and food sources.

    PubMed

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Elkhatib, Walid F; Elfadl, Eman A Abo; Verstraete, Karen; Denayer, Sarah; Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; De Zutter, Lieven; Verhaegen, Bavo; De Rauw, Klara; Piérard, Denis; De Reu, Koen; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an epidemiological association between Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 : H7 strains associated with human infection and with food sources. Frequency distributions of different genetic markers of E. coli O157 : H7 strains recovered from human and food sources were compared using molecular assays to identify E. coli O157 : H7 genotypes associated with variation in pathogenic potential and host specificity. Genotypic characterization included: lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA-6), clade typing, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion site analysis and variant analysis of Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx2a and stx2c) and antiterminator Q genes (Q933 and Q21). The intermediate lineage (LI/II) dominated among both food and human strains. Compared to other clades, clades 7 and 8 were more frequent among food and human strains, respectively. The tir (255T) polymorphism occurred more frequently among human strains than food strains. Q21 and Q933 + Q21 were found at significantly higher frequencies among food and human strains, respectively. Moreover, stx2a and stx2a+c were detected at significantly higher frequencies among human strains compared to food strains. Bivariate analysis revealed significant concordance (P<0.05) between the LSPA-6 assay and the other typing methods. Multivariable regression analysis suggested that tir (255T) was the most distinctive genotype that can be used to detect bacterial clones with potential risk for human illness from food sources. This study supported previous reports of the existence of diversity in genetic markers among different isolation sources by including E. coli O157 : H7 strains from both food and human sources. This might enable tracking genotypes with potential risk for human illness from food sources.

  15. Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based (SFC) beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (BW...

  16. Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    DOE-EERE's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) works to accelerate the development of a sustainable, cost-competitive, advanced biofuel industry that can strengthen U.S. energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality, through research, development, and demonstration projects in partnership with industry, academia, and national laboratory partners. BETO’s Advanced Algal Systems Program (also called the Algae Program) has a long-term applied research and development (R&D) strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels. The team works with partners to develop new technologies, to integrate technologies at commercially relevant scales, and to conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential and challenges of the algal biofuels industry. Research has indicated that this industry is capable of producing billions of gallons of renewable diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels annually. R&D activities are integrated with BETO’s longstanding effort to accelerate the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  17. The sialotranscriptome of Antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Mans, Ben J.; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Barizon, Gustavo Canavaci; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. F.

    2012-01-01

    The hosts for Antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. The mouthparts of nymphal and adult A. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. How a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. Adults of A. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always found. Guano produced by insectivorous bats contains twice the amount of protein and 60 times the amount of iron as beef. In addition, bacteria and chitin-rich fungi proliferate on guano. Comparative data on the transcriptome of the salivary glands of A. delacruzi is nonexistent and would help to understand the physiological adaptations of salivary glands that accompany different sources of food as well as the steps taken by the Acari towards haematophagy, believed to have evolved from scavenging dead animals. Annotation of the transcriptome of salivary glands from female instars of A. delacruzi collected on guano categorized 5.7% of the clusters of expressed genes as putative secreted proteins. They included abundantly expressed TIL domain-containing proteins (possible anti-microbials), an abundantly expressed protein similar to a serum amyloid found in the sialotranscriptomes of Ornithodoros spp., a savignygrin, a family of mucin/peritrophin/cuticle-like proteins, antimicrobials and an HIV envelope-like glycoprotein also found in soft ticks. When comparing the transcriptome of A. delacruzi with those of blood-feeding female soft and hard ticks some notable differences were observed; they consisted of the following transcripts over- or under-represented or absent in the sialotranscriptome of A. delacuzi that may reflect its source of food: ferritin, mucins with chitin-binding domains and TIL domain-containing proteins versus lipocalins, basic tail proteins

  18. Natural Leishmania sp. reservoirs and phlebotomine sandfly food source identification in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania spp are distributed throughout the world and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. However, leishmaniasis is thought to be confined to areas of the world where its insect vectors, sandflies, are present. Phlebotomine sandflies obtain blood meals from a variety of wild and domestic animals and sometimes from humans. These vectors transmit Leishmania spp, the aetiological agent of leishmaniasis. Identification of sandfly blood meals has generally been performed using serological methods, although a few studies have used molecular procedures in artificially fed insects. In this study, cytochrome b gene (cytB) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in DNA samples isolated from 38 engorged Psychodopygus lloydi and the expected 359 bp fragment was identified from all of the samples. The amplified product was digested using restriction enzymes and analysed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). We identified food sources for 23 females; 34.8% yielded a primate-specific banding profile and 26.1% and 39.1% showed banding patterns specific to birds or mixed restriction profiles (rodent/marsupial, human/bird, rodent/marsupial/human), respectively. The food sources of 15 flies could not be identified. Two female P. lloydi were determined to be infected by Leishmania using internal transcribed spacer 1 and heat shock protein 70 kDa PCR-RFLP. The two female sandflies, both of which fed on rodents/marsupials, were further characterised as infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. These results constitute an important step towards applying methodologies based on cytB amplification as a tool for identifying the food sources of female sandflies.

  19. Variable toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna: effects of algal particles and animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Conine, Andrea L; Frost, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic environments vary widely in aspects other than their physicochemical properties that could alter the toxicity of novel contaminants. One factor that could affect chemical toxicity to aquatic consumers is their nutritional environment as it can strongly affect their physiology and life history. Nutrition has the potential to alter an organism's response to the toxin or how the toxin interacts with the consumer through its food. Here we determined how growth and survival responses of Daphnia to an emerging contaminant, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are affected by the presence of food and its stoichiometric food quality. We used a series of survival tests, each slightly modified, to determine whether variable toxicity in different nutritional environments resulted from algal sequestration of AgNPs in a nontoxic form or from changes to the nutritional status of the test animals. We found that the presence of algae, of good or poor quality, reduced the toxicity of AgNPs on animal growth and survival. However, the decrease in AgNP toxicity was greater for animals consuming P-rich compared to P-poor food. We found evidence that this effect of food quality was due to greater algal uptake of AgNPs by P-rich than by P-stressed algae. However, we also found animal nutrition, in the absence of algal AgNP binding, could affect toxicity with P-nourished animals surviving slightly better when exposed to AgNPs compared to their P-stressed counterparts. Our results show an important role for algal particles and their P content in determining the toxicity of AgNPs in natural waters primarily due to their binding and uptake abilities and, less so, to their effects on animal nutrition.

  20. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  1. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; ...

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  2. Coprophilous streptomycetes and fungi--food sources for enchytraeid worms (Enchytraeidae).

    PubMed

    Kristůfek, V; Nováková, A; Pizl, V

    2001-01-01

    Food selection experiments demonstrated that Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae) was attracted by Streptomyces species and microscopic fungi in vermiculture substrates and in the gut content of Eisenia andrei earthworms. Consumption of spores and/or mycelia of attractive strains influenced markedly the proliferation of E. crypticus. There was a 74-fold increase in the numbers of enchytraeids fed on the mixture of Aspergillus flavus and Verticillium tenerum mycelia or on mycelium of one strain of Streptomyces in reproduction tests. Lower rates of increase of E. crypticus (50-fold or less) were observed in variants where V. tenerum or mixtures of fungi and streptomycetes were offered as food. We showed a potential importance of microbial populations in vermicultures and indicated that their regulation may provide a way to increase the productivity of such systems.

  3. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    PubMed Central

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A.; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213) and boys (n=217) aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and

  4. Mercury uptake within an ice algal community during the spring bloom in first-year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Alexis; Wang, Feiyue; Pućko, Monika; Mundy, Christopher-John; Gosselin, Michel; Philippe, Benoît; Poulin, Michel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Stern, Gary A.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we examine mercury bioaccumulation by a first-year sea-ice (FYI) algal community in the western Canadian Arctic during the spring of 2008. Total mercury concentration in bottom sea-ice particulate ([PHg]T) ranged 0.004-0.022 µg/g dw and was limited by the amount of mercury available for uptake when the spring bloom commenced. Mercury in ice algae originated from a combination of brine and seawater as sources, while atmospheric mercury depletion events did not appear to significantly contribute as a source in a coupled manner. We show that the bottom sea-ice brine presents a chemically and biologically unique niche from which inorganic Hg makes its way into the food web. Once incorporated into algae, mercury can be transported spatially and trophically within the ecosystem by a range of processes including grazing, resuspension, remineralization, and sedimentation. Ice algae contribute 10-60% of the annual primary production in the Arctic and are thought to become even more productive and abundant under a mild climate change scenario. Replacement of multiyear ice with FYI in the Beaufort Sea alone could result in an additional influx of ˜48 kg/yr of particle bound Hg. Further studies are thus warranted to elucidate mechanisms by which mercury transformation processes and transfer into the Arctic marine food web are impacted by the interaction between sea ice, brine, and seawater.

  5. [Identification of genetically modified vegetable sources in food and feed using hydrogel oligonucleotide microchip].

    PubMed

    Griadunov, D A; Getman, I A; Chizhova, S I; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Zasedatelev, A S; Romanov, G A

    2011-01-01

    A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by the hybridization on a hydrogel oligonucleotide biochip was developed for simultaneous identification of ten different transgenic elements of plant DNA in feed and food products. The biochip contained 22 immobilized probes intended for (i) detection of plant DNA; (ii) plant species determination (soybean, maize, potato, rice); (iii) identification of transgenic elements, including 35S CaMV, 35S FMV, rice actine gene promoters, nos, 35S CaMV, ocs, pea rbcS1 gene terminators, and bar, gus, nptII marker genes. The limit of detection was 0.5% of genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize in analyzed samples. Identification of transgenic DNA in food and feed products using either the developed approach or real-time PCR led to virtually identical results. The assay can be used for selection of GM samples by screening food and feed products for subsequent quantitative determination of the GM component based on the identified transgene.

  6. Land Use Affects Carbon Sources to the Pelagic Food Web in a Small Boreal Lake

    PubMed Central

    Rinta, Päivi; van Hardenbroek, Maarten; Jones, Roger I.; Kankaala, Paula; Rey, Fabian; Szidat, Sönke; Wooller, Matthew J.; Heiri, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Small humic forest lakes often have high contributions of methane-derived carbon in their food webs but little is known about the temporal stability of this carbon pathway and how it responds to environmental changes on longer time scales. We reconstructed past variations in the contribution of methanogenic carbon in the pelagic food web of a small boreal lake in Finland by analyzing the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C values) of chitinous fossils of planktivorous invertebrates in sediments from the lake. The δ13C values of zooplankton remains show several marked shifts (approx. 10 ‰), consistent with changes in the proportional contribution of carbon from methane-oxidizing bacteria in zooplankton diets. The results indicate that the lake only recently (1950s) obtained its present state with a high contribution of methanogenic carbon to the pelagic food web. A comparison with historical and palaeobotanical evidence indicates that this most recent shift coincided with agricultural land-use changes and forestation of the lake catchment and implies that earlier shifts may also have been related to changes in forest and land use. Our study demonstrates the sensitivity of the carbon cycle in small forest lakes to external forcing and that the effects of past changes in local land use on lacustrine carbon cycling have to be taken into account when defining environmental and ecological reference conditions in boreal headwater lakes. PMID:27487044

  7. Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay.

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, M; Kacelnik, A

    1995-01-01

    Much research has focused on the effects of environmental variability on foraging decisions. However, the general pattern of preference for variability in delay to reward and aversion to variability in amount of reward remains unexplained a either a mechanistic or a functional level. Starlings' preferences between a fixed and a variable option were studied in two treatments, A and D. The fixed option was the same in both treatments (20-s fixed-interval delay, five units food). In Treatment A the variable option gave two equiprobable amounts of food (20-s delay, three or seven units) and in D it gave two equiprobable delays to food (2.5-s or 60.5-s delays, five units). In both treatments the programmed ratio [amount/(intertrial interval+latency+delay)] in the fixed option equaled the arithmetic mean of the two possible ratios in the variable option (ITI = 40 s, latency = 1 s). The variable option was strongly preferred in Treatment D and was weakly avoided in Treatment A. These results are discussed in the light of two theoretical models, a form of constrained rate maximization and a version of scalar expectancy theory. The latter accommodates more of the data and is based on independently verifiable assumptions, including Weber's law. PMID:7751835

  8. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

    2015-12-15

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling.

  9. Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

    2013-03-01

    Boundary Layer (BBL). δ15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder δ13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder δ13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

  10. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  11. Harmful Algal Blooms – Special Sampling and Response Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Harmful Algal Blooms – Special Sampling and Response Actions webpage contains information about Background on Harmful Algae in Surface Waters and What to Do if Your System Has Indicators of an Algal Bloom.

  12. Food as a source of dioxin exposure in the residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer; Constable, John D

    2003-08-01

    Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 primarily for use as a defoliant. Typical blood TCCD levels are 2 ppt in Vietnamese, but levels are as high as 413 ppt in Bien Hoa City. Elevated TCDD was found in children born many years after Agent Orange spraying ended and in immigrants from non-Agent Orange-sprayed parts of Vietnam, which documented new exposures. Extremely elevated soil TCDD samples, over 1 million ppt, and elevated TCDD in sediment were found in some nearby areas such as Bien Hung Lake. The primary route of intake of almost all dioxins in humans is food. However, in our prior studies in Bien Hoa, food was unavailable for dioxin analysis so the route of intake was not confirmed. In the 1970s, while Agent Orange was still being sprayed, elevated human milk TCDD levels as high as 1850 were detected in milk from Vietnamese people living in Agent Orange-sprayed areas where consumption of fish was high. Furthermore, also in the 1970s, elevated TCDD levels (up to 810 ppt) were found in fish and shrimp from the same area as the milk donors. In the 1980s, we found elevated TCDD and also other organohalogen levels in human tissue, pork, fish, a turtle, and a snake in Southern Vietnam. For these reasons, we recently collected food from Bien Hoa and analyzed it for dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and other organochlorines. We found marked elevation of TCDD, the dioxin characteristic of Agent Orange, in some of the food products, including ducks with 276 ppt and 331 ppt wet weight, chickens from 0.031-15 ppt wet weight, fish from 0.063-65 ppt wet weight, and a toad with 56 ppt wet weight. Usual TCDD

  13. Parasitic chytrids sustain zooplankton growth during inedible algal bloom

    PubMed Central

    Rasconi, Serena; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Aydat (eutrophic). Linear inverse modeling was employed to estimate undetermined flows in both lakes. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modeling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results confirm recent theories on the impact of parasites on food web function through grazers and recyclers. During blooms of “inedible” algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores), the epidemic growth of chytrids channeled 19–20% of the primary production in both lakes through the production of grazer exploitable zoospores. The parasitic throughput represented 50% and 57% of the zooplankton diet, respectively, in the oligo-mesotrophic and in the eutrophic lakes. Parasites also affected ecological network properties such as longer carbon path lengths and loop strength, and contributed to increase the stability of the aquatic food web, notably in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Pavin. PMID:24904543

  14. Importance of Vascular Plant and Algal Production to Macro-invertebrate Consumers in a Southern California Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, H. M.

    1997-12-01

    The dietary importance of marsh vascular plants (primarilySalicornia virginica), algae and upland particulate inputs to macro-invertebrate consumers was studied in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, southern California, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This marsh is predominantly a marine or hypersaline system and succulents are the most common vascular plant species. Of invertebrates collected from the vegetated marsh, tidal flats and channels, only detritivores from the vegetated marsh (Traskorchestia traskiana,Melampus olivaceus) had isotope values (δ13C=-20‰) that suggested some use ofSalicornia-derived carbon.T. traskianacultured in the laboratory on decomposingS. virginicaor blue-green micro-algal mat had distinctive isotopic signatures, reflecting the capability of this consumer to assimilate carbon and nitrogen derived from these sources. The δ13C values (generally -16‰ to -15‰) of species from tidal flats and channels (e.g.Cerithidea californica,Protothaca staminea,Mytilus galloprovincialis,Neotrypaea californiensis) were most similar to values for benthic algae and phytoplankton. Specimens ofM. galloprovincialisalong a gradient of presumed increase in marine influence had similar isotope values, suggesting little contribution to diet from upland runoff. The present results differ most noticeably from published values in the13C enrichment of suspension-feeders, suggesting the use of resuspended13C-enriched benthic microalgae in tidal channels by these consumers, and in the13C depletion and15N enrichment of plants and consumers along a portion of the marsh boundary receiving inputs of nutrient-enriched perched groundwater. In general, the isotopic composition of macro-invertebrates indicated the incorporation of algal production rather than ofS. virginicaor upland sources into the marsh food web.

  15. Fabrication of 50-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron sources for the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) activation analysis facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, J.E.; Cagle, E.B.; Knauer, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TPP) at ORNL has been requested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to furnish 200 mg of /sup 252/Cf for use in their new activation analysis facility. This paper discusses the procedure to be employed in fabricating the californium into four neutron sources, each containing a nominal 50-mg of /sup 252/Cf. The ORNL Model LSD (Large, Stainless steel, Doubly encapsulated) neutron source consists of a 6.33-mm-diam aluminum pellet doubly encapsulated in Type 304L stainless steel. The pellet is comprised of an aluminum tube holding Cf/sub 2/O/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ microspheres confined by pressed aluminum powder. The microspheres are prepared in a separate vessel and then transferred into the specially designed aluminum tube prior to pressing.

  16. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  17. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions.

  18. Terrestrial Contributions to the Aquatic Food Web in the Middle Yangtze River

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhu; Gu, Binhe; Huang, Jianhui; Han, Xingguo; Lin, Guanghui; Zheng, Fawen; Li, Yuncong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish) at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi), a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua) and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping) of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping), particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies. PMID:25047656

  19. Terrestrial contributions to the aquatic food web in the middle Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhu; Gu, Binhe; Huang, Jianhui; Han, Xingguo; Lin, Guanghui; Zheng, Fawen; Li, Yuncong

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish) at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi), a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua) and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping) of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping), particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies.

  20. Micro-algae as a source of protein.

    PubMed

    Becker, E W

    2007-01-01

    About five decades ago, the mass production of certain protein-rich micro-algae was considered as a possibility to close the predicted so called "protein gap". Comprehensive analyses and nutritional studies have demonstrated that these algal proteins are of high quality and comparable to conventional vegetable proteins. However, due to high production costs as well as technical difficulties to incorporate the algal material into palatable food preparations, the propagation of algal protein is still in its infancy. To date, the majority of micro-algal preparations are marketed as health food, as cosmetics or as animal feed.

  1. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C. J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light - fluorescent and incandescent - and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 106 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 107 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne pathogens and

  2. Freshwater harmful algal blooms: toxins and children's health.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Chelsea A; Miller, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Massive accumulations of cyanobacteria (a.k.a. "blue-green algae"), known as freshwater harmful algal blooms (FHABs), are a common global occurrence in water bodies used for recreational purposes and drinking water purification. Bloom prevalence is increased due to anthropogenic changes in land use, agricultural activity, and climate change. These photosynthetic bacteria produce a range of toxic secondary metabolites that affect animals and humans at both chronic and acute dosages. Children are especially at risk because of their lower body weight, behavior, and toxic effects on development. Here we review common FHAB toxins, related clinical symptoms, acceptable concentrations in drinking water, case studies of children's and young adults' exposures to FHAB toxins through drinking water and food, methods of environmental and clinical detection in potential cases of intoxication, and best practices for FHAB prevention.

  3. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  4. Food sources of macro-invertebrates in an important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam determined by dual stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tue, Nguyen Tai; Hamaoka, Hideki; Sogabe, Atsushi; Quy, Tran Dang; Nhuan, Mai Trong; Omori, Koji

    2012-08-01

    Dual stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) were applied to determine the contribution of mangrove materials and other organic carbon sources to the invertebrate community in an ecologically important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam. We have analyzed 181 specimens of 30 invertebrate species and found δ13C and δ15N ranging from - 14.5 to - 26.8‰ and from 1.3 to 12.1‰, respectively. From taxa measured for stable isotopes, polychaete, gastropods, bivalves, and grapsid crabs living in mangrove forest showed relative low δ13C values, while fiddler crabs inhabiting in the land-water ecotone showed the highest δ13C values. The δ13C showed that just a few mangrove inhabitants directly relied on the mangrove materials. The wide ranges of δ13C and δ15N signatures indicated that the invertebrates utilized heterogeneous diets, comprising benthic microalgae, marine phytoplankton, particulate organic matter, sediment organic matter, mangrove detritus, and meiofauna and rotten animal tissues as the supplemental nutrient food sources. Moreover, the significant correlation between δ13C values and body sizes of invertebrates showed that snails Littoraria melanostoma and Terebralia sulcata, bivalve Glauconome virens, and portunid crab Scylla serrata exhibited ontogenetic shifts in diets. The present study showed that adjacent habitats such as tidal flat and mangrove creeks seem to contribute an important microalgal food resource for invertebrates and highlighted the need for conservations of mangrove forests and the adjacent habitats.

  5. [Determination of trace elements in new food sources by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li E; Ding, Li; Qi, Min; Han, Xiu Li; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2007-07-01

    Samples were digested by HNO3 + HClO4. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was successfully used to determine copper, zinc and iron in new resource food. Under our experimental conditions, the recovery ratio was 94.66%-108.80%; the precision was 0.71%-4.78%. This method of measuring elements is convenient, rapid and accurate. The results showed that there are profitable elements, such as copper, zinc and iron in new resourse food in Henan province. By F test and SNK test, the content sequence of metal elements was found as follows: copper, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = Silkworm pupa > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwin = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > Opuntia dillenii Haw. Zinc, Opuntia dillenii Haw > Silkworm pupa = flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopsis lanceolata = Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Iron, Silkworm pupa = C hrysanthemum morifolium Ramat = roots of Pueraria lobata Ohwi > flowers of Pueraria lobata Ohwi = Wheat germ = Codonopis lanceolata = Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  6. Clenbuterol - regional food contamination a possible source for inadvertent doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Guddat, S; Fußhöller, G; Geyer, H; Thomas, A; Braun, H; Haenelt, N; Schwenke, A; Klose, C; Thevis, M; Schänzer, W

    2012-06-01

    The misuse of the sympathomimetic and anabolic agent clenbuterol has been frequently reported in professional sport and in the livestock industry. In 2010, a team of athletes returned from competition in China and regular doping control samples were taken within the next two days. All urine samples contained low amounts (pg/ml) of clenbuterol, drawing the attention to a well-known problem: the possibility of an unintended clenbuterol intake with food. A warning that Chinese meat is possibly contaminated with prohibited substances according to international anti-doping regulations was also given by Chinese officials just before the Bejing Olympic Games in 2008. To investigate if clenbuterol can be found in human urine, a study was initiated comprising 28 volunteers collecting urine samples after their return from China. For the quantification of clenbuterol at a low pg/ml level, a very sensitive and specific isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed using liquid/liquid re-extraction for clean-up with a limit of detection and quantification of 1 and 3 pg/ml, respectively. The method was validated demonstrating good precision (intra-day: 2.9-5.5 %; inter-day: 5.1-8.8%), accuracy (89.5-102.5%) and mean recovery (81.4%). Clenbuterol was detectable in 22 (79%) of the analyzed samples, indicating a general food contamination problem despite an official clenbuterol prohibition in China for livestock.

  7. The influence of algal densities on the toxicity of chromium for Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard (Cladocera, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Rodgher, S; Espíndola, E L G

    2008-05-01

    Food availability may affect metal toxicity for aquatic organisms. In the present study, the influence of high, medium and low densities of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (10(6), 10(5) and 10(4) cells.mL(-1), respectively) on the chronic toxicity of chromium to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia was investigated. C. dubia was exposed to a range of chromium concentration from 2.71 to 34.04 microg.L(-1) and fed with algae at various densities. In another experiment, the green alga was exposed to chromium concentrations (94 to 774 microg.L(-1)) and supplied as food in different densities to zooplankton. The survival and reproduction of the cladoceran were measured in these toxicity tests. The IC50 for Cr to P. subcapitata and metal accumulated by algal cells were determined. The results of a bifactorial analysis (metal versus algal densities) showed that metal toxicity to zooplankton was dependent on algal densities. Significant toxic effects on the reproduction and survival of C. dubia were observed at 8.73, 18.22 and 34.04 microg.L(-1) Cr when the test organisms were fed with 10(6) cells.mL(-1) of P. subcapitata. Although the chlorophyta retain low chromium content, a decrease in the reproduction and survival of C. dubia occurred when they were fed with high algal density contaminated with 774 microg.L(-1) Cr. It was concluded that high algal density have an appreciable influence on chromium toxicity to daphnids.

  8. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Perez-Formigo, Jesus; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Benito, Agustin; Aseffa, Abraham; Custodio, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Background A low dietary diversity score (DDS) and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF) are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia). Objectives This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF. Methods In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors. Results Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%). In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65) and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38) the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62) and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey. Conclusions The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended. PMID:26203904

  9. Survivals of D. galeata in sub-tropical reservoirs: harmful effects of toxic cyanobacteria in food source.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo-Ping; Lin, Xian; Lei, Lamei; Gu, Jiguang

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that massive occurrence of cyanobacteria as food source is one of the factors limiting the distribution of the zooplankton Daphnia galeata in the warm water reservoirs of South China. D. galeata was fed with Chlorella pyrenoidosa, 4 strains of cyanobacteria (three strains of Microcystis aeruginosa: MC1, MC2 and MC3, and one strain of Pseudoanabaena sp. :PA), a mixture of C. pyrenoidosa and cyanobacterial strains, and natural particles from the reservoir where the animal was initially collected. On medium and high food levels (1 and 1.5 mg C L(-1)) of C. pyrenoidosa, D. galeata showed a typical Type III of survivorship, and had a high intrinsic rate of population increase (0.37-0.41). On low food levels, the intrinsic rate of population increase declined but lifespan largely increased (84 days). When feeding with natural particles, the intrinsic rate of increase was evidently reduced (0.19), but the maximal body length (2 mm) was much longer than that of individuals observed in the fields implying that D. galeata was strongly preyed upon by size-selective predators. Applying a mixture of Chlorella and cyanobacteria, the strain and proportion of cyanobacteria significantly affected life history variables of the animal and its somatic growth. On the sole diet of each stain of cyanobacteria, D. galeata failed to reproduce. Microcystin and colonial morphology of Microcystis strains reduced clutch size and somatic growth rate. In comparison, the less negative effect of the strain MC3 indicates that the morphology was critical for actual ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria by the zooplanktons. Pseudoanabaena sp. had a short filament (15 μm), can be easily used as a food by D. galeata. Composition of phytoplankton community plays a significant role in survival and population sizes of D. galeata and massive occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms limits the distribution of D. galeata in the reservoirs of South China.

  10. Recent Advances in Algal Genetic Tool Development

    DOE PAGES

    R. Dahlin, Lukas; T. Guarnieri, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The goal of achieving cost-effective biofuels and bioproducts derived from algal biomass will require improvements along the entire value chain, including identification of robust, high-productivity strains and development of advanced genetic tools. Though there have been modest advances in development of genetic systems for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, progress in development of algal genetic tools, especially as applied to non-model algae, has generally lagged behind that of more commonly utilized laboratory and industrial microbes. This is in part due to the complex organellar structure of algae, including robust cell walls and intricate compartmentalization of target loci, as well asmore » prevalent gene silencing mechanisms, which hinder facile utilization of conventional genetic engineering tools and methodologies. However, recent progress in global tool development has opened the door for implementation of strain-engineering strategies in industrially-relevant algal strains. Here, we review recent advances in algal genetic tool development and applications in eukaryotic microalgae.« less

  11. Food selectivity and processing by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, Dick; Mueller, Christina E.; Lundälv, Tomas; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-10-01

    Cold-water corals form prominent reef ecosystems along ocean margins that depend on suspended resources produced in surface waters. In this study, we investigated food processing of 13C and 15N labelled bacteria and algae by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Coral respiration, tissue incorporation of C and N and metabolically derived C incorporation into the skeleton were traced following the additions of different food concentrations (100, 300, 1300 µg C L-1) and two ratios of suspended bacterial and algal biomass (1 : 1, 3 : 1). Respiration and tissue incorporation by L. pertusa increased markedly following exposure to higher food concentrations. The net growth efficiency of L. pertusa was low (0.08 ± 0.03), which is consistent with its slow growth rate. The contribution of algae and bacteria to total coral assimilation was proportional to the food mixture in the two lowest food concentrations, but algae were preferred over bacteria as a food source at the highest food concentration. Similarly, the stoichiometric uptake of C and N was coupled in the low and medium food treatment, but was uncoupled in the high food treatment and indicated a comparatively higher uptake or retention of bacterial carbon as compared to algal nitrogen. We argue that behavioural responses for these small-sized food particles, such as tentacle behaviour, mucus trapping and physiological processing, are more likely to explain the observed food selectivity as compared to physical-mechanical considerations. A comparison of the experimental food conditions to natural organic carbon concentrations above CWC reefs suggests that L. pertusa is well adapted to exploit temporal pulses of high organic matter concentrations in the bottom water caused by internal waves and downwelling events.

  12. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions.

  13. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  14. Comparison of Methods to Determine Algal Concentrations in Freshwater Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgian, S. E.; Halfman, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Algal populations are extremely important to the ecological health of freshwater lake systems. As lakes become eutrophic (highly productive) through nutrient loading, sediment accumulation rates increase, bottom waters become anoxic in the mid-to late summer, the opacity of the water column decreases, and significantly decreases the lake's potential as a drinking water source and places respiratory stress on aquatic animals. One indicator of eutrophication is increasing algal concentrations over annual time frames. Algal concentrations can be measured by the concentration of chlorophyll a, or less directly by fluorescence, secchi disk depth, and turbidity by backscattering and total suspended solids. Here, we present a comparison of these methods using data collected on Honeoye, Canandaigua, Keuka, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco, Skaneateles, and Otisco, the largest Finger Lakes of western and central New York State during the 2008 field season. A total of 124 samples were collected from at least two mid-lake, deep-water sites in each lake monthly through the 2008 field season (May-Oct); Seneca Lake was sampled weekly at four sites and Cayuga Lake every two weeks at six sites. Secchi depths, CTD profiles and surface water samples were collected at each site. Chlorophyll a was measured by spectrophotometer in the lab after filtration at 0.45 um and digestion of the residue in acetone. Water samples were also filtered through pre-weighed glass-fiber filters for total suspended solids concentrations. A SBE-25 SeaLogger CTD collected profiles of turbidity and fluorescence with WetLabs ECO FL-NTU. Surface CTD values were used in the comparison. The strongest linear correlations were detected between chlorophyll-a and fluorescence (r2 = 0.65), and total suspended solids and turbidity (r2 = 0.63). Weaker correlations were detected between secchi depths and chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.42), and secchi depths and turbidity (r2 = 0.46). The weakest correlations were detected between secchi

  15. Effects of age and food source on secondary chemistry of larvae of Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Deml, R

    2004-04-01

    Haemolymph and osmeterial secretions of caterpillars of Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus) and L. concolor Walker were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for low molecular weight secondary metabolites. The similarities of their chemical compositions were determined by means of cluster analysis techniques in order to characterize possible chemical variations related to developmental stage or food of the larvae. For this purpose, two dissimilarity coefficients (Euclidean distances, Canberra metrics) and four clustering methods (UPGMA, WPGMA, WPGMC, single linkage) were combined. The patterns of secondary compounds obtained from the haemolymph and osmeterial secretions studied did not differ statistically significantly between two groups of L. monacha larvae fed with either larch, Larix decidua Mil., or Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), indicating no relevant influence of plant chemistry. However, haemolymph of penultimate instar larvae of L. concolor fed on Rhododendron contained a mixture of compounds differing statistically significantly from that of last instar caterpillars. The total compositions of the corresponding gland secretions were statistically identical though the presence/amounts of individual compounds varied. This suggested that the haemolymph composition reflected changing physiological requirements of the successive instars, whereas the composition of the defensive mixtures remained comparatively constant, possibly due to a constant spectrum of potential enemies. A more pronounced age-dependence of larval chemistry was shown by a similar analysis of data from various developmental stages of L. dispar (Linnaeus) and one of its food plants. This analysis suggested plant composition affected the secondary chemistry of early larval instars of L. dispar. The results are discussed in terms of the roles of secondary metabolites in defence against natural enemies.

  16. Measurement of the local food environment: a comparison of existing data sources.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael D M; Ailshire, Jennifer A; Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S

    2010-03-01

    Studying the relation between the residential environment and health requires valid, reliable, and cost-effective methods to collect data on residential environments. This 2002 study compared the level of agreement between measures of the presence of neighborhood businesses drawn from 2 common sources of data used for research on the built environment and health: listings of businesses from commercial databases and direct observations of city blocks by raters. Kappa statistics were calculated for 6 types of businesses-drugstores, liquor stores, bars, convenience stores, restaurants, and grocers-located on 1,663 city blocks in Chicago, Illinois. Logistic regressions estimated whether disagreement between measurement methods was systematically correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Levels of agreement between the 2 sources were relatively high, with significant (P < 0.001) kappa statistics for each business type ranging from 0.32 to 0.70. Most business types were more likely to be reported by direct observations than in the commercial database listings. Disagreement between the 2 sources was not significantly correlated with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Results suggest that researchers should have reasonable confidence using whichever method (or combination of methods) is most cost-effective and theoretically appropriate for their research design.

  17. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  18. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of

  19. The sialotranscriptome of Antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Marcos C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mans, Ben J; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Barizon, Gustavo Canavaci; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F

    2012-05-01

    The hosts for Antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. The mouthparts of nymphal and adult A. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. How a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. Adults of A. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always found. Guano produced by insectivorous bats contains twice the amount of protein and 60 times the amount of iron as beef. In addition, bacteria and chitin-rich fungi proliferate on guano. Comparative data on the transcriptome of the salivary glands of A. delacruzi is nonexistent and would help to understand the physiological adaptations of salivary glands that accompany different sources of food as well as the steps taken by the Acari toward haematophagy, believed to have evolved from scavenging dead animals. Annotation of the transcriptome of salivary glands from female instars of A. delacruzi collected on guano categorized 5.7% of the clusters of expressed genes as putative secreted proteins. They included abundantly expressed TIL-domain-containing proteins (possible anti-microbials), an abundantly expressed protein similar to a serum amyloid found in the sialotranscriptomes of Ornithodoros spp., a savignygrin, a family of mucin/peritrophin/cuticle-like proteins, anti-microbials and an HIV envelope-like glycoprotein also found in soft ticks. When comparing the transcriptome of A. delacruzi with those of blood-feeding female soft and hard ticks some notable differences were observed; they consisted of the following transcripts over- or under-represented or absent in the sialotranscriptome of A. delacruzi that may reflect its source of food: ferritin, mucins with chitin-binding domains and TIL-domain-containing proteins versus lipocalins, basic tail proteins

  20. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    PubMed

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  1. Particulate organic matter as a food source for a coral reef sponge.

    PubMed

    Hadas, E; Shpigel, M; Ilan, M

    2009-11-01

    The ability of sponges to feed in diverse (including oligotrophic) ecosystems significantly contributes to their ubiquitous aquatic distribution. It was hypothesized that sponges that harbour small amounts of symbiotic bacteria in their mass feed mainly on particulate organic matter (POM). We examined the nearly symbiont-free (by microscopic observation) filter-feeding Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica in order to: (a) study removal efficiency of naturally occurring organic particles, (b) measure the total amount of absorbed particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), and (c) estimate organic carbon and nitrogen flux in this sponge. Total amount of organic carbon and nitrogen in the Gulf of Aqaba was found to be 48.46+/-5.69 microg l(-1) and 6.45+/-0.7 microg l(-1), respectively. While detritus contributed 54% of POC, most PON (84%) came from planktonic microorganisms, mainly prokaryotes. Particle removal efficiency ranged from 99% (the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp.) to 37% (for eukaryotic cells >8 microm). On average, N. magnifica ingested 480 microg C day(-1) g(-1) (wet mass, WM) sponge and 76.6 microg N day(-1) g(-1) sponge. Ingested POC balanced 85% of the sponge's energetic demand but more is needed for biomass production because it cannot digest all of the carbon. 54.4+/-16.1 microg N day(-1) g(-1) (WM) nitrogen was excreted as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN); however, nitrogen allowance should be higher because more nitrogen is deposited for sponge biomass during growth. It is hypothesized that the discrepancy in the nutritional requirements should be covered by the sponge absorbing carbon and nitrogen from sources that are not dealt with in the present research, such as dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen. This study highlights the significance of detritus as a carbon source, and prokaryotes as a PON source in sponge feeding.

  2. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Vegetable and Cereal Proteins as Potential Sources of Novel Food Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Soria-Hernández, Cintya; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Proteins from vegetable and cereal sources are an excellent alternative to substitute animal-based counterparts because of their reduced cost, abundant supply and good nutritional value. The objective of this investigation is to study a set of vegetable and cereal proteins in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Twenty protein sources were studied: five soya bean flour samples, one pea flour and fourteen newly developed blends of soya bean and maize germ (five concentrates and nine hydrolysates). The physicochemical characterization included pH (5.63 to 7.57), electrical conductivity (1.32 to 4.32 mS/cm), protein content (20.78 to 94.24% on dry mass basis), free amino nitrogen (0.54 to 2.87 mg/g) and urease activity (0.08 to 2.20). The functional properties showed interesting differences among proteins: water absorption index ranged from 0.41 to 18.52, the highest being of soya and maize concentrates. Nitrogen and water solubility ranged from 10.14 to 74.89% and from 20.42 to 95.65%, respectively. Fat absorption and emulsification activity indices ranged from 2.59 to 4.72 and from 3936.6 to 52 399.2 m2/g respectively, the highest being of pea flour. Foam activity (66.7 to 475.0%) of the soya and maize hydrolysates was the best. Correlation analyses showed that hydrolysis affected solubility-related parameters whereas fat-associated indices were inversely correlated with water-linked parameters. Foam properties were better of proteins treated with low heat, which also had high urease activity. Physicochemical and functional characterization of the soya and maize protein concentrates and hydrolysates allowed the identification of differences regarding other vegetable and cereal protein sources such as pea or soya bean. PMID:27904358

  3. Observed and Modeled Tritium Concentrations in the Terrestrial Food Chain near a Continuous Atmospheric Source

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Kim, S.B.; Chouhan, S.L.; Workman, W.J.G.

    2005-07-15

    Tritium concentrations were measured in a large number of environmental and biological samples collected during 2002 at two dairy farms and a hobby farm near Pickering Nuclear Generating Station in Ontario, Canada. The data cover most compartments of the terrestrial food chain in an agricultural setting and include detailed information on the diets of the local farm animals. Ratios of plant OBT concentration to air moisture HTO varied between 0.12 and 0.56, and were generally higher for the forage crops collected at the dairy farms than for the garden vegetables sampled at the hobby farm. Animal OBT to air HTO ratios were more uniform, ranging from 0.18 to 0.45, and were generally higher for the milk and beef samples from the dairy farms than for the chicken products from the hobby farm. The observed OBT concentrations in plants and animals were compared with predictions of IMPACT, the model used by the Canadian nuclear industry to calculate annual average doses due to routine releases. The model performed well on average for the animal endpoints but overestimated concentrations in plants by a factor of 2.

  4. Food sources, dietary behavior, and the saturated fat intake of Latino children.

    PubMed Central

    Basch, C E; Shea, S; Zybert, P

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Recent recommendations for Americans aged 2 and older call for a reduction in the average saturated fat intake to less than 10% of calories. METHODS. Using 24-hour dietary recalls collected from mothers of 4- to 7-year-old urban Latino children, we identified foods and dietary behavior patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat. RESULTS. Compared with children in the lowest quintile of intake, children in the highest quintile consumed more than twice as much saturated fat per day from high-fat milk products (18.5 g vs 7.8 g), mostly from whole milk. They did not consume different kinds of milk or different amounts of milk per eating occasion, but on average they consumed milk more frequently (2.8 vs 1.6 eating occasions per day). Even children in the lowest quintile, on average, exceeded the 10% of calories from saturated fat currently recommended. If low-fat (1% fat) milk had been substituted without other dietary changes, all but the highest two quintiles would have been within the recommended level. CONCLUSIONS. The substitution of low-fat for whole milk appears to be a key strategy for preschool children for achieving recommended levels of saturated fat intake. PMID:1585960

  5. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue.

  6. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue. PMID:25878509

  7. Digestive function of lysozyme in synanthropic acaridid mites enables utilization of bacteria as a food source.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2008-03-01

    The activity of lysozyme, the enzyme that hydrolyzes peptidoglycan in G(+) bacterial cell walls, was detected in whole mite extracts (WME) and in spent growth medium extracts (SGME) of 14 species of synanthropic mites (Acari: Acaridida). The adaptation of lysozyme for digestive activity and bacteriophagy was based on: (i) high lysozyme activity in SGME, and (ii) the correlation of maximum lysozyme activity at acidic pH values, corresponding to pH in the ventriculus and caeca. We show that the digestion of fluorescein-labeled Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells began in ventriculus and continued during the passage of a food bolus through the gut. The fluorescein was absorbed by midgut cells and penetrated to parenchymal tissues. Eight species showed a higher rate of population growth on a M. lysodeikticus diet than on a control diet. The lysozyme activity in SGME was positively correlated to the standardized rate (r (s)) of population growth, although no correlation was found between r (s) and lysozyme activity in WME. The lysozyme activity in WME was negatively correlated to that in SGME. The highest activity of digestive lysozyme was found in Lepidoglyphus destructor, Chortoglyphus arcuatus and Dermatophagoides farinae. All of these findings indicate that lysozyme in acaridid mites possesses both defensive and digestive functions. The enzymatic properties of mite lysozyme are similar to those of the lysozymes present in the ruminant stomach and in the insect midgut.

  8. URBANIZATION ALTERS FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF STREAM FOOD WEBS IN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization and associated human activities negatively affect stream algal and invertebrate assemblages, likely altering food webs. Our goal was to determine if urbanization affects food web essential fatty acids (EFAs) and if EFAs could be useful ecological indicators in monito...

  9. Molecular Identification of Food Sources in Triatomines in the Brazilian Northeast: Roles of Goats and Rodents in Chagas Disease Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Fernandes, Fabiano Araújo; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro; Sarquis, Otília; Harry, Myriam; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Marli Maria

    2015-11-01

    We used the gut contents of triatomines collected from rural areas of Ceará State, northeastern Brazil, to identify their putative hosts via vertebrate cytb gene sequencing. Successful direct sequencing was obtained for 48% of insects, comprising 50 Triatoma brasiliensis, 7 Triatoma pseudomaculata, and 1 Rhodnius nasutus. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) procedure revealed that domestic animals, such as chickens (Gallus gallus) and goats (Capra hircus), are the main food source, including in sylvatic environment. Native hosts were also detected in peridomestic environment such as reptiles (Tropidurus sp. and Iguana iguana) and the Galea spixii (Rodentia: Caviidae). The role of goats and Galea spixii in Chagas disease epidemiology calls for further studies, because these mammals likely link the sylvatic and domestic Trypanosoma cruzi cycles.

  10. Molecular Identification of Food Sources in Triatomines in the Brazilian Northeast: Roles of Goats and Rodents in Chagas Disease Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Fernandes, Fabiano Araújo; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro; Sarquis, Otília; Harry, Myriam; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    We used the gut contents of triatomines collected from rural areas of Ceará State, northeastern Brazil, to identify their putative hosts via vertebrate cytb gene sequencing. Successful direct sequencing was obtained for 48% of insects, comprising 50 Triatoma brasiliensis, 7 Triatoma pseudomaculata, and 1 Rhodnius nasutus. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) procedure revealed that domestic animals, such as chickens (Gallus gallus) and goats (Capra hircus), are the main food source, including in sylvatic environment. Native hosts were also detected in peridomestic environment such as reptiles (Tropidurus sp. and Iguana iguana) and the Galea spixii (Rodentia: Caviidae). The role of goats and Galea spixii in Chagas disease epidemiology calls for further studies, because these mammals likely link the sylvatic and domestic Trypanosoma cruzi cycles. PMID:26350453

  11. Comparison between a normal and a Cr-tolerant strain of Scenedesmus acutus as a food source to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gorbi, G; Corradi, M G; Torelli, A; Bassi, M

    1996-11-01

    A normal (S2-N) and a Cr-tolerant (S2-T) strain of Scenedesmus acutus, grown in Cr-free medium or in the presence of 1, 5, or 10 mg/liter Cr(VI), were fed to Daphnia magna. An increase of growth and fecundity was observed in the daphnids when the algae had undergone an increase of dry mass following Cr treatment, which happened in S2-N in the presence of 1 mg/liter and in S2-T in the presence of 5 mg/liter. When the algae were pretreated with 10 mg/liter, growth and fecundity were reduced in the daphnids fed on S2-N, but remained normal in the daphnids fed on S2-T. It is concluded that the tolerant strain remains a good food source even if grown in the presence of a Cr concentration that reduces the nutritional value of the normal strain.

  12. Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in the Potengi estuary, Natal (Brazil), using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, a local food source.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A; Rainbow, P S; Smith, B D; Santos, Z L

    2001-12-01

    The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae was collected in September 1997 from 10 stations along the Potengi estuary, Natal, Brazil, a mangrove-lined estuary receiving anthropogenic inputs of trace metals. C. rhizophorae is a net accumulator of trace metals and can be used as a biomonitor, the accumulated soft tissue concentrations representing integrated records of bioavailable metal fractions over the life of the oyster. Significant differences in oyster accumulated concentrations (and hence bioavailabilities) of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni and Ag (but not Mn) were found between stations, and attributed to anthropogenic inputs including discharges of sewage and industrial effluent. The oysters are also a local food source, and concentrations of zinc, copper and lead in some of the oysters are above typical public health recommended limits.

  13. Food sources of benthic animals on intertidal and subtidal bottoms in inner Ariake Sound, southern Japan, determined by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Hisashi; Sakami, Tomoko; Ishihi, Yuka

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of possible food sources, including riverine particulate organic matter, reeds, benthic microalgae, seaweeds, cultured laver ( Porphyra) and coastal phytoplankton, for commercial bivalves and co-occurring benthic animals, 73 macrofaunal species were collected from intertidal and subtidal soft bottoms in the inner part of Ariake Sound, Kyushu, southern Japan, and their isotopic compositions were analyzed. The results revealed that (1) both intertidal and subtidal food webs were constituted of 3 trophic levels, (2) suspension-feeding bivalves utilize a mixture of benthic microalgae and coastal phytoplankton, and omnivores and carnivores incorporate benthic microalgae and phytoplankton through their intermediate prey, and (3) 3 bivalves ( Scapharca kagoshimensis, Modiolus metcalfei and Atrina lischkeana) inhabiting both intertidal and subtidal bottoms showed similar seasonal fluctuations, suggesting no difference in the diet composition among the species and between the 2 habitats. We conclude that a large biomass of benthic microalgae which was approximately equal to that of phytoplankton and the strong tidal currents that would resuspend benthic microalgae and transport them to subtidal bottom areas account for the benthic microalgal and phytoplankton based trophic structure in the inner part of Ariake Sound.

  14. Cephalaria transsylvanica-based flower strips as potential food source for bees during dry periods in European Mediterranean basin countries.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Stefano; Desneux, Nicolas; Canale, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of sown wildflower strips favours the establishment of pollinator communities, with special reference to social Apoidea. Here, we evaluated the late summer flowering Cephalaria transsylvanica as suitable species for strips providing food for pollinators in paucity periods. C. transsylvanica showed no particular requirements in terms of seed germination and growth during summer. This plant had an excellent potential of self-seeding and competitiveness towards weed competitors. C. transsylvanica prevented from entomophilous pollination showed inbreeding depression, with a decrease in seed-set and accumulation of seed energy reserves. However, C. transsylvanica did not appear to be vulnerable in terms of pollination biology since it had a wide range of pollinators including bees, hoverflies and Lepidoptera. C. transsylvanica was visited mainly by honeybees and bumblebees and these latter pollinators increased their visits on C. transsylvanica flowers during early autumn. This plant may be useful as an abundant source of pollen during food paucity periods, such as autumn. We proposed C. transsylvanica for incorporation into flower strips to be planted in non-cropped farmlands in intensively managed agricultural areas as well as in proximity of beehives. The latter option may facilitate the honeybees collecting pollen and nectar for the colony, thereby ensuring robustness to overcome the winter season.

  15. Cephalaria transsylvanica-Based Flower Strips as Potential Food Source for Bees during Dry Periods in European Mediterranean Basin Countries

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Stefano; Desneux, Nicolas; Canale, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of sown wildflower strips favours the establishment of pollinator communities, with special reference to social Apoidea. Here, we evaluated the late summer flowering Cephalaria transsylvanica as suitable species for strips providing food for pollinators in paucity periods. C. transsylvanica showed no particular requirements in terms of seed germination and growth during summer. This plant had an excellent potential of self-seeding and competitiveness towards weed competitors. C. transsylvanica prevented from entomophilous pollination showed inbreeding depression, with a decrease in seed-set and accumulation of seed energy reserves. However, C. transsylvanica did not appear to be vulnerable in terms of pollination biology since it had a wide range of pollinators including bees, hoverflies and Lepidoptera. C. transsylvanica was visited mainly by honeybees and bumblebees and these latter pollinators increased their visits on C. transsylvanica flowers during early autumn. This plant may be useful as an abundant source of pollen during food paucity periods, such as autumn. We proposed C. transsylvanica for incorporation into flower strips to be planted in non-cropped farmlands in intensively managed agricultural areas as well as in proximity of beehives. The latter option may facilitate the honeybees collecting pollen and nectar for the colony, thereby ensuring robustness to overcome the winter season. PMID:24676345

  16. Potential sources of 2-aminoacetophenone to confound the Pseudomonas aeruginosa breath test, including analysis of a food challenge study.

    PubMed

    Scott-Thomas, Amy; Pearson, John; Chambers, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    2-Aminoacetophenone can be detected in the breath of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonized cystic fibrosis patients; however, low levels were also detected in a small proportion of healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that food, beverages, cosmetics or medications could be a source of contamination of 2-aminoacetophenone in breath. To determine the potential confounding of these products on 2-aminoacetophenone breath analysis, screening for this volatile was performed in the laboratory by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a food challenge study carried out. 2-Aminoacetophenone was detected in four of the 78 samples tested in vitro: corn chips and canned tuna (high pmol mol(-1)) and egg white and one of the three beers (low pmol mol(-1)). No 2-aminoacetophenone was detected in the CF medication or cosmetics tested. Twenty-eight out of 30 environmental air samples were negative for 2-aminoacetophenone (below 50 pmol mol(-1)). A challenge study with ten healthy subjects was performed to determine if 2-aminoacetophenone from corn chips was detectable on the breath after consumption. Analysis of mixed breath samples reported that the levels of 2-aminoacetophenone were immediately elevated after corn chip consumption, but after 2 h the level of 2-aminoacetophenone had reduced back to the 'baseline' for each subject.

  17. Response of Melittia oedipus (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to visual cues is increased by the presence of food source.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Braganza, N; Muniappan, R

    2009-02-01

    Visual and olfactory cues were shown to mediate short-distance orientation to different colors in the presence and in the absence of food in Melittia oedipus Oberthür (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Violales: Cucurbitaceae). Yellow was the color most preferred by M. oedipus, and adults landed significantly more on yellow paper moistened with honey-water. The next preferred colors were gray and white with the identical food source. Colors such as red, blue, green, brown, and black were least preferred by M. oedipus and attracted the adults on par with each other. The M. oedipus landings on petri dishes which held yellow-, gray-, and white-colored papers were significantly higher than the colorless petri dishes with olfactory stimuli only. There was no significant difference in landings on different-colored papers moistened with honey-water or with water alone in the morning compared with those in the evening. The cumulative response of M. oedipus to different-colored papers moistened with honey-water was significantly higher than the colored papers moistened with water only. Correspondingly, the response of M. oedipus to yellow-colored paper moistened with honey-water was significantly higher than the yellow-colored paper moistened with water only. Therefore, yellow paper moistened with honey-water can increase the feeding rate of M. oedipus and can be a potential technique in developing mass cultures for field release to control the invasive weed.

  18. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    PubMed

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters.

  19. Assimilation of terrigenous organic matter via bacterial biomass as a food source for a brackish clam, Corbicula japonica (Mollusca: Bivalva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Mizota, Chitoshi; Maki, Yonosuke; Matsumasa, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    Corbicula japonica collected from the Kitakami River estuary, northeastern Japan, showed lower δ34S values in soft-body parts (+1.7 to +11.0‰) than the ambient seawater sulfate sulfur (+21‰), and this value gradually decreased at successive sites up to 15.8 km upstream from the river mouth. Previous study using carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggests that the bivalve nonselectively assimilates particulate organic matter of marine and terrestrial origin by filter feeding. This pattern in δ34S values may indicate a considerable contribution of a food source derived from terrigenous organic matter, which has low δ34S values close to 0‰, and the bivalve has been reported to have cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Unique fatty acids (iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 acids), both characteristic of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in the salt-free, soft-body parts of the bivalve. The concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, possibly derived from bacteria, was also high. Trace amounts of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:5ω3) specific to dinoflagellates were detected. In Corbicula habitats, reductive sandy layers with ample sulfides that were sporadically intercalated into the oxidative sandy sediment were often observed. The stable isotopic signatures of sediment sulfides (acid-volatile sulfide) and associated pore-water sulfates were -8.9 to +8.6‰ and +22.4 to +26.3‰, respectively, indicating the existence of bacterial sulfate-reducing activity and thiobios biomass. These isotopic signatures of the sediment, with the fatty acid composition of the bivalve, confirm the importance of a food source derived from bacteria belonging to the thiobios in the substrate sediments via pedal feeding, rather than direct digestion of terrigenous organic matter, in this estuarine ecosystem.

  20. Prescribed burning in a Eucalyptus woodland suppresses fruiting of hypogeous fungi, an important food source for mammals.

    PubMed

    Trappe, James M; Nicholls, A O; Claridge, Andrew W; Cork, Steven J

    2006-11-01

    Fruit bodies of hypogeous fungi are an important food source for many small mammals and are consumed by larger mammals as well. A controversial hypothesis that prescribed burning increases fruiting of certain hypogeous fungi based on observations in Tasmania was tested in the Australian Capital Territory to determine if it applied in a quite different habitat. Ten pairs of plots, burnt and nonburnt, were established at each of two sites prescribe-burnt in May 1999. When sampled in early July, after autumn rains had initiated the fungal fruiting season, species richness and numbers of fruit bodies on the burnt plots were extremely low: most plots produced none at all. Both species richness and fruit body numbers were simultaneously high on nonburnt plots. One of the sites was resampled a year after the initial sampling. At that time species richness and fruit body abundance were still significantly less on burnt plots than on nonburnt, but a strong trend towards fungal recovery on the burnt plots was evident. This was particularly so when numbers of fruit bodies of one species, the hypogeous agaric Dermocybe globuliformis, were removed from the analysis. This species strongly dominated the nonburnt plots but was absent from burnt plots in both years. The trend towards recovery of fruit body abundance in the burnt plots one year after the burn was much more pronounced with exclusion of the Dermocybe data. The Tasmanian-based hypothesis was based mostly on the fruiting of two fire-adapted species in the Mesophelliaceae. Neither species occurred on our plots. Accordingly, the results and conclusions of the Tasmanian study cannot be extrapolated to other habitats without extensive additional study. Implications for management of habitat for fungi and the animals that rely on the fungi as a food source are discussed.

  1. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Rodriguez, Paula; Valero, Teresa; Ávila, José M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  2. Frequent summer nuptial flights of ants provide a primary food source for bats.

    PubMed

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Barnea, Anat

    2009-04-01

    In many ant species, nuptial flight tends to be short in time and assumed to be synchronous across a large area. Here, we report that, in the upper Jordan Valley, northern Israel, massive nuptial flights of Carpenter ants (Camponotus sp.) occur frequently throughout the summer, and their alates form up to 90% of the diet of the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) during this period. This fat and protein-rich diet enables female bats to lactate during summer, and the large amount of fat that both sexes accumulate may serve as an energy source for their following winter hibernation and posthibernation mating in early spring (March-April). We suggest that the annual movement of these bats to the Mediterranean region of Israel may have evolved in order to enable them to exploit the extremely nutritious forms of ant alates when the bats' energetic demands are highest.

  3. [Identification of mosquitoes' human food source by using the co-agglutination technique].

    PubMed

    Castex, M; Fachado, A; Fonte, L

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of a coagglutination technique for the identification of a human source for feeding mosquitoes is described. The dilution of ingested blood samples in filter paper was performed in 2 mL of a sodium chloride solution at 0.85%. It was used a suspension of sensibilized Staphylococcus aureus with rabbit's serum, human plasmatic anti-proteins, and human anti-IgG rabbit's serum discriminated well between human and non human blood. No agglutination was observed with the negative control. This technique proved to be sensitive to identify 100% of the human blood samples taken to the paper 24 hours after the mosquitoes completed their feeding at a temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C. Among mosquitoes fed and collected in the fields the test had a satisfactory result. Therefore, it may be used in routine work in the fields. The results showed the sensitivity and specificity of this method for identifying human blood ingested by mosquitoes.

  4. Microalgae as a source of lutein: chemistry, biosynthesis, and carotenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Tao; Zhou, Zhi-gang; Jiang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable source of natural products, and over 15,000 novel compounds originated from algal biomass have been identified. This chapter focuses on algae-derived lutein, a group of high-value products. Lutein belongs to carotenoids which have extensive applications in feed, food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. The production of carotenoids has been one of the most successful activities in microalgal biotechnology. This chapter gives a mini review of microalgae-based lutein, where emphasis is placed on the biosynthetic pathway and the regulation of carotenogenesis.

  5. Copper desorption from Gelidium algal biomass.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-04-01

    Desorption of divalent copper from marine algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal waste (from agar extraction industry) and a composite material (the algal waste immobilized in polyacrylonitrile) was studied in a batch system. Copper ions were first adsorbed until saturation and then desorbed by HNO(3) and Na(2)EDTA solutions. Elution efficiency using HNO(3) increases as pH decreases. At pH=1, for a solid to liquid ratio S/L=4gl(-1), elution efficiency was 97%, 95% and 88%, the stoichiometric coefficient for the ionic exchange, 0.70+/-0.02, 0.73+/-0.05 and 0.76+/-0.06 and the selectivity coefficient, 0.93+/-0.07, 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.3, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. Complexation of copper ions by EDTA occurs in a molar proportion of 1:1 and the elution efficiency increases with EDTA concentration. For concentrations of 1.4, 0.88 and 0.57 mmoll(-1), the elution efficiency for S/L=4gl(-1), was 91%, 86% and 78%, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The S/L ratio, in the range 1-20gl(-1), has little influence on copper recovery by using 0.1M HNO(3). Desorption kinetics was very fast for all biosorbents. Kinetic data using HNO(3) as eluant were well described by the mass transfer model, considering the average metal concentration in the solid phase and the equilibrium relationship given by the mass action law. The homogeneous diffusion coefficient varied between 1.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for algae Gelidium and 3.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for the composite material.

  6. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production. PMID:28186124

  7. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production.

  8. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production.

  9. Factors Controlling Changes in Epilithic Algal Biomass in the Mountain Streams of Subtropical Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Kuo, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    In upstream reaches, epilithic algae are one of the major primary producers and their biomass may alter the energy flow of food webs in stream ecosystems. However, the overgrowth of epilithic algae may deteriorate water quality. In this study, the effects of environmental variables on epilithic algal biomass were examined at 5 monitoring sites in mountain streams of the Wuling basin of subtropical Taiwan over a 5-year period (2006–2011) by using a generalized additive model (GAM). Epilithic algal biomass and some variables observed at pristine sites obviously differed from those at the channelized stream with intensive agricultural activity. The results of the optimal GAM showed that water temperature, turbidity, current velocity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and ammonium–N (NH4–N) were the main factors explaining seasonal variations of epilithic algal biomass in the streams. The change points of smoothing curves for velocity, DO, NH4–N, pH, turbidity, and water temperature were approximately 0.40 m s-1, 8.0 mg L-1, 0.01 mg L-1, 8.5, 0.60 NTU, and 15°C, respectively. When aforementioned variables were greater than relevant change points, epilithic algal biomass was increased with pH and water temperature, and decreased with water velocity, DO, turbidity, and NH4–N. These change points may serve as a framework for managing the growth of epilithic algae. Understanding the relationship between environmental variables and epilithic algal biomass can provide a useful approach for maintaining the functioning in stream ecosystems. PMID:27846322

  10. Recently introduced foods as new allergenic sources: sensitisation to Goji berries (Lycium barbarum).

    PubMed

    Carnés, Jerónimo; de Larramendi, Carlos H; Ferrer, Angel; Huertas, Angel Julio; López-Matas, María Angeles; Pagán, Juan Antonio; Navarro, Luis Angel; García-Abujeta, José Luis; Vicario, Sandra; Peña, Maribel

    2013-04-15

    Goji berries (GB) have been introduced in Western diet. Preliminary reports have demonstrated its allergenic capacity. The objectives of the study were to investigate the frequency of sensitisation and the allergens involved. 566 individuals, with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms were skin-prick tested with GB extract. Thirty three were positive (5.8%). 94% were sensitised to other allergens. Specific IgE to GB, peach, tomato and nut-mix was measured. Thirteen individuals from 24 available sera (54.2%) had positive specific IgE. 92.3% of GB positive patients were positive to peach. Seven individuals recognised 8 bands and six recognised a 7kDa band. This band was identified as a LTP by MS/MS. Cross-reactivity was demonstrated with tomato, tobacco, nutmix, Artemisia pollen and purified Lyc e 3 and Pru p 3. GB are a new allergenic source with high prevalence of sensitisation. LTP seems to be the major allergen involved in sensitisation and cross-reactivity.

  11. Energy and time modelling of kerbside waste collection: Changes incurred when adding source separated food waste.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Burn, Stewart; Crossin, Enda

    2016-10-01

    The collection of source separated kerbside municipal FW (SSFW) is being incentivised in Australia, however such a collection is likely to increase the fuel and time a collection truck fleet requires. Therefore, waste managers need to determine whether the incentives outweigh the cost. With literature scarcely describing the magnitude of increase, and local parameters playing a crucial role in accurately modelling kerbside collection; this paper develops a new general mathematical model that predicts the energy and time requirements of a collection regime whilst incorporating the unique variables of different jurisdictions. The model, Municipal solid waste collect (MSW-Collect), is validated and shown to be more accurate at predicting fuel consumption and trucks required than other common collection models. When predicting changes incurred for five different SSFW collection scenarios, results show that SSFW scenarios require an increase in fuel ranging from 1.38% to 57.59%. There is also a need for additional trucks across most SSFW scenarios tested. All SSFW scenarios are ranked and analysed in regards to fuel consumption; sensitivity analysis is conducted to test key assumptions.

  12. Chemical evaluation of African palm weevil, Rhychophorus phoenicis, larvae as a food source.

    PubMed

    Elemo, Babajide O; Elemo, Gloria N; Makinde, M A; Erukainure, Ochuko L

    2011-01-01

    The chemical properties of the African palm weevil, Rhychophorus phoenicis (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae were evaluated using standard methodology. The chloroform-methanol extract yielded 37.12% on a dry basis. The oil was liquid at room temperature with a flash point of 36.0 °C. Analysis of the physical constants indicated values of 192.25 Wijs and 427.70 mg KOH/g as iodine and saponification, respectively. Fatty acid analysis of the extracted oil showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids at low levels. Palmitic acid and stearic acid constituted 35.3 and 60.5% of the oil, respectively. The usual behaviour of the oil at room temperature, irrespective of the level of unsaturation of its constituent fatty acid was noted. The total protein content of the defatted palm weevil larva (dry basis) was estimated at 66.3%. The amino acid values compared favourably to FAO reference protein, except for tryptophan, which was limiting. All the other essential amino acids were adequate. Mineral analysis revealed high levels of potassium (1025 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (685 mg/100 g). The dried and defatted palm weevil lava represents a very good source of protein, and a good complement of essential amino acids.

  13. A new approach for the determination of sulphur in food samples by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, N; Baysal, A

    2015-02-01

    The new approach for the determination of sulphur in foods was developed, and the sulphur concentrations of various fresh and dried food samples determined using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometer with an air/acetylene flame. The proposed method was optimised and the validated using standard reference materials, and certified values were found to be within the 95% confidence interval. The sulphur content of foods ranged from less than the LOD to 1.5mgg(-1). The method is accurate, fast, simple and sensitive.

  14. Food sources of wintering piscivorous waterbirds in coastal waters: A triple stable isotope approach for the southeastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morkūnė, Rasa; Lesutienė, Jūratė; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Morkūnas, Julius; Gasiūnaitė, Zita R.

    2016-03-01

    This study uses a triple isotope approach (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) to quantify the main food sources for wintering piscivorous waterbirds in the coastal zone of the southeastern Baltic Sea. Significant differences of δ15N and δ34S values among pelagic fishes, benthic fishes, and benthopelagic European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) were detected, while δ13C was similar among these sources. Using different combinations of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values in mixing models, we found that common guillemot (Uria aalge) and red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) mostly foraged on pe